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# Scalar and Vector Quantities A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude.

## A vector is a quantity having direction in addition to magnitude.

Examples: velocity, acceleration, force

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Unit Vectors
We can write a real-valued vector as

A = aA A
where:
A = A = magnitude of the vector A aA = A A = (dimensionless) unit vector in the direction of A

Two vectors are said to be equal if (and only if) they have the same magnitude and direction.

Two vectors, not in the same or opposite directions, determine a plane. The sum of two vectors is another vector in the same plane. Vector addition can be represented graphically using either the parallelogram rule or the head-to-tail rule.see Fig 1.1 on page no 04 of your text book for explanation.

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where

## Rules of Vector Addition Commutative law:

A+ B = B + A
Associative law:

B = ( aB ) B

A+ B +C = A+ B +C

) (

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## Product of a Scalar and a Vector

Position Vector The position vector of a point in space is the directed distance from the origin to that point.
z

B = k A = a B B = (sgn (k )a A )(kA)
For k > 0, B is in the same direction as A
For k < 0, B is in the opposite direction as A

R
x

P y

The position vector is a formal mathematical way to state the coordinates of a point in space.

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Distance Vector The distance vector is the directed distance from one point in space to another.
z P2

Vector Multiplication: Scalar (Dot) Product The scalar (dot) product of two vectors is a scalar that is denoted by A B It is defined as

R2

R12 = R 2 R1
P1

A B AB cos AB

AB

R1
x

The distance between the points is the magnitude of the distance vector!

Note that A A = A

## AB is the smaller of the two angles

between A and B, i.e., 0 AB .
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## The scalar (dot) product obeys the following rules:

Commutative law:

The vector (cross) product of two vectors is a vector that is denoted by A B It is defined as

A B = B A
Distributive law:

A B + C = A B + AC
No associative law since A B C is meaningless

A B an AB sin AB

AB

unit vector in the direction determined by the right - hand rule (and thus perpendicular to the plane containing A and B ).

## AB is the smaller of the two angles

between A and B, i.e., 0 AB .
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## Vector Multiplication: Vector (Cross) Product (Contd)

Products of Three Vectors: Scalar Triple Product and Vector Triple Product
The scalar triple product produces a scalar

The cross product obeys the distributive law: A B + C = A B + A C The cross product is not commutative: B A = A B The cross product is not associative: A B C A B C

A B C = B C A = C A B
The vector triple product produces a vector

A B C = B A C C A B
BAC-CAB rule scalars

) (

) (

) (

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## ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS: Cartesian Coordinate System

The laws of electromagnetics (like all the laws of physics) are independent of a particular coordinate system. However, application of these laws to the solution of a particular problem imposes the need to use a suitable coordinate system. It is the shape of the boundary of the problem that determines the most suitable coordinate system to use in its solution.

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## Orthogonal Right-Handed Coordinate Systems

A coordinate system defines a set of three reference directions at each and every point in space. The origin of the coordinate system is the reference point relative to which we locate every other point in space. A position vector defines the position of a point in space relative to the origin. These three reference directions are referred to as coordinate directions, and are usually taken to be mutually perpendicular (orthogonal).

Unit vectors along the coordinate directions are referred to as base vectors. In any of the orthogonal coordinate systems, an arbitrary vector can be expressed in terms of a superposition of the three base vectors. Consider base vectors such that

a1 a2 = a3 a2 a3 = a1 a3 a1 = a2

a3
a1

a2

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## Coordinate Systems Used with this course

Note that the base vectors can, in general, point in different directions at different points in space. Obviously, if they are to serve as references, then their directions must be known a priori for each and every point in space. see Fig 1.5 on page no 13 for explanation of the term "right handed" in the context of coordinate systems

In this course, we shall solve problems using three orthogonal right-handed coordinate systems: Curl the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the angle and your thumb will show the direction of resulting vector.

## Cartesian (x, y, z ) cylindrical (r , , z ) spherical (R, , )

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Cartesian Coordinates

## Cartesian Coordinates (Contd)

Also,

The point P(x1,y1,z1) is located as the intersection of three mutually perpendicular planes: x=x1, y=y1, z=z1. The base vectors are a x , a y , a z The base vectors satisfy the following relations:

a x a x = 1, a x a y = a x a z = 0 a y a y = 1, a y a x = a y a z = 0 a z a z = 1, a z a x = a z a y = 0

ax a y = az a y az = ax az ax = a y

ax
In contrast to cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems, the base vectors in Cartesian coordinates are independent of position.

az

ay
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## Cartesian Coordinates (Contd)

The distance vector to the point Q(x2,y2,z2) from the point P(x1,y1,z1) is given by

## The position vector to the point P(x1,y1,z1) is given by

R1 = a x x1 + a y y1 + a z z1
z z

R12 = R 2 R1 = a x ( x2 x1 ) + a y ( y2 y1 ) + a z (z 2 z1 )
Q
R2 R12

R1
O x

P(x1,y1,z1)
y

R12 =
P

(x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2

R1

x
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y
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## Cartesian Coordinates (Contd)

Consider an arbitrary vector in Cartesian coordinates:

## Cartesian Coordinates (Contd)

Scalar (dot) product:

A = a x Ax + a y Ay + a z Az

Ax = a x A Ay = a y A Az = a z A

A B = Ax Bx + Ay B y + Az Bz
Vector (cross) product:
ax A B = Ax Bx ay Ay By az Az Bz

## Consider another arbitrary vector:

B = a x Bx + a y B y + a z Bz

= a x (Ay Bz Az B y ) + a y ( Az Bx Ax Bz ) + a z (Ax B y Ay Bx )

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## Cartesian Coordinates (Contd)

The differential length vector is the distance vector from the point P(x,y,z) to the adjacent point Q(x+dx,y+dy,z+dz).

## Cartesian Coordinates (Contd)

A differential surface vector at a point on a coordinate equal to a constant surface & is defined as the cross product of the differential length vectors in the other two coordinate directions with the order of the vectors chosen such that the differential surface vector points in the direction of increasing coordinate. z

d l = a x dx + a y dy + a z dz
z C P Note that the differential lengths dx, dy and dz are not independent but depend on the specific path along which P and Q lie.
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dl
y x

y x