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Polyethylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often combination with glass fiber.

The general process are, Esterification Poly-condenstion Solid state polymerization

PET for amorphous resin is produced from the (raw material) PTA and MEG along with (additive) IPA in a series of subsequent chemical reactions. First the PTA, MEG and the additives IPA, DEG, blue toner and the red toner and the catalyst are fed to the paste preparation vessel then the paste is transferred to the esterification reactor-1 where 90% conversion is achieved. PTA and IPA is esterified with MEG at a temperature of about 250-270 oC. A pressure higher than ambient produces esterification product and water as a by-product. Then the product from the esterification reactor-1 is transferred to the esterification reactor-2 where 96-97% conversion is achieved here in esterification reactor-2 add heat stabilizer (H3PO4). The pre-condensate is transferred to the polycondensation section and water is separated by means of distillation. In polycondensation the length of polymer chain is increased from about 4 repeating elements to 100 repeating elements so the low molecular weight product is converted to high molecular weight polymer. Polycondensation is carried out in prepolycondensation reactors, which are different types of reactors involves mixed reactor and is a special type of reactor, plug flow reactors. and disk ring reactor provided rotors from both ends. Polycondensation is achieved under further increased product temperature up to 280 oC and under vacuum of about 100 Pa(Absolute). The MEG generated during the process is withdrawn from the process by evaporation. After polycondensation the melt is converted into chips by granulation by using cutters and then the chips are dried in the dryers. The chips are then screened to separate oversize and undersize chips, oversize chips are recycle . The amorphous chips are transparent in color. The amorphous chips which contains impurities such as free EG water and acetaldehyde are conveyed to SSP plant where solid phase polycondensation is carried out by using nitrogen gas and the chips are crystallized and the impurities are removed.


The principle of solid-state poly-condensation involves high treatment of PET chips in an oxygen free environment, for a sufficiently long enough residence time to permit the desired degree of reaction.

Removal of reaction products and volatile impurities such as acetaldehyde is accomplished by diffusion to the chip surface and hence into a carrier gas stream.

The chips are fed to the surge silo through the rotary feeder then they are transferred through a schenck system to the precrystallizer where hot nitrogen gas is fluidized and in the first region temperature is maintained at about 160oC and around 180oC in the second region. 35-40 % crystallization is done in this unit. Then they are transferred to the crystallizer 1 where the conveyer is heater by the HTM liquid conveys the chips in forward direction also this conveyor heats up the chips to the desired temperature of about 204oC. Then the chips are transferred to the crystallizer 2 where similar phenomenon take place as in crystallizer 1 and here chips are heated to about 210oC. Now chips are transferred to the SSP reactor by gravity, where the removal of acetaldehyde take place as well as free EG and water. Exothermic reaction taking place in the reactor because of it temperature profile showing increasing pattern . The SSP reactor having residence time about 12 hours , At outlet of the reactor the chips temperature is about 212 oC. After it chips are conveyed to the fluidized bed cooler where cold nitrogen is blown to cool down the chips to about 90oC. Then the chips are transferred to the static cooler which is a shell and tube heat exchanger where the chips are in the tube side and the cooling water is at the shell side. At the exit of the static cooler the chips having a temperature 55-60oC. Then chips are conveyed to the vibrating screen where oversize and undersize chips are separated and the required size chips are transferred to the product storage silos by means of compressed air.

Researchers have been looking for ways to remove the SSP stage. For example, Lurgi Zimmer has developed a direct process for making the PET bottle preforms without the SSP step. It is based on an integrated process that produces a high viscosity melt from which the chips can be fed directly to the preform unit. DuPont, in alliance with Fluor Daniel, has developed the NG3 process which is claimed to reduce the number of steps from six to four and to lower capital costs by 40% and overall manufacturing costs by 1015%. Designed to produce PET resins for the bottle resin market, the process employs a pre-polymerisation step that allows the melt phase to operate under positive pressure, eliminating the need for a vacuum system. The particle formation steps simultaneously form and crystallise the low molecular weight

intermediate pellets. The approach used eliminates the finisher in the conventional melt process and one crystallisation stage in the SSP step. In the developed countries Antimony is now band and is not use as a catalyst for PET polymer they use titanium instated of antimony because antimony is cancerginic.


ACETALDEHYDE: Acetaldehype is present in PET in a detectable amount, which is able to migrate from the polymer into liquid media With the help of a static headspace GC method, acetaldehyde was found in carbonate mineral water and lemonade. Acetaldehyde concentration ranged between 11 and 7.5 mg/l, while the contents of acetaldehyde in the PET packages ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 g/g.3 Migration of acetaldehyde from PET at 40C reached a constant level after 4 days which was about 10% of the residual value of acetaldehyde (6.3 mg/kg). At 60C this level was raised up to 50%. CATALYST: Antimony (Sb) is a catalyst that is often used as Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) or Antimony triacetate in the production of PET. It remains in the material and can thus in principle migrate out into food and drinks. Although antimony trioxide is of low toxicity citation needed, its presence is still of concern. The WHO has published a risk assesment for antimony in drinking water.

PET is used in several ways, especially when its being used for packaging. PET does not break easily and edibles stored in PET taste good because it is pure. The substance also provides a long shelf life because it acts as a good barrier to elements outside of the container.Containers made from PET are also very lightweight and clear. Products look clean and pure because of the crystal clear appearance. Because PET is only 10% of the weight of an identical glass container, it allows for less expensive shipping and handling, saving a significant amount of money for companies around the world. PET continues to be favored by many companies because it offers significant design flexibility and it is recyclable. Companies that choose to use PET for packaging have different options in regards to shape, size, neck finish and color. Some of the designs are made thick enough to be refilled, but the majority of polyethylene terephthalate containers are granulated into flakes and reshaped into new bottles or other products. PET is made from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, just like paper. So when it burns, it produces carbon dioxide and water and leaves no toxic residue. It is also used for packaging of soda, mouthwash, pourable dressings, edible oils, and peanut butter. It is used for cereal box liners, soda bottles, boil-in-the-bag pouches, and microwave food trays. Modified PETS can be heated in a microwave or in a conventional oven at 180C for 30 minutes. There has been a moderate amount of concern that additives from these trays may migrate into foods, particularly if the trays are reused in a microwave oven. PET is also used in the production of different bottles, fibers, films for food packaging, and different articles. Lavsan fabric is used in the dairy industry for filtering. Used in medicine for plastic vessels and for implantation.


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