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ASSESSMENT OF AEOLIAN VIBRATION SEVERITY

Umberto Cosmai Convenor CIGRE WG B2.25

Bangkok 28 February 2009

Study Committee B2 Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Modern structures slender plain with low structures, slender, plain, internal damping, are very sensitive to windwindinduced motions motions.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The overhead transmission lines are the mechanical structures with the greatest extension of slender flexible elements:

the conductors

highly exposed to natural wind


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Overhead conductors are subjected to various wind induced vibrations and oscillations. Those called aeolian vibrations are th most recurrent and Th ll d li ib ti the t t d the most dangerous

for the fast accumulation of fatigue cycles (vibration frequencies 5120 Hz) and hi h b di stress at th fitti clamps. d high bending t t the fitting l
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

These motions, if not mitigated within safety limits, can determine fatigue failures of the conductor strands,

damages to other line components and bl k-out of the lines. d black t f th li blackStudy Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Fatigue failure of a conductor strand due to aeolian vibration

Typical fragile shape i.e. without deformation of the material near th f t the fracture area.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Fatigue failures can interest several strands

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

in the outer and inner layer of the conductor

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Fatigue failures develop at points where the motion is constrained e.g. where the conductor is secured to fittings

Typical location are: suspension clamps, damper and p p , spacer clamps, etc.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Another damaging effect of conductor vibration is the loosening of fittings clamps not suitably designed or incorrectly installed.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The loosening of a spacer damper clamp, for example, determines,

at the beginning, the abrasion of the conductor outer layer due to th l t the clamp sliding movements. lidi t
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Increasing the looseness, the strands are broken by the hammering of the clamp.

If left unattended this process will lead to the complete conductor failure.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Fittings whose natural vibration frequency fall in the range of conductor vibration frequencies may fail for fatigue.

Night Ni ht warning d i i device


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Vibration dampers incorrectly dimensioned or wrongly distributed can fail for fatigue while protecting the conductor.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Five methods are commonly used for the assessment of vibration severity on overhead transmission line conductors: 1. Analytical prediction of vibration intensity 2. Tests on outdoor experimental spans 3. Laboratory tests on short spans 4. 4 Vibration measurements on actual lines 5. Conductor inspections on actual lines Each method offers its own contribution to the total picture. Although they are inter-related, their limitations and concepts interare somewhat different different.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Analytical prediction of vibration intensity

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The most comprehensive medium to predict the vibration behaviour of a conductor is the computer simulation performed by means of specific computer programs. f db f ifi t Others methods based on abacus diagrams and abacus, nomographs can only provide qualitative information. For example, the procedure proposed by CIGRE TF 22.11.04 in the brochure titled Safe Design Tension with Respect to Aeolian Vibration can usefully determine whether additional Vibration damping (normal or special) is required or not but can not provide data about the damping system to apply.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Computer analysis is mainly used at design stage to anticipate the vibration behaviour of single and bundled conductors and t d fi d to define, when necessary, th most suitable d h the t it bl damping i system. Calculations are based on the energy balance between the energy introduced by the wind and the energy dissipated by the vibrating conductors with and without and relevant damping units.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Vibration analysis of a bare conductor


Analytical model y of the conductor Model of the wind Analytical model of suspension arrangement
Computer analysis

Vib. frequencies and wave lengths Antinode vibration amplitudes Max strains at the suspension clamp

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Vibration analysis of a single conductor with additional damping


Analytical model of the conductor Model of the wind Analytical model of the damper(s) Analytical model of the suspension clamp
Computer p analysis

Vib. frequencies Vib f i and wave lengths Vib. Vib amplitude of the antinodes and of the dampers Strains at suspen. & damper clamps Number and positioning of the p dampers

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Vibration analysis of a bundled conductor with spacer dampers


Analytical model of the conductor Model of the wind for bundles Analytical model and distribution of the spacer dampers Analytical model of the suspension arrangement Vib. Vib frequencies and wave lengths Max and min vib. amplitude of the antinodes Max M strains at i suspension and spacer clamps p p Max spacer clamp amplitude and arm rotation

Computer p analysis

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Outdoor test stations O td t t t ti

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Outdoor test stations exposed to natural wind have been built in several Countries worldworld-wide for research and development purposes and for the comparative evaluation of damping systems proposed f t d for important transmission line projects.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

These stations allow an accurate investigation of t i ti ti f conductor vibrations

as they can be fully instrumented with recording and monitoring systems.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The high costs involved in these test stations can be afforded only by Power Authorities and Research Institutes

or justified in some major j j transmission line projects.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Laboratory test spans

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Vibration tests on laboratory spans (3090 m) (30


Tension clamp Rigid clamp Tension clamp Rigid clamp Shaker Constant tension C t tt i device

Conductor

Concrete block

Free span 3090m

Concrete block

provide data about conductor self-damping, fatigue selfendurance of conductor-clamp systems conductorand effectiveness of vibration dampers.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Extremity block of a laboratory test span


Tension T i device Tension clamp Rigid Ri id clamp

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

accelerometer conductor clamp load cell spring steel bands

flexible connection between shaker and conductor

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

InIn-span transducers
For the measurement of vibration levels along the span miniature accelerometers are normally used used.
accelerometer

Contactless displacement transducers (laser or eddy current based) are also used on very light conductors.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Test span layout for conductor self-damping measurements self damping in accordance with IEEE 664 Standard
Test span Accelerometers Shaker

Load cell

Power amplifier Waveform generator g Oscilloscope

Computer

Transducer amplifiers

DAC interface
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Effectiveness test on vibration dampers in accordance with IEC 61897 and IEEE 664 Standards
The power dissipated by the conductor p p p y plus damper is compared with the p p power introduced by the wind for a certain number of tunable harmonic vibrations of the span, at constant speed or constant bending strains.
Strain gauges Tension clamp Rigid clamp Conductor C d t accelerometers Tension clamp Rigid clamp Shaker Constant tension device

damper

load cell Free span 3090m Concrete block

Concrete block

The power dissipated by the conductor plus damper shall be greater than power introduced by the wind.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Characterization of the fatigue behaviour of a Ch t i ti f th f ti b h i f conductor


Pneumatic tensioning system Dynamometer Amplitude measuring system Rubber dampers Wire break detection Slider 2m Vibrator Active length : 7 m 5.5 2m Suspension clamp End clamp Turnbuckle

Laboratory fatigue tests y g Resonant type test benches

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Vibration measurements on existing OHTL

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Conductor vibration measurements on actual lines are usually performed:

On O new lines li - as final check of the damping system - to compare different damping systems On lines in operation p
- for assessment of vibration intensity - to evaluate the conductor residual life - to investigate the cause of damages

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The direct method to evaluate the conductor vibration severity is the measurement of the conductor bending strain at the clamp mouth mouth,

performed by means of strain gauges glued on the outer layer strands strands. This technique, had been used for a limited period of time but then was abandoned in favour of methods more suitable for field fi ld application. li ti
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Aeolian vibration measurement on actual lines performed by means of specific recorders

has been widely used for the last 45 years.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

These vibration measurements are based on the bending amplitude method proposed by the IEEE paper 31 TP 6565156, 156 1965

Yb 89 mm The bending amplitude Yb is the peak to p g p p peak vibration amplitude measured at 89 mm (3.5 inches) from the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp clamp.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The bending amplitude is easier to measure than the bending strain


bending amplitude

89 m bending strain

In a number of cases, the bending amplitude can be converted into b di i t bending strain using th P ff b t i i the Poffemberger and S d Swart (P&S) t formula. In other cases, the conversion factor can be determined by means of laboratory t t fl b t tests.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Bending Amplitude Recorders

Ontario Hydro Recorder

HILDA

TVM 90

Scolar III Ribe LVR Pavica

Vibrec 400

Vibrec 500

Only Vibrec500 and Pavica are still available on the market market.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Modern aeolian vibration recorders are a microprocessor based, battery powered, self-contained devices. The battery selfautonomy is 3-6 months 3- months.

Vibration b at o sensor

Temperature probe Wind sensor


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

VIBREC|500 WT

The most recent version of the vibration recorder Vibrec 500 allows wireless connection with the ground instrumentation.

The Th autonomy is extended above one year. t i t d d b


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

VIBREC|500 WIRELESS CONNECTION

SEARCH FOUND VR500WT

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The recorder is installed on the suspension clamp.

89 mm

The vibration sensor is positioned at 89 mm from the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

On small conductors and shield wires as well as at damper and spacer clamps vibration recorders with split sensor can be used.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Another type of vibration recorder is installed on the conductor, with the clamp positioned at 89 mm

89 mm

from the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The tip of the vibration sensor is positioned at the last point of contact between the conductor and the suspension clamp.

This vibration recorder measures the so-called inverted sobending b di amplitude. lit d
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Due to its low weight (about 0.6Kg) this recorder can be installed along the span near dampers, spacers and other fitting clamps.

For small conductors a version with split sensor is also p available.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

International Standards and recommendations for aeolian I t ti l St d d d d ti f li vibration measurements on overhead transmission lines
IEEE paper 31 TP 65-156 1965 65-156, Standardization of conductor vibration measurements CIGRE SC22 WG04 Recommendations for the evaluation of the lifetime of transmission line conductors ELECTRA n63, 1979 n CIGRE SC22 WG11 Guide to vibration measurements on overhead lines ELECTRA n163 1995 n163, IEEE Par P1368 2006 Guide for Aeolian Vibration Field Measurements of Overhead Conductors
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Evaluation criteria of conductor vibration severity

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Evaluation it i f th ib ti E l ti criteria of the vibration severity for it f aluminium based conductors


IEEE 1966 EPRI & IEEE 2006 Criterion of the maximum allowable bending strain. Criterion of the maximum allowable bending amplitude. Criterion of the maximum allowable bending stress. Criterion of the accumulation of fatigue (lifetime calculation based on Miner hypothesis and a Universal conductor S-N Curves called Safe Border Line) Line).
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

CIGRE

Bending stress/strain safety limits


Bending stress/strain values can be derived from the measured bending amplitudes using the Poffemberger and Swartz (P&S) formula or through lab tests. The P&S formula is valid only for solid metal to metal suspension clamps without armour rods. General reference limits are available for conventional aluminium based conductors. No internationally accepted reference limits are available for other conductors and conductor /clamp combinations.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Bending stress/strain endurance limits for aluminium based conductors


IEEE (1966) Utilities Technical Specifications EPRI & IEEE 2006 Bending stress MultiMulti-layer ACSR MultiMulti-layer AAAC 8.5 MPa 5.7 Mpa 150150-200 peak to peak 150 150-300 peak to peak Bending strain 247 peak to peak 247 165 peak to peak

A bending stress/stain endurance limit can be derived from The CIGRE Safe Border Line and usually taken at 5x108 cycles. This value correspond to a bending stress of 9.09 MPa and to a bending strain of 264 peak to peak.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Bending amplitude endurance limits (EPRI)


Available for 74 ACSR conductors (0.21- 0.32mm) (0.214 steel conductors (7 strands) (0 96 -1 67 mm) (0.96 1.67 2 AAAC conductors (7 strands) (0.40 - 0.59 mm) (a general limit of 0.23mm for ACSR conductors is also provided)

The limits are valid only for conventional suspension clamps with and without armour rods.

No specific values are available for other conductors and conductor /clamp combinations. These values can be obtained through laboratory tests. tests
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Conductor lifetime estimation


Miners cumulative damage theory for elastic structures is suggested by CIGRE to evaluate the conductor lifetime. Bending stress/strain values, derived from field measurements, can be used to define the curve of the stresses accumulated by the conductor in one year of y y service.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The curve shows for each stress level the number of cycles n to be expected in one year.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The stress curve is compared with a universal S-N curve Sknown as safe border line (or with the S-N curve of the Sspecific conductor) showing for each stress level the number of cycles N that can be endured indefinitely.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The life time, in years, is then calculated as follows

1 Lifetime = i ni 1 N i
Considering the remarkable scatter in the conductor C id i th k bl tt i th d t fatigue characteristics, conductor life expectancy is considered to have only qualitative significance.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Bending amplitude

P&S or lab tests Miners rule Bending stress/strain Lifetime EPRI IEEE CIGRE limits

EPRI limits

Utility limits

Evaluation f ib ti E l ti of vibration severity it


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Inverted bending amplitude P&S or lab tests

Bending amplitude

Miners rule

Bending stress/strain Lifetime

EPRI limits

EPRI IEEE CIGRE limits

Utility limits

Evaluation f ib ti E l ti of vibration severity it


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Criteria adopted by the industry for the evaluation of vibration severity of overhead conductor

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Criteria for the C it i f th assessment of aeolian vibration severity t f li ib ti it on aluminium based conductors, resulting from the review of 80 Utility Specifications
Max bending amplitude Max bending strain 16%

58%

Lifetime

6%

No requirements
0%

20%
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Required values of maximum bending strain


60%

50%

40%

30%

51%
20%

27%
10%

18%

4%
0% 150 200 247 300

* corresponding to 8.5 MPa p g

microstrain peak to peak

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Criteria for the assessment of aeolian vibration severity on steel based shield wires, found in 15 Utility Specifications

Max bending amplitude Max bending strain Lifetime 0% No requirements


0%

13% 67%

20%
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Required values of maximum bending strain for steel based conductors (13 specs reviewed)
35% 30%

25%

20%

15%

30% 20% 10%

30%

10%

5%

10%

0% 300 400 450 600 1000

microstrain peak t peak i t i k to k


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

During the survey, it was found that, in the industry, evaluation criteria of vibration severity are frequently p y q y prescribed with no consideration of whether the relevant reference limits, available literature, a ailable in literat re are applicable or not to the specific conductor and/or conductor/clamp combination. d t / l bi ti CIGRE SC B2 and IEEE WG on Conductor Dynamics are y committed to provide the industry with detailed and comprehensive guides on this subject.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Subspan oscillation measurements

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Subspan oscillation has been studied extensively in p y wind tunnels and outdoor test laboratories but to a much lesser extent on actual transmission lines for lack of suitable instruments instruments. Recently, a subspan oscillation recorder has been made available on the market market.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The subspan oscillation recorder


consists of a displacement transducer installed between a pair of conductors h i i f d t horizontally aligned t ll li d

and connected via cable to the recorder body installed on the nearest spacer. t
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Layout of the subspan under test displacement transducer spacer subspan recorder body spacer

connecting cable
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Vibration recorders are generally installed during an outage of the line.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The installation of the recorders can be also performed on live p lines using the bare hand technique.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Conductor inspections

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Some general procedures are available that are suitable, to a limited extent, for assessing the occurrence of conductor damages produced by severe wind induced vibrations. They are: Visual inspection Thermographic inspection e og ap c spect o Radiographic inspection Electro-magneticElectro-magnetic-acoustic inspection

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Visual inspection
It is appropriate when there is a specific evidence that damages or at least severe vibrations have occurred occurred.

For example, black spots on the surface of the conductors may i di t severe vibrations. indicate ib ti
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

However, stand failures in inner layers can not be visually detected and strand failures inside clamps and or below armour rods can be overlooked unless these components are removed.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Thermographic inspection

Can be performed from the ground but can only detect joints j i t problems and not strand f il bl d t t d failures.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Thermographic inspection

Tests demonstrated that failures of up to three strands do not produce appreciable temperature variations variations.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Radiographic inspection

Can detect strand failures but it is costly complex and not completely reliable. Strand failures are sometimes overlooked.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Radiographic inspection

Can be performed on energized lines also.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Radiographic inspection

Example of strand failure detected by radiography


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Electro-magneticElectro-magnetic-acoustic inspection

Can be performed on energized lines to detect strand failures and steel strand corrosion. f il d t l t d i
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Thank you for your attention !

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06