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Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study: In our country, due importance is not given to Slow learners, and it has received regular attention, and the situation is considered to be the result of childs mischief and stubbornness.Thus attributing it to the childrens foolishness and lack of commonsense, parents and teachers show negative attitude, which result is a dark future for children. The term slow learners is generally regarded in a derogatory [insulting] sense, because he fails to learn, in an academic setting, what teachers feel he should learn but he is very adopt at covering up a things of that nature for e.g. Home situation. Due to many medical problems, there are many children in a society who have below average intellectual level. The cognition level of these children in usually very poor and it is reflected in the daily living from the early childhood usually these children shows the delayed milestones. Although the other sensory areas if these children are some what below normal usually because of low perception but these areas are not really abnormal. Sometime these children cannot interact normally and their age group children. These social problems indicate the abnormal social and behavioral patterns in these children and because of all these problems they are considered to be incapable of getting admission in normal schools [e.g. expression less face, weak expressing power, unable to take initiative, weak deceive power etc] Most teachers have had experience of slow learners at some time or another and the new teachers are warned before they begin of the terrible problems that they will encounter with slow learner. This group of pupils, rarely seen as individuals, but lumped together in uncomplimentary terms are though some particular breed, are of course individuals. They are individuals who need even greater care and understanding than most. They should not be thought of or treated as third class citizens to be tolerated and occupied, or even worse, to be held in check and tightly controlled. The only things they have in common is that by the time they reach secondary school they are all seen by themselves, by their parents, by teachers, and by other students as failure. The cause of their failure may reason, an apparent or non apparent physical handicap, a congenital defect, a disruptive and stressful home situation; material or emotional deprivation; a serious conflict with school or a teacher early in their school career; or intellectual lethargy. Whatever the cause, the slow learners have become accustomed to failure. Indeed the expects to fail. So the large percentage of such children are admitted in the M.R schools without assessing the real [actual] problems. Because of improper assessment and lack of knowledge of

teachers and management these children are managed as mild mentally retarded and accordingly treated with the techniques for mild mentally retarded. Children with learning difficulties often have a multitude of problems that spanman face of their lives, including academic, social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects.

On the basis of their condition the present research has been designed to investigate Problem faced by children with slow learner in learning academic skills.

1.2 Statement of the Problem: The Present study has been designed to indicate Problem faced by children with slow learner in learning academic skills. The major issues are following are; Problem faced in educational settings. Major problems associated with slow learners. Teaching Strategies for slow learners. Other difficulties areas etc.

1.3 Scope of the Study: The present study will be helpful in different aspects. First of all it will be directly be effected the student with disabilities regarding slow learners. When students will be identified they will be trained to utilize their skills or potentials. Teachers will be able to know childs strength and weakness or actual performance and will be consulting to related teacher or educators. All these facts will be ultimately beneficial for the society, community, children and their parents.

1.4 Objectives: To know about the awareness of teachers regarding slow learners.

To develop awareness teachers and parents about learning strategies for slow learners. To investigate about teachers attitude towards their pupils problematic behavior. To investigate the major problems associated with slow learners. To formulate remedial techniques for slow learners children.

1.5 Hypotheses: Often slow learners are considered as M.R. Teachers dont know how to teach slow learners.

Teachers attitude is not positive in dealing children, having problem of slow learning. Usually slow learners pupils are ignored. Specific academic programs are not design.

1.6 Definition of Key terms: Slow learner: Slow learner is a term used to describe the child whose learning ability in all areas is delayed in comparison to children of the same chronological age. Children with borderline intellectual functioning often called slow learners. Slow learners are children whose cognitive skills limit their success in the regular education environment, but are not eligible for special education services. Learning: The development of behavior in an organism depends on the one hand on the development of bodily and biological capacities, and on the other, on the experiences a person continually acquires during the long period of maturation called learning. Academic Skills: Children with learning difficulties thought that lowered self esteem is often an outcome of the childrens erratic and thwarted attempts at learning and mastering academic skills.

1.7 Limitations of the Study: Keeping in view, the shortage of time energy and resources, study is delimited as follows:

The study is confined the Karachi city only. The interest of investigator is only in four special and four regular schools.

Chapter 2
Review of Literature Historically the slow learning child has been described in numerous ways. Ingrams [1960] book, the education of the slow learning child, discussed the education of the educable mentally retarded child. Johnson [1963, p.9] noted that Slow learners compose the largest group of mentally retarded persons. Today however, the term slow learners most accurately describes children and adolescents who learn or underachieve, in one or more academic areas, at a vate that is below average yet not at the level considered comparable is that of an educable mentally retarded student. Intellectually, slow learners score most often between a 75 and a 70 I.Q between the borderline and low-average classification of intelligence. It is unusual to find the slow learner discussed in the standard special education text book. Indeed slow learners are not special education students. There is no PL 94-142 label of definition of slow learners, and these students are not eligible for any monies or services associated with that law. When slow learners receive additional supportive services, it is typically in the regular classroom or in remedial classes that may be supported by federal title funds or programs. These remedial classes are not conceptualized as alternative educational programs; they are used to reinforce regular classroom curricula and learning. Some slow learners are inappropriately labeled learning disabled to maintain the enrollment [and funding] of some special education classrooms, or because they would otherwise fail in the regular classroom, despite not having special education needs.

2.1 Differentiate between learning disabled and slow learners: People working with special children some time feel problems in differentiating between slow learners and learning disabled. Although children with learning disability show slow achievement in academic areas, but their cognitive abilities are much better than slow learners. Slow learners are a term used to describe the child whose learning ability in all areas is delayed in comparison to children of the same chronological age. They have low I.Q level and show very slow progress in academic areas. They show no discrepancy among achievement and their abilities expectancies. These children need special attention modification in curriculum and slow pacing of information to achieve something.

2.2 Recognize the Slow learners: How shall I know the slow learner? How will he behave? Is he slow at everything? Will he understand what I am saying? The young teacher, faced for the first time with the prospect of meeting the slow learner in the classroom, is naturally apprehensive. Throughout her own school career her contacts will have been mainly with other bright and successful children and the problems presented by the slow learners could be both unfamiliar and disquieting.

2.3Diagnosis: The art or act of inferring from symptoms or manifestations the nature of an illness or the cause of a situation. [The Oxford Pocket Dictionary.] Diagnosis is an individual process. Each child must be considered in turn. An outline of the problems he is facing is needed; further examination of those difficulties and some careful analysis of why those difficulties have a arisen must be undertaken. An individual program of work to correct those cause, as well as the symptoms of failure can then be prepared. A part from being an individual process, diagnosis is also continuous, and is interlinked with the teaching of the child. An excellent teacher of the slow learners may in fact use few or none of the available tests, because he is a skilled observer and knows the child well. He can see the problems with in the normal school routine, or can stage situations easily to explore difficulties further. However, most teachers will tend to use standardized tests at some stage, if only as a shorthand procedure. It is important to look closely at the limitations of the tests, to evaluate their usefulness and success in any particular instance. The result of the tests should not be viewed in isolation, but should be interpreted in the light of previous experience of the child. One bold test figure is rarely revealing or useful in itself, but must be compared with previous judgments of, and information about, the child. Particularly useful indications may be any unusual characteristics in the pattern of scoring on one test, which may give clues to weakness or strengths. The results of a test should raise further questions, rather than be expected to provide definitive answers. What diagnosis includes: 1. A Personal Relationship with the child. Gaining his confidence. Talking over his past problems. Discussing his interests, family, etc. 2. Observation of the child. In everyday classroom activity. In situations structured by the teacher. 3. Testing Ad hoc tests created by the teacher Standardized tests.

2.4 Learning Problems: The fundamental problem facing the slow learner is learning how to learn. Compared with other children, he appears less able to organize his perceptions and to see relevant relationships in a learning situation, particularly where abstract ideas and concepts are concerned. The assertion is often made that slow learning children have poor memories and where the learning demanded of them has been of a meaning less, mechanistic nature it is true that they tend to be less able than children of normal ability to reproduce or recall. Despite daily repetition of multiplication tables, slow learning children still do not remember them. Prayers and hymns, learned by rote for morning assemblies, are rapidly forgotten if the occasion degenerates into a boring daily ritual rather than being a genuinely emotive experience having relevance and significance in the childrens lives. When teachers provide situations in which the understandings required are at a meaningful and realistic level, when the learning environment is so structured that meanings and relationships become readily apparent and where the child is actively and emotionally involved, the response of the slow learner is likely to contradict the label that the educator has pinned upon him. Under favourable learning conditions of this nature, recounting experiences and recalling detail can be achieved with commendable accuracy and reliability. On the other hand when any aspect of an experience lies too far outside the childs comprehension, recall is confused and inaccurate as these are insufficient points of reference upon which associations and relationships can be built.

2.5 Some frequent patterns of behavior and their cause showed by slow learners: Observation and recording should be to penetrate the surface impressions and to understand the causes of the attitudes and behavior shown by children. Common characteristics of slow learner children such as laziness, inattention, showing-off, aggressiveness, may occur for different reasons in different children. We cannot handle the individual childs problem unless we have some idea of these underlying causes. 1. Laziness: In some children, laziness seems to have a constitutional basis, for some are slower and less energetic than others by nature. A slow tempo characterizes all their activity. In some, laziness may be the result of Physical factors- glandular dysfunction, poor health, fatigue resulting from inadequate sleep and nutrition. In others, what is condemned as laziness is the result of emotional condition such as anxiety, conflict, or day-dreaming which absorb the childs energies and attention. In yet others, laziness may be a sign of a deep-rooted sense of failurethey are not buoyed up by the pleasurable and stimulating anticipation of success in any work that they undertake. Only too often, laziness is another way of saying that a satisfactory way of motivating the child in particular activities has not been found.

2. Inattention: It is not enough to accept that a short span of attention is just one of the characteristics of children of low- intelligence. On average, slow learning children do have a shorter span of attention than normal children but many are able to concentrate on enjoyable and successful work for a considerable time. The degree to which the work is suited to the childs capacity, and engages interest and activity is important. The child physical condition and his expectations of success or failure are also influential. Children who are emotionally unsettled are understandably often restless and distractible. In addition, the ability to concentrate seems to be, to some extent, a product of experience and training children who have had adequate opportunities for absorbing personal and social play are more likely to have developed the capacity to persist, and be able to accept the more formal requirements of class routines. Creative and practical activities seem to promote the development of good attention and of work habits. 3. Aggressiveness: Bullying, spiteful, hostile behavior may be due to feelings of inadequacy and frustration or to the childs inability to form relationships with other children and be accepted by the group. As the child being to feel more successful in school and is accepted by the group. As the child being to feel more successful in school and is accepted by his group, such reactions of ten abate. But the behavior may be due to a generalized hostility toward the world, resulting from experience of aggressiveness in the environment or severe physical punishments at home. The attitude of the school towards physical punishment can also have an influence here. In dealing with aggressive children, it is often hard to adopt that sympathetic attitude which can so valuable in overcoming other personality difficulties, yet the teacher should try to distinguish between the child and his bad behavior. He should try to like the child and to develop a relationship with him, even though the disapproves of his behavior. It is hard to accept that the child who is continually causing trouble to the point of inviting punishment may in certain circumstances be asking, in a roundabout way, for personal attention, or for someone to control him because he cannot control himself. His behavior may indeed be merely an expression of extreme mischievousness or lake of developed standards of cooperativeness but it could be away of testing out the relationship with the adult. It demands a strong conviction and faith to go to the limits of toleration with a child like this in order to convince him that he is liked in spite of his behavior. If such a trial can be won or even partially won, the childs chances of eventual adjustment are so much the greater.

2.6 Factors associated with slow learning: 1. Emotional and Personality difficulties: Slow learners have the same basics needs as normal children, such as, security, giving and receiving affection, acceptance by other children; recognition and self-esteem, independence and responsibility; and new experience and activity.

Slow learners can experience insecurity because of a sense of Personal inadequacy, caused by certain physical disabilities, or the aware of their own mental limitations, or even the inability to control their feelings during outbursts of temper. Many slow learners seek the attention and praise of their teachers, and because of deprivation may regard their teachers as parents substitutes. Certain slow learners become isolated because they have had a very little opportunity of mixing with others. Some children are ignored and rejected because of their mental limitations, oppearance, aggressiveness, etc. these children may attempt to attention by bullying and boasting, and because they may not be accepted in school they may turn to delinquency require the pride and satisfaction resulting from accomplishing something quite independently. There is a need to provide these children with opportinuities for new experiences, activities, and discoveries. Naturally one must except children to exhibil emotional upset and difficulties in adjustment while growing up. A child starting school may exhibit temper tantrums, excessive crying and regressive behavior. Further emotional difficulties may be exhibited when the child transfers to another school, class, or teacher. But maladjustment or various forms of emotional handicap is a more serious matter and many children suffering from maladjustment are insecure and unhappy. They often exhibit disciplinary problems in the classroom. The under wood Report [1955] on the education of maladjustment children groups symptoms under six headings: 1] Nervous or emotional disorders-fears, anxieties, withdrawal, and timidity. 2] Habit disorders- enuresis, nail biting, feed disorders. 3] Behavior disorders-temper tantrums, stealing, cruelty, aggression. 4] Organic disorders-mainly those with a neurological dysfunction as the basis and often showing as marked over-activity, distractibility, or impulsiveness. 5] Psychotic Behavior in which disruption of normal development takes place at all levels. 6] Educational and vocational difficulties. An important part of a teachers task is to have a clear awareness of the childs emotional needs and his difficulties. The teacher should have a clear picture of the childs home background, so that he may be in a position to select the appropriate means of treatment. 2. Speech and Language difficulties: Many slow learners have poor command of vocabulary. They lack facility in expressing themselves, and are frequently weak in comprehending and listening. Slow learners with limited mental development have restricted abilities in thinking and reasoning. They exhibit a poor capacity to develop concepts which are explained through the use of words. They experience particular difficulty with words that are necessary for abstractions. It has been noted that slow learners are generally later in starting to talk. Generally speaking, parents of slow

learners are less inclined to talk with their children, tell them stories, and answer their questions in a coherent and explicit way. There is little talking to stimulate thinking. Frequently, slow learners have less opportunities for experiences gained from visiting places, but what is more important they suffer from the fact that there is no opportunity to talk with there children, tell them stories, and answer their questions in a coherent and explicit way. There is little thinking to stimulate thinking. Frequently, slow learners have less opportunities for experiences gained from visiting places, but what is more important they suffer from the fact that there is no opportunity to talk over such experiences. Emotional disturbances can affect the atmosphere of the home and these disturbances are frequently reflected in the poor language development of the children from such homes. Environmental Conditions: Home Conditions: There is considerable evidence that poverty of environmental stimulation at an early age can result in a stunting of the learning process which is possibly irretrievable, and which may not be compensated by later placing a child in an enriched environment. Many investigations confirm the view that the social and economic level of a childs environment is associated with the level achieved in test of intelligence and school attainments. Recent attempts have been made to distinguish, in more detail, those aspects of home conditions, which appear to influence school performance. Cultural: Which poor home conditions are reflected in all phases of the childs development, cultural deprivation has a great effect, and this is most marked in language development. It is suggested that there is too much prejudice against the idea of the influence of innate individual differences. A sensible viewpoint credits both heredity and environment affects the childs intelligence often affects his environment. Material and Economic Factors: In many of our large cities and in many towns where it is expected, there exits appalling housing conditions where it is difficult for the tenants to maintain standards of decency, morality, and health to stabilize home life. Emotional Factors: Unfavorable emotional relationships, such as ambivalence, rejection of the child by the parents, and marital disturbances are accepted as playing a prominent part in scholastic difficulties. The detrimental effects of drunkenness, absence of parents, sibling rivalry, and other factors may give rise to an emotionally unstable home. School Conditions: A Department of Education and Science survey [1971] covering 158 secondary schools states that up to sixty percent of all pupils in secondary schools need some specific help which is generally lacking. The report states that the needs of the slowest pupils seem to have received less than their fair share of consideration. Slow learners are frequently bored,

experience a loss of status, and become increasingly reluctant to take part in the extra curricular life of the school. There was a temptation to employ the least talented or least experienced teachers with these slow learners. There is no doubt that the approach of the school concerning methods of teaching materials, promotion, and flexibility on adapting materials to individual children will influence the progress of each child. The personality of the teacher, the size of the class, and other factors can be considered as possible causes of scholastic failure. There is no doubt that some children in a class will respond to methods, which are not suited to all of the class. Children can suffer of a teacher is unable to an appreciate individual needs. The following conditions can have an adverse effect on the school progress of a child: lack of continuity from infants to juniors; too little understanding of the individual, lack of suitable material; over-emphasis of certain skills and practices and neglect of others; and forcing or pushing the slow learner. Frequently, it is not the inefficiency of a teachers methods but rather his failure to adapt his methods to the peculiar needs of the slow learning child. Frequently, the slow learner is neglected and his slow learning is just accepted. Many educationists have placed considerable emphasis on the different teaching methods and the resulting achievement but, frequently, the teachers faith and enthusiasm in the methods he is adopting are over looked. It is important that the teacher believes in his approach. It is a apparent that frequent absence may affect a childs progress when the school is not supplemented by the home, i.e. when the parents have no interest in the childs education. It may be true that frequent period of absence are more detrimental than an occasional long one. But any form of absence by a culturally deprived child who finds difficulty in learning will have an adverse effect. Some educationists suggest that defective hearing and vision can be largely responsible for scholastic failure.

2.7 The needs of slow learners: Breaking the circle of Failure: The expectation of failure is a various circle. Most slow learners, because they see themselves as failure, dont really try hard. After all, whatever they do will be of no use, so why bother to do any thing? The most important problem to solve when dealing with slow learners is to find a way to over come their negative attitude to them selves and their feelings of lack of self-worth. The only way to do this is to foster individual relationships and to cater for the needs of each student as an individual: to know and to care-to recognize the problems-to encourage and persuade- to find a way towards a solution, and mutually rejoice at success.

2.8 What are the Objectives? The most we can hope to do is to help every individual to realize all his Potentialities and become completely himself. [ Aldous Huxley] Before the teacher can begin to do anything to help the slow learners he must analyze their needs in an honest and realistic way- the needs that they have now, and those they will have in the future. Is it desirable, or necessary, for them to cover the same, or a watered down version of the syllabus of the rest of the school? Will that kind of learning give them the ability to work at a problem and be able to solve it? The future is uncertain for all of us. Attitudes and demand are changing rapidly. But we do know that what ever is in store, the slow learners, in common with everyone else, will have to think. They will have to understand, make judgments, make decisions. They will have to feel, cope with emotions, up heavals, love and hate. They will need a positive attitude to life. To accept these as their needs, means that we, as teacher, must be prepared to direct our teaching towards the needs of the individual pupil and the development of that pupil. The role of the Teachers: There is no such thing as competence without love.. [John Dewey] The role of teacher is important. The teacher who tries to fulfill every pupils whim, to sublimate his own desire completely, is setting up an unreal situation and preventing the development of the pupil. The relationship needs to be of the kind where neither the teacher nor the student has pre-eminence. It should be one where the roles are interchangeable, and each recognize the special position and value of the other. The teacher needs to act as a guide to the pupil, to help to direct his learning. The literature of the psychology of teaching is full of references to the importance of attitude. A positive and practical attitude, one that acknowledges and rewards endeavour, is an essential ingredient in the recipe for success. We all respond to teachers who are encouraging, who notice and reward effort, who seem to take a personal interest in us, who recognize our problems and difficulties yet seems to find ways of working around them, and most importantly make us feel about ourselves. All of these skills originate from an essentially positive set of attitudes on the part of the teacher. We suggest, therefore, that the teacher should concern herself with building up good relationships with the child, with making her learning procedures appropriate, and with the development of good motivation. The role of the Peer group: The role of the peer group also plays an important part in motivation. Usually a group has formed because of something they have in common. In the case of slow learners the things they have in common is failure: academic failure, emotional failure, physical failure, quite often judged by others a failure to reach the same material standard. They cover up by being introverted, withdrawn: no one speaks much to them. Conversely they can be noisy and difficult: every one is afraid of them; they are on the defensive and every one is condescending

towards them. They reinforce in each other their own belief in their uselessness but a success or trust situation can counteract these feelings. They unconsciously think that if one of their number is trusted, is successful, then may be they could be too. The role of the Parents: The parents of the slow learners can be placed into many categories: the overprotective, the over-permissive, the willfully neglectful, or, in the case of handicapped pupils, bewildered, hurt and overworked. Some parents find it impossible to understand why their child is slow. Public attitudes are quickly coveyed to the parents of slow learners or bottom stream pupils. Parents are greatly affected by public attitudes and subconsciously reflect these feelings and project them towards their own child. It should be remembered and accepted that many parents of slow learners are themselves the victims of unhappy school experiences. If not actually anti-teacher, then they are afraid of teacher. It is highly likely that they bear a reluctance to come to school, especially on formal parents Evenings, where they might be afraid of being an object of shame, or they might be just nervous. To counteract this, it is necessary for the teacher to go to the home, or the club or the pub. Once the initial barriers have been broken down then it becomes easier to draw the parents into the school occasionally. When pupils are about to be transferred to a new school the opportunity arises to put into practice some kind of plan to set up good teacher/ parent relationships. Some of the following could provide a basis: A] Getting to know the school-a preliminary visit and opportunity for the parents to meet the form teacher or tutor who will spend the greatest amount of time with a particular pupil. B] Open school-that is the kind of atmosphere whereby parents are always welcomed and feel able to drop in. C] Home visit to parents who reluctant to come near the school. D] Meaningful reports avoiding at all costs the fair, Tried hard, B+, technique. E] Give simple advice to parents wanting to help their children, e.g Try to hear your child read for about ten minutes each day. Praise him frequently for what he does accomplish. Give him somewhere special to keep his work. If we are to get the best from the pupil then we must aim to break down the reserve and build up informal and friendly relationships not only with him, but with his parents.

2.9 The Slow learner and the Basic Subjects: The learning and behavioral characteristics of the slow learner have been considered, not to daunt the prospective teacher by outlining the magnitude of the task, but as essential preliminary to discussing harnessing his energies and correcting his shortcomings so that the basic in communication and numeric can be brought within his grasp. The basic subjects should be regarded, not as ends in themselves, but as means where by children are able to

express themselves and their growing individualities, to communicate and record their activities, and as media for widening horizons beyond their immediate environment. For reasons both human and economic society cannot afford to waste human potential at any level, and without competence in the basic skills, self- realization for the slow learner is rendered immeasurably difficult.

2.10 Learning Strategies: Since most educators agree that children learn differently, then it is reasonable to conclude that they must be taught using a variety of strategies. Research has indicated that the mind will focus and learning will take place when instruction is compatible with the different ways children learn. Children need to explore understand how they learn best. Utilizing this information will help them be more successful at school. You must convince struggling students that they can do well on academic tasks by proving to them that they are able to learn. This will increase their self-esteem and indirectly help them manage their own behavior. There are three style of learning:

Auditory learners. Visual learners. Tactile- kinesthetic learners.

1] Auditory Learners: Auditory students learn best by listening. They are logical, sequential thinkers who are able to follow directions and adjust well to classroom routines. They are well served by typical teaching methods and are usually considered good students. 2] Visual Learners: Visual students must be able to create mental pictures in order to understand what is being taught. They are not good at logical, sequential tasks. They are global thinkers who work backwards from the whole to the parts. Preferences usually include reading picture books, watching videos, learning information from illustrations, drawing while listening, and having and orderly work place. 3] Tactile- kinesthetic Learners: Tactile- kinesthetic students learn best when they are able to touch objects and move their bodies. They need hands-on activities and concrete examples. This style of learning is most apparent because these students tend to be more active. Preferences include learning new information after physical exercise, performing creative dramatics, using manipulative, using computers, reading action-adventure books, making displays, and conducting experiments. 2.11 Planning Instruction for Different Learning Style: No single instructional approach is best for all students. The goal of teachers should be to have students use more than one modality in every lesson. Plan to provide hands-on

activities and games as well as art, music, and video experiences. Have students work in cooperative learning groups and independent work. Providing instruction in a variety of ways will help attract and sustain the interest of all learners. Because most students are never taught how to learn, many students with and without mild disabilities struggle with the learning process. They often need direct instruction in learning how to learn, or learning strategies. Students with slow learners frequently have difficulty with skills. Thus, if students with slow learners are to survive in the mainstream, they must be taught how to organize themselves, participate in class, and study efficiently. Researchers have developed numerous learning strategies to help students become organized, correctly complete their work, and remember information they need to know. [Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1989; Deshler and Schumuker, 1988]. The Strategic Instruction Model Mnemonic Strategy Instruction are two well- researched approaches for teaching learning strategies to students with slow learners. 2.12 Teaching Method For Slow Learners Children: The following we discussed how we can our pupil to learn: 1] Friendly Attitude: Deal children in a friendly environment. Teacher plays as a role model for them. Students learn better from people they love and respect. It takes some time to develop a friendly relationship. The teacher must be prepared to have physical contact with the student to develop friendship. Teacher must show friendship in small way. For example: when taking a student out, for a walk, the teacher may clasp his or her hand. To show displeasure, if child has been naughty or rude, the teacher may grip the students wrist. The teachers and volunteers should always bear in mind that their behavior and reactions are a model. If they are polite and kind the students will copy their behavior. In the care, if a stubborn child, who does not always obey, the teacher should give them work only when she can attend to him individually and make sure the work is done. 2] Motivation and Reward: Different people are motivated indifferent ways. Reward is must in the form of sweets, gifts etc. Reward are praise should be given immediately after the desired or correct behavior. 3] Prompting: When first teaching a new skill, we can use prompts that means we give some sort of clue or indication of what is required. If the pupil understand language fairly well we can tell him in words we do. The teacher can also help by using gestures. For example: Holding the hand when she went the pupil to respond to the command given or by modeling the action first with the pupil watching.

The prompting should be slowly reduced otherwise the pupil would not learn to do that skill alone. The pupil should be given reward when the action is completed. 4] Shaping: In shaping a skills we start by rewarding any response that it roughly like the final skill we required, than we work through different stages towards the correct skill gradually before the reward. For example: when teaching a pupil to say water at first we praise any sound than only wa or ta are rewarded than we require a better effort until the reward is given only when water is set correctly. 5] Chaining: Some skills are best taught by chaining. These skills involved several actions to be performed in the right order. 6] Molding: Physically guiding a childs movements so that the child can experience how it feels to perform the task. This is a useful technique when the desired response is not present or when it occurs infrequently. 7] Demonstration: Showing a child how to perform a task before he/she attempts it, his expectation is that the child will imitate the teachers behavior. Demonstration should be combined with verbal cues. 8] Practice: Requiring the child to repeat the same movement or response many times in succession [drill]. Giving the child practice on a series of different tasks during a single instructional session. The purpose is to assist the child to learn to determine which movements or responses are required for which task. 2.13 General Strategy: Learning Strategies, such as mnemonics, provide quite good ways to access information; it can be an essential component in learning for many students with disabilities [a mnemonic is defined as a word, sentence, picture, device, or technique for improving or strengthening memory].

2.14 Effective Teaching Implication for Slow Learner: Remedial Teaching: Remedial education or remedial teaching, special teaching [ now often called support teaching] in any areas of school work for children who are not progressing as well as expected. It is a custom program targeting the childs difficulties and using the childs strong points. It is the extra help needed to develop techniques to cope with the differences. The structured and a systematic way of teaching. The remedial teacher facilitates the student in his weak areas. It helps bring the student to required form or level. Both parental and teacher perception is equally important in the lives and academic careers of individuals with learning disabilities or slow learners. The earlier the difficulty is assessed, diagnosed and treated, the easier it will be for all, as the child is placed back on the path of success through help, rather than slunned for his/ her difficulties. The problem at times does not came with the labeling. The problems comes with the sometimes negative attitude of families teachers and peers. Remedial teachers operate in various ways, the child can attend a full- time remedial class, or attend part- time at a with drawl class or, increasingly, receive support in the ordinary classroom, often through the remedial teacher and class teacher combining in a teamteaching approach. This last method is gaining in popularity and support teaching is often a preferred term. It draws on a wide variety of special techniques and teaching materials. Five Steps to Help You Help Your Child: At the last, by following these steps you will have gained some very important information that will dramatically improve you childs ability to do well in school.

Understand the cause of learning difficulties. Know the skills necessary for fast and efficient learning. Find out what skills are weak. Learn what needs to happen to improve learning skills Take specific steps that can help your child or student gain the skills needed to become a successful student.

Chapter 3 Research Methodology

3.1 Population and Sample of the Study: This study was designed to indicate the problem faced by children with slow learner in learning academic skills. The population of the study includes the regular and special schools of Karachi . Random sampling method was used for selecting the sample from population. This study was conducted under the supervision of Department of Special Education, University of Karachi , during the month of August 2006 to October 2006. For the purpose of present study, [four] 4 special schools and [four] 4 regular schools from different areas of Karachi . Total forty [40] respondent are selected in the study. Twenty [20] respondent are selected from regular and twenty [20] respondent are selected from special schools of Karachi . Following accessible population were selected for data collection, which are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The Horizon [Children with Special Needs.] International School of Studies. Aziz Begum Memorial School. AMI School The Cresent Academy. Suffah Saviour School. Early Learning Centre. ISS [ Inclusive Setting] Table 1 Study Sites Description Numbers of Schools 4 3 1 Table 2 Distribution of Sample [for Special Schools] Teachers Percentages 11 55% 3 15% 3 15% 15% 3 20 100%

Areas 1. Gulshan-e-Iqbal 2. Shahrah-e-Faisal 3. Garden East

Schools 1. The Horizon 2. ISS [ inclusive School ] 3. Aziz Begum Memorial 4. AMI School Total

Table No 3 Distribution of Sample [for regular School] Schools Teachers Percentages 1. The Cresent Academy 9 45% 2. Suffah Saviour School 5 25% 3. International School of 3 15% Studies. 4. Early learning Centre 3 15% Total 20 100% Table No 4 Distribution of Sample by Sex Special Schools Percentages Normal Schools 3 15% 5 17 85% 15 20 100% 20

Sex Male Female Total

Percentages 25% 75% 100%

3.2 Instrument of the Study: The instrument of the study, included a structured questionnaire based on the objectives of the study and literature of the topic. The questionnaire were developed for the collect the information about the current status of the teachers regarding their contribution for their childrens learning difficulties such as, Teaching Methodology Areas of difficulties Parents and Teachers towards their childs learning.

Each and every question are typically made with relevance to the study. Questionnaire result for special and regular schools will be shown describe separately. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, which includes a general information section consisting of respondents name, age, sex, qualification and working experience and another a specific information section required to check aims and objectives of the study. 3.3 Procedure of the Data Collection: In the present study, data has been collected from different regular and special schools of Karachi . For the purpose of collection of information, total forty questionnaire were developed separately for teachers and distributed among above said schools principles and they identified teachers of the affected children for the purpose of pre-testing. Consequently, irrelevant questions were struck off and few more questions were added with relevance to the study. Finally the questionnaire was used in the study as it was fully developed.

It was not an easy task. The investigator faced a number of problems in collecting the data. The investigator personally visited the schools in order to gather more authentic data by explaining the questionnaire to the respondents. 3.4 Data Collection and Analysis: After the collection of data, it was analyzed table were made to arranges the data systematically, for making it easies to observe the responses. The data collection was converted into tabular or quantitative form. The analysis of the result was indicated by percentage method. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of the finding reflected by the tables.

Hypotheses Testing

In this section the five hypotheses already discussed are examined. 1. Often Slow learners are considered as M.R. Finding: It was found that at the academic, in special schools 78% are not standard formit of assessment to assess the slow learners. The main reason for this limitation is non availability of trained and qualified teaching staff thus teachers often slow learners considered as M.R. 2. Teachers dont know, how to teach slow learner. Finding: The above position was not proved, because 65% teachers know, how to teach slow learner, special education needs and services provided to them were met to satisfactory limit. 3. Teachers attitude is not positive in dealing children, having problem of Slow learning. Finding: The above position was not proved because 68% teachers attitude is positive in dealing children having problem of slow learning. They encourage children having problem of slow learning. They encourage children with slow learning for successful work completion or when they ask question etc. 4. Usually Slow learner pupils are ignored. Finding: The above position was not proved. In special schools 90% teachers make special lesson plan to teach slow learners. They use remedial teaching techniques to help the slow learners. In regular schools, 85% teachers give extra individual attention in these types of children. 5. Specific academic programs are not design. Finding: It found that structured teaching was done but some improvement is required better. Specific academic programs are not design. The main reason for this limitation, in special and non- availability of trained and qualified teaching staff.

Chapter 5 Summary, Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation.

5.1 Summary & Discussion: The Present research is designed to investigate Problem faced by children with Slow learners in learning Skills. The slow learner students have considered as M.R, Teachers dont know, how to teach them. The best way to help such children to provide facilities, which are related to specialty or which concern to purpose. So that their potential can be achieved for their betterment. The main objective of the study are To know about the awareness of teachers regarding slow learners, To develop awareness teachers and parents about learning strategies for slow learners, To investigate about teachers attitude towards their pupils problematic behavior, To investigate the major problems associated with slow learners, To formulate remedial techniques for slow learner children. The hypotheses of the study are, often slow learners considered as M.R, teachers dont know, how to teach slow learners, teachers attitude in not positive in dealing children, having problem of slow learning, usually slow learner pupils are ignored, specific academic programs are not design. The research is conducted on the teachers and students of special and regular schools of Karachi . Four special and four regular schools were selected by simple random sampling through survey style. Questionnaire result for special and regular schools was shown describe separately. Total forty teachers both special and regular schools were selected by purposive sampling. Questionnaire was used as a research tool. Validity of questionnaire was checked by pre-testing with two respondents before final application of research. The gathering of data through questionnaire and results were tabulated to interpret the results. Hypotheses testing was done by percentage method. 5.2 Conclusion: On the basic of the study it is concluded that the term slow learners is generally regarded in a derogatory sense. There is no trained and qualified teaching staff. In special school, no proper assessment are used for identification. The basis of above facts they have no benefit for school and did not improve for their intellectual and development skills. So these children are need proper identified and providing facilities regarding to slow learner students in special schools of Karachi .

5.3 Recommendation: Make be providing required professionals. Special Education training should be included in the syllabus of all teachers training program, so the teachers of normal schools should be aware of the problem of special student. Parents of special children should be invited whenever teachers training institute organize seminar or workshops. Medical field is very closely related to special education, so it should be included in the course work of doctors to deal with special children. Parents should be also informed through media such as newspapers and T.V about learning difficulties and problems around it. There is a need to promote early detection program for parents as well as for the teachers of special children.

Acknowledgement
All praise to Alimighty Allah, who has created us, and enabled us for the accomplishment of our study; we heartily thank all those who helped us to conduct our study for this research. We should first like to give special thanks to our devoted teacher Dr. Zohra Begum, her valuable guidance and precious advices her always been the source of confident to us. We shall always be indebted to Dr. Ismail Saad for his cooperation and administration. Ms. Shahana Shams Siddiquie, librarian of the department deserves an especial vote of thanks for the valuable assistance in locating relevant information. We are also thankful to our family members, who helped us in our study work, and continued cooperation.

Abstract
This study was aimed to analyze whether teachers and parents are aware or not aware about the problems of Slow learners. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the learning difficulties and the importance of specialized curriculum, teaching strategies, and class environment for children with learning disturbances. These studies are very helpful to guide parents and teachers attention towards educational needs of their children with learning. The respondents were very much prompt in providing information through questionnaire. The processing and tabulation of the data was duly processed.

S.No 01 02 03 04

Table of Contents Certificate Abstract Acknowledgement Chapter 1 Introduction


1.1 Back ground of the study 1.2 Statement of the problem 1.3 Scope of the study 1.4 Objectives 1.5 Hypotheses 1.6 Definitions of key terms 1.7 Limitations of the study

Page no

05

Chapter 2
Review Of Literature 2.1 Historical Background of the term Slow learner 2.2 Differentiate between learning disabled & Slow learners 2.3 Recognize the Slow learners 2.4 Diagnosis 2.5 Learning Problems 2.6 Some frequent patterns of behavior and their causes 2.7 Factors associated with Slow learning 2.8 The Need of Slow learners 2.9 What are the Objectives? 2.10 The Slow learner and the Basic Subjects 2.11 Learning Strategies 2.12 Planning Instruction for different learning style 2.13 Teaching Method for Slow learners Children 2.14 Effective Teaching Implication for Slow learner

06

Chapter 3
Research Methodology

3.1 Population and sample of the study 3.2 Instrument of the study 3.3 Procedure of data collection 3.4 Data collection and Analysis

07

Data Analysis
Data Analysis for Regular Schools Data Analysis for Special Schools

08 09 10 11 12

Hypotheses Testing Chapter 5


Summary, Discussion, Conclusion & Recommendations

Bibliography Heliography Appendix 1 Appendix 2

Appendix 1
Questionnaire for Regular School Teacher
Part 1 General Information: Centre Name: _________________________________________________ Name of Teacher:______________________________________________ Age: [a] 20------25 [b] 26-----30 [c] 30-----above. Sex: [a] Male [b] Female. Academic Qualification: [a] Matriculation [b] Intermediate Professional Qualification/ Training: [a] Special Education [b] B.Ed Part 2 1. Who suggest the child has slow learner or how did you know about the child has slow learner? [c] B.A [d] Any other.

[c] M.Ed [d] Any other.

2. Number of Students in your class? [ ] 3. Do you know about special children? [ ] Yes [ ] No 4. What do you understand by the term slow learner? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 5. How many student are slow learner in your class? [ ] Yes

] No

6. In your class what types of learning problems faced by children with slow learners? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 7. Do you use any special method to accommodate into the regular class for slow learners? [ ] Yes [ ] No 8. Do you aware the special needs of the slow learner children? [ ] Yes [ ] No 9. If yes, Do you use special seating arrangement in class? [ ] Yes [ ] No 10. How soon did you perceive/ realize the problems faced by the child? [ ] At the early stage [ ] Recently 11. Should slow learner student be given extra individual attention? [ ] Yes [ ] No 12. Do you encourage children with slow learners when they ask questions? [ ] Yes [ ] No 13. What is your views to make homework assignment interesting and useful for children with slow learners? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 14. In your view, what are the major cause responsible for incomplete homework of the children with slow learners? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 15. Do you use any reward for successful class work or homework completion? [ ] Yes [ ] No 16. What ways do you have in mind of dealing with these problem? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 17. How did you cope with the slow learner student in your class?

18. Do you attend; [ [ [ Part 3 What do you suggest about more effective teaching, learning and schooling for the slow learner students? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ] Seminar ] Workshop ] Meeting being held about slow learner.

Appendix 2 Questionnaire for Special School Teacher Part 1 General Information:


Centre Name:__________________________________________________ Name of Teacher:_______________________________________________ Age: [a] 20----25 [b] 26----30 [c] 30 above. Sex: [a] Male [b] Female Academic Qualification: [a] Matriculation [b] Intermediate Professional Qualification/ Training: [a] Special Education [b] B.Ed [c] B.A [d] Any other.

[c] M.Ed [d] Any other.

Part 2
1. Why did you join special school? [a] By earning [b] Interest in Special Children [c] Any other reason. 2. Number of students in class. [ ] 3. At the academic, do you make any assessment or identification? [a] Yes [b] No 4. If yes, which assessment do you use? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

5. What do you understand by the term slow learner? _____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 6. After assessment, what basic problems are identify of slow learner? 7. What is the childs intelligence level?

8. How soon did you perceive/ realize the problems faced by the child with slow learner? [ ] At the early stage [ ] Recently. 9. Do you make IEP according to the children with slow learners? [ ] Yes [ ] No 10. Do you aware the special needs of the slow learners and mentally retarded children? [ ] Yes [ ] No 11. If yes, do you special seating arrangement in class? [ ] Yes [ ] No 12. Should slow learner student be given extra individual attention? [ ] Yes [ ] No 13. Which kind of Teaching method do you prefer most? [ ] Group [ ] Individual 14. Do use remedial teaching techniques? [ ] Yes [ ] No 15. Have you involve the parents in remedial teaching? [ ] Yes [ ] No 16. Do you think remedial teaching would help the slow learner students? [ ] Yes

] No

17. In which area you think remedial techniques is required? [ ] Math [ ] Language [ ] Decision Making [ ] Any other 18. Do you have parents guidance program in school? [ ] Yes [ ] No 19. If yes, what is the way of guidance? [ ] Meeting [ ] Workshop [ ] Seminar [ ] Personal Discussion 20. Most of the parents are like to coordinate with you? [ ] Yes [ ] No 21. Should slow learner student provide co-curriculum activities? [ ] Yes [ ] No 22. What types of co-curriculum activities in slow learners? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 23. Do you make any special lesson plan to teach slow learners? [ ] Yes [ ] No 24. In your opinion, why home work is important for children with slow learners? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 25. Do you use any reward for successful homework or class work completion? [ ] Yes [ ] No 26. In your opinion, can slow learner students be mainstreamed with normal school? [ ] Yes [ ] No 27. What will the criteria do you use in mainstreaming for normal education setting? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

28. Do you think, what are the major barriers when teaching slow learners in normal education setting/ school? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 29. What ways do you have in mind of dealing with these problems? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 30. How do you cope with the slow learner student in your class? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

Part 3
What you suggest about more effective teaching, learning and school for slow learner students? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Certificate
The thesis of Noor-ul-ain Aziz, contribution to the Department of Special Education, University of Karachi , under the title of Problem faced by children with slow learner in learning academic skills is approved as partial fulfillment of the Master of Arts Degree in the amount of six semester hours of graduate credit.

Date: ________________

________________________ Chairperson of the Department

_________________________ Supervisor

_________________________ Approved by

Problem Faced By Children with Slow Learner in Learning Academic Skills

A Masters Thesis Presented to Department of Special Education, University of Karachi.

BY Noor-ul-ain Aziz December 2006

Graphical Representation of Table No. 4 Q. How many students are slow learners in your class? Responses 1. Yes 2. No Total Frequency 20 0 20 Percentages 100% 0% 100%

Description: Table No 4. shows the results of how many students are slow learners in your class. All 20 [100%] teachers replied their answer in Yes.

Graphical Representation of Table No. 1 Q. Distribution of Sample by Sex for Regular and Special Schools. Sex Male Female Total Special School 3 17 20 Percentages 15% 85% 100% Normal School 5 15 20 Percentages 25% 75% 100%

Graphical Representation of Table No. 2 Q. Distribution of Sample by Academic Qualification of Regular and Special School. Responses Special School Matriculation 0 Intermediate/ A 5 level or O levels B.A 6 Any other 9 Total 20 Percentages 0% 25% 30% 45% 100% Regular School 0 4 12 4 20 Percentages 0% 20% 60% 20% 100%

Graphical Representation of Table No. 3 Q. Distribution of Sample by Professional Qualification / Training.

Responses Special Education B. Ed M. Ed Any Other Total

Special School 8 2 0 10 20

Percentages 40% 10% 0% 50% 100%

Regular School 0 4 0 16 20

Percentages 0% 20% 0% 80% 100%

Heliography:
http://www.curriculumassociation.com www.proedinc.com http://www.slosson.com www.howtolearn.com http://www.learningsolation.com www.hasponline.org/publication/cq286slowlearner.html http://www.ldonline.org/articles/6152 http://www.shawpsych.com/slowlearner.html www.strongarm.org.com www.Goole.com http://www.makelearningefficient.com/index.html http://Teachervision.com http://educationworld.com

Bibliography:
Alec A. Williams. 1970. Basic Subjects for the Slow learner. New York: Methuen Educational Ltd. AE Tansley and R Gulliford.1977. The Education of Slow learning Children. London & Henley: Routledge and R Gulliford. A.L.Jangra. 2006.Education of the Slow learner and the Retarded. First Edition. New Delhi: Arise Publishers and Distributors. Karen a. Waldon. 1992. Teaching Children with learning disabilities: Strategies for success. New York: Chapman and Hall. Anjum Bano and Zohra Begum. 2003. Over coming disabilities. Karachi: Karachi University Press. Phillip Williams. 1988. A Glossary of Special Education. First Edition. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.