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Sludge as an Additive Raw Material in Cement

Authors Anna Patricia Addun Ciello Marie M. Gamboa Ma. Jessa S.Canonizado Advisers Mr. Samson Buqueron Mr. Prudencio Galsim Regional Science High School III Abstract Sludge as a residue from industrial water treatment process, becomes one of the pollutants in the water environment. Disposing sludge properly is one of the problems of the agency concerned. To minimize if not to control this kind of pollutant, an alternative way of disposing the sludge properly was considered in the study. The study Sludge as an Additive Raw Material in Cement aimed to utilize sludge as a quality additive raw material in the commercial cement industry. The gathered sludge from Subic Water Plantation at Binictican Subic Bay Freeport Zone (SBFZ) was oven dried. The dried sludge was pounded and added to the commercial cement in varying ratios. The mixtures were then subjected to physical and chemical analyses at Cement Manufacturers Association of the Philippines (CeMaP) Testing Center to test whether sludge is a viable additive raw material in cement or not. Results showed that chemical properties of commercial cement were affected by varying ratios of sludge at 5% and 10%. Physical test of the Treatments was conducted to determine the level of quality of the mixture in terms of Fineness, Autoclave Expansion, Compressive Strength and Setting Time. Results of the physical test showed that physical quality of commercial cement was significantly improved relative to varying ratios of the sludge added. In accordance to the aforementioned results of the tests conducted, sludge has high potential as an additive in cement.

Introduction Background of the Study Sludge is a residual semi-solid material left from industrial water treatment or waste treatment process. It has the chemical components to be an additive on cement. It has components of limestone, aluminum and silica. Since cement is widely used in the world, sludge, a waste on water plantations will be the additive in the making of the cement. The need for cement continues to increase yearly. Since sludge is a waste the researchers taught that it would be cheaper if it has additive of sludge. Researchers gathered sludge from the water treatment plant of Subic Water and Sewerage Co. Inc in Binictican. That treatment plant was producing approximately 187,580,905 m3of sludge per year. Subic Water and Sewerage Co. Inc are seeking innovative approach to Sludge possible utilization. Because the method they use to dispose sludge which is dilution was no longer tolerated because there is simply not enough water to dilute the large amount of waste pollution controls restricts the dumping of sludge in the river. The researchers found out about the problems, which is the drying of sludge and its chemical analysis. Basic quality control, cost savings and its environmental friendly are some of the main factor why the researchers plan to have a follow-up study. Objectives: 1. To determine whether there is a significant effect in the physical properties of experimental cement with the varying ratios of sludge in terms of: a. Fineness b. Compressive Strength c. Setting Time d. Autoclave Expansion 2. To determine whether sludge can contain component chemicals needed to utilize it as a raw additive material in producing quality cement. Hypothesis There is a significant effect in the physical properties of experimental cement with varying ratios of sludge. Sludge contains components chemicals needed to utilize it as additive raw material in cement making. Significance of the Study Sludges improper disposal serves as one of pollutants in our environment. Companies have a difficulty to comply with the government about sludge disposal because its very expensive, when a liquid sludge is produced, further treatment may be required to make it suitable for final disposal. Typically, sludges are thickened (dewatered) to reduce the volumes transported offsite for disposal and there is no process, which completely eliminates the need to dispose of bio-solids, so the companies that produced sludge as their waste have no choice but to dispose it in the improper way. Results could benefit many people because of alternative way in disposing sludge, it will lessen the pollution at the same time cement will have a cheaper additive with a good quality. Scope and Limitation This study was focused on sludge as an additive in cement making. Chemical analysis of sludge and the physical properties such as fineness, time setting, autoclave expansion and compressive strength was determined in the CeMAP Testing Center at Pasig City. The selection process was based on literature only. The researchers determine the brief descriptions method and explore the possibility of effective reutilization of sewerage sludge into cement kiln process as raw mix material in cement. Proponents such as sludge were gathered at Binictican Water Treatment Plant and the cement was bought at a local hardware. This study was conducted within August 2007-December 2008.

Review of Related Literature Portland Cement is the most common type of cement in general usage in many part of the world, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco and most non-specialty grout. The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete. Concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shaped desired, and once hardened, can become a structural element. Portland cement is also used in mortars (with sand and water only) for plasters and screens, and in grouts (cement/water mixes squeezed into gaps to consolidate foundations, road beds, etc.). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/portland_cement#types_of_portland_cement) The HarperCollins Dictionary of Environmental Science defines sludge as a viscous, semisolid mixture of bacteria- virus- laden organic matter, toxic metals, synthetic organic chemicals, and settled solids removed from domestic and industrial waste water at a sewage treatment plant. In 1977, EPA Administrator Douglas Costle estimated that by 1990 treatment plants would be generating 10 million tons of sludge per year, a thought that gives all a massive environmental headache. Before treatment, this wastewater contains over a million pounds of hazardous components. Sewage plants use heat, chemicals and bacterial treatments of detoxify 42 percent escapes into the atmosphere and 19 percent is discharged into lakes and streams. The remaining 14 percentapproximately 2 million pounds per yearwinds up into sewage sludge. Once created, this sludge must be disposed of somehow. Available methods include: incineration (which pollutes the air), dumping into landfills (which is expensive, and often leaches contaminants into ground water), and ocean dumping (where it was created vast underwater dead seas). A fourth methodgasification, using sludge to generate methanol or energyis favored by EPAs Hugh Kaufman as the most environmentally sound approach, but also the most expensive. (http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=sewage_sludge) Some literatures have focused on reusing the water treatment sludge on several ways like on agriculture, brick-making, artificial aggregates and even in sewage treatment and rehabilitation of acid mine ways. Skene, Oades and Kilmore (1995) determine that the physical and chemical treatment of water treatment sludge suggest that it might be used as a plant growth medium, Simpson, Burgess and Coleman (2002) mention that a number of companies are using, developing, novel-management methods for water treatment works sludge, such as incorporation into bricks. Huang, Pan Liu (2005) mentions the re-use of the water treatment residual/sludge particularly its ceramic bodies into building bricks and artificial aggregates. Texira, Melo and Silva (2005) provide an excellent study of sludge applications to agricultural and forest land. Van Rensburg and Morgenthal (2002) reveal that water treatment sludge (investigated) can be used as a liming agent for rehabilitation of cid mine waste. Sludge has been used in asphalt paving mixes to replace both figure aggregate and mineral filler size fractions in the mix. (http;//www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/recycle/waste/ss1.htm), According to Adviento (2004) the water on sludge is important in making bricks because it gives the mixture sufficient plasticity to be enabling it to be shaped.

Methodology I. Gathering of Materials The sludge was gathered from the Subic Water Plantation at Binictican Subic Bay Freeport Zone. The Portland cement was bought in a local hardware store. Laboratory equipments used were borrowed from the Science laboratory of Regional Science High School Region III. II. Settling of sludge The sludge collected was distributed in a one hundred twenty pieces 355 ml PET bottle and allowed to settle until a desired amount was obtained. III. Drying of sludge The sludge residues were collected from the PET and subjected to oven drying for 40 to 45 minutes. IV. Pulverization The dried sludge was pulverized with the use of mortar and pestle to obtain the desired fineness. V. Preparation of materials Sixty (60) grams of dried sludge and 1,140 g of cement were brought at CEMAP testing center (CTC). For physical and chemical testing, three treatments were prepared: a. Pure Portland cement (400 g) b. Cement with 10% sludge (360 g cement plus 40 g sludge) c. Cement with 5% sludge (380 g cement plus 20 g sludge) An Additional 500 grams of pure powdered sludge was prepared for the chemical analysis. VI. Molding The mixtures were molded in a 25x25x258 mm molder for autoclave expansion and 2x2x2 inches molder for other physical and chemical analyses. VII. Testing The complete physical testing together with the testing for the chemical analyses was conducted in the CeMAP testing center. 1. Chemical Analysis Each of the three samples (powdered sludge, pure cement, cement with 10% sludge and cement with 5% sludge) were subjected to chemical analyses. Their chemical properties were comprised of the following: SO3, CaO, SiO2.Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, K2O and loss on ignition. 2. Physical Analysis a. Compressive strength b. Time Setting test specimens c. Autoclave Expansion d. Fineness

Results and Discussion This chapter presents the results and discussion of the testing conducted in this study. The American Standard Testing for the Chemical and Physical Analyses were conducted in Cement Manufacturers Association of the Philippines (CeMAP). Table 1 Summary of Compared Results in Fineness: Specific Surface Air Permeability Test (Blaine Method) Properties Fineness: Specific Surface Air Permeability Test, (m2//kg)/(cm2/g) A 280m2/kg. min. Limits B A C A A 398 m2//kg Results B 4340 cm2/g C 4060 cm2/g

Table 2.0 shows that the Portland cement has the smallest surface area occupied, then cement added with 10% sludge has a biggest surface area that its particles occupied, and the cement with 5% sludge has a bigger surface area occupied than the pure Portland cement but not bigger than the cement added with 10% sludge. Table 2 Summary of Compared Results in Setting Time: Vicat Needle Properties Setting Time: Vicat Needle Initial Set(minutes) A 45 min. min. (minutes) Final Set (hrs.min) 375 min. max. A Limits B 45 min. min. 7 hrs. max A C 45 min. min. 7 hrs. max A 394 min. 6hrs.06 min. 6 hrs. 52 min. A 228 min. Results B 136 min. C 258 min.

Table 3.0 shows that all of the samples have passed the minimum limit of 45 minutes. It also shows that the more sludge is added to the cement the faster it takes to dry. It means that the varying amounts of sludge affects the setting time of the Portland cement. The more sludge added to the cement the faster it takes to dry, it is an advantage to a construction site that is needed to be built in a short period of time.

Table 3

Summary of Compared Results in Soundness Test: Autoclave Expansion (%) Properties Soundness Test: Autoclave Expansion(%) A 0.80 max. Limits B 0.80 max. C 0.80max. A 2.48% Results B 2.25% C 2.42%

Table 4.0 shows that there is a difference between the autoclave expansion of the varying treatments namely (A) Pure Portland Cement, (B) Cement with 10% sludge, (C) Cement with 5% sludge. This table also shows that sludge failed in this test due to the effect of the Portland that is used. Table 4 Summary of Compared Results in Compressive Strength: (MPa) Properties Compressive Strength: (MPa) 3 days A 12.0MPa min. 19.0MPa min. 28.0MPa min. Limits B 13.0MPa min. 20.0MPa min. 25.0MPa min. C 13.0MPa min. 20.0MPa min 25.0MPa min. A 23.4MPa 30.6MPa In progress Results B 15.3MPa 21.1MPa In progress C 17.9MPa 24.8MPa In progress

7 days 28 days

Table 7.0 shows that more sludge added to cement, the lesser strength is needed to break the cement. All of the samples passed the limit of 13.0 MPa. It also shows that the cement added with sludge became harder as the time goes by. It means that the varying amount of sludge affects the strength of the Portland cement. It has an advantage to the workers, for example they use the sludge as an additive in cement , it is easy for them to break it when they made a mistake because when the cement added with sludge is not that hard when newly made, it will became harder and harder as the time goes by.

Table 5

Summary of Chemical Analyses of different treatments Properties Si02 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO LOI IR SO3 Na2O K2O P2O5 TiO2 UD Total F-CaO Complexes,(%) C3S C2S C3A C4AF Ratios,(%) S.M. H.M. A/F L.S.F treatment A Portland Cement 19.0 6.5 2.9 62.6 2.5 2.5 0.55 2.70 B B B B 1.3 100.00 2.9 55 13 12 9 2.0 2.2 2.2 96.5 treatment B Cement with 10% sludge 20.3 9.0 3.2 56.5 2.4 4.9 4.22 2.48 B B B B 1.22 100.00 2.4 B B B B B B B B treatment C Cement with 5% sludge 19.7 7.5 3.10 60.0 2.4 3.4 1.98 2.57 B B B B 1.33 100.00 2.6 B B B B B B B B

Table 9 shows the results of the chemical analyses. It shows that the LOI of the product has higher percentage than magnesium oxide so if u will use sludge as an additive, theres a limit which is up to 10% only. The results also showed that the product passed all the specifications but to determine if sludge can be used as an additive it should also pass the Pozzolanic activity index test with cement. Legend: LOI- Loss on Ignition IR- Insoluble Residue B-not required

CONCLUSION There is a significant effect in the physical properties of experimental cement with varying ratios of sludge in terms of fineness, compressive strength, setting time and autoclave expansion. Sludge contains the component chemicals needed to utilize it as an additive raw material in cement.

RECOMENDATION The researchers recommend the following for the improvement of the study: 1. Test the product using the pozzolanic activity index (PAI) test with cement. 2. Find other ways to improve quality of sludge as cement additive. 3. Try to find other uses of sludge by making research.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Online References: Definition of Portland cement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/portland_cement#types_of_portland_cement Literatures about water sewage Sludge http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=sewage_sludge http;//www.tfhrc.gov/hnr20/recycle/waste/ss1.htm

Book Reference: Definition of Sludge The HarperCollins Dictionary of Environmental Science

Person Reference: Brick Making Adviento (2004)