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Diploma in Mechanical Engineering

20122013

SINGLE PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTORS

Mr.Vaibhav V Naik Mechanical Engineering 2012-2013

MECHANICALENGINEERING

SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS The motors which work on single phase ac supply are called Single phase induction motors. The power rating of such motors is very small. BASIC CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE An AC induction motor has a fixed outer portion, called the stator and a rotor that spins inside with a carefully engineered air gap between the two. The rotating magnetic field is created naturally in the stator because of the nature of the supply. Formula: the relation between supply frequency f, the no of poles p, and the synchronous speed is Ns = 120f /p. Rotor speed: Nr = Ns(1 s) , where s is the slip. A synchronous motor always runs at synchronous speed with 0% slip.

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

Figure :Single phase Induction Motors Construction of a Single phase motors 1. It has two main parts A. Stator (Stationary parts) B.Rotor (Rotating parts)

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

2. Stator : Made up of several thin laminations of aluminium. Punched and clamped together to form a hollow cylinder with slots . Coils of insulated wires are inserted into these slots. Each grouping of coils, together with the core it surrounds, forms an electromagnet on the application of AC supply. The number of poles of an AC induction motor depends on the internal connection of the stator windings. The stator windings are connected directly to the power source. Internally they are connected in such a way, that on applying AC supply, a rotating magnetic field is created. 3. Rotor : Made up of several thin steel laminations with evenly spaced bars, of aluminium or copper. In the squirrel cage rotor, these bars are connected at ends mechanically and electrically by the use of rings. Squirrel cage rotor has a simple and rugged construction. The rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with axially placed parallel slots for carrying the conductors. Each slot carries a copper, aluminium, or alloy bar. These rotor bars are permanently short-circuited at both ends by means of the end rings.

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

WORKING OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 1. In the single phase induction motors, single phase ac supply is given to the stator winding. 2. Only one stator winding and operates with a single-phase power supply, the rotor is the squirrel cage type. It is not self-starting. 3. When the motor is connected to a 1- supply, the main winding carries an AC and produces a alternating fluxes. 4. Due to induction, the rotor is energized but the torque necessary for the motor rotation is not generated and s will cause the rotor to vibrate, but not to rotate. 5. The start winding can have a series capacitor and a centrifugal switch. 6. When the voltage is applied, current in the main winding lags the supply voltage due to the main winding impedance. 7. At the same time, current in the start winding leads/lags the supply voltage depending on the starting mechanism impedance. 8. Interaction between magnetic fields generated by the main winding and the starting mechanism generates a resultant magnetic field rotating in one direction. 9. At 75% of its rated speed the centrifugal switch disconnects the start winding and the 1- motor can maintain sufficient torque to operate on its own. TYPES OF SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS The various types of single phase induction motors are 1. Split phase induction motors 2. Capacitor start induction motors 3. Capacitor start and capacitor run induction motors 4. Shaded pole induction motors

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

1. SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 1. In split phase induction motor, the stator has single phase stator winding called a main winding and one more winding called auxiliary or starting winding. 2. The auxiliary winding carries a series resistance such that its impedance is highly resistive in nature. The main winding is inductive in nature. 3. The auxiliary winding has a centrifugal switch in series with it.

Figure: Split Phase Induction motors 4. When a motor gather up to 75 to 80% of the synchronous speed, centrifugal switch gets opened mechanically and in running condition auxiliary winding remains out of the circuit and the motor runs only on stator winding .So auxiliary winding is designed for short times use while the main winding is designed for continuous use. 5. As the current Im and IST are spliited from each other by angle at start, the motor is commonly called split phase induction motor. 6. The direction of the rotation of this motor can be reversed by reversing the terminals of either main winding or auxiliary winding. This changes the direction of the rotating magnetic field which in turn changes the direction of rotation of the motor

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

2. CAPACITOR START INDUCTION MOTORS The construction of this motor is similar to split phase induction motors. 1. In Capacitor start induction motor, the stator has single phase stator winding called a main winding and one more winding called auxiliary or starting winding. 2. The auxiliary winding is connected in series with the capacitor and the centrifugal switch. The main winding is inductive in nature This feature is used to increase the split phase angle between the two current Im and ISt.

Figure: Capacitor Start Induction motors 3. When a motor gather up to 75 to 80% of the synchronous speed, the starting winding get disconnected due to operation of the centrifugal switch. The capacitor remains the circuit only at start and hence it is called capacitor start motors. 4. The direction of the rotation of this motor can be reversed by reversing the terminals of either main winding or auxiliary winding. This changes the direction of the rotating magnetic field which in turn changes the direction of rotation of the motor.

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

3. CAPACITOR START CAPCITOR RUN INDUCTION MOTORS The construction of this motor is similar to Capacitor run induction motors. 1. In Capacitor start Capacitor run induction motor, the stator has single phase stator winding called a main winding and one more winding called auxiliary or starting winding. 2. The auxiliary winding is connected in series with the capacitor only. The main winding is inductive in nature. 3. The capacitor remains permanents in the circuit and thus improves the power factor. This feature is used to increase the split phase angle between the two current Im and ISt.

Figure: Capacitor Start Capacitor Run Induction motors 4. When a motor gather up to 75 to 80% of the synchronous speed, the starting winding get disconnected. 5. The direction of the rotation of this motor can be reversed by reversing the terminals of either main winding or auxiliary winding. This changes the direction of the rotating magnetic field which in turn changes the direction of rotation of the motor.

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

4. SHADED POLE MOTOR Shaded pole motor is one of the types of single phase induction motors, which are used for producing a rotating stator flux in order to make the single phase induction motor a self starting one. Shaded-Pole Single-Phase Motors 1. The shaded pole induction motor also consists of a stator and rotor. 2. The stator is of salient pole type and the rotor is of squirrel cage type. 3. The poles of shaded pole induction motor consist of slots, which are cut across the laminations.

Figure: Shaded Pole Single Phase Motors 4. The smaller part of the slotted pole is short-circuited with the help of a coil. 5. The coils are made up of copper and it is highly inductive in nature. 6. This coil is known as shading coil. 7. The part of the pole which has the coil is called the shaded part and the other part of the pole is called unshaded part.

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

MECHANICALENGINEERING

Advantages of Shaded Pole Motor The various advantages of Shaded pole motors includes 1. Very cheap and reliable 2. Easy to construct 3. Extremely rugged in nature Disadvantages of Shaded Pole Motors The various advantages of Shaded pole motors includes 1. Low efficiency 2. Low starting torque 3. Since the shading coil is made of copper, the copper loss is high. Uses / Applications of Shaded Pole Motors
Due to their low starting torques they are mostly employed in small instruments, toys, small fans, electric clocks, hair dryers, ventilators, circulators etc

TORQUE-SPEED CURVES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

SINGLE PHASE AC MOTORS

Vaibhav Vithoba Naik