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GROUP I

ARIAS,FRANCIS BAHAN,ADNICK BALDOVINO,ALFIE BALUARTE,FREDIE MARK BON,KIM BONGALA,BRYAN AMAMAG,CRISTY JEAN AMPOK,NORHAYA BACOY,MARY JANE BARBADO,LINDSAY BARBECHO,KAREN BLANCO,DESIREE JOY

GROUP II
ROCHIELLE CALMA JULMAR BUTLIG LENNY BUSTILLO CHRISTIAN CLET MARK LORENCE DINGLASAN LYN CORPORAL BRAVANTE,FLOR CAJES,APRIL CLEDERA,JAMES NICKO COREA,JHON LlOYD CAYETANO,REBECCA DUMAYAG,RAYNIEL

GROUP III

JOHN ANDREW EGCA JEANIE DELGACO MERYL JANE DEMORAL MARK ENCILA BRIAN GANZON NICOLE NINA DIGOL JULIE ANN EGLIP MARY JOY GAYONGALA JOEL HAMILI RAMIR HERNANDEZ ANGELICA LACHICA

GROUP IV

YAOROME HOMO AXL JUNCO EDWARD LABACO RICHARD LACAR ARVIN LAPPAY JOHN LESTER MAMARIL JACKIE LEE LOPEZ KIMBERLY ANN MAGALONA RENELYN MAGRACIA MAERIE FLORDELIZ MANALIGOD MARGOTTE MICALLER ARIANE JOY NARAG MEBYLYN RUBIANES CLYDE SALAZAR

GROUP V

MARQUEZ,ROSTOM OMBOY,CHARLES OMERES,JOSHUA PICARDAL,ROMMEL SANGLAY,JOHNRICO SANTOS,JARED USERO,CHRISTIAN LlOYD NAYANGA,REBECCA ORTAZON,CHERILYN PADOLINA,MARJORIE PARACRUZ,HANNA MAE PERALTA,APRIL PULLENTE,MARY JOY ROBIDISO,SARAH MAE

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term[1] for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic

pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).[2] Glycolysis literally means "splitting sugars." In glycolysis, glucose (a six carbon sugar) is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar. Glycolysis yields two molecules of ATP (free energy containing molecule), two molecules of pyruvic acid and two "high energy" electron carrying molecules of NADH. Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. Without oxygen, glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP. This process is called fermentation.

10 Steps of Glycolysis
Step 1 The enzyme hexokinase phosphorylates (adds a phosphate group to) glucose in the cell's cytoplasm. In the process, a phosphate group from ATP is transferred to glucose producing glucose 6-phosphate. Glucose (C6H12O6) + hexokinase + ATP ADP + Glucose 6-phosphate (C6H11O6P1) Step 2 The enzyme phosphoglucoisomerase converts glucose 6-phosphate into its isomer fructose 6phosphate. Isomers have the same molecular formula, but the atoms of each molecule are arranged differently. Glucose 6-phosphate (C6H11O6P1) + Phosphoglucoisomerase Fructose 6-phosphate (C6H11O6P1) Step 3 The enzyme phosphofructokinase uses another ATP molecule to transfer a phosphate group to fructose 6-phosphate to form fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate. Fructose 6-phosphate (C6H11O6P1) + phosphofructokinase + ATP ADP + Fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate (C6H10O6P2) Step 4 The enzyme aldolase splits fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate into two sugars that are isomers of each other. These two sugars are dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate. Fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate (C6H10O6P2) + aldolase Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (C3H5O3P1) + Glyceraldehyde phosphate (C3H5O3P1) Step 5 The enzyme triose phosphate isomerase rapidly inter-converts the molecules dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate. Glyceraldehyde phosphate is removed as soon as it is formed to be used in the next step of glycolysis. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (C3H5O3P1) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (C3H5O3P1) Net result for steps 4 and 5: Fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate (C6H10O6P2) 2 molecules of Glyceraldehyde phosphate (C3H5O3P1)

Step 6 The enzyme triose phosphate dehydrogenase serves two functions in this step. First the enzyme transfers a hydrogen (H-) from glyceraldehyde phosphate to the oxidizing agent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to form NADH. Next triose phosphate dehydrogenase adds a phosphate (P) from the cytosol to the oxidized glyceraldehyde phosphate to form 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate. This occurs for both molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate produced in step 5. A. Triose phosphate dehydrogenase + 2 H- + 2 NAD+ 2 NADH + 2 H+ B. Triose phosphate dehydrogenase + 2 P + 2 glyceraldehyde phosphate (C3H5O3P1) 2 molecules of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (C3H4O4P2) Step 7 The enzyme phosphoglycerokinase transfers a P from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to a molecule of ADP to form ATP. This happens for each molecule of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. The process yields two 3phosphoglycerate molecules and two ATP molecules. 2 molecules of 1,3-bisphoshoglycerate (C3H4O4P2) + phosphoglycerokinase + 2 ADP 2 molecules of 3phosphoglycerate (C3H5O4P1) + 2 ATP Step 8 The enzyme phosphoglyceromutase relocates the P from 3-phosphoglycerate from the third carbon to the second carbon to form 2-phosphoglycerate. 2 molecules of 3-Phosphoglycerate (C3H5O4P1) + phosphoglyceromutase 2 molecules of 2Phosphoglycerate (C3H5O4P1) Step 9 The enzyme enolase removes a molecule of water from 2-phosphoglycerate to form phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP). This happens for each molecule of 2-phosphoglycerate. 2 molecules of 2-Phosphoglycerate (C3H5O4P1) + enolase 2 molecules of phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP) (C3H3O3P1) Step 10 The enzyme pyruvate kinase transfers a P from PEP to ADP to form pyruvic acid and ATP. This happens for each molecule of PEP. This reaction yields 2 molecules of pyruvic acid and 2 ATP molecules. 2 molecules of PEP (C3H3O3P1) + pyruvate kinase + 2 ADP 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (C3H4O3) + 2 ATP

Kabihasnan: Sa payak na kahulugan nito, ang kabihasnan o sibilisasyon ay isang masulong na yugto ng kaunlaran ng isang lipunan.[1] Nagmula ang salitang sibilisasyon sa Latin na civis na may ibig sabihing isang taong naninirahan sa isang bayan. Naiisip nating sibilisado ang mga tao kapag tinipon nila ang kanilang mga sarili upang maging isang matatag at mabisang pangkat, sa halip na gumagalaw ng magkakahiwalay o bahagi lamang ng isang tribo.

Civilisation sa buong, Civilisation: Isang Personal Tingnan sa pamamagitan ng Kenneth Clark ay isang serye ng telebisyon dokumentaryo binabalangkas ang kasaysayan ng Western art architecture, at pilosopiya dahil sa Madilim na Edad. Ang serye ay ginawa ng BBC at naisahimpapawid sa 1969 sa BBC2. Parehong telebisyon materyal at isang kasamang libro ay nakasulat sa pamamagitan ng sining mananalaysay Kenneth Clark (1903-1983), na din nagpakita sa serye. Ang serye ay itinuturing na isang palatandaan sa nagbo-broadcast British Telebisyon ng ang visual na sining. Noong Enero 2011 ito ay iniulat na ang BBC ay remastered ang orihinal na pelikula sa HD. Ang mga serye ay pagkatapos muling-broadcast ng sa BBC HD channel mula 9 Pebrero 4 Mayo 2011, at makalipas ang ilang sandali nakatanggap ng Blu-Ray release. [1] [2]
Sumer (mula sa Akkadian umeru; Sumerian Ki-en-ir15, tinatayang "lupa ang sibilisadong mga panginoon" o "katutubong lupain" [tandaan 1]) [1] ay ng sibilisasyon at makasaysayang rehiyon sa katimugang Mesopotamya, modernong Iraq sa panahon ang Chalcolithicat Maagang tanso Edad. Kahit na ang pinakamaagang makasaysayang talaan sa rehiyon ay hindi bumalik magkano ang karagdagang kaysa sa ca.2900 BC, ang mga modernong historians iginiit na Sumer ay unang nanirahan sa pagitan ng ca. 4500 at 4000 BC ng isang hindi-Semitiko mga tao na marahil ay hindi nagsasalita ng Sumerian wika (na tumuturo sa mga pangalan ng lungsod, ilog, pangunahing trabaho, atbp. Bilang katibayan). [2] Ang mga conjectured, sinaunang-panahon tao ay tinatawag na ngayong "proto -Euphrateans "o" Ubaidians ", [3] at theorized na lumaki mula sa Samarra kultura ng hilagang Mesopotamya. [4] [5] [6] [7] ang mga Ubaidians ay ang unang civilizing puwersa sa Sumer, draining ang latian para sa agrikultura, pagbuo ng kalakalan, at pagtatatag ng mga industriya, kabilang ang paghabi, leatherwork, metalwork, pagmamason, at palayok. [3] Subalit, ang ilang, tulad ng Piotr Michalowski at Gerd Steiner, ang paligsahan ang ideya ng isang Proto-Euphratean wika o isa substrate wika .