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Compiled by: Dr.

Rai M Sajid

Knowledge should be free for all !


Cattle Horse Sheep Goat

All Veterinary Drugs


Drugs Salt & Dose Rates
Compiled by Dr. Rai M Sajid

Camel Dog Cat Pig Bird Wild

Edition 1 Page 37

2012
If u can look at a dog and not feel vicarious excitement and affection , you must be a cat.

Life isn't simple. But the beauty of it is, you can always start over. It'll get easier. To love deeply in one direction makes us more loving in all others. To accomplish great things, we must dream as well as act.

Veterinarians

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Contents :
Dose Rates of Penicillins: Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Penicillins: Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Pencillins: Dose Rates of Cephalosporins : Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Cephalosporins: Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Cephalosporins: Dose Rates of Aminoglycosides: Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Aminoglycosides: Dosage Modifications of Aminoglycosides in Renal Failure: Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Aminoglycosides: Classes of Quinolones: Dose Rates of Quinolone : Dose Rates of Sulfonamides: Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Sulfonamides: Dose Rates of Potentiated Sulfonamides: Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Potentiated Sulfonamides: Dose Rates of Tetracyclines: Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Tetracyclines: Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Tetracyclines: Dose Rates of Chloramphenicol and Florfenicol: Elimination and Distribution of Chloramphenicol and Florfenicol: Dose Rates of Macrolides: Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Macrolides: Dose Rates of Lincosamides: Dose Rates of Polyene Macrolide Antibiotics: Commonly Used Cardiovascular Drugs and Dosages : Drugs Used to Stimulate Appetite : Emetic Drugs : Antiemetic Drugs: Antiulcerative Drugs: Antidiarrheal Drugs: Drugs Used for Chronic Colitis: Prokinetic Drugs: Cathartic and Laxative Drugs: Dosages of Antistaphylococcal Antibiotics: Dosages of Antifungal Medications: Antihistamine Dosages: Glucocorticoids: Psychotropic Drugs Used for Skin Disorders: Competitive Nondepolarizing Agents and Antagonists: Skeletal Muscle Relaxants: Anabolic Steroids: Anticonvulsant Drugs: Drugs Used for Treatment of Status Epilepticus: Tranquilizers and Sedatives without Analgesic Effects: Analgesics: Antitussive Drugs: -Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Drugs: Drugs Commonly Used to Treat Urinary Tract Infections in Small Animals: Dosages of Diuretics: Drugs Used to Treat Urinary Incontinence: Dose Rates of Imidazoles: Dose Rates of Griseofulvin: Dosage Rates of Antiviral Drugs : Actions of Inflammatory Mediators: Relative Potencies of Commonly Used

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Corticosteroids: Mechanisms of Action, Indications, and Toxicities of Selected Antineoplastic Agents: : Natural Steroid Hormones for Consideration roid

as Growth Promoters: Synthetic Steroid Hormones for Consideration as Growth Promoters: Antibacterial Growth Promoters for Potential Use in Livestock Production:

I m happy to compiled this data, & I m sure this will help you in any matter about drugs. this You can get this data from every where , but in one softcopy never find. You can easily find any drug by pressing keys ( Ctrl .F ) . This effort is dedicated to all veterinarians.

This is only picture in which almost all class mates are together. together.
(Errors & Omissions are accepted )

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Dose Rates of Penicillin:


Penicillin Sodium penicillin G Potassium penicillin G Procaine penicillin G Benzathine penicillin G Penicillin V Cloxacillin Ampicillin Amoxicillin Sodium carbenicillin Potassium clavulanate:amoxicillin (1:4) Probenecid (prolongs blood levels of penicillins that have short plasma half-lives or that are costly) Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid Imepenem Ticarcillin Dosage, Route, and Frequency 10,000-20,000 IU/kg, IV or IM, qid 25,000 IU/kg, PO, qid 10,000-30,000 IU/kg, IM or SC, sid-bid 10,000-40,000 IU/kg, IM (horses) or SC (cattle), every 48-72 hr 15,000 IU/kg or 8-10 mg/kg, PO, tid 10 mg/kg, IM or PO, qid 5-10 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC, bid-tid 10-25 mg/kg, PO, bid-qid 4-7 mg/kg, IM, sid-bid 11 mg/kg, PO, bid (dogs) or sid-bid (cats) 10-20 mg/kg, IV or IM, bid- tid 10-20 mg/kg (amoxicillin) and 2.55 mg/kg (clavulanate), PO, bid 1-2 mg/1,000 IU penicillin G (dogs), PO, qid 10-20 mg/kg, PO, bid- tid 1-7 mg/kg, IV or IM, tid- qid 15-110 mg/kg, IM or IV, every 4-8 hr

Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Penicillins:


Penicillin Penicillin G Ampicillin Amoxicillin Ticarcillin Carbenicillin Species Dogs Horses Dogs Cattle Dogs Cattle Elimination Half-life (min) 30 38 48 84 48 122 Volume of Distribution (mL/kg) 156 301 270 493 347 330 Clearance (mL/kg/min) 3.6 5.5 3.9 4.0 4.9 5.5

Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Pencillins :


Penicillin Procaine penicillin G Species Cattle Sheep Withdrawal Time (days) 10 (at label dosage) 30 (at 20,000 IU/kg, bid) 9 Milk Discard Time (days) 3

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Benzathine penicillin G Ampicillin

Pigs Cattle Cattle Preruminant calves Cattle

7 30 6 15 30 2

Amoxicillin
*

All administered IM

Dose Rates of Cephalosporins :


Cephalosporin Dosage, Route, and Frequency 20-35 mg/kg, IM or IV, tid- qid Cephalothin 30 mg/kg, IM or IV, every 4-6 hr Cephapirin 20-25 mg/kg, IM or IV, tid- qid Cefazolin 10-30 mg/kg, PO, tid- qid Cephalexin 22 mg/kg, PO, bid Cefadroxil 1.1 mg/kg, IM, sid Ceftiofur * All for use in small animals, except ceftiofur, which is for use in cattle.

Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Cephalosporins:


Cephalosporin Cefazolin Cefotaxime Cephalexin Cefadroxil Ceftiofur Species Horses Sheep Dogs Dogs Cats Cattle Elimination Halflife (min) 45 25 84 120 150-180 ~360 Volume of Distribution (mL/kg) 188 134 Clearance (mL/kg/min) 5.5 9.0

Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Cephalosporins:


Cephalosporin Ceftiofur Sodium cephapirin (intramammary) Benzathine cephapirin (drycow treatment) Withdrawal Time 0 days 4 days before slaughter 42 days after latest infusion Milk Discard Time 4 days 3 days after calvingmilk not used for food

Dose Rates of Aminoglycosides:


Aminoglycoside Gentamicin Kanamycin Streptomycin/dihydrostreptomycin Dosage, Route, and Frequency 3-6 mg/kg, IM or SC, sid- bid 12-15 mg/kg, IM or SC, sid-bid 7.5-12.5 mg/kg, IM or SC, bid

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Amikacin Netilmicin Neomycin

5-7.5 mg/kg, IM or SC, bid 3-6 mg/kg, IM or SC, sid- bid 15 mg/kg, PO, sid- bid 0.5-1 g/quarter, intramammary, sid

Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Aminoglycosides:


Aminoglycoside Gentamicin Species Dogs Horses Foals Dogs Horses Sheep Elimination Half-life (min) 75 110 200 60 85 110 Volume of Distribution (mL / kg) 335 190 300 255 174 217 Clearance (mL / kg /min) 3.10 1.23 1.04 3.05 1.43 1.52

Kanamycin

Dosage Modifications of Aminoglycosides in Renal Failure:


Plasma creatinine (mg/dL) <1 2 3 4 >5 Dose and Dosage Interval Full dose at usual dosage interval Full dose doubling the usual dosage interval Full dose tripling the usual dosage interval Half dose doubling the usual dosage interval, or full dose quadrupling the usual dosage interval Aminoglycosides contraindicated

Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Aminoglycosides:


Route Oral Parenteral Udder infusion
*

Approximate Withdrawal Time (days) 20-30 (3 for neonatal pigs) 100-200 (40 for neonatal pigs [often not approved for food animals]) 2-3* (often not approved for food animals)

Milk discard time

Classes of Quinolones:
Quinolone carboxylic acids: Naphthydridine carboxylic acids: Cinnoline carboxylic Enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, orbifloxacin, pefloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, marbofloxacin, rosoxacin, acrosoxacin, oxolinic acid Enoxacin, nalidixic acid Cinoxacin

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

acids: Pyridopyrimidine carboxylic acids: Quinolizine carboxylic acids:

Pipemidic acid, piromidic acid Ofloxacin, flumequine

Dose Rates of Quinolones :


Quinolone Nalidixic acid Norfloxacin Enrofloxacin Species Cats, dogs Dogs Cats Dogs Dosage, Route, and Frequency 3 mg/kg, PO, qid 10-20 mg/kg, PO, bid 5 mg/kg, PO, sid or divided bid 5-20 mg/kg, PO, sid or divided bid 2.5 mg/kg, SC, once then PO 7.5-12.5 mg/kg, SC, once 2.5-5 mg/kg, SC, sid 2.5-5 mg/kg, PO or IM, sid 2.5-5 mg/kg, PO or SC, sid 2.75-5.5 mg/kg, PO, sid 5-10 mg/kg, PO, sid 2.5-7.5 mg/kg, PO, sid

Beef cattle (not veal or dairy) Pigs Preruminant calves Cats, Dogs Dogs Cats, dogs

Marbofloxacin Difloxacin Orbifloxacin


*

Use of fluorinated quinolones in food-producing animals is extra-label in the USA.

Dose Rates of Sulfonamides:


Sulfonamide Sulfathiazole Sulfamethazine Sulfadiazine Sulfadimethoxine Sulfaethoxypyridazine Species Horses Cattle, sheep, pigs Cattle All All Cattle Pigs Cattle Dosage, Route, and Frequency 66 mg/kg, PO, tid 66 mg/kg, PO, every 4 hr 220 mg/kg, PO or IV, sid (initial dose; half for subsequent doses) 50 mg/kg, PO, bid 55 mg/kg, PO, sid (initial dose; half for subsequent doses) 55 mg/kg, PO, sid 110 mg/kg, PO, sid (initial dose, half for subsequent doses) 132 mg/kg, PO, bid (initial

Sulfapyridine

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Succinylsulfathiazole

All

dose, half for subsequent doses) 160 mg/kg, PO, bid (initial dose, half for subsequent doses)

Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Sulfonamides:


Sulfonamide Sulfamethazine Sulfabromethazine Triple sulfonamide solution Sulfadimethoxidine
*

Species Cattle Pigs Cattle Cattle Cattle

Withdrawal Time (days) * 10 14 10 10 7

Milk Discard Time (hr) 96 96 96 60

28 days for slow-release bolus 8% sodium sulfamethazine, 8% sodium sulfapyridine, 8% sodium sulfathiazole

Dose Rates of Potentiated Sulfonamides:


Combination Trimethoprim/sulfadiazine Ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine Dosage, Route, and Frequency 15-60 mg/kg, PO, IV, or IM, sid 55 mg/kg, PO, sid (initial dose; half for subsequent doses)

Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Potentiated Sulfonamides:


Combination Trimethoprim/sulfadiazine Trimethoprim/sulfadoxine Withdrawal Time (days) 3 5 (PO) 28 (parenteral) Milk Discard Time (days) 7

Dose Rates of Tetracyclines:


Tetracycline Tetracycline Oxytetracycline Species Cats, dogs Cats, dogs Cattle, sheep, pigs Calves, foals, lambs, piglets Horses Dogs Dosage, Route, and Frequency 7 mg/kg, IM or IV, bid 20 mg/kg, PO, tid 7 mg/kg, IM or IV, bid 20 mg/kg, PO, tid 5-10 mg/kg, IM or IV, sid 10-20 mg/kg, PO, bid-tid 5 mg/kg, IV, sid-bid 5-10 mg/kg, PO, sid 5 mg/kg, IV, sid

Doxycycline

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Elimination, Distribution, and Clearance of Tetracyclines:


Tetracycline Oxytetracycline Species Dogs Calves (<3 mo old) Cattle Horses Dogs Elimination Half-life (hr) 6 10-13 7-10 8-10 7 Volume of Distribution (mL / kg) 3,000 1,500-2,400 800-1,000 1,100 2,000 Clearance (mL / kg /min) 4.23 3.45 3.33 2.89 3.21

Minocycline

Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Tetracyclines:


Tetracycline Oxytetracycline* Species Cattle Pigs Poultry Cattle Cattle Pigs Withdrawal Time (days) 15-22 22 5 28 10 1-7

Oxytetracycline (longacting)* Chlortetracycline


*

Not for use in lactating dairy cows

Dose Rates of Chloramphenicol and Florfenicol:


Drug Chloramphenicol Species Cats Dogs Horses Florfenicol Cattle Dosage, Route, and Frequency 45-60 mg/kg, PO, IV, or IM, bid 45-60 mg/kg, PO, IV, or IM, tid- qid 50 mg/kg, PO, tid- qid, or IV, every 2-4 hr 20 mg/kg, IM, repeated in 48 hr

Elimination and Distribution of Chloramphenicol and Florfenicol:


Drug Species Elimination Half-life (hr) 5.1 4.2 5.0 Volume of Distribution (mL/kg) 2,360 1,700 1,080

Chloramphenicol Cats Dogs Calves (<1 wk old)

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Florfenicol

Cattle Horses Cattle

3.0 0.9 18.3

1,580 950 700

Dose Rates of Macrolides:


Macrolide Erythromycin Species Cattle Cats Foals Cattle Pigs Cats Cattle Dosage, Route, and Frequency 8-15 mg/kg, IM, sid-bid 15 mg/kg, PO, tid 25 mg/kg, IM, tid 10-20 mg/kg, IM, sid-bid 10 mg/kg, IM, sid-bid 7-10 mg/kg, PO, tid 10 mg/kg, IM, bid 10 mg/kg, SC, once

Tylosin

Tilmicosin

Drug Withdrawal and Milk Discard Times of Macrolides:


Macrolide Erythromycin Tylosin Tilmicosin Cattle Pigs Cattle Pigs Cattle Species 14 7 21 14 28 Withdrawal Time (days) Milk Discard Time (hr) 36-72 96 0

Dose Rates of Lincosamides:


Lincosamide Lincomycin Cattle Pigs Dogs Cats Clindamycin Dogs, cats Species Dosage, Route, and Frequency 10 mg/kg, IM, bid 10 mg/kg, IM, bid 7 mg/kg, in-feed 20 mg/kg, PO, sid 10 mg/kg, IM, bid 25 mg/kg, PO, bid 5-10 mg/kg, PO, bid

Dose Rates of Polyene Macrolide Antibiotics:


Polyene Macrolide Amphotericin B (0.1 mg/mL in 5% dextrose) Nystatin Pimaricin (5% ophthalmic solution) Dosage, Route, and Frequency 0.1-1 mg/kg, given IV slowly, 3 times/wk Total dose: 4-11 mg/kg 50,000-150,000 U, PO, tid (dogs) 1 drop, instilled into the eye, every 1-2 hr

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Commonly Used Cardiovascular Drugs and Dosages :


Drug Amrinone Amlodipine Aspirin, antiplatelet Atenolol Benazepril Boldenone undecylenate Desmopressin Diltiazem CARDIZEM CD (diltiazem) DILACOR XR (diltiazem) Digoxin Dobutamine Dopamine Enalapril Epoetin alfa Folic acid Heparin, high dose Heparin, low dose Hydralazine Iron (dextrans)# Iron (ferrous sulfate) Lidocaine** Mexiletine Nandrolone decanoate Dose Dog and cat: 1-3 mg/kg, IV, loading dose, then 30-100 g/kg/min, IV, CRI* Dog: 0.1 mg/kg, PO, sid Cat: 0.18 mg/kg, PO, sid (0.625-1.25 mg/cat, PO, sid) Dog: 5-10 mg/kg, PO every 24-48 hr Cat: 80 mg, PO every 48-72 hr Dog: 0.25-1 mg/kg, PO, sid- bid Cat: 2-3 mg/kg, PO, bid Dog and cat: 0.25-0.5 mg/kg, PO, sid Horse: 1.1 mg/kg, IM, every 3 wk Dog: 0.4 mg/kg, SC; 1 mg/kg in 20 mL saline, IV over 10 min Dog: 0.5-1.5 mg/kg, PO tid Cat: 0.5-2.5 mg/kg, PO, tid Cat: 10 mg/kg, PO, bid Cat: 15-30 mg/kg, PO, sid Dog: 0.0055-0.011 mg/kg, PO, bid; 0.22 mg/m2, PO, bid Cat: 0.005-0.01 mg/kg, PO, every 24-48 hr Dog: 2-20 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Cat: 0.5-10 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Dog: 2-15 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Dog and cat: 0.5 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid Dog and cat, initial: 100 U/kg, SC, 3/wk Dog and cat, maintenance: 75-100 U/kg, SC, 2-3/wk Dog: 5 mg, PO, sid Cat: 2.5 mg, PO, sid Dog: 150-250 U/kg, SC, tid Cat: 250-375 U/kg, SC, bid Dog and cat: 75 U/kg, SC, tid Horse: 25-100 U/kg, SC, tid Dog: 0.5-3 mg/kg, PO, bid Cat: 0.5-0.8 mg/kg, PO, bid Pig, neonate: 100 mg, IM Dog: 100-300 mg, PO, sid Cat: 50-100 mg, PO, sid Dog: 1-2 mg/kg, IV; 40-80 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Dog: 4-10 mg/kg, PO, tid (continued) Dog: 1-1.5 mg/kg, IM, weekly

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Nitroglycerin ointment (1 in. = 15 mg) Nitroprusside Oxymetholone Phenytoin Pimobendan Procainamide

Cat: 1 mg/kg, IM, weekly Horse: 1 mg/kg, IM, every 4 wk Dog: 4-15 mg, topically, tid Cat: 2-4 mg, topically, tid Dog: 1-10 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Dog and cat: 1-5 mg/kg, PO, every 18-24 hr Dog: 30-50 mg/kg, PO, tid Dog: 0.1-0.3 mg/kg, PO, bid Dog: 10-30 mg/kg, PO, qid; 10-40 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Cat: 3-8 mg/kg, PO, tid-qid; 10-20 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Horse: 25-35 mg/kg, PO, tid; 1 mg/kg/min, IV to a maximum of 20 mg/kg Dog: 0.1-2 mg/kg, PO, tid Cat: 2.5-5 mg/cat, PO, tid Dog and cat: 4-20 mg/kg, PO, tid-qid Horse: 22 mg/kg, PO every 2 hr Horse: 1-1.5 mg/kg, IV every 5-10 min Dog: 1-4 mg, PO, bid; 25-50 mg, IM, weekly Cat: 1 mg, PO, bid; 25 mg, IM, weekly Horse: 0.55 mg/kg, IM, weekly for up to 4 wk Dog: 15-20 mg/kg, PO, tid Cat: 0.25-1 mg/kg/hr, IV (total dose 1-10 mg/kg) Dog: 100-200 g, PO or SC, sid Cat: 50-100 g, PO or SC, sid Dog and cat: 0.1-0.2 mg/kg, PO, sid Horse: 0.067-0.167 mg/kg, PO, sid

Propranolol Quinidine sulfate Quinidine gluconate Stanozolol

Tocainide tPA Vitamin B12# Warfarin sodium


*

CRI = continuous rate infusion Approved by FDA for adjunctive therapy in treating debilitated horses. Approved by FDA for initial and chronic treatment of heart failure and supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter, and atrial fibrillation in dogs. Approved by FDA for treatment of mild, moderate, or severe heart failure in dogs due to mitral regurgitation and/or reduced ventricular contractility. FDA/CVM approved dosage regimen # Several FDA-approved products are available. ** Several FDA-approved products are available; however, none are specifically approved for control of cardiac arrhythmias. Approved by FDA as a sterile suspension and oral tablets for use in dogs, cats, and horses.

Drugs Used to Stimulate Appetite :


Drug Prednisone Stanozolol Dosage 1 mg/kg, PO, every other day 0.25-3 mg/kg, PO, sid; 2-10 mg/kg, IM, once

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Boldenone undecylenate Diazepam Oxazepam Cyproheptadine Megestrol acetate

weekly 2.5 mg/kg, IM, every 2-4 wk Cats: 0.005-0.4 mg/kg, IM or IV, sid; 1 mg/kg, PO, sid Cats: 2 mg, PO, bid Cats: 1-4 mg, PO, bid Dogs: 5 mg/kg, PO, sid

Emetic Drugs :
Drug Apomorphine Xylazine Syrup of ipecac Hydrogen peroxide Salt Dosage Dogs: 4 mg/kg, PO; 0.02 mg/kg, IV; 0.3 mg/kg, SC; 0.25 mg in the conjunctival sac Cats: 0.4-0.5 mg/kg, IV or IM 3-6 mL/kg, PO Dogs: 5-10 mL, PO Dogs: 1 tsp of table salt into pharynx

Antiemetic Drugs:
Drug Acepromazine Chlorpromazine Prochlorperazine Isopropamide Propantheline Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine Cyclizine Meclizine Butorphanol Metoclopramide Ondansetron Dolasetron Dosage 0.025-0.2 mg/kg, IV, IM, SC, maximum 3 mg; 1-3 mg/kg, PO 0.5 mg/kg, IV, IM, SC, tid-qid 0.1 mg/kg, IM, tid-qid; 1 mg/kg, PO, bid 0.2-1.0 mg/kg, PO, bid 0.25 mg/kg, PO, tid 4-8 mg/kg, PO, tid 2-4 mg/kg, PO, tid 4 mg/kg, PO, tid 4 mg/kg, PO, sid 0.2-0.4 mg/kg, IM, sid-bid 0.1-0.5 mg/kg, IM, SC, or PO, tid; 0.01-0.02 mg/kg/hr, IV infusion 0.1-0.2 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid ; 0.22 mg/kg, IV, bid-tid 0.6 mg/kg, IV, sid

Antiulcerative Drugs:
Drug Antacids Cimetidine Ranitidine Dosage 2-10 mL, PO, every 2-4 hr Dogs: 5-10 mg/kg, PO, qid Horses: 4 mg/kg, IV, bid; 18 mg/kg, PO, bid Dogs: 0.5 mg/kg, PO, SC, or IV, bid Horses: 1.3 mg/kg, IV, bid; 11 mg/kg, PO, bid

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Famotidine Dogs: 0.5-1 mg/kg, PO or IV, sid Horses: 0.4 mg/kg, IV, bid; 3 mg/kg, PO, bid Cats: 250 mg, bid-tid Dogs: 500 mg to 1 g, tid-qid Foals: 1-2 g, qid Sucralfate Omeprazole Dogs: 0.5-1 mg/kg, PO, sid Horses: 4 mg/kg, PO, sid for treatment; 2 mg/kg, PO, sid to prevent recurrence Misoprostol Dogs: 2-5 g/kg, PO, tid-qid

Antidiarrheal Drugs:
Drug Kaolin-pectin Activated charcoal Bismuth subsalicylate Aminopentamide Isopropamide Propantheline Paregoric Diphenoxylate Loperamide Dosage 1-2 mL/kg, PO, qid 2-8 g/kg, PO 1-3 mL/kg/day in divided doses, PO 0.1-0.4 mg, IM, SC, or PO, bid 0.2-1.0 mg/kg, PO, bid 0.25-0.5 mg/kg, PO, bid-tid 0.06 mg/kg, PO, tid 0.05-0.1 mg/kg, PO, qid 0.08 mg/kg, PO, tid-qid

Drugs Used for Chronic Colitis:


Drug Sulfasalazine Tylosin Metronidazole Prednisone Raw linseed oil Azathioprine Dosage 10-30 mg/kg, PO, bid-tid 40-80 mg/kg, sid 10-30 mg/kg, PO, sid-tid 2-4 mg/kg, PO, every other day 1 oz/day in the feed 50 mg/m2, PO, sid for 2 wk, then every other day

Prokinetic Drugs:
Drug Metoclopramide Dosage Dogs and cats: 0.2-0.5 mg/kg, PO or SC, tid; 0.01-0.02 mg/kg/hr, IV infusion Horses: 0.1250.25 mg/kg, diluted in 500 mL of polyionic solution and administered IV over 60 min 0.1-0.5 mg/kg, IM; 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, PO Dogs: 0.1 mg/kg, PO, tid Cats: 2.5 mg/cat, tid for cats <5 kg, and 5.0 mg/cat for cats >5 kg Horses: 0.1 mg/kg, PO, tid 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, PO, bid-tid 1-2 mg/kg, PO, bid 2.5-5 mg/kg, PO, bid 0.02 mg/kg, SC, as needed

Domperidone Cisapride Erythromycin Ranitidine Nitazidine Neostigmine

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Lidocaine

Horses: 1.3 mg/kg as a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of 0.05 mg/kg/min

Cathartic and Laxative Drugs:


Drug Castor oil Bisacodyl Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) Lactulose Docusate sodium, docusate calcium, docusate potassium Dosage Dogs: 5-25 mL, PO Foals: 25-50 mL, PO Dogs: 5-20 mg, PO, sid- bid Cats: 2.5-5.0 mg, PO, sid- bid Dogs: 5-25 g, PO Cats: 2-5 g, PO Horses: 30-100 g, PO Dogs: 5-10 mL, PO Cats: 2-6 mL, PO Horses: 1-4 L, PO Dogs: 5-15 mL, PO, tid Cats: 2-3 mL, PO, tid Dogs and cats: 2 mg/kg, PO, sid Horses: 10-20 mg/kg in 2 L water, PO, every other day

Dosages of Antistaphylococcal Antibiotics:


Drug Cephalosporins Cephalexin Cephadroxil Cefaclor Penicillins Amoxicillin-clavulanate Oxacillin Fluoroquinolones Enrofloxacin Marbofloxacin Orbifloxacin Sulfonamides Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Macrolides and lincosamide Erythromycin Clindamycin Lincomycin Dosage 20-30 mg/kg, bid Dogs: 20 mg/kg, bid Cats: 20 mg/kg, sid 10-25 mg/kg, bid 13.75 mg/kg, bid 22 mg/kg, tid 5 mg/kg, sid 2 mg/kg, sid 2.5 mg/kg, sid 15-30 mg/kg, bid 15-30 mg/kg, bid 15-30 mg/kg, tid Dogs: 10-20 mg/kg, bid Cats: 12.5-25 mg/kg, bid 10-20 mg/kg, bid

Dosages of Antifungal Medications:


Drug Griseofulvin Microsize Ultramicrosize Ketoconazole Dosage 25-60 mg/kg, PO, bid 2.5-15 mg/kg, PO, bid 10 mg/kg, PO, sid; 20 mg/kg, PO, every 48 hr

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Itraconazole Fluconazole Amphotericin B

Flucytosine Potassium iodine

5-10 mg/kg, PO, sid 10-20 mg/kg, PO, bid Dogs: 0.25-0.75 mg/kg, IV, 3 times/wk to total cumulative dose of 4-8 mg/kg or until azotemia develops Cats: 0.1-0.25 mg/kg, IV, 3 times/wk to cumulative dose of 4-6 mg/kg 25-50 mg/kg, PO, tid-qid Dogs: 40 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid with food Cats: 20 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid with food

Antihistamine Dosages:
Drug Diphenhydramine Hydroxyzine Clorpheniramine Dosage 2-4 mg/kg, bid-tid 0.5-2 mg/kg, tid-qid Cats: 2-4 mg, bid Dogs (<20 kg): 4 mg, tid Dogs (>20 kg): 8 mg, tid; 0.25-0.5 mg/kg, tid 0.25-0.5 mg/kg, tid; 1.1 mg/kg, bid 5 mg/kg, bid Cats: 0.05 mg/kg, bid Dogs: 0.1 mg/kg, bid 1 mg/kg, bid

Cyproheptadine Terfenadine Clemastine Trimeprazine

Glucocorticoids:
Drug Hydrocortisone (cortisol) Prednisolone Prednisone Methylprednisolone Triamcinolone Flumethasone Betamethasone Dexamethasone Relative Potency 1 4 4 5 5 15-30 25 30 Duration of Effect <12 hr 12-36 hr 12-36 hr 12-36 hr 12-36 hr 36-48 hr >48 hr >48 hr

Psychotropic Drugs Used for Skin Disorders:


Drug Antidepressants Clomipramine Amitriptyline Doxepin Dosage Dogs: 1-3 mg/kg, bid Cats: 0.5-1.5 mg/kg, sid 1-3 mg/kg, bid 0.5-2 mg/kg, bid

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Fluoxetine Anxiolytics Diazepam Phenobarbital Hydroxyzine Opiate Antagonist Naltrexone

1 mg/kg, sid 1-2 mg/kg, bid 0.5-2.2 mg/kg, bid 15 mg/cat, twice weekly 2.2 mg/kg, tid 2.2 mg/kg, sid

Competitive Nondepolarizing Agents and Antagonists:


Drug Tubocurarine chloride Gallamine triethiodide Pancuronium bromide Alcuronium chloride Atracurium besylate Antagonists Neostigmine Pyridostigmine Edrophonium Dosage Horses: 0.22-0.25 mg/kg , IV Dogs, cats: 0.4 mg/kg, IV All species (except pigs): 0.8-1 mg/kg, IV Dogs, cat : 0.6 mg/kg, IV Dogs, cats: 0.1 mg/kg, IV Dogs, cats: 0.5 mg/kg, IV 0.04 mg/kg, with atropine at 0.04 mg/kg, IV 0.2-0.25 mg/kg, with atropine at 0.04 mg/kg, IV 0.125 mg/kg, IV

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants:


Drug Methocarbamol Dosage Dogs, cats: 44 mg/kg, IV, up to 330 mg/kg/day for tetanus or strychnine poisoning; 132 mg/kg/day, PO, divided bid-tid Horses: 4.4-55 mg/kg, IV Dogs: 44-88 mg/kg, IV Horses, ruminants: 66132 mg/kg, IV Cats: 2-5 mg, PO, tid, for urethral obstruction Horses: 15-25 mg/kg, slow IV, qid; 2 mg/kg, PO, sid, for prevention of exertional rhabdomyolysis Swine: 3.5 mg/kg, IV Horses: 6-8 mg/kg, PO, sid, increase by 1 mg/kg every 3 days until rhabdomyolysis is prevented or the horse appears sedated

Guaifenesin Diazepam Dantrolene Phenytoin

Anabolic Steroids:
Drug Boldenone undecylenate Nandrolone decanoate Dosage Horses: 1.1 mg/kg, IM, every 3 wk Dogs: 1-5 mg/kg, IM, once/wk Cats: 10-20 mg, IM, once/wk

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Stanozolol

Dogs: 1-4 mg, PO, bid; 25-50 mg, deep IM, once/wk Cats: 1-2 mg, PO, bid; 25 mg, deep IM, once/wk Horses: 0.55 mg/kg, deep IM, once/wk

Anticonvulsant Drugs:
Anticonvulsant Dosage and Drug Frequency First-line Anticonvulsant Drugs: Phenobarbital Dogs: 2-4 mg/kg, PO, bid (starting dose); up to 10 mg/kg, bid Half-life Time to Steady State Therapeutic Level Adverse Effects/Comments

40-90 hr (Beagles 2538 hr)

10-24 days

15-45 g/mL (66-200 mol/L), preferably keep values within 20-35 g/mL (85150 mol/L) 10-30 g/mL 10-40 mg/ml (43-175 mmol/L)

Bromide (potassium salt)

Cats: 1-2 mg/kg, PO, bid (starting dose) Horses: 3-5 mg/kg, PO, sid; up to 11 mg/kg, PO, sid Foals: 20 mg/kg diluted to 30 mL with normal saline IV over 30 min, then 9 mg/kg diluted and infused as above tid; 8 mg/kg, PO, tid Dogs, horses: 20-40 mg/kg, PO, sid or divided bid if GI upset. Dogs: loading dose 400-600 mg/kg, PO or per rectum,

34-43 hr 18 hr 13 hr

Sedation, polydipsia, induces P450 system, increase in liver enzymes; liver disease is uncommon. Adjust dosage by monitoring serum levels. Liver enzymes do not increase in cats. Adjust dose in all species by monitoring serum levels.

Dogs: 20-46 Dogs: 100days Cats: 10 200 days days Horses: Cats: 6 wk 5 days

Bromide alone: 1-3 mg/mL (1520 mol/L) Bromide/phen obarbital combined: 12 mg/mL

Sedation, weakness, polydipsia vomiting, polyphagia, skin rash. Respiratory problems occur in cats (may be fatal). Use with extreme caution in cats and monitor with

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

divided into 4 doses, given over 24 hr Bromide (sodium salt) 17-30 mg/kg, PO, sid or divided bid if GI upset

thoracic radiographs.

Dogs: 0.5-2 Dogs: 2.5-3.2 mg/kg per hr Cats: 5.5 rectum at onset hr Horses: 7of seizure; 22 hr repeat up to 3 times in 24 hr Cats: 0.25-2.0 mg/kg, PO, divided bid-tid Horses: 25-50 mg/kg, IV; repeat in 30 min if necessary Foals: 0.02-0.4 mg/kg, IV; repeat in 30 min if necessary Second-line (Add-on) Anticonvulsant Drugs: Diazepam Clonazepam Dogs: 0.1-0.5 1.5-3 hr mg/kg, PO, bid -tid Dogs: 2-6 5-6 hr mg/kg, PO, bid 1-2 days 22-77 ng/mL

Reduce dose with renal insufficiency. High chloride intake increases bromide elimination. Chloride content of diet should be stable. Decrease the dose by 15% for the sodium salt to account for the higher bromide content. Client treatment at home for cluster seizures or status epilepticus. Sedation, liver failure in cats.

Clorazepate

20-75 g/L

Extremely potent benzodiazepine; sedation, withdrawal signs if drug stopped abruptly. 15 times less potent than clonazepam; sedation, withdrawal

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Felbamate

Gabapentin

Levetiracetam

Topiramate

Valproic acid

Dogs: 15 mg/kg, PO, tid; increase by 15 mg/kg biweekly until seizures controlled; maximal (toxic) dosage 300 mg/kg Dogs: 25-60 mg/kg, PO, divided tid qid; 100-300 mg/dog, tid Dogs: 20 mg/kg, PO, tid; 500-4,000 mg/day Dogs: 5-10 mg/kg/day, PO, divided bid Dogs: 10-60 mg/kg, PO, tid

5-6 hr

1 day

125-250 mol/L*

seizures. Blood dyscrasia; induces P450 system, liver disease. Use with care with other potentially hepatotoxic drugs.

3-4 hr

<24 hr

4-16 mg/L* (70-120 mol/L) 35-120 mol/L* 2-25 mg/L (15-60 mol/L)*

4-10 hr

2-3 days

12-30 hr

3-5 days

Sedation, dizziness, ataxia, fatigue, diarrhea; reduce dose with renal dysfunction. Restlessness, vomiting, ataxia at dosages >400 mg/kg/day. GI upset, irritability

90-120 min

<24 hr

Zonisamide

Dogs: 4-8 15-20 hr mg/kg/day, PO, divided; up to 10 mg/kg, bid * Therapeutic range established for humans

3-4 days

10-40 mg/L (45-180 mmol/L)*

Probably ineffective due to very short half-life; liver toxicity and pancreatitis. Sedation, ataxia, loss of appetite

Drugs Used for Treatment of Status Epilepticus:


Drug Diazepam Phenobarbital Pentobarbital Dosage and Frequency 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, IV bolus; can repeat 2-3 times at intervals of 5-10 min 2-4 mg/kg/ IV bolus; can repeat at 20- to 30min intervals to a total dosage of 20 mg/kg 2-15 mg/kg, IV, to effect to stop motor activity

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Propofol

1-2 mg/kg, IV, to effect to stop motor activity; constant rate infusion: 0.1-0.6 mg/kg/min to effect

Tranquilizers and Sedatives without Analgesic Effects:


Drug Dogs Benzodiazepines Diazepam 1 mg/kg, IV or PO Cats Dosage Ferrets 2 mg/kg, IM Rabbits Horses Cattle 0.5-1.5 mg/kg, IV Pigs 0.5-10 mg/kg, IM; 0.5-1.5 mg/kg, IV

1 mg/kg, IV

2 mg/kg, 0.05-0.4 IV; 5-10 mg/kg, IV mg/kg, IM or IP 2 mg/kg, IM or IV

Midazolam Butyrophenone Azaperone Phenothiazines 0.050.1 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC; 0.552.2 mg/kg, PO, tidqid Chlorpromazine 0.554.4 hydrochloride mg/kg, IV; 1.16.6 mg/kg, IM; 3.2 mg/kg, PO, tidqid as needed 2-6 Promazine Acepromazine maleate 0.110.22 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC; 1.1- 2.2 mg/kg, PO, bid-tid 1-2 mg/kg, IV or IM, bid 0.10.25 mg/kg, IM or SC

0.4-0.8 mg/kg, IM

2.2 mg/kg, IM

1-5 mg/kg, IM

0.04-0.1 mg/kg, IV, IM, SC, or PO, sid

0.050.1 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC

0.1-0.2 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC

3 mg/kg, IV or IM (may produce myositis)

0.5-4.0 mg/kg, IM

2-4.4

0.4-1 mg/kg,

0.4-1

0.4-1

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

hydrochloride

mg/kg, IV, IM, or PO, tid -qid

mg/kg, IV, IM, or PO, tid-qid

IV or IM; 1-2 mg/kg, PO

mg/kg, IV or IM; 1.6-2.8 mg/kg, PO

mg/kg, IV or IM

Triflupromazine 1.1-2.2 4.4-8.8 mg/kg, mg/kg, hydrochloride IV; 2.2- IM 4.4 mg/kg, IM

0.22-0.33 mg/kg, IV or IM (maximum 100 mg/horse/day)

Analgesics:
Drug Dogs Opioid Analgesics * Buprenorphine 0.01-0.02 mg/kg, SC, bid Cats Dosag e Ferrets Rabbit s

Horses

Cattle

Pigs

0.005-0.01 mg/kg, SC or IM, bid

Butorphanol tartrate

Meperidine hydrochloride

0.2-0.4 mg/kg, IM or SC; 0.55 mg/kg, PO, every 4 hr 2-10 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 2 hr 0.22-0.88 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 4-6 hr as needed 0.5-2.0 mg/kg, SC,

0.1-0.2 mg/kg, IV; 0.2-0.4 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 4 hr 2-10 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 2 hr

Morphine sulfate

0.1 mg/kg, IM or SC, as needed

0.010.03 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC, bid-tid 0.4 mg/kg, IM, every 4-6 hr 5-10 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 2-4 hr 0.5-5 mg/kg, IM or SC, qid

0.020.05 mg/kg, SC, IM, or IV, bid 0.1-0.5 mg/kg, IV, every 4 hr 10-20 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 2-3 hr 2-5 mg/kg, SC or IM, every 2-4 hr 1-2 mg/kg, 0.050.1 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC 0.2-0.4 500 mg/kg, mg/cow IV; 1-3 , IV mg/kg, IM or SC 0.2 mg/kg, IV; 0.2-0.4 mg/kg, IM

0.0050.02 mg/kg , IM or IV, bidqid 0.10.3 mg/kg , IM 4-10 mg/kg , IM or IV 0.2-1 mg/kg , IM, every 4 hr

Nalbuphine

1.5-3.0 mg/kg, IV, every 3 hr

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

every 4-8 hr Oxymorphone hydrochloride 0.22 mg/kg, 0.1-0.2 mg/kg, IV, IM, or IV, IM, or SC, SC, sid sid

Pentazocine lactate

2-3 mg/kg, IM, every 4 hr; 15 mg/kg, PO, tid

2.2-3.3 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC

IV, every 4 hr 5-10 mg/kg, SC, IM, or IV, every 4 hr 10-20 mg/kg, SC or IM, every 4 hr; 5 mg/kg, IV, every 2-4 hr

0.020.03 mg/kg, IV or IM 0.33 mg/kg, IV; 1-3 mg/kg, SC or IM

0.15 mg/kg , IM

2-5 mg/kg , IM, every 4 hr

Nonopioid Sedative Analgesics Xylazine hydrochloride

0.5-1 mg/kg, IV; 1-2 mg/kg, IM or SC

0.5-1 mg/kg, IV; 1-2 mg/kg, IM or SC

1 mg/kg, IM or SC

Detomidine

0.1-1 mg/kg, IV; 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, IM or SC 0.020.04 mg/kg, IV

0.05-0.1 2 mg/kg, mg/kg IV; 0.1- , IM 0.2 mg/kg, IM

Nonpsychotropi c Analgesics Acetaminophe n Aspirin

15 mg/kg, PO, qid as needed 10-25 mg/kg, PO, bid

Contraindicate d 10 mg/kg, PO, every 48 hr 0.5-20 mg/kg, PO, sid-tid 5-20 30-47.5 26 mg/kg, mg/kg, mg/kg, PO, sid PO, IV; bid100-124 qid mg/kg, PO, bid 10-20 mg/kg , PO, every 4 hr as neede d

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Carprofen

4 mg/kg, IV 4 mg/kg, IV or or SC, sid SC, sid

1.5 mg/kg, PO, bid

Dipyrone

28 mg/kg, IV, IM, SC, or PO, tid

28 mg/kg IV, IM, SC, or PO, tid

Flunixin meglumine

1-2 mg/kg, PO, IV, or IM, sid up to 3 days 5-10 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid 10 mg/kg, PO, sid

1 mg/kg, PO; 0.3-1 mg/kg, IM or SC, sid up to 5 days 5 mg/kg, PO, sid

0.5-2 mg/kg, SC, sid-bid

1.1 mg/kg, SC or IM, bid 10-20 mg/kg, IV, every 4 hr 10 mg/kg, IV or PO, every 4 hr 3 mg/kg, IM

0.7 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC, sid 5-10 g/horse , IV or IM, tid as needed 1-2.2 mg/kg, IV; 2.2 mg/kg, IM or PO, sid

0.7 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC, sid 50 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC 1.1-2.2 mg/kg, IM or PO, sid -tid

50 mg/kg , IV, IM, or SC 1-2 mg/kg , IV or IM, sid

Ibuprofen

Indomethacin

1.5 mg/kg, sid

Ketoprofen

Meclofenamic acid Naproxen

2 mg/kg, SC, IM, or IV, sid up to 3 days; 1 mg/kg, PO, sid up to 5 days 2.2 mg/kg, PO, sid 5 mg/kg, PO, initial dose; 1.22.8 mg/kg, PO, sid for maintenanc e 22 mg/kg,

1 mg/kg, sid, SC up to 3 days, or PO up to 5 days

2.2 mg/kg, IV, sid

2.2 mg/kg, IV; 3 mg/kg, IM, sid

2.2 mg/kg, PO, sid

2.2 mg/kg, PO, sid 5 mg/kg, IV; 10 mg/kg, PO, bid 4.4 2-5 2-5

Phenylbutazon

15 mg/kg, IV,

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

mg/kg, mg/kg, PO, bid IV; 4-8 on day mg/kg, 1; 2.2 PO mg/kg, PO, bid for 4 days; 2.2 mg/kg, PO, sid or every other day * Recommended dosages of opiates may produce excitement in cats and horses.

PO; 15 mg/kg, IV, tid (maximum 0.8 g/dog/day)

tid; 10-14 mg/kg, PO, bid

mg/kg , IV; 4-8 mg/kg , PO

Antitussive Drugs:
Drug Morphine Codeine Hydrocodone Dextromethorphan Butorphanol Dosage Dogs: 0.1 mg/kg, IM,tid-qid Dogs: 1-2 mg/kg, PO, bid-qid Dogs: 0.25 mg/kg, PO, bid-qid Dogs, cats: 0.5-1 mg/kg, PO, tid-qid Dogs: 0.055-0.11 mg/kg, SC, bid-qid; or 0.055-1.1 mg/kg, PO, bid-qid

-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Drugs:


Drug Epinephrine Isoproterenol Terbutaline Albuterol Clenbuterol Dosage Dogs: 0.05-0.5 mg, intratracheally or IV Cats: 0.1 mg, IV or IM Large animals: 0.1 mg/kg, IV, SC, or IM Dogs: 0.1-0.2 mg, IM or SC, qid Cats: 4-6 g, IM, every 3 min as needed Horses: 0.4 g/kg, IV (diluted) Dogs, cats: 0.1 mg/kg, SC, every 4 hr, or 0.03 mg/kg, PO, tid Horses: 0.0033 mg/kg, IV, or 0.2-0.6 mg/kg, PO, bid Dogs: 0.05 mg/kg, PO, tid Horses: 8 g/kg, PO, bid Horses: 0.8-3.2 g/kg, PO, bid

Methylxanthine Bronchodilators: Drug Theophylline (parenteral) Theophylline (oral) Dosage Dogs: 10 mg/kg, IV (slow) or IM Horses: 15 mg/kg, IV (slow) Dogs: 5-7 mg/kg, PO, tid Cats: 3 mg/kg, PO, bid Horses: 10-15 mg/kg, PO, bid

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Theophylline (extended-release tablets) Aminophylline (parenteral) Aminophylline (oral)

Dogs: 20 mg/kg, PO, sid Cats: 25 mg/kg, PO, sid Horses: 15 mg/kg, PO, sid Dogs: 10 mg/kg, IV (slow) Cats, horses: 5 mg/kg, IV (slow) Dogs: 10 mg/kg, PO, tid Cats: 5 mg/kg, PO, bid Horses: 15 mg/kg, PO, bid

Drugs Commonly Used to Treat Urinary Tract Infections in Small Animals:


Drug Amoxicillin Ampicillin Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Cephalexin/cefadroxil Ceftiofur Enrofloxacin Dosage 11 mg/kg, PO, tid 25 mg/kg, PO, tid 25 mg/kg, PO, tid 30 mg/kg, PO, tid 2.0 mg/kg, SC, sid 5 mg/kg, PO, sid 4-6 mg/kg, SC, sid 5 mg/kg, PO, tid 18 mg/kg, PO, tid 15 mg/kg, PO, bid Typical Antimicrobial Activity Staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, Proteus Staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, Proteus Staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, Proteus Mean Urine Concentration (mg/mL) 201 309 201

Staphylococci, streptococci, Proteus 500 , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella E coli , Proteus Staphylococci, some streptococci, some enterococci, E coli , Proteus , Klebsiella , Pseudomonas , Enterobacter Staphylococci, some streptococci, some enterococci, E coli , Proteus , Klebsiella , Pseudomonas , Enterobacter Staphylococci, some streptococci, some enterococci, E coli , Klebsiella , Enterobacter Streptococci, some activity against staphylococci and enterococci at high urine concentrations Streptococci, staphylococci, E coli , Proteus , some activity against enterococci and Klebsiella 8 200

Gentamicin

107

Nitrofurantoin Tetracycline Trimethoprim/sulfa

100 300 55/246

Dosages of Diuretics:

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Drug Furosemide Hydrochlorothiazide Chlorothiazide Spironolactone Mannitol Dimethyl sulfoxide

Dosage 4-6 mg/kg IV, IM, or SC for acute therapy Dogs: 2-4 mg/kg, PO, sid-tid Cats:1-2 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid Large animals: 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, IV or IM, sid Dogs and cats: 2-4 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid Dogs and cats: 20-40 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid Dogs: 2-4 mg/kg, PO, bid 0.25-0.50 g/kg, IV Large animals: 1 g/kg, IV or via nasogastric tube

Drugs Used to Treat Urinary Incontinence:


Drug Diethylstilbestrol Phenylpropanolamine Ephedrine Pseudoephedrine Testosterone propionate Testosterone cypionate Dosage Dogs: 0.1-0.3 mg/kg/day, PO, for 7-10 days, followed by 1 mg/dog/wk Dogs: 1.5-2 mg/kg, PO, sid-tid Dogs: 1.2 mg/kg, PO, bid-tid Cats: 2-4 mg/kg, PO, bid-tid Dogs >25 kg: 30 mg/dog, PO, tid Dogs <25 kg: 15 mg/dog, PO, tid Dogs: 2.2 mg/kg, IM, every 2-3 days Dogs: 2.2 mg/kg, IM, every 30-60 days

Dose Rates of Imidazoles:


Imidazole Enilconazole Fluconazole Itraconazole Ketoconazole Thiabendazole Dosage, Route, and Frequency 10 mg/kg in 5-10 mL, bid for 7-14 days 5-10 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid 5-10 mg/kg, PO, sid-bid 5-20 mg/kg, PO, bid (dogs) 44 mg/kg, PO, sid, or 22 mg/kg, PO, bid

Dose Rates of Griseofulvin:


Species Dogs, cats Horses, cattle Dosage, Route, and Frequency Microsized: 10-30 (up to 130) mg/kg, PO, sid or divided bid-tid; Ultramicrosized: 5-10 (up to 50) mg/kg, PO, sid 5-10 mg/kg, PO, sid for 3-6 wk, or longer if required

Dosage Rates of Antiviral Drugs :

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Drug Idoxuridine

Preparation 0.1% ophthalmic solution 0.5% ophthalmic solution 1% ophthalmic solution 3% ophthalmic solution 200-mg/mL suspension for injection 200-mg capsules or tablets 5% cutaneous ointment 200 mg/5 mL suspension 500 mg/vial powder

Trifluridine Vidarabine

Dose, Route, and Frequency 1 drop, topical, every 5-6 hr 1 drop, topical, every 1-2 hr 1 drop, topical, every 2 hr initially (2 days) then 3-8 times daily 0.4-1 cm ointment, topical, every 5-6 hr; 3-6 times daily 10-30 mg/kg, IV, sid as CRI for 12-24 hr 200 mg, PO, qid, every 4 hr, or 5 times/day Cover lesion, topical, every 3 hr, 6 times/day 80 mg/kg (mixed with peanut butter), PO, sid for 7-14 days 250-500 mg/m2, IV, tid, infused over at least 1 hr 2-5 , IV, bid-tid 11 mg/kg, IV, sid for 7 days Using SPAC-2 nebulizer only, inhalation, 8-18 hr period daily 100 mg total (humans), PO, sid-bid 100 mg total (juveniles), PO, sid 200-300 mg total (humans), PO, sid 3106 IU/human, SC, IM, sid 0.5-5.0 U/kg, PO, sid 100,000 U/kg, SC, sid

Indication

Ocular herpesvirus infection Ocular herpesvirus infection

Acyclovir

Feline herpesvirus

Pachecos disease in birds

Ganciclovir Ribavirin

500 mg/vial powder

Susceptible viral infections

6 g/100 mL vial powder Amantadine 100- and 500-mg capsules Syrup 10 mg/mL

Rimantadine Interferon -2 3 106 IU/vial

FeLV-associated disease FeLV-associated

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

1 U, PO, sid

15-30 U, PO, IM, SC, sid on alternate weeks * CRI = controlled-rate infusion; FeLV = feline leukemia virus; FIP = feline infectious peritonitis; FIV = feline immunodeficiency virus.

disease FeLV appetite stimulant FIP, FIV

Actions of Inflammatory Mediators:


Action Vasodilation, increased vascular permeability Vasoconstriction Smooth muscle contraction Mast cell degranulation Stem cell proliferation Chemotaxis Lysosomal granule release Phagocytosis Platelet aggregation Endothelial cell stickiness Granuloma formation Pain Fever
*

Mediators* Histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, C3a, C5a, LTC4, LTD4, PGI2, PGE2, PGD2, PGF2, activated Hageman factor, kinonogen fragments, fibrinopeptides TXA2, LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, C5a C3a, C5a, histamine, LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, TXA2, serotonin, PAF, bradykinin C5a, C3a IL-3, G-CSF, GM-CSF, M-CSF C5a, LTB4, IL-8, PAF, 5-HETE, histamine, others C5a, IL-8, PAF C3b, iC3b TXA2, PAF IL-1, TNF-, LTB4 IL-1, TNF- PGE2, bradykinin, istamine, serotonin IL-1, IL-6, TNF-, PGE2

C = complement, LT = leukotriene, PG = prostaglandin, TX = thromboxane, PAF = platelet activating factor, IL = interleukin, CSF = colony stimulating factor, HETE = hydroxyeicosatetranoate, TNF = tumor necrosis factor.

Relative Potencies of Commonly Used Corticosteroids:


Compound Cortisol Cortisone Prednisone Prednisolone Methylprednisolone Relative Glucocorticoid Activity 1 0.8 5 5 5 Relative Mineralocorticoid Activity 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.5 Biological Halflife (hr) 8-12 8-12 12-36 12-36 12-36

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Triamcinolone Dexamethasone Betamethasone

5+ 25 25

0 0 0

24-48 36-72 36-72

Mechanisms of Action, Indications, and Toxicities of Selected Antineoplastic Agents:


Drug Mechanism of Action Major Indications Lymphoma, sarcomas, mammary adenocarcinoma, lymphocytic leukemia Acute Toxicities Nausea, vomiting, anorexia Delayed Toxicities Severe myelosuppressio n, alopecia, sterile hemorrhagic cystitis

Alkylating Agents Cyclophospham Undergoes hepatic ide biotransformation to active metabolites that alkylate DNA; alkylation leads to miscoding of DNA and crosslinking of DNA strands Alkylates DNA Melphalan causing miscoding and cross-linking of DNA strands Alkylates DNA Chlorambucil causing miscoding and cross-linking of DNA strands; slowest-acting alkylating agent Alkylates DNA Carmustine causing miscoding and cross-linking of DNA strands; inhibits both DNA and RNA synthesis; not cross resistant with other alkylating agents

Multiple myeloma

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia (infrequent) Nausea, vomiting, anorexia

Moderate myelosuppressio n, alopecia (infrequent) Moderate myelosuppressio n

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma

CNS neoplasias (astrocytomas and gliomas), GI carcinomas, multiple myeloma

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia

Moderate myelosuppressio n (may be delayed for 4-6 wk), nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Streptozocin

Inhibits DNA synthesis; high affinity for pancreatic cells

Temporary remission of hypoglycemia resulting from functional pancreatic islet cell tumor Lymphoma (for use in protocols after relapse)

Dacarbazine

Busulfan

Undergoes hepatic biotransformation to active metabolites that alkylate DNA; inhibits RNA synthesis Alkylates DNA, causing miscoding and cross-linking of DNA strands

Severe, potentially fatal nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity; nausea, vomiting, anorexia* Nausea, vomiting, anorexia; extravasation results in tissue damage; hepatotoxic Nausea, vomiting, anorexia (may be less severe than others in class) Nausea, vomiting, anorexia; ulceration; stomatitis; hepatoxicity; pulmonary toxicity

Mild myelosuppressio n, renal toxicity

Moderate myelosuppressio n, alopecia, hepatotoxicity

Chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera

Moderate myelosuppressio n (may persist for 1-2 yr), pulmonary toxicity Moderate myelosuppressio n, alopecia

Antimetabolites Methotrexate

5-Fluorouracil

Inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase that is required for formation of tetrahydrofolate, a necessary cofactor in thymidylate synthesis; thymidylate essential for DNA synthesis and repair Pyrimidine analog; interferes with DNA synthesis and may be incorporated into RNA to cause toxic effects

Lymphoma, Sertoli cell tumor, osteosarcoma, metastatic transmissible venereal tumor

GI, lung, liver, and mammary carcinomas (systemic); cutaneous carcinomas (topical)

Systemic: nausea, vomiting, anorexia; GI ulceration; neurotoxicity; hepatotoxicity Topical: local irritation, pain,

Moderate myelosuppressio n, oral and enteric ulcers, neurotoxicity

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Cytarabine

Dactinomycin (Actinomycin D)

Pyrimidine analog; incorporates into DNA causing steric hindrance and inhibition of DNA synthesis Intercalates and binds to DNA, disrupting helical structure and DNA template; inhibits RNA and DNA polymerases; causes DNA topoisomerase IImediated chain scission; generates free radicals that cause DNA scission and cell membrane damage

Lymphoma (including CNS), leukemias

hyperpigmentati on Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, phlebitis, severe tissue reaction if extravasated

Moderate myelosuppressio n, alopecia

Choriocarcinoma, testicular carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcom a, lymphoma

Severe myelosuppressio n, alopecia, stomatitis

Antibiotic Antineoplastics Doxorubicin

Intercalates and binds to DNA, disrupting helical structure and DNA template; inhibits RNA and DNA polymerases; causes DNA topoisomerase-IImediated chain scission; generates free radicals that cause DNA scission and cell membrane

Lymphoma, acute lymphocytic and granulocytic leukemia, sarcomas (osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma) and carcinomas (mammary, ovarian, small cell lung, thyroid, testicular, prostatic, transitional cell, squamous cell of

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, hemorrhagic colitis, red urine (not hematuria), transient ECG changes, arrhythmias, nephrotoxicity, urticaria, pruritus, anaphylactoid reactions, severe tissue reaction if extravasated

Cumulative, dose-related, digitalisunresponsive congestive heart failure, severe myelosuppressio n, alopecia, stomatitis, anorexia and GI irritation, cutaneous reactions

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

damage

Mitoxantrone

TopoisomeraseII-mediated chain scission; DNA aggregation, oxidation, and strand breakage

Bleomycin

Mixture of glycopeptides; generates oxygen radicals that cause chain scission and fragmentation of DNA

the head and neck, cervical), plasma cell myeloma, hepatoma, neuroblastoma Lymphoma, carcinomas (squamous cell, transitional cell, mammary, thyroid, renal), fibrosarcoma, hemangiopericyto ma Carcinomas (testicular, squamous cell of head and neck, cervical, penile) lymphoma, seminoma, malignant teratoma

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, depression, less severe side effects than others in this group Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fever, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis

Moderate myelosuppressio n

Pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, mild myelosuppressio n, alopecia, hyperpigmentati on, skin ulceration, stomatitis

Mitotic Inhibitors Vinblastine

Binds to tubulin, leading to disruption of mitotic spindle apparatus and arrest of cell cycle

Lymphoma and leukemias, mastocytoma

Vincristine

Binds to tubulin, leading to disruption of mitotic spindle apparatus and arrest of cell cycle

Severe myelosuppressio n, neurotoxicity with high doses, stomatitis, paralytic ileus, alopecia, inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone Transmissible Mild nausea, Slowly venereal cell vomiting, reversible tumors, lymphoma anorexia, sensorimotor and leukemias, phlebitis, severe peripheral CNS tumors, mast tissue reaction if neuropathy and cell tumors, extravasated muscle mammary weakness, adenocarcinoma, constipation, soft-tissue paralytic ileus, sarcomas, alopecia,

Mild nausea, vomiting, anorexia, phlebitis, severe tissue reaction if extravasated

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

immune-mediated thrombocytopenia

inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, mild myelosuppressio n Intense nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, anaphylaxis, severe tissue reaction if extravasated Extreme nephrotoxicity, renal potassium and calcium wasting, ototoxicity, moderate to severe myelosuppressio n, peripheral neuropathy, hyperuricemia, hypermagnesemi a Hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pancreatitis, CNS effects, inhibition of coagulation and immune responsiveness (B and T cells), mild myelosuppressio n Adrenal insufficiency, CNS depression, dermatitis Mild myelosuppressio n, alopecia, sloughing of claws, stomatitis, dysuria

Miscellaneous Cisplatin

Reacts with proteins and nucleic acids; forms cross-links between DNA strands and between DNA and protein; disrupts DNA synthesis

Osteosarcoma, carcinomas (transitional cell, testicular, squamous cell of head and neck, ovarian, cervical, bladder, and lung), mesothelioma

l-Asparaginase

Inhibits protein synthesis by hydrolyzing tumor cell supply of asparagine

Acute lymphocytic and lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylaxis especially after repeated doses

Mitotane (o,pDDD)

Destroys adrenal zona fasciculata and zona reticularis

Hydroxyurea

Pituitary hyperadrenocortici sm, palliation of adrenal cortical tumors Inhibits Polycythemia conversion of vera, ribonucleotides to mastocytoma, deoxyribonucleoti granulocytic and des by destroying basophilic ribonucleoside leukemia, diphosphate thrombocythemia reductase

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea Nausea, vomiting, anorexia

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

Etoposide

Causes topoisomerase-IImediated DNA scission

Carcinomas (testicular, small cell lung)

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, hypotension, anaphylaxis, cutaneous reactions, fever Sodium retention, GI ulceration, pancreatitis

Myelosuppressio n, peripheral neuropathy, allergic reactions, hepatotoxicity, alopecia

Hormones Prednisolone

Lympholytic; inhibits mitosis in lymphocytes

Lymphoma, mast cell tumors, palliative treatment of brain tumors

Anti-estrogenic; Estrogen-receptor- Vomiting, blocks the effects positive mammary abnormalities in of estrogen on carcinomas estrous cycle target tissues Anti-androgenic; Testosterone Flutamide competes with receptor-positive testosterone for prostatic tumors; binding to surgical castration androgen preferred receptors GnRH analog that Testosterone Leuprolide initially receptor positive stimulates, then prostatic decreases, the carcinomas or secretion of FSH perianal tumors; and LH; reduced surgical castration FSH and LH lead preferred to decreased concentration of testosterone (males) and estrogen (females) * Toxicities are so severe that use is very limited. Topical administration in cats has resulted in fatal neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Severe, potentially fatal pulmonary edema may develop in cats. Tamoxifen

Protein catabolism, muscle wasting, delayed wound healing, suppression of hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis, immunosuppress ion

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

GnRH = gonadotropin-release hormone, FSH = follicle-stimulate hormone, LH = luteinizing hormone

Natural Steroid Hormones for Consideration as Growth Promoters:


Hormone Estradiol 1 Form* Pellet Content of Implant 20 mg EB + 200 mg P4 Duration Animal of Effect (days) 100-120 Steers Growth Potential Response Side Effects 10-15% Transient increase in sexual behavior Udder development

Pellet

3 4

Pellet Silastic rubber Silastic rubber

20 mg EB 100-120 + 200 mg testosterone propionate 10 mg EB 100-120 + 100 mg P4 45 mg 365 estradiol 24 mg estradiol 200

Heifers, cull cows Veal calves Steers

5-15%

0-8% 10-15% Transient increase in sexual behavior Transient increase in sexual behavior Transient increase in sexual behavior

Steers

10-15%

Polylactic 28 mg acid estradiol

365

Steers

10-15%

See 1 and 3 above See 2 Testosterone above * Implants must be placed SC between the ear cartilage and skin to comply with label instructions so that consumption of residues may be avoided. Estradiol benzoate Progesterone Progesterone

Synthetic Steroid Hormones for Consideration as Growth Promoters:


Hormone Method of Administration TBA* Pellet implant Content of Implant 140, 200, or Duration Animal of Effect (days) 60-90 Heifers, cull Growth Potential Response Side Effects 5-12%

Compiled by: Dr. Rai M Sajid

300 mg TBA + EB Zeranol Zeranol MGA Pellet implant 140 mg TBA + 20 mg EB 36 mg zeranol 12 mg zeranol 0.25-0.5 mg/day, PO 60-100

cows, steers Steers, veal calves Cattle Lambs Heifers, cull cows

10-20%

Transient increase in sexual behavior

Pellet implant Pellet implant In feed

90-120 90-120 As long as it is given

10-15% 10-15% 3-10% Increased mammary development after longterm administration

Trenbolone acetate Estradiol benzoate Melengestrol acetate

Antibacterial Growth Promoters for Potential Use in Livestock Production:


Compound Bambermycins Class Absorption Phosphoglycolipid Not absorbed Effects Increase FCE*, growth promotion in poultry, cattle Increase FCE in cattle Increase FCE, increase DLWG in cattle and lambs Increase DLWG and FCE Growth promotion in poultry Growth promotion in poultry

Ionophore Lasalocid sodium Ionophore Monensin sodium Ionophore Salinomycin Peptide Virginiamycin Peptide Zinc bacitracin * Feed conversion efficiency Daily liveweight gain

Poorly absorbed Not absorbed Not absorbed

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