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1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Introduction
The MSF process is innovative where vapor formation takes place within the bulk liquid instead of the surface of hot tubes.

Water Desalination Multi-Stage Flash (MSF)


Introduction Principle of MSF MSF Classification Stage Configuration: Cross / Long tube

In other thermal processes, submerged tubes of heating steam are used to perform evaporation. This always resulted in scale formation on the tubes less heat transfer & costly scale inhibition or removal.

Once Through MSF


Brine recirculation MSF Energy Balances
Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 1 Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 2

Chemical Engineering Dep.

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Principle of MSF

Principle of MSF

Weirs
When saturated brine enters through slot at lower pressure stage. It senses the new lower pressure environment, and Flashes!

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Principle of MSF

Principle of MSF

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Principle of MSF - energy


from the energy flow diagram, the great part of the heat input to the MSF system is returned back to the sea with the seawater drain stream

Development in MSF

Plant operation has improved with


More efficient antiscalent Better corrosion control chemicals Construction material capable of standing harsh conditions

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Development in MSF
Increase in the unit capacity from 454.4 m3/d to a current capacity of 32731 m3/d. The largest unit was commissioned in Al-Taweela with a capacity of 57,734 m3/d. Each capacity doubling is associated with 24% reduction in unit product cost. Decreasing the specific power consumption cost from 7-25 kW/m3 in 1955 to 4-10 kW/m3

Pretreatment

Treatment of the intake seawater is limited to screening and filtration Treatment of the feed seawater includes:
Dearation Addition of antiscalent Addition of foaming inhibitors

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

10

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

MSF Flashing stage


Demister

Tube Bundle

MSF Flashing stage

Air Buffle Vent Line

Distillate duct Outlet Distillate

Inlet Distillate

Distillate Tray

Outlet Brine Flashed off Vapor


Chemical Engineering Dep.

Inlet Brine Brine Pool


Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

Submerged Orifice
King Saud University 11 Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 12

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

MSF Flashing stage


Demister Tube Bundle

MSF Flashing stage

Vent line Distillate Duct

Air Baffle

Outlet Distillate

Inlet Distillate Distillate Tray

Outlet Brine Brine Pool Orifice Weir


Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

Inlet Brine

King Saud University

13

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

14

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Single Stage Flash Desalination


Cooling Seawater M cw = 103.9 kg/s Xf = 42000 ppm T1 = 35 OC

Single Stage Flash Desalination

Intake Seawater M f+M cw= 115.44 kg/s Xf= 42000 ppm Tcw= 30 oC Distillate Product M d = 1 kg/s

Heating Steam M s = 1.18 kg/s Ts = 100 oC

Feed Seawater M f = 11.54 kg/s Xf = 42000 ppm To = 90 oC


Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

Reject Brine M b = 10.54 kg/s Xb = 45984.8 ppm Tb = 40 oC

King Saud University

15

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

16

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Assumptions
Distillate product is salt free Cp is the same for all streams and equal 4.18 kJ/kg
oC

Temperature profile
Brine Heater Ts Flashing Stage TTDh To Top Brine Temperature To T1 TTDc T1 DTst Feed Preheater

U is the same for preheater and brine heater and equal 2 kW/m2. oC Subcooling of condensate or superheating of the heating steam has negligible effect on the energy balance The heat loss is negligible Power consumption is not considered.

Tv

Tb DTloss

Tcw

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

17

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

18

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Advantages of Single Stage

Drawbacks of single stage


PR is always less than 1.0 The flow rate of the feed seawater is much larger than the distillate produced ( about ten times) which means a large amount of additives and chemicals needed for feed treatment The flow rate of cooling water is very high which increases the pumping power consumption

The salinity of the rejected brine is much smaller than maximum allowable The heat transfer area for the brine heater and preheater is small due to the large temperature driving force. The specific heat transfer area in the brine heater is inversely proportional to the performance ratio.

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

19

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

20

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

MSF Process Classification

MSF Process Classification

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

21

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

22

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

MSF Flow Configuration

Cross-Tube Configuration

Partiti on Walls

Cond enser Tubes Distilla te Brine

Demi ster

Condenser Tubes Demister Tube Sheet

Side Walls
Brine Side Walls

Cross-tube MSF distiller

Long-tube MSF
Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

Cross-tube MSF
King Saud University 23 Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 24

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Cross-Tube Configuration

Cross-Tube Configuration

Partition Walls

Condenser Tubes

Demister

Tube Sheet

Brine Side Walls

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

25

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

26

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Cross-Tube Configuration

Cross-Tube Configuration

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

27

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

28

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Cross-Tube Internal Layout

Long-Tube Configuration

Long-tube MSF distiller

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

29

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

30

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Long-Tube Configuration

Long-Tube Configuration

Demister Condenser Tubes

Distillate Side Walls

Brine

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

31

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

32

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Long-Tube Configuration

Long-Tube Configuration

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

33

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

34

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Long-Tube Internal Layout

Comparison between Cross Tube and Long Tube MSF Plant Parameters

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

35

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

36

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Multi-stage MSF
There are 2 types of Multi-stage MSF Once Through (OT) MSF Brine recalculated (recycled)

Objective of Multi-stage MSF

To overcome the main drawbacks of the single flash units To improve the system performance ratio This is achieved by adding more flash units and reducing the temperature drop per stage

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

37

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

38

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

System Components

Once Through MSF

N number of stages : all of the stages are identical Brine heater No recycle of any portion of brine Does not contain cooling water stream: because the brine rejected with low temperature and large flow rate contains the energy to be removed from the system.

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

39

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

40

10

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Once Through MSF

Once Through MSF

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

41

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

42

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Once Through MSF

Once Through MSF

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

43

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

44

11

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Process description
The intake seawater at Tcw flow through the preheater of stage n to 1. When it leaves stage 1 its temperature increases to t1. The seawater leaving the condenser enters the brine heater, where its temperature rises from t1 to To The heated brine flashes off as it flows through the successive stages where its temperature decreases from To to Tn

Process description cont.

Simultaneously, flashing vapor condenses around the condenser tubes in each stage where it heats the the seawater flowing through the tubes. The collected distillate leaves from stage n. The brine leaving the last stage is rejected to the sea.

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

45

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

46

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Advantages vs. Disadvantages


Drastic increase in performance ratio Does not use cooling water for removing excess heat added in the brine heater. Operation at low salinity of both feed and flashed brine High flow rate of intake seawater High total condenser surface area

Brine recirculation (BR) MSF

Heat input Section

Heat Recovery Section

Heat Rejection Section

Cooling Seawater Mcw Condenser Tubes Water Boxes Distillate Trays Demister

Cooling Seawater Recycle Winter Temperature Control Intake Seawater Mf +Mcw

Heating Steam Ms 1 2 3 1 9 20 21 2 2 2 3 24

Distillate Product Md

Condensate

Feed Brine

Brine Pool Brine Recycle Mr Feed Seawater Mf Brine Blow-down Mb

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

47

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

48

12

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Brine recirculation (BR) MSF


It is considered the industry standard The process consists of three section
The heat recovery sections The heat rejection section (2-3 stages) The brine heater

Brine recirculation (BR) MSF


The heat rejection section is used to remove the excess heat added to the system in the brine heater It is used to control the temperature of the of the recycled brine This is achieved through recovery of a controlled amount of energy from the flashing brine into the brine recycle and rejection of the remaining energy into the cooling water stream

The system is driven by the heating steam which increases the temperature of the brine recycle or feed seawater to the desired value in the brine heater

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

49

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

50

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Advantage of brine recirculating MSF


Experience in design and operation of MSF has led to use of inexpensive construction material capable of standing harsh conditions at high salinity The MSF systems does not include moving parts other than pumps. Construction is simple and contains a small number of tubes which limits leakage problems and simplify maintenance work

Description
The hot brine flashes in the consecutive stages, where the brine recycle flow inside the condenser tubes recover the latent heat of the formed vapor. In the heat rejection section of brine circulation system, the excess heat added to the system by the hating steam is rejected to the environment by the cooling seawater stream

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

51

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

52

13

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Brine recirculation (BR) MSF

Process Description
The cooling water is introduced in the last stage of the heat recovery section. The cooling water leaving the first stage of the heat rejection section is divided into two parts
Cooling water to the sea Feed water to the dearator to remove O2

The feed is mixed with a portion of the brine from the last stage of the heat recovery section.

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

53

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

54

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Process Description cont.


The brine recirculation pump pumps the water through the condenser/preheater tubes of the last stage of the heat recovery section Leaving the condenser in the first stage, the feed is introduced into the brine heater (steam-heated), where the temperature rises to the top brine temperature Flashing occurs in each stage and a small amount of water is generated and is cascaded through the stages

Process Description cont.


Vapor formation results because of the reduction of brine saturation temperature
The stage temperature changes from the hot to cold The brine flows across the stages without the aid of pumping power (from high to low P).

The flashed-off vapor is condensed on the preheater tubes

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

55

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

56

14

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Process Description cont.


From the last stages
Part of brine is rejected to the sea Another part is recycled

Brine recirculation (BR) MSF

The rejection of the brine is necessary to control the salt concentration in the plant

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

57

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

58

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Brine recirculation (BR) MSF

Stream flow rate, salinity, and temperature

Brine recirculation (BR) MSF

Material balances on the heat rejection section

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

59

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

60

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1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Temperature Profile

Energy Balances

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

61

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

62

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Energy Balances

Energy Balances

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

63

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

64

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1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Energy Balances

Modelling a Flashing Stage

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

65

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

66

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Modelling a Brine Heater

Interface with Rest of the Plant: Layout

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

67

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

68

17

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Interface with Rest of the Plant: Layout

Interface with Rest of the Plant: Layout

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

69

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

70

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Multi Stage Flash

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

71

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

72

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1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

73

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

74

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

75

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

76

19

1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

General view of low side flash chamber


Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 77 Chemical Engineering Dep.

General view of low side flash chamber


Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 78

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

General view of Cu-Ni 70-30 alloy heat transfer tubes in heat recovery section of Al-Kkafji MSF plant
Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 79 Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 80

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1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Al-Taweelah Az Power & Desalination Plant

Operational experience show desalination plants operating after 15 years successfully improved material selection suggests that the design life can be extended to 40 years operation
Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 81 Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 82

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Umm Al Nar Desalination Station B Plant

Shoaiba Desalination Plant, Saudi Arabia


Chemical 7 Section Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 83 Chemical Engineering Dep. Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz King Saud University 84

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1/10/2011

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

ChE-413: Desalination and Water treatment

Shoaiba Desalination Plant, Saudi Arabia Process type: Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) Estimated project cost: $1.06 billion Population served: 1.5 million Product water output: 74,000m/day (Phase 1); 450,000m/day (Phase 2) Final total production capacity: 150 million m/year Project Timeline: Construction started: 1997 Phase 1 completed: August 2000, Phase 2 completed: March 2003

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

85

Chemical Engineering Dep.

Prof. Ibrahim S. Al-Mutaz

King Saud University

86

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