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Dynamics of Structures
Lecture 1
Anil K. Chopra
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
Bangkok, Thailand
December 7-8, 2010
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Simple System
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Simple System
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Free Vibration of Idealized Systems
Idealized Systems Free Vibration
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Decay of Free Vibration
Aluminum Model
Plexiglass Model
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Equation of Motion
+ + =
1
0
D S
f f f
( )
+ + =
g
mu cu ku mu t
Single-Degree-of-Freedom System
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Lateral Stiffness
= EI EI
b c
=
3
3EI
k
h
=
3
96
7
c
EI
k
h
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Undamped Free Vibration
+ = 0 mu ku
( ) ( )
( )
e e
e
= +
0
0 cos sin
n n
n
u
u t u t t
e =
n
k
m
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Natural Frequency (Period) of Vibration
t
e
=
2
sec
n
n
T
e = rads/sec
n
k
m
e
t
= cps (Hz)
2
n
n
f
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Three-Story Steel Frame Building
Direction Period, sec
Long 0.63
Short 0.74
Torsion 0.46
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Sixty-Story Steel Frame Building
Period = 2.90 sec
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Golden Gate Bridge
Direction Period, sec
Transverse 18.2
Vertical 10.9
Longitudinal 3.8
Torsional 4.4
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Pine Flat Dam, 400 ft high
Water Depth, ft Period, sec
310 0.288
345 0.306
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Damped Free Vibration
Equation of Motion
+ + = 0 mu cu ku
,e e + + =
2
2 0
n n
u u u
,
e
= =
cr
2
n
c c
m c
Damping Ratio
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Effects of Damping (,<1)
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Effects of Damping
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Measurement of Period & Damping
,
t
+
=
1
ln
2
i
i j
u
j u
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Example
Peak Time,
t
i
(sec)
Peak,
1 1.110 0.915
11 3.844 0.076
( )
i
u g
( )
,
t

= =
= =
3.844 1.110
0.273 sec
10
1 0.915
ln 0.0396 or 3.96%
2 10 0.076
D
T
g
g
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Vibration Generator
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Vibration Generator
( )
e e + + =
2
sin
e
mu cu ku m e t
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Measurement of Frequency & Damping
Frequency
n
f
,

=
Damping Ratio
2
b a
n
f f
f
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Earthquake Ground Motions
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Earthquake Ground Motions
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Ground Acceleration, Velocity & Displacement
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Equation of Motion
( )
+ + =
g
mu cu ku mu t
( )
,e e + + =
2
2
n n g
u u u u t
( ) ( )
,
For a given , response depends on
Natural vibration period
Damping ratio
g
n
u t u t
T
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Structural Response Depends on T
n
and ,
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Structural Deformation & Forces
Equivalent Static Forces
Pseudo-Acceleration
Internal Forces by Static Analysis
( ) ( )
=
s
f t ku t
( ) ( ) ( )
e = =
2
s n
f t m u t mA t
( ) ( )
e =
2
n
A t u t
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
= =
b b b
V t mA t M t hV t
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Earthquake Response Spectrum
Peak Response
Plot of
for fixed damping
( )
max r r t
o
versus r T
o n
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Deformation Response Spectrum
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Pseudo Velocity Response Spectrum
Plot of V vs T
n
t
e = =
2
n
n
V D D
T
1 2 3
T
n
, sec
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Pseudo Acceleration Response Spectrum
Plot of A vs T
n
t
e
| |
= =
|
\ .
2
2
n
n
A D D
T
= = =
bo So
A
V f mA w
g
Peak Force
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Combined D-V-A Spectrum
t
e
e t
= = = =
2
2
n
n
n n
T A
V D A V D
T
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Combined D-V-A Spectrum
, = 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20%
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Pseudo-Acceleration Response Spectrum
, = 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20%
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Deformation Response Spectrum
, = 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20%
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Peak Response from Spectrum
t t
| |
= = =
|
\ .
2
2 2
n n
o
T T
u D V A
= =
So
f kD mA
Internal forces by statics
= = =
bo bo bo
V kD mA M hV
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Example
= =
3
3
0.211 kip/in
EI
k
L
= =
2
5.20
kip-sec /in
386
w
m
g
e = = 3.96 rad/sec
n
k
m
=1.59 sec
n
T
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Example
= 5.0 in. D
= 0.20 A g
= = 5.0 in.
o
u D
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Example
= =1.04 kips
So
A
f w
g
=
max
12.48 kip-ft M
o = =
max
46.5 ksi
Mc
I
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Response Spectrum and Peak Ground
Accleration, Velocity, and Displacement
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Response Spectrum Plotted on Normalized Scales
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Mean Response Spectrum & Design Spectrum
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Construction of Elastic Design Spectrum
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Amplification Factors
Damping,
,
(%)
Median (50
th
percentile) One Sigma (84.1th percentile)
o
A
o
V
o
D
o
A
o
V
o
D
1 3.21 2.31 1.82 4.38 3.38 2.73
2 2.74 2.03 1.63 3.66 2.92 2.42
5 2.12 1.65 1.39 2.71 2.30 2.01
10 1.64 1.37 1.20 1.99 1.84 1.69
20 1.17 1.08 1.01 1.26 1.37 1.38
N. M. Newmark and W. J. Hall, Earthquake Spectra and Design, EERI, Berkeley, CA, 1982, pp. 35, and 36.
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Construction of Design Spectrum, 84
th
Percentile, , = 5%
= = = 1 , 48in. / sec, 36in.
go go go
u g u u
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Elastic Design Spectrum, 84
th
Percentile, , = 5%
= = = 1 , 48in. / sec, 36in.
go go go
u g u u
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Elastic Design Spectrum, , = 1, 2, 5, 10, 20%
= = = 1 , 48in. / sec, 36in.
go go go
u g u u
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Elastic Design Spectrum, , = 1, 2, 5, 10, 20%
= = = 1 , 48in. / sec, 36in.
go go go
u g u u