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IEEE 1999 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, PEDS99, July 1999, Hong Kong.

Study and Implementation of the Single-phase Three-wire Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System

Jiann-Fuh Chen* Luy-Yin Chiang* Ching- Lung Chu** Yong-Lung Lee* Tsorng-Juu Liang* *Department of Electrical Engineering National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan, R.0.C
Abstract A single-stage single-phase three-wire (143W) photovoltaic energy conversion system connected with utility power system was presented in this paper. The DC power generated by the solar cells was converted into AC power by a 143w inverter with an auxiliary LC filter and was fed directly to the utility line. Since the output characteristics of the solar cells were highly affected by the environment and lumen of sun, the PV energy conversion system was adapted to track the maximum power operation point. The size and weight of PV conversion system can be largely reduced without energy storage devices, dc to dc converter, and center-tapped transformer. Finally, a 1 kW experimental prototypis was built to demonstrate the performance of the proposedl technique. Key wold : single-phase three-wire , photovoltaic energy
**Nan-Tai Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering Tainan, Taiwan, R.0.C





Fig. 1 shows the traditional two-stage PV energy conversion system connected between the PV array and power system. The entire efficiency(qpv) of the conversion system is low because of the DCDC converter, batteries, DC/AC converter, and isolated transformer. For example, if the efficiency of each device is 90% ( qmPp, = qc = q b = =90% * qk =95%), the efficiency of the entire system is only 62%. The large size, heavy weight, and high cost make this type of PV conversion system disappointed in the practical applications.

conversion system

Solar energy is the most important energy resource to human being since it is clean, pollution-free, and inexhaustible. Due to the rapid growth in the semiconductor and power electronics techniques, the photovciltaic energy gains great potential in the applications of solar energy. Generally, the utility power applied to offices and houses is 220V/11OV single- phase three-wire system. Therefore, it is worth to develop a PV energy conversion system with 220V/11OV bilevel output voltage system. Conventionally, the PV energy conversion system was constructed by two-stage, a dcdc converter and a dc-ac inverter, and extra energy storage devices, batteries, and a center-tapped output transformer[1-31. So, the efficiency is low, the size is large, and the weight is heavy. In this paper, a PV energy conversion system constnicted by single stage without energy storage devices and transformer was developed to decrease the volume and increase the efficiency of the conversion system[4]. The maximum power output of the PV array is usually at the time when the utility power sources should provide the peak power to the load, and thus, the electric energy provided by the PV array solar energy system can be very helpfid for peak load sharing.

Battery Seis

w ;

Fig. 1. The conventional 143W photovoltaic energy conversion

The proposed photovoltaic energy conversion system shown in Fig. 2 produces the electric energy and feeds into the power system directly. Since the output characteristics of the solar cells and the load impedance are nonlinear, the inverter is regulated appropriately at the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). By the way, the nurent provided by the PV conversion system is in low harmonic distortion and in phase with the utility power source.



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+in +ib = O


Where d, indicates the duty ratio of the ith leg(i=1,2,3) and T, indicates the switching period. If the unipolar SPWM switching is employed for u-leg and w-leg[4,6], then

Fig. 2. The photovoltaic energy conversionsystem.

From (2)-(6),the following two equations can be derived


L(Aia - A i b ) = [(2d1-Z)V, -vd]T,

Fig. 3 shows the proposed 1 4 3 ~photovoltaic energy converter which consists of an inverter with an auxiliary LC filter circuit and three sets output filter. The PV energy is converted to sinusoidal ac power and fed directly into the utility power source. The control scheme of the proposed inverter can be decoupled into the differentialmode and common-mode nedifferentialmode operation is used to control the line current by controlling the operations of u-leg and w-leg IGBTs to yield unipolar switching[5]. The common-mode operation is used to control the v-leg of the inverter and to compensate the unbalanced neutral current which is caused by the unbalanced load. When the inverter is operated at high switching frequency, the following equations can be derived by using the averaging statevariable method.

3 ~ ( f = [(2d2- l)vg (van -vbn )IT, i ~ -


For the sinusoidal P W M switching, the duty ratio in each can be approximated by

di =-(I++) 1 2


Where vCon, the control signal of the ith leg and $ is is , the peak of the triangular carrier signal. From(6)-(8), one can obtain

Equation (9) and (10) can be decoupled into the differential-mode and common-mode subsystems as follows :
Fig. 3. Experimental circuit ofthe 1 3 conversion system (W


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where id = i, - ib, i, = i n , v d = vab, v, = -(van+v b n ) , L, =


Lc = 3 L 7 vcond = vconl9 vconc = vc0n2

To vex@ the performance of the proposed solar energy conversion system, the following parameters are selected for computer simulations and experimental implementation.


The Mferential-mode control diagram and commonmode conwol diagram are shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, respective1.y. In order to produce the output current in phase with the utility power source, the zero-pole compensation factor G,, ,feedforward controller factor Gfd, filter factor Gcr,disturbance compensation factor G,, the voltage regulator factor Gyp,and the feedback filter factor Gvf should be appropriately selected[4,7]. A micro processor 8 9 ~ 5 1 is used in the experimental implementation for the maximum power point tracking[% IO]. Thus, the output voltage of the solar cell is regulated at the mavrimum power point according to the reference signal.

LIZ 1.66 mH Cr= 1000 fl Input filter capacitor Ci = 10 pF Snubber R=220

0 0 0

C=2.2 nF D : FR154W

Output filter inductance L=1.2 mH

The design specifications is shown in Table 1.


"* (20V/di")
Fig. 4. Differental-rnode control diagram


t (Jddiv)

@) Experiment

Fig. 5. Common-mode control diagram

Fig. 6. Output current ib and the utility voltage source at 1kW output


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90 5. 80
70 60

: .

3 50
B 30





Fig. 7 Output current spectrum at 1kW output power.

0.4 0.6 0.8 1 per-unit output power Fig. 9. The efficiency of the proposed PV conversion system.


The conventional photovoltaic energy conversion systems, which have large volume, high cost, and low efficiency, are not suitable for small scale photovoltaic energy conversion system. The proposed l(3W photovolatic energy conversion system without the storage devices and transformer has features in small physical volume, low weight, and high efficiency. The simulation and experimental results show the excellent performance of the proposed system.
1. S. J. Chian% K. T. Chang, and C. Y. Yen, "Residential Energy Storage System," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vo1.45,No.3 June 1998. 2. C. C. Hua, and J. R. Lin, "DSP-Based Controller Application in Battery Storage of Photovoltaic System," IEEE IECON Conference v01.3 ,pp.1705-1710,1996. . 3. S Nonaka and Y. Neda, "Single Phase Composit PWM Voltage Source," IEEE IAS,pp.761-767,1994. 4. S. J. Chiang and C. M. Liaw, "Single-phase Three-Wire Transformerless Inverter," IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., Vo1.141, N0.4, pp.197-205, 1994. 5. N. Mohan, T. M Undeland and W. P. Robbins ,Power Electronics Converters, Applications and Design, John Wiley & Sons. Inc, 1995. 6. R. Tymerski,V. Vorperian,Fred C. Y. Lee and W.T.Baumann, "Nonlinear Modeling of PWM Switch," IEEE T a s on PE,Vol.4, rn. No.2, ~p.225-233,April, 1989. . 7. J. F. Chen and C. L Chu, "Combination VoItage-ControlIed and Current- Controlled PWM Inverters for U P S Parallel Operation," IEEET-. PE,Vol.lO,No.S, pp.547-558, Sept, 1995. 8. M. k ELShibinu and H. H. Rakha , "Maximum Power Point TrackingTechnique," IEEE PESC, pp.21-24,1989. 9 Z. Salameh and D. Talor, "Step-up Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Arrays," Solar Energy Vo1.44, No.1, pp.57-61, 1990. 10. M. Bodur and M. Ermis, "Maximum Power Point Tracking for Low Power Photovoltaic Solar Panels, " IEEE MELECON, pp.758-761, 1994.

I" 3.P

I (ION&V) i#*(lON&V) i, (lON&v) t (SmS/diV)

(a) Simulation

Fig. 8. Output current ia in, and ib at 1kW.

Fig. 6 (a) and @) show the simulated and experimental measurement results of V b n and ib. They depict that current ib is in phase with the utility voltage source at 1kW output power. The ib spectrum is show in Fig. 7. It depicts that the TJ3D of output current is 4.26% at 1 kW output. The simulated and experimental results of the output current i, , in ,and ib are illustrated in Fig. 8. They depict that line current i, , ib are sinusoidal waves and the neutral line current in is almost zero. Fig. 9 is the efficiency of the PV conversion system via per-unit output power which denotes that the overall efficiency of the proposed conversion is about 92% at the output power over 0.3 p.u. output power.


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