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AIR POLLUTION

By Swathi

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1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. POLLUTION 4. TYPES OF POLLUTION 5. AIR POLLUTION AIR NATURAL CONSTITUENTS OF AIR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION OZONE INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION

6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCE

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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a detailed view of AIR pollution, its causes, effects, consequences and reduction techniques. In this presentation Pollution, types of pollution present in our day to day life are listed, the natural constituents of air which make it complete are shown with percentages. Air pollution, the major threat to the ecosystem, the sources causing air pollution, effects of air pollution such as, human health, ozone etc., are discussed in brief. Control measures which are to be followed to reduce the intensity of air pollution by several methods are presented.

INTRODUCTION: The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earths gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. One of the most important factor drawing international attention which is a dangerous threat to the ecosystem is AIR pollution. The atmosphere, which makes up the largest fraction of the biosphere, is a dynamic system that continuously absorbs a wide range of solids, liquids and gases from both natural and manmade sources. These substances travel through air, disperse and react with one another and with other substances both physically and chemically. Most of these constituents, eventually find their depository such as the ocean, or to a receptor such as man. Various amounts of contaminants continuously enter the atmosphere through both natural and manmade processes present on the earth. That portion of these substances which interacts with the environment to cause toxicity, disease , aesthetic distress, physiological effects or environmental decay, has been labeled by man as a pollutant.

POLLUTION: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harmer discomfort to the ecosystem. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. It is the addition of any harmful substances to the atmosphere, which causes the damaging of the environment, humans, other living organisms and the quality of life.

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TYPES OF POLLUTION 1. AIR POLLUTION 2. WATER POLLUTION 3. NOISE POLLUTION 4. SOIL CONTAMINATION 5. LIGHT POLLUTION 6. RADIO ACTIVE CONTAMINATION 7. THERMAL POLLUTION 8. VISUAL POLLUTION

AIR POLLUTION Air is the ocean we breathe. Fresh air is vital for life. Each day we inhale around 14,000 liters (14 m3) of air through about26, 000 breaths. Healthy people normally take in 12 to 20 breaths a minute. If the air we breathe is polluted, it can cause many types of health problems including brain and nerve damages, lung cancer, birth defects, burning of eyes, heart diseases, respiratory diseases and lot other injuries

NATURAL CONSTITUENTS OF AIR People tend to refer to air as though it consists of air molecules, which is evidence of the spatial and temporal constancy of its properties that we take for granted. Consider first the molecular components that make up unpolluted air. Air consists of number of gases that have fairly constant average proportions, both at different horizontal and vertical positions and at different times.

AIR POLLUTION: Air pollution has been with us since the first fire was lit, although different aspects have been important at different times. In urban areas, high concentrations of gases and particles from coal combustion and more recently, motor vehicles have produced severe loss of air quality and significant health effects. On a regional scale, troposphere ozone formation and acid deposition have been the major threats. Finally, emissions of carbon dioxide and other radioactively active gases together with stratospheric ozone depletion, represent planet -scale assaults on the quality of our atmospheric environment. Usually when we think about air pollution we get an idea regarding Smog, Acid

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rains, CFCs and other forms of Outdoor pollution but, the fact is air pollution can also exist inside homes and other buildings. In fact every year the health of many people is affected by chemical substances present in the air within buildings. Air pollution includes all contaminants found in the atmosphere. These dangerous substances can be either in the form of gases or particles. Air pollution can be found both outdoors and indoors. Pollutants can be trapped inside buildings, causing indoor pollution that lasts for a long time.

SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION: The sources of air pollution are both natural and human-based. As one might expect, humans have been producing increasing amounts of pollution as time has progressed, and they now account for the majority of pollutants released into the air. Air pollution has been a problem throughout history. Even in Ancient Rome people complained about smoke put into the

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atmosphere. .Air pollutants have sources that are both natural and human. Now, humans contribute substantially more to the air pollution problem. Forest fires, Volcanic eruptions, Wind erosion, Pollen dispersal, Evaporation of organic compounds, and Natural radioactivity are all among the natural causes of air pollution Usually, natural air pollution does not occur in abundance in particular locations. The pollution is spread around throughout the world, and as a result, poses little threat to the health of people and ecosystems. Though some pollution comes from these natural sources, most pollution is the result of human activity. The biggest causes are the operation of fossil fuel-burning power plants and automobiles that combust fuel. Combined, these two sources are responsible for about 90% of all air pollution. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION: The effects of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution can have serious consequences for the health of human beings, and also severely affects natural ecosystems. Because it is located in the atmosphere, air pollution is able to travel easily. As a result, air pollution is global problem and has been the subject of global cooperation and conflict. Some areas now suffer more than others from air pollution. Cities with large numbers of automobiles or those that use great quantities of coal often suffer most severely from problems of air pollution. Some cities suffer severely because of heavy industrial use of chemicals that cause air pollution.

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Many different chemicals in the air affect the human body in negative ways. Just how sick people will get depends on what chemicals they are exposed to, in what concentrations, and for how long. Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US alone could be over 50,000.Older people are highly vulnerable to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk . Because people are exposed to so many potentially dangerous pollutants, it is often hard to know exactly which pollutants are responsible for causing sickness. Also, because a mixture of different pollutants can intensify sickness, it is often difficult to isolate those pollutants that are at fault. Many diseases could be caused by air pollution without their becoming apparent for a long time. Diseases such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and heart disease may all eventually appear in people exposed to air pollution. Air pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide also have harmful effects on natural ecosystems. They can kill plants and trees by destroying their leaves, and can kill animals, especially fishing highly polluted rivers.

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Acid rain is a broad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphere. Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and damages water bodies, trees and other plants, and many sensitive forest soils. Acid rain also accelerates the decay of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues and sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage Carbon monoxide enters the bloodstream through the lungs and forms a compound that inhibits the blood's capacity to carry oxygen to organs and tissues. People with heart disease are especially sensitive to carbon monoxide poisoning and may experience chest pain if they breathe the gas while exercising. Infants, the elderly, and people with respiratory diseases are also particularly sensitive. Air toxics are air pollutants that cause adverse health effects. Motor vehicles emit several pollutants that EPA classifies as known or probable human carcinogens People exposed to high levels of toxic air pollutants may increase their risk of getting cancer or experiencing other serious health effects. Ground-level ozone is a colorless gas that can be found in the air we breathe. Human sources of ground-level ozone include: 1) automobiles, trucks and buses 2) gasoline storage and transfer 3) large combustion and industry sources such as utilities 4) industrial use of solvents and degreasing agents 5) consumer products such as paints and cleaners and

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6) Off-road engines such as aircraft, locomotives, boats, construction equipment and lawn and garden equipment. Ground-level ozone is a component of smog and a harmful pollutant. OZONE: Ozone (o3) is formed by the dissociation of molecular oxygen (o2) and the combining of atomic oxygen (o) with molecular oxygen. UV radiation provides the energy for this dissociation. O + O2 >>o3 Ozone layer is found at an altitude 30 km or 20 miles. It is a warm, broad band of gas that extends through nearly all the stratosphere. The ozone layer acts as a shield from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun by absorbing most of the short wavelengths of the radiation. The ozone in the ozone layer is being broken down by chlorine atoms from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) molecules and bromine atoms from halons. CFCs and halons are produced by humans used in many applications such as refrigerants, anesthetics, aerosols, fire-fighting equipment and the manufacture of materials such as Styrofoam. They were thought to be completely safe, chemically inert, and environmentally neutral. However it was soon found that they were not so ideal when they reached the upper atmosphere. Results of ozone depletion are increases in skin cancer, damage to plants, and reduction of plankton populations may result from the increased UV exposure due to ozone depletion.

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Ozone hole watch from NASAs Aura satellite.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND AIR POLLUTION: On 3rd of December in 1984, a Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released 43 tones of methylisocyanate (MIC) gas from overheated holding tank into the local area in Bhopal, India, killing more than2, 500 people and hospitalizing tens of thousands. Majority of the deaths caused due to pulmonary edema -respiratory failure due to swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs that prevents exchange of gases (absorbing oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide).Methyl isocyanate (C2H3NO) is a colorless organic compound with sharp odor that is used as a chemical intermediate for the production of carbonate pesticides and is extremely toxic to the environment upon exposure. Being heavier than air, the gas rolled along the ground and diffused among residential areas in the early winter morning in Bhopal and caused the fatality.

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A picture from Bhopal Gas tragedy in 1984.

CONTROL MEASURES OF AIR POLLUTION: Air pollution has many disastrous effects that need to be curbed. In order to accomplish this, governments, scientists and environmentalists are using or testing a variety of methods aimed at reducing pollution. There are two main types of pollution control. Input control Output control Input control involves preventing a problem before it occurs, or at least limiting the effects the process will produce Five major input control methods exist. People may try to restrict population growth, use less energy, improve energy efficiency, reduce waste, and move to non-polluting renewable forms of energy production. Also, automobile-produced pollution can be decreased with highly beneficial results. Output control, the opposite method, seeks to fix the problems caused by air pollution. This usually means cleaning up an area that has been damaged by pollution. Input controls are usually more effective than output controls. Output controls are also more expensive, making them less desirable to tax payers and polluting industries. Current air pollution control efforts are not all highly effective. In wealthier countries, industries are often able to shift to methods that decrease air pollution. In the United States, for example, air pollution Control laws have been successful in stopping air pollution levels from rising. However, in developing countries and even in countries where pollution is strictly regulated, much more needs to be done. Control of air pollution by equipment is done basically by the four means

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available for the control of effluent discharges into the atmosphere and thereby control of their detrimental effects. They are: 1. Reduction of pollutant discharge at the source by the application of the control equipment. 2. Reduction at the source through raw material changes, operational changes, or modification, or replacement of process equipment. 3. Dilution of the source discharge by the use of all tall stacks. 4. Dispersion of source locations through allocation of land usage, i.e., proper planning and zoning of industrial areas. 1. WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.

2. NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise may be from the Latin word nauseas, which means disgust or discomfort. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise, and rail noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-byside industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.

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3. SOIL CONTAMINATION Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the failure caused by corrosion of underground storage tanks (including piping used to transmit the contents), application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, disposal of coal ash, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, lead, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo (a) pyrene), solvents, pesticides, and other heavy metals. This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage.

4. LIGHT POLLUTION Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution, is excessive or obtrusive artificial light. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Adverse consequences are multiple; some of them may be not known yet.

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5. RADIO ACTIVE CONTAMINATION Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable, or the process giving rise to their presence in such places.Also used less formally to refer to a quantity, namely the activity on a surface (or on a unit area of a surface). As with other contamination, radioactive contamination refers only to the presence of the unintended or undesired radioactivity, and gives no indication of the magnitude of hazard involved.

6. THERMAL POLLUTION Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply, and affects ecosystem composition. Urban runoffstorm water discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lotscan also is a source of elevated water temperatures.

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7. VISUAL POLLUTION Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive and man-made visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person does not feel comfortable looking at. Visual pollution is an aesthetic issue, referring to the impacts of pollution that impair one's ability to enjoy a vista or view. The term is used broadly to cover visibility, limits on the ability to view distant objects, as well as the more subjective issue of visual clutter. In other words, pollution is contamination of the environment as a result of human activities. The term pollutionrefers primarily to the fouling of air, water, and land by wastes (see air pollution; water pollution; solid waste). In recent years it has come to signify a wider range of disruptions to environmental quality. Thus litter, billboards, and auto junkyards are said to constitute visual pollution; noise excessive enough to cause psychological or physical damage is considered noise pollution; and waste heat that alters local climate or affects fish populations in rivers is designated thermal pollution. Its other reference is to "marketing advertisements".

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CONCLUSION: Thus, AIR pollution a serious threat to the future generations must be brought to the minimum level. The various control measures like Input control, Output control which are explained previously should be followed. Other control options by equipment and the measures adopted by the developed countries which keep the pollution levels at the minimum rate are to be followed by the countries having a serious threat of AIR pollution. People also should be well educated regarding the pollution reduction methods; Industries should be given strict orders to reduce the pollution levels. The use of renewable sources rather than the non- renewable sources should be adopted at the maximum levels to keep the environment safe and also to reduce the pollution, which also helps the future generations to use renewable sources REFERENCE: 1. Wkipedia 2. http://www.worldscibooks.com 3. http://scienceprep.org 4. http://www.lbl.gov 5. Clays library of health and the environment- Air pollution by Jeremy colls. 6. Air pollution by M.N. Rao and H.V.N.rao