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Argumentative Cause and Effect 1. Read the article and A: circle the transitions B: underline the thesis statement C: underline the topic sentences in each paragraph. 2. Which two words show two different ideas are discussed in the introductory paragraph? 3. "Moreover, she will complain about her case sooner or later as a result of getting no help from the rest members of the family." Where can you insert this sentence in body paragraph?"


ermaine Greer, the Australian feminist, said, Most women still need a room of their own and the only way to find it may be outside their own homes. If it is true, can it be done without having a negative effect on the family? Nowadays, more and more women work outside the home, which affects many people positively or negatively. One point in favor of mothers working is that their children often learn to be independent from an early age, which can only help them in the future. Also, in many families, the mans salary alone is not enough to cover all household expenses. Thus, the need for extra income arises, and the woman has to work. Moreover, working outside the home gives a woman a sense of her own personal identity and selfconfidence. A woman who stays at home will always be known as Johns wife and not as a person in her own right. On the other hand, child care is expensive. Therefore, a large proportion of the money a working mother earns will be sent on childcare. What is more, if both parents are out working all day, they only see their children for a few hours in the evening. This can have a negative effect, as children may start to see their parents as strangers. Finally, a working mother usually has to look after both the children and home in her spare time, so she is actually doing two jobs instead of one, which can be very tiring. She may also miss out on important events in her childrens lives, such as their first words. To sum up, there are many arguments both for and against mothers working. Every family is different and what is good for one family may not necessarily be good for another. Taking everything into account, it should be left to the individual mother to decide whether working or not is something that she wants to do.

Argumentative - Solution Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. Read the conclusion carefully and complete the introductory paragraph. 2. How many controlling ideas are mentioned in the essay? 3. Can you give more examples about juvenile crime like in New York? 4. There is a sentence which doesn't match the related paragraph, find and underline it.


Juvenile crime is a sign that there is something wrong with society. __________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ Juvenile crime is not new, but the crimes committed by young people today are far more common and serious than they were in the past. In a city such as New York, for example, it would not be considered extraordinary if someone were held up at gunpoint by a twelve-year-old or assaulted* by a gang of teenagers. To stop those crimes young people should be well educated and guided properly. The problem of juvenile crime can only be solved by removing those factors that cause it. Governments need to spend more on welfare* benefits, but, more importantly, they need to create employment so both parents and children feel that they are part of society and can contribute* towards it and benefit from it. Improvements in education are vital as well, so that children from even the most disadvantaged homes have a base and can be given encouragement and the opportunity to succeed in life. Governments can do little to stop the decline in the traditional family, but improved social conditions might allow more families to stay together. Before one can suggest a solution, it is necessary to analyze the problem and to see what has caused the explosion in juvenile crime. There are three main causes. Firstly, the social environment in which many young people find themselves in the inner cities plays a major role. Poverty and unemployment can create a sense of alienation*, and a child who thinks that he has no hope of achieving the wealth and happiness that other people have will often become frustrated and violent. Secondly, an inadequate education system may also be partly to blame. If a child feels he is not valued and is a failure, he will be prone to boredom and open to bad influences. Finally, the decline of the nuclear family and of traditional moral values may also play a role, and a child who grows up without the support of caring, loving parents may not develop a sense of responsibility or consideration for others. alienation: unfriendliness, separation assault: physical attack commit: do, carry out contribute: play a role, be part of the cause deterioration: decline, fall explosion: sudden increase inherently: naturally juvenile: young welfare: money given by the government to help poor people

EDUCATION Argumentative - Problem Solution



it seems to be universally accepted that increased education is a good thing.

Thousands of colleges and millions of students spend vast amounts of time and money chasing pieces of paper. But what is the value of these qualifications? This essay will discuss whether education has been devalued.

Supporters of education (usually teachers or educators, or those who have an interest in stopping people thinking for themselves) say that increased levels of education will open doors for students. Certificates, diplomas, and degrees are held up as a status symbol, a passport to a private club of money and power.

However, the truly powerful are not those who have taken degrees, but people who have stood back and looked at what is really important in life. They have seen opportunity and followed dreams. These people are found in every part of society. Like many brilliant people, Einstein was a weak student at math. Like many successful businessmen, Bill Gates never completed college. Like many inventive and creative people, Edison never went to school. The greatest religious teachers do not have letters after their name, but have looked into their hearts for meaning. Similarly, the worlds political leaders do not have masters degrees or doctorates. These are the people who shaped our century, and they are too busy with real life to spend time in the paper chase.

Students in college are being sold an illusion. They are made to believe that self-understanding and society approval will come with the acquisition of a piece of paper. Instead of thinking for themselves, and finding their own personality and strengths, they are fitted like square pegs into round holes.

The role of education is to prepare masses of people to operate at low levels of ability in a very limited and restricted range of activities. Some of these activities are more challenging than perhaps the assembly lines of the past, but still the ultimate purpose is equally uninteresting. More worryingly, despite the increased level of education, people are still not genuinely expected to think for themselves. In fact, the longer years of schooling make the job of brainwashing even easier. There is still a role for study, research, and education. However, we need to examine our emphasis on education for the sake of a piece of paper, and to learn the real meaning and revolutionary challenge of knowledge.

1. Summarize the writers reasons of agreement or disagreement of the following essay.

First, (agrees disagrees) because _ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __ ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ Second, (agrees disagrees) because _ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ Third, (agrees disagrees) because _ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _________ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ __ _ _ _ _ _ _

2. What is being done for the sake of a piece of paper? What should be done according to writer? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

READING Argumentative - Cause Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. Reread the introduction paragraph and complete the conclusion.
2. Which one is the most important reason to make pleasure reading? Do you have your own reason to make pleasure reading?


In past years, the use of the television and the internet has increased. This situation has
caused many people to change their lives and the way they enjoy their free time. Because of television and internet, many people spend less time reading, so the purpose for this essay is to present reasons why people should read just for pleasure. The reasons that I give you are quite simple: to improve your knowledge and to expand your general culture, to have more fun and to make your imagination fly, and finally, to expand your vocabulary and find new ways to express your ideas.

The first reason I will give to enjoy reading is that when you read, you can expand your knowledge and also your culture. There are a lot of types of books such as history, novels, tragedies, comedies and a variety of other themes. You can see that people who read more often frequently have a broader knowledge of life and also a bigger perspective of their environment. I think that gives them an advantage over others who do not read frequently.

The second reason to read more often is that through books, you can have fun and even travel in your imagination. Children have not yet lost the ability of getting into their dreams, and because of this, during their first years the parents read a lot of tales in which they use their imagination. Adults should try to keep this ability so we do not forget the importance of using our imaginations. The imagination also represents a tool that could help you to develop your professional career in a creative way.

Finally, the third and the most important feature that reading offers you is that it does not matter what age you are, you can always expand your vocabulary and ways of expressing your ideas to the others in a simple and correct form. In time, you can improve the kind of books that you read. There are a lot of categories, so you will never stop learning from the pleasure of reading. People who know how to choose a book generally have the capability of choosing a formal book in which they can find formal grammatical structures and obviously a formal vocabulary. All these things allow them to gain greater fluency in their communication.

In conclusion, I recommend that you enjoy reading more often; there are excellent reasons for doing it. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

Argumentative - Problem Solution Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. Put the body paragraphs and the conclusion paragraph in order. 2. What is the predictor of the introductory paragraph?


Have you ever received a problem-solution essay assignment where you could not think of
anything to write? Although many of the forty million students in America go through this at one time or another, dont despair! There are several systematic ways to find a writing topic. Some topics take no research at all. Lets look at a few of them.

______ Both previous solutions may in some cases fail. If so, writing about not knowing what to write and how to solve that may lead to the best alternative. It may look as if the assignment was quickly jotted down due to the fact that there is no research to do, but if it is well written it can turn out to be a very good essay. When specific information is needed there are many things that could be

doctored to suit the needs of the article. As Garrett Hardin said, "There is no moral obligation to conserve the particulars."

______ Another solution might be to write in regard to your own past experiences that have involved problems and solutions. They may be problems you have had with your parents or siblings. A problem could be that you could not decide on something and had to make a tough decision. Writing about a decision that you made about clothes will suffice. But in someone elses view, the problem may seem insignificant.

______ A newspaper article may be the easiest place to find problems. It will provide details and information quickly. When writing about your own experiences, you will have all the details that you can remember. On the other hand, writing about not knowing what to write can be quite effortless. The easiest thing to think of is thinking itself.

______ First, the local newspaper may contain some interesting articles. The newspaper can be used as a utility in the writing process. Problems will present themselves in many newspaper articles. Articles will most likely contain many facts and quotations about a certain problem, making the subject easily researchable in a short time. People must be careful, though, when using the newspaper. Many other people may use it as a source and you may find yourself writing about the same thing as someone else in your class.

Argumentative - Problem Solution Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. What are the topic sentences of each body paragraph? 2. Put the sentence in order in conclusion paragraph?


In my opinion, there are many qualities of good parents. The qualities may vary from society
to society. However, I do believe that there are two general qualities of good parents in all societies. Good parents should have enough time for their children and understand their childrens needs.

Firstly, I strongly believe that time from the parents is the most important thing that children need. Good parents should be with the children whenever the children need them. Some parents think that if they give a lot of money to their children, they do not have to do other things for them. This is totally incorrect. Children do not need much money, but they need parents who can support them when they get in trouble, help them when they need advice, and talk to them when they want to share their ideas or when they feel lonely.

In addition, I think that good parents have to understand their children. They should not force their children to do what they want. Good parents should stay behind the children and give them advice. However, parents have to allow them to make decisions by themselves. Parents who study in scientific field tend to force their children to study in the same field. Good parents do not do that, but they listen to their children instead. They let their children select the field in which they are interested. They also let their children learn to make decisions by themselves.

___ I think that it would be very good if all parents could have these two qualities. ___ In conclusion, there are many qualities that good parents should have. ___ However, I personally think that the qualities Ive stated above are basic qualities that good parents have to have.

Argumentative Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. What are the supporting sentences in each body paragraph? 2. Read the introduction and conclusion paragraph once more, write your own conclusion.


University is a place that students can go in order to gain knowledge and experience. Of
course, different people have different reasons to study in university. For example, some people want to study further after they graduate from university, some people hope to find a good job, and others wish to change their present situations. In my opinion, no matter what reason people study at university, studying at university is just preparation for their future lives.

First of all, students can gain new knowledge and experience from studying at university. There are many teachers and professors with abundant* teaching experience who teach students lots of new knowledge and help them to solve problems in their studies. With their help, students can learn a

lot of useful basic and professional knowledge, which is very helpful for their future work and study. After they graduate, students go work in society and contribute to different fields.

Secondly, students can learn how to organize their own time reasonably. Before studying in university, their life was often arranged by their parents and their study was often arranged by their teachers. It is very different for them to live and study in university because students studying in university have to arrange their lives and study by themselves. They have to arrange their time, such as when to get up, when to exercise, and when to finish assignments. This is very important experience for students work and life in the future.

Thirdly, studying at university gives students the opportunity to live with other students and learn how to cooperate with other people. People are usually, uncomfortable living with strangers, because they do not know each other and perhaps their habits and personalities are different. But in the long run, it is good for them. They have to cooperate with each other and solve a lot of problems they will face together. Gradually, they can learn how to care about and understand other people. It is preparation for students to go to cooperate with other people in society. All in all, students not only can learn lots of new knowledge from books, but they also can learn a lot of necessary experience such as how to arrange time and how to cooperate with other people, which is very important for their future work and life. ____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ abundant: plentiful, rich gradually: step by step, regularly university: college (college: N. American English)

Argumentative - Problem Solution Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. Which examples are given after each predictor? 2. Which given choice can be more demanding in order to persuade a student to stay at school?


Today, a large number of students drop out of schools because of family, social and work
pressures. This problem requires serious action from both individuals and the government.

Most students who drop out of school do so because of family problems. Girls, especially, want to get married and start a family. Some parents are not interested in education and do not support their children in studying. Social problems are also a contributing factor. Education is compulsory but, despite this, some people do not take it seriously. Furthermore, jobs are available even if students do not have a good education. The third reason is work pressure. Some families are poor and need their children to work in order to increase their income. All these problems will create young people who do not have any skills and who will not be able to improve their lives for the family and the country.

There are several things that can be done about these problems. Parents should be encouraged to send their children to school. Schools with child care facilities should be opened specially for married students. The government needs to stress the importance of education and even offer financial support to students to continue. This will encourage students to stay at school rather than start working.

In conclusion, there are several things that the government can do to allow more people to finish school. However, a number of societys attitudes also have to change if the countrys young people are to achieve their full potential.

Argumentative Problem solution Answer the question according to the following essay. Can you add one more reason of water shortage in one paragraph and its solution in other paragraph?


We need water to live. When there is a water shortage, there is a serious problem. This
problem is now facing many countries in the world. This essay will analyze some of the reasons of water shortage, and suggests some solutions to the problem.

The first reason for this problem is the growing population in the region. This means there are more demands on the water supply. For example, more land is used to grow food and so more water is needed for irrigation. Some of this water comes from desalinization plants, but some comes from underground reserves. These resources are difficult to replace, as little rain falls in this region. An additional problem is water pollution. With increased industrialization comes the increased use of chemicals. Another reason for water shortage is that as countries become richer, people use more and more water in their homes. For instance, people like to take a shower every day.

One solution is to make more water available. This can be done by building more desalinization plants. However, this is very expensive and some countries cannot afford to do this.

Another possibility is to educate people so they do not waste water. A further solution is to protect existing water supplies like underground supplies and take steps to prevent them from becoming polluted. Also, recycled water could be used for irrigating farms.

These are some ideas to help solve the problem. Saying that, it is essential that everyone must become involved, including governments, if a lasting solution is going to be found. Otherwise, the problem could become a disaster. ____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

Argumentative - Problem Solution Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. Complete the sentences with the following transitions. Pay attention to the capital and lower case letters.
although - in addition moreover - for example - obviously

2. If you have enough money to purchase either a house or a business, what will you decide to buy? Write an introduction paragraph.


If I had enough money to purchase either a house or a business, I would choose to buy a
house for the following reasons. It is a far safer investment; having my own place to live is more important than having my own business, and while starting my business can wait, raising a family cannot. To begin with, I would prefer to buy a house for the simple reason that it is a safer investment by far. For example, the only way I can lose a house is by failing to make my monthly payments. Furthermore, running a business is much harder than just having to make monthly payments, because a person is more likely to lose money by starting a business than by buying a house. For instance, one of my mothers brothers failed to sustain his business during the Asian Financial Crisis, and now, he is stranded in awful circumstances. (1)______________, having my own place to live is more important than having my own business (2)_______________, my family is considered one of an extended family. We currently have ten people living under the same roof. (3)_____________ there are enough rooms to fit all of us in the same house now, there will soon be a problem since my brother is going to have a baby (4)______________, I cannot imagine how serious

the situation will be if I get married (5)_____________, a house is the number one item on my shopping list.

Finally, while starting my own business can wait, raising my family cannot. For example, if I invest in a business right now, I may have to wait for a few years, maybe more, before I begin to see profits on my investment; On the other hand, because I have to spend all my money maintaining my company, I will be in no position to purchase a house. Without having my own house, my girlfriend will definitely not want to marry me, and then having a family is just a dream.

In summary, a house is a far safer investment. Moreover, it is too crowded for my entire family to live under the same roof. Finally, I can wait for another chance to have my own business, but raising a family is a high priority since I am getting older. For these reasons, if I have enough money to purchase either a house or a business, I will decide to buy a house.

(Introduction paragraph)_____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Argumentative - Problem Solution Answer the questions according to the following essay. 1. What is writer's idea about the topic? How many logical reasons does writer give to support his idea? 2. Do you agree with writer? Write your own body paragraph to support your idea.


Many crimes and social problems are caused by children. Despite the damage these teenage
criminals cause, parents are not held responsible in most countries. This essay will discuss whether parents should be forced to pay for their children's crimes.

There are many reasons why parents should not be responsible for crimes committed by teenage children. First of all, teenagers today are independent. They often move out of the parent's house at 18 years of age or younger. They are expected to learn to take care of themselves and make their own decisions, and not stay like small children attached to their parents. Secondly, parents are working. They cannot watch their adolescent children all the time. A third point is that even children from good families can sometimes commit crimes. Parents should not be responsible if they have worked hard to raise their children properly.

However, because of the many problems young troublemakers cause, I feel we should make parents responsible. Firstly, most juvenile crimes are committed by adolescents whose parents do not care or make any effort to control their children. If parents had to pay fines, they might make more effort. Another point is that even though the children may seem mature, they are not really able to make good decisions. Parents should be responsible for raising and teaching their children until they are fully grown. Furthermore, if children know that their parents will have to pay, they will think carefully before doing getting into trouble

In summary, there are good reasons both for and against making parents pay for acts committed by their children. However, I feel strongly that if we want to reduce the number of such crimes, we need to make parents take more responsibility.

(Body paragraph)__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________