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IIT GANDHINAGAR

FLUID MECHANICS LAB REPORT


EXPERIMENT NO:1
Vishnu Vijay 9003004 9/5/2011

EXPERIMENT NO:1 a) BERNOULLIS THEOREM


AIM: The aim of the experiment is to verify Bernoullis equation experimentally. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Convergent divergent pipes with pressure tapings Centrifugal pump to supply water to overhead tank Control valve and bypass valve to control volume flow rate.

THEORY: Bernoullis principle states the relationship between static pressure and velocity for inviscid flow on the basis that the total energy at any section of flow will remain the same provided there is no reduction or addition of energy at any point. P+1/2v2+gz= constant Where P is the pressure of the fluid is the density of the fluid assumed to be constant z is the elevation of the point under reference above reference v is the velocity of the fluid at the point under consideration g is the acceleration due to gravity The Bernoulli equation is a momentum based force relation and was derived using the following assumptions: Steady flow Incompressible flow: appropriate if the mach no is less than .3 Frictionless flow:restrictive solid walls and mixing introduce fricition effects Flow along a single streamline.

PROCEDURE: Clean the apparatus and close the drain valves provided. Make sure all the switches are off switch on the Main Power Supply and the pump Regulate Flow of water through pipe with the help of given Flow Control Valve and make sure there is no water bubbles. Measure the flow rate using the water rise in the measuring tank and the time taken for the water rise using a stop watch. Calculate the velocity at each section of the pipes. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates. When the experiment is over switch off the centrifugal pump and the main supply. Drain water from all the tanks.

OBSERVATIONS: Derving the volume flow rate in a venturimeter using Bernoullis equation and continuity equation

From continuity equation AaVa=AbVb, the throat velocity Vb can be substituted out of the above equation to give,

Solving for the upstream velocity Va and multiplying by the crosssectional area Aa gives the volumetric flow rate Q=AaVa

Ideal, inviscid fluids would obey the above equation. The small amounts of energy converted into heat within viscous boundary layers tend to lower the actual velocity of real fluids somewhat. A discharge coefficient C is typically introduced to account for the viscosity of fluids,

Pipes data Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Cross sectional area(m2) 0.00061575 0.00049088 0.00034636 0.00024053 0.00015394 Distance from the reference point(m) 0.03 0.059 0.088 0.117 0.146

6 7 8 9

0.00024053 0.00034636 0.00049088 0.00061575

0.175 0.204 0.233 0.262

Flow rate measurement Qexpeimental=Area of the measuring tank x height of water rise/time taken Area of the measuring tank=0.1 m2(40 cm x 25 cm)

Trial no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Rise of water in the mesuring tank(cm) 10 10.5 11.4 10.7 11 10.6 10.9 11.1 20 22.8 23.7

Time taken(s) 34.84 57.28 62 59.94 59.94 59.94 58.75 60.16 60.1 60.25 60.28

Qexpeimental(m3/s) 0.000287026 0.00018331 0.000183871 0.000178512 0.000183517 0.000176844 0.000185532 0.000184508 0.000332779 0.000378423 0.000393165

Measurement of velocity at each pipe for different flow rates: Velocity = volume flow rate / cross sectional area at that point No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Qexpeimental 0.000287026 0.00018331 0.000183871 0.000178512 0.000183517 0.000176844 0.000185532 0.000184508 V1 0.466141 0.297702 0.298613 0.28991 0.298038 0.2872 0.30131 0.299648 V2 0.584718 0.373432 0.374574 0.363657 0.373853 0.360258 0.377958 0.375872 V3 0.828694 0.529247 0.530867 0.515394 0.529844 0.510577 0.535662 0.532706 V4 1.193308 0.762109 0.764441 0.74216 0.762969 0.735224 0.771346 0.767089 V5 1.864534 1.190789 1.194433 1.15962 1.192132 1.148782 1.205222 1.198571 V6 1.193308 0.762109 0.764441 0.74216 0.762969 0.735224 0.771346 0.767089 V7 0.828694 0.529247 0.530867 0.515394 0.529844 0.510577 0.535662 0.532706 V8 0.584718 0.373432 0.374574 0.363657 0.373853 0.360258 0.377958 0.375872 V9 0.466141 0.297702 0.298613 0.28991 0.298038 0.2872 0.30131 0.299648

9 10 11

0.000332779 0.000378423 0.000393165

0.540445 0.614573 0.638514

0.677923 0.770908 0.80094

0.960788 1.092572 1.135135

1.383523 1.573289 1.634579

2.161743 2.458252 2.554016

1.383523 1.573289 1.634579

0.960788 1.092572 1.135135

0.677923 0.770908 0.80094

0.540445 0.614573 0.638514

Water heads at different points: No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 h1(cm) 23 18 18.5 19.9 21.8 23.1 31.4 16.6 36.1 34.2 33.5 h2 22 17.5 18 19.5 21.4 22.7 31.1 16.2 35 32.5 31.7 h3 20 16 17 19 20.1 22.1 30.2 14.9 32.3 29 28 h4 16 15 16 18 19.3 20.3 28.4 14 27.1 22.3 21.1 h5 8 11.5 13 15.3 16.4 18.2 24.2 10.9 17.5 9.5 7.5 h6 13.5 12 14.5 16.2 17.6 19.1 26.2 12.4 24 19 18 h7 18 15.5 16.5 18.5 19.6 21.3 28.8 14.7 29.3 25.4 24.2 h8 19 16 17.2 18.9 20.1 21.9 29.5 15.4 31 28 27 h9 20 16.5 17.5 19 20.8 22.3 30 15.9 32.5 29.5 28.5

Total energy calculations: According to Bernoullis theorm the theorm the total energy of an inviscid flow should remain constant. Total energy =P+1/2v2=constant =density of water =1000kg/m3 All readings in (joules/m3) No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TE1 2362.644 1808.313 1857.585 1992.224 2180.813 2305.042 3122.594 TE2 2326.948 1784.726 1834.153 1977.123 2167.083 2289.493 3119.226 TE3 2303.367 1708.051 1806.91 1994.815 2110.167 2296.145 3103.067 TE4 2279.992 1760.405 1860.185 2039.401 2182.461 2259.677 3080.688 TE5 2522.244 1835.989 1987.335 2171.759 2317.79 2443.45 3097.88 TE6 2034.992 1466.405 1713.185 1863.001 2015.861 2142.077 2865.088 TE7 2107.367 1659.051 1757.91 1945.815 2061.167 2217.745 2965.867 TE8 2032.948 1637.726 1755.753 1918.323 2039.683 2211.093 2962.426 TE9 2068.644 1661.313 1759.585 1904.024 2082.813 2226.642 2985.394

8 9 10 11

1671.694 3683.84 3540.45 3486.85

1658.24 3659.79 3482.149 3427.352

1602.088 3626.957 3438.857 3388.265

1666.213 3612.867 3423.019 3403.724

1786.486 4051.566 3952.5 3996.499

1509.413 3309.067 3099.619 3099.924

1582.488 3332.957 3086.057 3015.865

1579.84 3267.79 3041.149 2966.752

1603.094 3331.04 3079.85 2996.85

Variation of total energy along the length of pipe:

4500 4000 T 3500 o t 3000 a l 2500 e 2000 n e 1500 r g 1000 y 500 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 Distance from the reference point(m) trial 1 trial 2 trial 3 trial 4 trial 5 trial 6 trial 7 trial 8 trial 9 trial 10 trial 11

SOURCES OF ERROR: Bernoullis theorm do not consider the effects of friction on the flow velocity or the flow rate and hence the total energy calculated was not a constant but varied by a factor of hundred or so. Taking into account the Reynolds no this error can be reduced. Also it does not take into account the possible energy exchange due to heat or work. These thermodynamic effects are accounted for in the steady flow energy equations. The human errors in the estimation of flow rate (measuring time) has not been accounted for.

CONCLUSIONS: Bernoullis theorm was verified within the limit of experimental errors.

b)FLOW AIM:

THROUGH ORIFICE AND MOUTHPIECE

To study the flow of liquid through orifice and the mouthpiece and determine the co-efficient of discharge and co-efficient of velocity.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Variable head tank Pointer gauge Measuring tank Sump tank Centrifugal pump

THEORY: An orifice is a small aperture through which the fluid passes. The thickness of an orifice in the direction of flow is very small in comparison to its other dimensions. If a tank containing a liquid has a hole made on the side or base through which liquid flows, then such a hole may be termed as an orifice.The rate of flow of the liquid through such an orifice at a given time will depend partly on the shape, size and form of the orifice. An orifice usually has a sharp edge so that there is minimum contact with the fluid and consequently minimum frictional resistance at the sides of the orifice. If a sharp edge is not provided, the flow depends on the thickness of the orifice and the roughness of its boundary surface too. The liquid issues from the orifice as a free jet under the inuence of gravity only. The streamlines approaching the orifice converges towards it. Since an instantaneous change of direction is not possible, the streamlines continue to converge beyond the orifice until they become parallel at a particular point called vena contracta.

The contraction of the jet can be attributed to the action of a lateral force on the jet due to a change in the direction of flow velocity when the fluid approaches the orifice. Since the streamlines become parallel at vena contracta, the pressure at this section is assumed to be uniform. Considering the flow to be steady and frictional effects to be negligible, we can write by the application of Bernoullis equation between two points 1 and 2 on a particular stream-line with point 2 being at vena contracta P1+1/2v12+hg= Patm+1/2v22+0

If the area of the tank is large enough as compared to that of the orifice, the velocity at point 1 becomes negligibly small and pressure p1 equals to the hydrostatic pressure p 1 equals to the hydrostatic pressure at that point as p1=patm +g(h-z1) Therefore we get the velocity V2= (2gh)1/2 The velocity V2 in Eq. (16.12) represents the ideal velocity since the frictional effects were neglected in the derivation. Therefore, a multiplying factor C v known as coefficient of velocity is introduced to determine the actual velocity as V2= Cv (2gh)1/2 Co-efficient of discharge (cd): It is defined as the ratio of the actual discharged from an orifice to the theoretical discharged from the orifice. It is denoted by Cd. If Qa the actual discharge and Qt is thetheoretical discharge then ratio of Cd is given as: Cd= Qa/ Qt PROCEDURE: Clean the apparatus and make All Tanks free from Dust Close the drain valves provided and make sure the main power supply and pumps are switched off. Open by pass valve. Now switch on the main power supply and pump. Adjust Head of water in the Tank with the help of given flexible varying head system, in the center of the tank. Fix the pointer gauge just outside the mouthpiece and measure the coordinates and consider it as the origin. Measure the flow of water using stop watch and measuring tank At three random points in the water flow profile calculate the coordinates.

Specifications: Set of Orifices: Material Acrylic (2 Nos.) Dia. 10mm and 15 mm Mouthpiece: Material Acrylic Constant Head tank : 35 Litres. Hook/Pointer Gauge: To measure X-Y co-ordinates of Jet. Water Circulation: FHP Pump. Flow Measurement: Using Measuring Tank with Piezometer, Capacity 25 Litres. Sump Tank: Capacity 70 Litres NOMENCLATURE: A = area of measuring tank. a = area of orifice and mouthpiece. V = actual velocity at vena contracta ( 2 g H)^0.5 = theoretical velocity (m/sec) R = rise of water level in measuring tank (cm) T = time taken to R (sec) H = Water head x = horizontal distance travelled by the liquid particle from vena-contracta y = vertical distance between vena-contracta and liquid particle

Formulae: 1. Co-Efficient of velocity: Cv=v/(2xgxH)^0.5=x/(4yH)^0.5 2. Actual discharge: Qa=AxR/tx100 3. Theoretical discharge: Qt=ax(2xgxh)^0.5 4. Coefficient of discharge: Cd=Qa/Qt Observation: Origin= (0.15,25.5) reading as seen in gauge (all distances are in cm and time in sec)

water head 19

X 6.8 15.14 20.1 5.7 13.4 20.9 5.1 15.1 24.3

y 24.3 20.1 9.9 24.9 22.8 18.6 25.1 22.9 19.05

rise of water(R) 4.2 4.1 4.1 6.3 6.4 6.3 8.3 8.4 8.2

Time(t) 59.72 59.81 59.87 59.84 59.81 59.63 59.76 59.79 59.72

27.7

37

Actual coordinates: water head 19 actual x 6.65 14.99 19.95 5.55 13.25 20.75 4.95 14.95 24.15 actual y -1.2 -5.4 -15.6 -0.6 -2.7 -6.9 -0.4 -2.6 -6.45 rise of water 4.2 4.1 4.1 6.3 6.4 6.3 8.3 8.4 8.2 time 59.72 59.81 59.87 59.84 59.81 59.63 59.76 59.79 59.72 Cv 0.696345 0.739942 0.579394 0.680687 0.766062 0.750453 0.643346 0.762121 0.781639 Actual discharge 7.03282E-05 6.85504E-05 6.84817E-05 0.000105281 0.000107006 0.000105652 0.000138889 0.000140492 0.000137307 Theoritical discharge 0.000151564 0.000151564 0.000151564 0.000183003 0.000183003 0.000183003 0.000211505 0.000211505 0.000211505 Cd 0.464017 0.452287 0.451834 0.575294 0.584719 0.57732 0.656671 0.664249 0.649194

27.7

37

Plotting the profile of the flow for different flow rates 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -2 -4

y(cm)vertical distance from the reference point

-6 -8

profile 1 profile 2 profile3

-10

-12 -14 -16

-18

x( cm) horizontal distance from the reference point

PRECAUTION & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Do not run the pump at low voltage i.e. less than 180 Volts. 2. Never fully close the Delivery line and By-Pass line Valves simultaneously. 3. Always keep apparatus free from dust. 4. To prevent clogging of moving parts, Run Pump at least once in a fortnight. 5. Always use clean water.

SOURCES OF ERROR: The orifice may not be entirely sharp edged if not the flow rate may depend on the thickness of the orifice and roughness of the boundary surface Human errors in the estimation of coordinates with the pointer gauge Pointer gauge may not exactly point at the centre of the flow Errors in the estimation of time using the stop watch

CONCLUSIONS: Coefficient of discharge = 0.56 Coefficient of velocity =0.71