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Currently there are a number of methods for rating integrated circuits for ESD performance within the manufacturing

environment. Human Body Model, Machine Model and Charged Device Model are three most common methods used. The Human Body Model (HBM)
The Human Body Model simulates the ESD phenomenon wherein a charged body directly transfers its accumulated electrostatic charge to the ESD-sensitive (ESDS) device. A common example of this phenomenon, and from which the name of this model was derived, is when a person accumulates static charge by walking across a carpet and then transferring all of the charge to an ESDS device by touching it. Of course, other 'non-human' materials that accumulate and transfer charge in a similar manner are also covered by the HBM.

Figure 1. Basic HBM Test Circuit

The Machine Model (MM)

Originated in Japan as a result of investigating worst-case scenarios of the HBM, the Machine Model simulates a more rapid and severe electrostatic discharge from a charged machine, fixture, or tool. The MM test circuit consists of charging up a 200 pF capacitor to a certain voltage and then discharging this capacitor directly into the device being tested through a 500 nH inductor with no series resistor. Figure 2 shows a basic MM test circuit.

Figure 2. Basic MM Test Circuit

The Charged Device Model (CDM)

Not all ESD events involve the transfer of charge into the device. Electrostatic discharge from a charged device to another body is also a form of ESD, and a quite commonly encountered one at that.

A device can accumulate charge in a variety of ways, especially in situations where they undergo movement while in contact with another object, such as when sliding down a track or feeder. If they come into contact with another conductive body that is at a lower potential, it discharges into that body. Such an ESD event is known as Charged Device Model ESD, which can even be more destructive than HBM ESD (despite its shorter pulse duration) because of its high current. There are currently two widely-used models for CDM testing: 1) the Socketted Discharge Model (SDM); and 2) the Real-world Charged Device Model (RCDM). SDM simulates a device inserted in a socket, then charged from a high voltage source, and then discharged through a 1-ohm resistor. SDM is easy to conduct but is not always replicating real-world CDM ESD events.

Discharge to the device, discharge from the device and field-induced dicharge are the three main ESD events that cause electronic device failures.
Discharge to the Device An ESD event can occur when any charged conductor (including the human body) discharges to an ESDS (electrostatic discharge sensitive) device. The most common cause of electrostatic damage is the direct transfer of electrostatic charge from the human body or a charged material to the ESDS device. When one walks across a floor, an electrostatic charge accumulates on the body. Simple contact of a finger to the leads of an ESDS device or assembly allows the body to discharge, possibly causing device damage. The model used to simulate this event is the human body model (HBM). A similar discharge can occur from a charged conductive object, such as a metallic tool or fixture. The model used to characterize this event is known as the machine model. Discharge from the Device The transfer of charge from an ESDS device is also an ESD event. The trend towards automated assembly would seem to solve the problems of HBM ESD events. However, it has been shown that components may be more sensitive to damage when assembled by automated equipment. A device may become charged, for example, from sliding down a feeder. If it then contacts an insertion head or another conductive surface, a rapid discharge occurs from the device to the metal object. This event is known as the charged device model (CDM) event, and can be more destructive than the HBM for some devices. Although the duration of the discharge is very shortoften less than one nanosecondthe peak current can reach several tens of amperes. Field-Induced Discharges A very rare event that can directly or indirectly damage devices is termed field induction. As noted earlier, whenever any object becomes electrostatically charged, there is an electrostatic field associated with that charge. If an ESDS device is placed in that electrostatic field, a charge may be induced on the device. If the device is then momentarily grounded while within the electrostatic field, a transfer of charge from the device occurs.