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Custom sheet metal fabrication services providers are organizations that fabricate components by forming, cuting, rolling. bending, ounching, trimming, siamping and welding sheet metal. Many organizations also offer sheet metal assembiy services that inchide riveting, bolting, and other assembly processes. Virtually all industries and technologies utilize sheet mecal parts and these include: electronics enclosures, compuers, aircraft, spacecraft, automotive, computing racks, HVAC. industrial and consuner appliances and equipment, and machine tools. Fabrication of sheet metal parts involves methods and processes whic are quite different from those used for fabricating machined parts, and it is necessary that the designer understand these déferences in order to properly prepare drawings. Sheet metal garts are frequently cut out of flat stock using developed pattern: (templates) and then formed to finished parts. Other parts may be made from flat tlanks and deep crawn or formed into complex contours by dies in a punch press or hydro- press, or by drop hammer des. These parts are usually trimmed after forming to produce the finished part. These are orly some of the methods which force the establishment of certain special procedures for sheet metal drawings. Common fabrication processes applied to sheet metal: Stretching Drawing Deep drawing Bending and flanging as Press forming Companies that fabricate sheet metal products understand that the most cost effective and environmentally acceptable method of fabriczting parts is by ensuring the the sheet metal component design is robust and mamifacturable it in the first place. Services organizations should be given the opportunity to review part and assembly designs before asking for a quote. Deep drawing Metal Stamping manufacturing technology is defined as the stretching of sheet metal stock, commonly referred to as a blank, around a plug. The edges of the metal blank arerestrained by rings and the plug is drawn into a top die cavity to achieve the end shape that is desired. There are many shapes that can be made through deep drawing and stamping such as cups, pans, cylinders, domes and hemispieres, as well as irregular shaped products and features. Deep Drawing Process: The total drawing load consists of the ideal forming load and an additional component to compensate for friction in the contacting areas of the flange region and bending forces as well as unbending forces at the die radius. The forming load is transferred from the punch radius through the drawn part wall into the deformation region (sheet metal flange). Due to tensile forces acting in the part wall, wall thinning s prominent and results in an uneven part wall thickness. It can be observed that the part wall thickness is lowest at the pont where the part wall loses contact with the punch, ie. at the punch radius. The thimest part thickness determines the maximum stress that can be transferred to the deformation zone. Due to material volume corstancy, the flange thickens and results in blank holder contact at the outer boundary rather than on the entire surface. The maximum stress that cas be safely transferred from the punch to the blank sets a limt on the maximum blank size (initial blank diameter in the case of rotationally symmetrical blanks). An indicetor of material formability is the limiting drawing ratio (LDR), defined as the ratio of the maximum blank diameter that can be safely drawn into a cup without flange to the punch diameter. Determination of the LDR for complex components is difficult and hence the part is inspected for critical areas for which an approximation is possible. During severe deep drawing the materid work hardens and it may be necessary to anneal the parts in controlled atmosphere ovens to restore the original elasticity of the material. ‘Commercial applications of this metal shaping process often involve complex geometries with straight sides and radi. In such a case, the term stamping is used in order to distinguish between the deep drawing (radial tension-tangential compression) and stretch-and-bend (along the straight sides) components. Deep drawing is always accompanied by other forming techniques within the press. These other forming methods include: Beading: Material is displaced to create a larger. or smaller. dizmeter ring of material beyond the ariginal body diameter of a part, often used to create O- fing seats. Bottom Piercing: A round or shaped porticn of metal is cut from the drawn fart. Bulging: a. yrotrude from the surrounding ge Coining: Milesal ff eriscate Rimasresiie Mapes tithe pal Typically coining should not exceed a depth of 30% of the material thickness. Curling: Metal is rolled under a curling die to create a rolled edze. Extruding: After a pilot hole is pierced, a larger diameter punck is pushed ‘through, causing the metal to expand and grow in length. Ironing / Wall Thinnirg: Ironing is a process to reduce the wall thickness of farts. Typically ironing should not exceed a depth of 30% of the material thickness. ‘Necking: A portion of the part is reduced in diameter to less than the major dameter. Notching: A notch is cut into the open end of the part. This notch can be round, square, or shaped. Rib Forming: Rib forming involves creating an inward or outward protruding sib during the drawing process. Side Piercing: Holes are pierced in the side wall of the drawn part. The oles may be round or shaped according to specifications. ‘Stamping / Marking: This process is typically used to put identification on a fart, such as a part number or supplier identification. Threading: Using a wheel and arbor, threads are formed into apart. In this way threaded parts can be produced within the stamping press. Trimming: In the Trimming process, excess metal that is necessary to draw the part is cut away from the finished part