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On Literature

A. Draw additional txt boxes to complete the concept map of LITERATURE.










B. Define Poetry by answering these questions. What does it deal with? How is it communicated? What are the important elements to consider a good LITERATURE? ELEMENTS 1. Symbol- something more than what it is. It could be anything (e.g. animals, plants, or any objects/concepts) used in a poem to represent something else, i.e.. More than its literal meaning. 2. Imagery- painting a picture through words. A poet shares his experience with the reader through vivid images. The main quality of imagery is its vividness and its specific visual representation of a concrete object in reality. 3. Diction- a poet describes the experience through words. (Important: context controls the meaning of a word and sometimes may suggest a new meaning.) Connotation- it applies to what the word suggests. This allows the poet to evoke an emotional response from the readers. Denotation- the specific meaning of a word.

4. The Language of Comparison Metaphor- the literal concept in a poem is compared to something else because the writer sees a resemblance between them. It is a direct comparison. Simile- an indirect comparison.

5. Rhyme and Rhythm Rhythm- the regular recurrence of grouped stressed and unstressed, long and short, high pitched or low pitched syllables in alteration which make up one line of poetry. Rhyme- a patterned recurrence of like or similar sounds and it functions indirectly to intensify meaning. What adjective can you give to best describe the language used in literature?

2. Put a check on the respective column to indicate your answer. On the last column justify your answer by giving reason/s. YES 1. Literary works are preferably read aloud, even until today. NO IMPLIED REASONS Literary works are experienced and understood more if readers share it to others and read it aloud. Through literary works, we could express whatever we want to express, it may be a feeling, emotion, situations or ideas. Yes, Literature enriches the experiences of humans because these could give us moral lessons and values in life. Even until today, we write for our dreams and fight for the right through writing. We want to express our

2. Literary works speaks of lifeemotions, situations and ideas.

3. Literature enriches the experiences of humans intellectually and personally. 4. It draws individuals to the wider world of human dreams and struggles.

5. It encourages more people to capture and express the product of their imaginations.

6. The situations presented in literary works make us better feel and understand the totality of the created universe.

7. We better appreciate the beauty of order and arrangement.

8. Literature somehow influences our views about other humans, positively or negatively.

9. It makes us appreciate the beauty of others creativity and giftedness.

feelings. Readers are encouraged to express the product of their imaginations because of what they read that amazed them thus, readers are inspired to write on their own. Literary works make us better feel and understand the totally of the created universe because these situations reveal reality thus helping us appreciate it. Literary works help us appreciate the beauty of order and arrangement because most of the literary works are in order like rhythmical poems. Literary works makes us realize the universality, similarities and differences of humans which we need to understand and accept. The beauty of literary works make us love and appreciate the beauty of others creativity and

10. It helps us become better critical thinkers.

11. Imaginative literature presents life realities.

12. Non-fiction prose presents facts as in news of events in the world, history, and science.

13. It furthers logic in reasoning.

14. News reports, feature articles, essays, editorials and the like are, non-fiction prose.

15. The characters and events of these literary works are not based on the imagination of the writer.

giftedness. Deep meanings and lessons in a literary work help us become critical thinkers. Imaginative literature is different from life realities. It entails fantasies, myths and other farreality poems. Non-fiction prose presents facts as in news of events in the world, history, and science that could update us in present status quo. These are not merely inventions of mind or imaginations. Literary works enhances our logic in reasoning because these help us become critical thinkers. News reports, feature articles, essays, editorials, and the like are, nonfiction prose because these entails facts about the world and present status. The characters and events of literary works depends on the writer, it may be based on the imagination of the

writer or true to life characters and events.

PART II: INTERPRETING 1. ON PHIL. LITERATURE Give your thoughts on the following lines. Justify your answers. Excerpts from Phil. Poetry 1. We still go to Knogas store for rice, sardines and nails for the coffin 2. The farmers come down every Sunday to sell their agony and sweat. 3. It must have the wisdom of bows and it must have the wisdom of bows. YOUR THOUGHTS The statement entails that the citizens socioeconomic status remained unchanged. Their socioeconomic status didnt improve. Farmers work hard every day so that on Sundays they would gain the fruit of their labor which is the money.

4. It must be able to hear the luminance of dove and deer.

This statement speaks of the archer's bow. A good bow is one that knows when to shoot, and one that directs the arrow to its mark. Just as a good poem, it never goes astray. There's a good man behind every fine poem. A good poet is usually a good person. 'Luminance' naturally means brightness. When I see a good face, it's a good face and I respond. When I see a bad face, it is the face full of crime, even though he doesn't proclaim his crime. His face proclaims it out loud.
Making a literary work like a poem is like a jigsaw puzzle. We need to think and choose the words correctly and precisely if it fits or suits the poem.

5. Jigsaw puzzle, kung minsan everything fits.

6. Behold what hot revenge he curdles in his mouth to spit in beastly fashion on her hapless face. 7. This going away I will remember for many years to come. And the pain will be the same for many years to come. 8. I wish that man can discover a drug that can deaden the memory of even just your hands.

9. Sa Poetry, you let things take shape.. Para bang nagpapatulo ng isperma sa tubig 10. First a poem must be magical then musical as a seagull.

The agony and pain of being left by someone you love will retain in the memory of the persona and never be forgotten even if many years pass by. The despair of the persona is in the highest. The persona can never bear to posses the pain any longer and wishes that there is a drug that could help him/her forget all the memories. In Poetry, we need to complete a story that conveys message, ideas or emotions.

A poem must have magic, and it must be musical so that people will be inspired to read.

On Japanese Literature HAIKU BY: MATSUO BASHO 1. Listen! What Stillness! Cicadas, buzzing in sun Drilling into rock. Literal Image

2. The seed of all song I s the farmers busy hum As he plants his rice. Literal Image 3. After the bells hummed And were silent, flowers chimed A peal of fragrance 4. A small hungry child Told to grind rice Instead gaze at the moon. 5. Autumn evening now: A crow alone is perching On a leafless bough.

6. Ancient pond unstirred Into which a frog has plunged A splash was heard. 3. ON CHINESE LITERATURE

"The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter"

While my hair was still cut straight across my forehead I played about the front gate, pulling flowers. You came by on bamboo stilts, playing horse, You walked about my seat, playing with blue plums. And we went on living in the village of Chokan: Two small people, without dislike or suspicion. At fourteen I married My Lord you. I never laughed, being bashful. Lowering my head, I looked at the wall. Called to, a thousand times, I never looked back. At fifteen I stopped scowling, I desired my dust to be mingled with yours Forever and forever and forever. Why should I climb the lookout? At sixteen you departed, You went into far Ku-to-en, by the river of swirling eddies, And you have been gone five months. The monkeys make sorrowful noise overhead. You dragged your feet when you went out. By the gate now, the moss is grown, the different mosses, Too deep to clear them away! The leaves fall early this autumn, in wind. The paired butterflies are already yellow with August Over the grass in the West garden; They hurt me. I grow older. If you are coming down through the narrows of the river Kiang, Please let me know beforehand, And I will come out to meet you As far as Cho-fo-Sa.

Lines 1-6 This opening stanza of 6 lines is organized around a central image of the river-merchant and his wife as a child, confirmed by the first component of the central image: the picture of a little girl with her hair cut in bangs. (The mark of an adult woman in the ancient Chinese culture was elaborate arrangements of uncut long hair.)Each line contributes to a clearer understanding of the central image of the children. The repetition in three separate lines of the verb "playing" to describe the little girl's activity at the front gate, as well as the little boy's presence on stilts and his circling around where she sits, emphasizes the natural, contented activity of children almost as a part of the natural world referred to here by "flowers" and "blue plums." This stanza establishes the presence of the "I" and the "you" in the world of the poem. Lines 7-10 The second stanza places the girl and the boy, the "I" and the "you," as a woman and man in the adult world. In ancient cultures, and in some cultures today, early marriages are customary, and it is often also the custom for the wife to refer to her husband by a respectful title. In the case of this poem the formality of the title is softened by the direct address of "you" added right after it. Lines 8-9 establish the child-wife's shyness in this formal adult situation by offering a picture of her bent head and averted eyes, a shyness so extreme that she could not respond to her husband, no matter how many efforts he made. Lines 11-14 The central image of this stanza is the growth of love between the young husband and wife. Her face, which in the first stanza has the bangs of childhood across her forehead, in the second stanza is averted and unsmiling, "stops scowling" in the third stanza. The vows of the marriage ceremony, "till death us do part," are evoked in lines 12 and 13 and poignantly reinforced by the triple repetition in line 13 of "forever." It is unclear whether "climb the lookout" in line 14 is a reference to a ritual performed in this culture by a wife after death, perhaps to look for other offers to marry that might come her way. If it is, it means that the wife as a widow does not want to do this. In any case, it is clear that there is nothing she wishes for after the death of her husband, so deep is her love for him now. Lines 15-18 An image of separation is developed in these lines as the husband takes on his role as a river-merchant and travels the waters, conducting his work in the world on a distant island. The wife's statement of the length of his absence is expressed in one line, giving it full and emphatic force. And in line 18 the effect of this long absence is brought to full comprehension by the use of the natural image of the sounds of the monkeys that reflect back to her the sound of her own sorrow. The sounds that monkeys make are generally interpreted as chirping, happy sounds, but the weight of the wife's sorrow is so great that she can only hear the monkeys' noise as "sorrowful."

Lines 19-21 The first three lines of this final 11-line stanza are centered on the image of the river-merchant's absence. Line 19 indicates that he was as averse to this separation as she was. In line 20 the phrase "by the gate" (perhaps the same gate they played about as children), indicates that she has returned to this gate and in her memory sees him reluctantly leaving again. For her it is the scene of the beginning of his absence. And evidently she knows this scene well: not only is there moss growing there, but she is aware that there are different kinds of mosses, which she has not cleared away since his departure. They are now too deep to clear away. Lines 22-25 In line 22 the sadness of the river-merchant's wife is again reflected back to her by the natural world, by the falling leaves and wind of autumn. This image becomes more defined with her observation of the butterflies in the garden, for they are "paired" as she is not, and they are becoming "yellow" changing with the season, growing older together. The butterflies "hurt" her because they emphasize the pain of her realization that she is growing older, but alone, not with her husband. Lines 26-29 In these closing lines of the poem and the "letter" the river-merchant's wife reaches out from her lonely world of sorrow to her husband in a direct request: Please let me know when and by what route you are returning, so that I may come to meet you. This, however, conveys more than it would at first appear. Her village is a suburb of Nanking and she is willing to walk to a beach several hundred miles upstream from there to meet her husband, so deeply does she yearn to close the distance between them.

PART III: APPLYING 1. ON PHIL. LITERATURE As a Filipino, what do you think is the best contribution of the Phil. To the civilization of the world. 2. ON CHINESE LITERATURE Read the Analects of Confucius (excerpts provided in the separate sheet) and answer the questions. Guide Questions 1. How does Confucius explain the stages in a persons life? Confucius explained At fifteen, I was bent on study; at thirty, I could stand; at forty, doubts ceased; at fifty, I understood the laws of Heaven; at sixty, my ears obeyed me; at seventy, I could do as my heart lusted, and never swerved from right.

2. What is the relationship that exists between study and thought? Explain. Study without thought is vain; Thought without study is dangerous. 3. How should a good son serve his parents? To serve them with courtesy whilst they live, to bury them with all courtesy when they die, and to worship them with all courtesy. This means that a good son must be obedient, polite and considerate of his parents while they are still alive until they die. 4. How can a leader get the loyalty of his constituents? A leader can get the loyalty of his constituents by exalting the straight, setting aside the crooked and people will be loyal. This means that if a leader does the right thing, does not disobey the rules and laws and does not involve himself in bad vices and deeds, his constituents will surely be loyal to him. 5. What should a ruler do in order to have good followers? Confucius said in order to have good followers, the ruler should guide the people by law, subdue them by punishment; they may shun crime, but will be void of shame. Guide them by example, subdue them by courtesy; they will learn shame, and come to be good. 3. ON JAPANESE LITERATURE

As the wind does blow Across the trees, I see the Buds blooming in May Its coldand I wait For someone to shelter me And take me from here. I walk across sand And find myself blistering In the hot, hot heat I hear crackling Crunch, of todays new found day And know it wont last Falling to the ground, I watch a leaf settle down In a bed of brown. So I will leave it At bay; and hope for the best This bitter new day

PART III: THINKING AND WRITING 1. ON PHIL. LITERATURE Continue the following poetry by writing another stanza/s. You have the option to either retain the Theme, Subject or issues that revolved around the Poetry. 1. SA POETRY