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Cambodia

In the CSES 2010 database the following variable captures the household business. Variable ID V53 Variable Name q05hq1 Label Ran enterpirse/ business during the past 12 months Question Did anyone in your household run an enterprise or business during the past 12 months?

Link: http://www.nis.gov.kh/nada/index.php/catalog/31/datafile/F4 From CSES 2009 Report: In Cambodia most households have some kind of income from self employment. Income from self employment is also the main source to the total income, representing about two thirds of the total income. This also includes the value of own consumption from own production of goods. Not surprisingly income from agriculture is the main income in rural Cambodia and non-agriculture income is the main source of income in Phnom Penh and other urban Cambodia. Although income from self employment is important to most households in Cambodia its not the only source of income as the households depend on other incomes as well. A little bit less than half of the households in Cambodia have income from employment. Wages and salaries represent roughly one third of the total income. (Such report for CSES 2010 could not be found and hence the 2009 report was used.)

Lao PDR
From LECS 2007-08 dataset, the following link provides questions & variables on household business. http://www.nsc.gov.la/nada/ddibrowser/?id=1#datafile&file=F15 From LECS 3 (2002-03) Report: 28 % of the Lao households operate at least one household business. It is more common among urban households to operate a business, 63% of the urban households operate a business whereas only 17 % of the rural households operate a business. Some households have registered business incomes without having a household business. This is mainly the case in rural households where home-made textiles are produced for sale. If these households are included we find that 46 % of the households

have household business activities (68% of the urban households and 38% of the rural households). Household businesses are small scale operations. The average turnover is less than 3 million KIP per month, a bit over 5 million in urban and 1 million in rural areas.

Nepal
Direct data on household business could not be found. However, the report of National Living Standard Survey of 2010-11 (conducted with the help of The World Bank) mentions that Overall, share of non-farm income in all household income is 37 percent, and farm income is 28 percent, share of remittances is 17 percent and share of own production consumption is 16 percent. Share of self employment in total household income is 38 percent, and that of wage employment is 26 percent. As per the Fourth Household Budget Survey (HBS) conducted in 2005-06, 7.9 percent household were engaged in agriculture, 12.8 percent in business/industry, 10.9 percent in service/teaching, 21.1 percent as housewives, 28.5 percent as student, 3.9 percent as wage earner, 1.5 percent as domestic worker and 13.5 percent were engaged in other types of occupation. The reported average monthly household income stood at Rs. 27,391 (urban Rs. 31,935 and rural Rs. 22,225) of which, 7.3 percent was contributed by agriculture, 28.1 percent by salary, allowance, wages and pension, 29.5 percent by business/service, 16.1 percent by remittance and 10.2 percent by imputed rent. HBS also reports that in rural market center, 27.0 percent household heads were engaged in agriculture followed by 25.9 percent who had business/industry as their principal occupation. Similarly 17.9 percent household heads in rural market center were in service/ teaching sector and 8.2 percent were wage earner. The proportion of household heads who served as housewife was 5.6 percent and student occupied 0.2 percent of total household heads in rural market center. The rest 15.2 percent of household heads had other types of occupation. In urban market center, 21.7 percent household heads were engaged in business/industry followed by 21.4 percent who had service/teaching as their principal occupation. Similarly 11.4 percent household heads in urban market center had agriculture as their principal occupation and 9.7 percent served as housewife. The proportion of household heads who were wage earner occupied 6.7 percent and student occupied 0.1 percent of total household heads in urban market center. The rest 29.1 percent of household heads had other types of occupation. In the overall markets, 23.7 percent household heads had business/industry as their principal occupation followed by 19.8 percent having engaged in service/teaching sector. Similarly 18.7 percent household heads had agriculture as their principal occupation and 7.7 percent served as housewife. The proportion of household heads who served as wage earner was 7.4 percent and student occupied 0.1 percent of total household heads. The rest 22.6 percent of household heads in the overall markets fell under others category which basically included priesthood, fishing, private

tutor, writer at court and land revenue office, housing broker, pensioner, old aged and disabled person, unemployed and fire-wood vendor etc.