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Microbiology

. .

2009 2010

microbiology



:
Micro organisms ,
%50 %90
( yelliw .)2008
Biosphere
.
.

.
.

: :Member of the Microbial World


( Micro biology):

. .
leiceil 1886

atsreore .
( (1950s

Prokaryotes ,
Eukaryotes
.
()
( ygo oicceslsNw ticsibeeeer ) ,

Genome
Biotechnology .Genetic engineering

microbiology

carl woesse )(1970s


.
, ( )1
:
:Organisms living (Bacteria) etcceie
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olNei , Protozoa
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: setyoio



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:Viroids RNA ,
,
.
:Prions
,
.



( )

()

microbiology

Viroids

Prions

Viruses


Eucarya

Archaea

Bacteria


( )

Helminths

Fungi

Protozoa

Algae

Protest

( :)1

: :
The discovery of microorganisms and the conflict over spontaneous generation
,
() . (- 980
)1037
Roger Bacon

microbiology

)1553 - 1478( Fracastoro


.

sse alinciz

)1658( Kircher
. Antony Van
)1723 -1632( Leeuwenhoek ,

( 300-40)
1676
.
,
( )322-384 Aristotale "
, "
Spontaneous generation ,
, Pasteur 1861
,
. Chon Spores
Tyndall 1872
Tyndallization .
(" )2"a,b,c 1456
. 2005

: : The Golden Age of Microbiology


)1895-1822( Louis Pasteur
()
( )1914-1857
,
1836 Schwann Latour Kutzing
. 1845 Berkeley

.Water mold 1853 Bary
. 1866
()

microbiology

( 60-55) 63
.Pasteurization (-1877
)1885 Anthrax
.
Wendell Holmes ( )1843
.
Lister 1878 ,
.
)1910-1843( Robert Koch
Bacillus anthracis

( )1881
. 1882 Vibrio
Cholerae 1883

( ).
)1823-1749( Jenner 1796
.
. 1880
Vaccination .
Rabies
. Roux
Antitoxins Metchinkoff
. Klebs&Loeffler
.

Rickettisa 1909
( . )2

: :
The Development of industrial Microbiology and Microbial Ecology :

. Burrill

microbiology

,1883
smith1900
schloesing&muntz 1877
nitrification , winogradsky 1890

.
Waksman
Alexanders .Dommergues Hansen 1879
.
, Weizmann .
Microbial Ecology
( (1953 -1856 (1931-1851( Beijerink
.
.
,

( . .)2
1958 Tatum , Bradme , Lederberg
. 1969 Luria , Hershey , Delbruck
Bacteriophages 1974 Claude
. 1975
Baltimore , Temin , Dulbruck
DNA . RNA
1977 Woesse ,
.1979
Scanning microscopes .1980
Hepatitis B , B ,1982
1995
. 1986
.1996 Colerae ( Chromosomes .)2000
2002 . 2005
.HIV
SARS .2003
,
) ,)1900 - 1880 ,1945
,

microbiology

,
.


.

- The Scope of Microbiology :


,
.
: Bacteriology
, Microbiology Protozoology
,Parasitology Mycology Phycology
.Virology

Bactrerial Genetics Algal Physiology
Bactrerial Cytology . Microbial physiology
:
.1 : Medical Microbiology
.
.2 : Aquatic Microbiology
.
.3
Microbiology of Domestic water and sewage
.4 : Microbiology of Air
.
.5 : Microbiology of Milk
.
.6 : Food Microbiology
.

microbiology

.7 : Soil Microbiology

.
.8 : Industrial Microbiology
,
,
.
.9 : Microbiology of Insects
.
.11

: Space Microbiology
.

.11 : Microbial ecology


.
.12 Microbial genetics Molecular biology
Biotechnology .Genetic engineering
.
() , 1979
.
,Gene Therapy
.
, 1997
E.Coli 216
205 plasmeds

( . )2
Applied microbiology
,
.

- The Future of Microbiology :


,
Bernard Dixon
Microorganisms ( , , ) ...
.

10

microbiology

,
, . ,

.
AIDA SARS
, ,
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.

.

.



.
1984 ) )
,
.

.
3 ,
.

.
( )
Microbial genetics ( Molecular biology
) .
.
G.beadle( 1940 )E.L.Tatum .
O.Avery C.Macleod M.McCarty DNA .
J.Ledeberg E.Tatum ,
1958 F.Crick J.Watson , DNA 1960
F.Jacob J.Monod RNAm .

11

microbiology

( )
. P.Berg
() .
.


,
...
.

,
, ,
,
1979
,
.

. 1970

.

12

microbiology


prokaryotes ,
. biomass
. ,
. () genetic,
, .

1994 .

: archaebacteria

()

peptidoglycan

)mucopeptide

( )3 :

13

microbiology

Eubacteria

: Gram negative bacteria


spirochetes
cyanobacteria rickettsias chlamydias
.myxobacterias
%10 ( . ( 4
: Gram positive bacteria
streptococci staphylococci
Clostridi) Actinomycetes )Actinobacteria
40 %90 ( )4
.Endosmpores
:mycoplasma
.

:Bacteria
0,2 0,8 Vibrio 25 10

( )5
- :cocci

14

microbiology

,

(Dextran ) " ( )1
(.)5
1 : Microcci
.Microcus denitrificans
2 : Diplococci
:
.Diplococci
: Maningococi
.Neisseria
pneumococci .
3 : Streptococci
:
Steptococci .Str . faecalis
Streptodiplococci .Str.pneumomiae
-4 : Tetracocci
.
-5 :Sarcinae
.Sarcina ventriculi
-6 : Staphylococci
.Staph. Aureus
- Bacilli :Rods

(.)5
:
.Colibacilli
.Bacillus anthracis
.Bacillus diphtheria
.Bacillus fusiform
Coccobacilli
Pasteurella
.pestis
Vibrios or curved rods

( )C
.vibrio cholerae
:

15

microbiology

Bacilli .
Diplobacilli .Klebsiella pneumoniae
Streptobacilli .
, .
,
.
Sarcina bacilli .
- :spirals
, 1676
. , ,
, 15

( .)5 :
.1 Spirochaeta . S. plicatilis
.2 Cristosoira .Cristospira balbiani
.3 Treponema T.pallidum .
.4 Leptospira L. interrogans
( )5 .

) (5

16

microbiology

(
)
, .
( )6
:

-1

:Capsule

.
,
,
, .
.

-2

:cell wall

,
, ,
Mucopeptides
Acetyl glucosamine
Acetylmuramic ( Osidic ) .
( )A.Teichoic
( B -7)A

:
,
.

17

microbiology

,
( ) ,
,

.

Spheroplaste
.Lysosyme
Bacteriophages
, DNA
,
.
( )
,
, ( Lugol )

,
( )

. ,
,
, , .

:Plasma membrane

,
( %60 %40) ,
, () .Permeas

:
,
Mesosomes
( )8
( Cytochromes -Oxydases
)Cytochrome .
Mitochondrions ,

18

microbiology

,
.
,
Permease .
,
.

-1

: Cytoplasm

.70S
,
Chromatophores ,
, Poly hydroxybutyric
Volutine , .

-2

:Nucleoid

DNA
.
, . .

19

microbiology


( )p-11
.

-3

:plasmids

, DNA
,
. ,
:
( )1 : Transmissible ,
12 ,
( , 106. (40 10 ( 3-1) .
( )2 : Nontransmissible ,
( ,106.)20-3 ( 60-1) .
:
* .
* .Reductase
* () .DNA
* .
* Ectotoxins .
-4 Aerosomes ( Gas Vacuoles

):

,
, , Renobacter 60- 40
(.)10
, ,
( ).
,
, , :
-1

:Flagella

.
, (3-
) 12 , 50 , ) (10-20

20

microbiology

( ,)11 ,Basal Body



( )Hook .
, .
, ,
.

: (.)12

-2

Fimbriae

: Pili


.pilin .
pili ( )13
20-0,2 , ( )25-3 ,
. ,
Bacteriophage
Hemagglutination ,
,Sexepilus
. pili
pilin .

21

microbiology

13 Pili E.Coli

-3

: Axial filaments

-4

: Endospoeres

,
.

( )Bacillaceae
,
,Germination
, 80 -70
, ,
Ca-dipicolinic acid
.
:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 , .
, Ca- acid
dipicolinic ,
.
, ,
, CO2
,
.

:
,
. ,
Flagella :

22

microbiology

,

.

. :
-1 :
Bacillus megaterium ( )27 , Vibrio comma
( )200 ,
( )50 , .
%0,1 ,
.
( ,
) .
-2 :
, Bacillus
.rotans
-3 : ,
,
,
, ,
, .
-4 : ,
.
-5 : ,Myxobacteria
,Cyanobacteria ,
( 5-2 ).
-6 : .
( ,)Taxis ,
( ) ,
:
... :Chemotaxis .
... :Aerotaxis ,
.
... :Phototaxis ,
.

23

microbiology

-1-

, , ,
( )
Chemo
.taxis


()

( .) DNA


Uptake .


().

, .

24

microbiology

- Actinomycetes
( Actinobacteria ) :

.
Actinomycetes Actionbacteria
Actionmycetales Actinomyces
,Actionmycetales ()Mycelium
( )Hyphae
, 0.5-1.0 ,
2( .)14

( ,)Conidia
(.)Sporangium
:
- .
- .
- ,
,
.
,Mycobacterium
Coryneform .

,
, ,
.Prokaryotea
.
,

25

microbiology

,
.
, ,
,
,
.


.

- :Cyanobacteria
, ,
( ) a-15
Heterocystes
( Ribosomes .) b-15
a Phycobiline
Phycocyanine Phycoerythrine
B-carotene Zeaxanthine ,Myxoxanthine
.
,
.
,
,Lichens ( )
.
( 50)
.

Nitrogenase
.
, Hydrogenase
Nitrogenase
:
2NH3
C2H4

N2 + 6H+ + 6eC2H2 + 2H+ + 2e-

26

microbiology

,
,
( )3 .

:
( )16 :
-
.
-
Phycocyanine Phycoerythirne
,
.Chromatoplasme
Volutine ,
,
.
- Nucleoplasme
. DNA

27

microbiology


Eucaryotes ()

( .)17
.
201
305 309
.
201 .


Protozoan

( )
Yeast

( : )17

.

- : Fungi

28

microbiology



.
.
.
,Heterotroph exoenzyms
.
) Saprophytes ,
) () Mycorrhiza
()
.
, Yeasts
. hyphae
( Chitin ,)18
mycelium .
, .

haustoria

( .)19
( )20 ( , ,
,)
(.)3
( : )3

()

Arbuscular mycorrhizae

( )

( )


Saccharomyces .

29

microbiology

()
.
2003 .
E.coli
.
, Genome
phanerochaete chrysosporium .

.

- :Algae

Protists ,
,Colonial Phytoplankton
Diatoms ( , )21
hydrated silica
, ( .)22
. 2003
104 / ,2
.


CO2 a
Xanthophylles
phycoerythrine , .
Golden Algae () ,Brown
(.)23

,

, (
algin Agar Carrageenan )
, , ,
.

- :Protozoa
.
,

(.)24

30

microbiology

:
Flagellates .Euglena
Ciliates
.Paramecium
Amebae
.entamoebas
( )2 ()
( )3

31

microbiology

( )2 ()

,
,
, .

, .

,
.

.
,
, .


. CO2
.

, ( ) ,
( ).

32

microbiology

( : )18 .

Ascomycetes

Rhizopu
Mucor

( : )20 .

Penicillum
Mushroom

33

microbiology

The Viruses

:
,
( )1884 .
,

, ,
( (Stanley,valens 1935
.

- :
,
,
,
, vaccinia 300-200
E.coli
(1000) ( )25 ( )
, , ,
.
Jenner 1796
,
Pasteur Rabies ,1864 Ivanoweski 1892
Beijerinck 1898 .V.M.T
Twort,
) D'Herelle ,)1918 ,
( Karrer-Duggar )1921 Stanly 1935
Best 1939 ,
,
,
.
,
Bacteriophage
Cyanophyges Mycophages

34

microbiology

Archaea Mycoplasma Spiroplasma


.
,
( ) AIDS ( )H I V
.Retrovirus
Prions ,
Prusiner 1997

.
, ,
.

,

( )26
. , ,
.

( )27
Virion .
( )28
Capsid ,Capsomeres
, ,
Envelope
. .
RNA DNA ,
.

.
()
:

.1 :

35

microbiology

,
RNA ,
, .
X 300 A 150-170 A
40 A ()29

.2 :
,
, ( )60 .
, Adenovirus
252 (.)30

.3 :
:
- Poxviruses Influenza viruses
()31

- Bacteriophages
()31

.4 :
( ,
) ,
, .

.

.
, ,
Replication Reproduction
.

Bacteriophage .

36

microbiology

,
, , ()32
.
:

.1

)Adsorption &Penetration( :


( .)33
, .
Coliphage
, Lysosyme ,
:
. . DNA , , .

.2 ) Replication Assemblage et Lyse( :


DNA ,
ATP
,
. 25 DNA 200
, ,
.

Phages temperes () Lysogenie
, DNA ,
DNA , prophage
, DNA
Latency
( .)33
DNA
.

37

microbiology


,
.
,

.

- ( ) Slow Viruses :
,persistence Latent ,
Reactivation
.

,
Latent .
, Slow Viral Infection Incubation
, .
,
Immunodeficit Immunosuppression
Neonatal Period ,Latency Persistency

. HIV
)Hepatitis B Viruses( B
( ) HBV ( )Herpes Viruses.

(:)Viruses and Cancer



, , ,
.
DNA
Adenoviruses
Papovaviruses ,
,
1960 Herpes

38

microbiology

viruses Epstein - Barr virus


) (EBV ()KSHV
associated herpesviruses -Kaposis sarcoma 1994
) Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV8
. AIDS
.
RNA
( )Rous sarcoma Rous 1911
.1966
DNA ,
DNA ,RNA RNA
,DNA Rous sarcoma
Reversed Transciption RNA
,DNA DNA DNA
DNA . Rous sarcoma DNA
.
Oncorna Viruses
1970 Baltimore, Temin , Dulbecco
.
Viral
Transformation .
1975 Dulbecco, Baltimore, Temin
, ,
,

, .

,
, ,
, Heston 1976
.
1983
( .)34
, Adenovirus-5
Adenovirus-12 .
Antigen

39

microbiology

.
27-21 1986
. C
( Nitrosamine
) ( )1986 Calum Muir A
(. )1986 L.Tomatis


, .


:
,
.
.
( , , , , ,).

DNA,RNA (
) ( ) , ,Capsomeres
, ( Replication ).
genes ,
, ,RNA
mRNA ,
.
.

- :
.1 :Viruses of Bacteria and Archaea

40

microbiology

Bacteriophages
, Protists ,
.
, ,
.
, .
,
( , , , ,)
, ,
: Lytic or Virulent phages
.Temperate or avirulent phages
(.)35
) (T
Escherichia coli ( .)7-1
DNA T3 ,T7 ,
, T3 ,T7 .
65 200 55 70 .
DNA .
T2 ,T3, T6 DNA
-5 . 5-hydroxy-mehtyl cytosine
E.Coli .T
F2 RNA
x DNA x 174
DNA .
E.Coli
FI,Fd,M13 .DNA

:

,
.
-1 : Herelle
, Shigell

41

microbiology

, pesudomonas
.
-2 :

, .
-3 : ,
. ,
( )
.

.2 () : Cyanophages
, 1963
Safferman & Morris
,
( A.MOAT .)1979

.

.
.
DNA ,
LPP-1 13-19 ,
80 . SM-1 12 , (
25 40) .
.
.

-
:
.1 :

, ,
,
.
,

42

microbiology

, , , ,
Arboviruses .
,
.
( )idae ( )imae
) (Virus ,
,Adenoviridae
(()) ,
(.)36
( )4

.2 (:)Plant Viruses
,
,
( )5 (.)37
(:)5

( )m.M

60015

4010

Tobacco mosaic

0.3

60015

40106

Cucumber mosaic

0.1

4209.8

26106

Potato Virus X

0.05

26

7106

Tomato bushy Stunt


Tobacco necrosis

0.04

20

6106

0.01

19

3106


Tobacco ring Spot

0.2

16.5

2106

43

microbiology

Alfalfa mosaic


,
,
%60
, %40 , %30 .

, ,
, , .
,
,
. ,
,
.
. .

X .
, .
:
Mosaic Necrosis Malformation
.

,
.

- :

44

microbiology

Apple M. V. Peach M.V .


Prunes virus 7 Smith .
.Vine Roncet virus Citrivir Psorosis 6 .

- :
- :
. - Muskmelon vein Necrosis Virus

- :
. - Potato leaf roll virus

- :
- Onion yellow Dwarf virus

- :
Lettuce M.V - Beet M.V

- :Viruses of Fungi and Protists


,
,Mycoviruses
, 60 50 .
( )6 .
()6

45

microbiology

Basidiomycetec

Agaricus ,Coprinus, Puccinia

Ascomycetes

Nneurospora,Peziza,Saccharomyces

18 :

Deuteromycetes

Alternaria,Penicillium,Aspergillus

:
Mucor,Plasmodiophora,Rhizopus

Phycomycetes

( )Mycophages
, .
Penicillium
chrysogenum Agaricus bisporus
Sinden ,1957 1960
.
, ,
33-41 , ( dsRNA,
.) ssRNA ( )28 Penicillium cyaneofulvum
.
, .
() ,Hyphae
.
.
.
, .
phycodnaviridae
,chlorella
.dsDNA .

46

microbiology

Protozoa
Giardia intestinalis Leishmania spp. Totiviridae
. dsRN
Mimi virus dsDNA 400
Polyphaga Acanthamoeba
amoeba
.Poxviridae Phycodnaviridae , :

- :Insect Viruses
,
Togaviridae , Flaviviridae
( ) .
, Baculoviridae, Reoviridae,
.Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae
Ttrips Beetle Whitefly

.


. dsRNA
.dsDNA
Biological control
.

- :Viroids and Virusoids


Viroids
ssRNA ,
250-370 .
() DNA-
dependent RNA polymerase
. \ \20
.
Virusoids
ssRNA ,
D human
hepatitis D Virusoids 1700 B
( )dsDNA II
B .

- :Pirons

47

microbiology

,
. ( )

( ) :
:
:

Kuru 1900 (CJD) Creutzfeldt-Jakob 1920 (GSD) Gerstmann-Straussler-scheinker1936

)FFI( Fatal familial insomnia 1986

1730 Vison 1947 1967 1985 1990 1991 1992 Puma 1992 Scrapie
() ,
.
Stanley B. Prusiner
( )PrP
, ( )PrPc C ,
) (PrPsc sc
. ) (PrPsc

48

microbiology


, )(PrPc
() ) (PrPsc ( )
.
1997 ,

,
.
.
()7 Stanly Prusiner 1995

()7

Kuru







2600


.
1957
.
1958
Fore

49

microbiology

Creutzfeldt-Jakob

)(CJD
.

,
100


PrP..
.
80 .

--

)(GSS

50 2-6

Gerstmann .
.

.
straussler .PrP
scheinker


Insomnie fatale


,

9
.

.

.
.PrP

30 PrPc
.
)(BSE
Spongiform Encephalopathy .

Bovine

) (BSE :

1986 ( )40 ,

. 1987 ,
( )
,
,
, .
1980

50

microbiology

PrPc PrPsc Beta


( .)39 PrPc
\ \20 mRNA ,
PrPsc PrPc
( )39 Chaperonnes .
:
.a PrPsc PrPc
.
.b .
.c .
.d .
, Jacques
Forment : 1996
PrPsc
PrPc ! PrPc .
PrPc
.
Prusiner PrPc
!
PrPsc
.

, .

,
.

:
1990
( )39
, -
\ \245

51

microbiology

\ \30 , ,1996
1996\3\24 3 1996

( , ,)
.
( )1985
- 50-60.
,
27-40 .
- :
-. - . . 1990 .

.
.
.
.

52

microbiology

Microbial Nutrition
Nutrients
biosynthesis .

:The common Nutrient Requirements

%70-80
:
, , , , , ,,
, .
macroelements macronutrients

53

microbiology

. (P-S-
) N-H-O-C ( )
.
.

microelement trace element
.
.
growth
factors .
.
.
.

Nutritional Types of

:Microorganisms

. ,

()I

( ) I


Autotrophs

CO2

Heterotrophs


phototrophs

Chemotrophs

54

microbiology

Lithotrophs

Organotrophs

:
- :
.1 : Autotrophs

CO2 NH3
, ()
Thiobacillus .

.2 : Heterotrophs

, ,
,
Escherichia .

.3 : Hypotrophs

, ( ,)Rickettsia
Viruses .

- :
.1 : phototrophs

Bacterial chlorophyll
CO2
:
photolithotrophs
Thiorhodaceae .Chromatium
photoorganotrophs
( )
AThiorhodaceae .Rhodopseudomonas

55

microbiology

.2 :Chemotrophs

, :
Chemolithotrophs
,SH2 , NO2 , NH3 .
Chemoorgnotrophs
, Esherichia
.

.3

:Paratrophs

, Rickettsias Chlamydias
. ( )8

, .

( )8


:
Lithotrophs
Organotrophs

56

microbiology

Photoorganotrophs
Photolithotrophs

Phototrophs

.
.
Athiorhodaceae

.Thiorhodaceae
(
.
, :
)
CO2 2 H 2O (CH 2O) H 2O O2
) (.

Chemotrophs

Chemoorgnotrophs

Chemolithotrophs

:
DH 2 A D AH 2


NH 4 3 / 2O2 NO2 H 2 O 2 H

( NH
( D DH2
.)O2

AH2 A
(.

( )41 .

:Uptake of nutrients by the cell

.

.
.

57

microbiology

Chemotaxis
.
( E.coli )
,

, , , , (.)42
(:)42
E.coli Serine
Leucine.
()

.
:
,
,
Ribonuclease Alkaline phosphatase
.Periplasm

Amylases Clostridium
Acetobutylicum .
Myxobacteria
,
.

:
:Simple diffussion passive transport
Glycerol
(
) .
:Facilitated diffusion
()

58

microbiology

Permeases
( .)43 ( )44

().
:Active transport
, Specificity
B-galactosides permease E.Coli
,
,
.
( )42

.

: Culture Media

,
:
( )In-Vivo .
( )In-Vitro
,
Agar .
.
:

- : Enriched media
Nutrient broth ( Nutrient Agar
) .
.

- : Selective media

, .
, .

59

microbiology

, ,
.

- : Differential media
, .
,
,
.

.

- : Assay media
,
.

- :Media for Enumeration of Bacteria



. .

- Media for characterization of


: Bacteria
, ,
.....

- : Maintenance Media

. ,
.
, ,
, .

: ()

:Isolation of Pure Cultures

Habitats .
,
( , ,) ( .)45
( ) .

60

microbiology

Biochemical Serological
.Pathogenicity

Microbial Growth

,
, ,
. ( ).

- :

61

microbiology

- :Binary Fission

, . ,
,
, (.)48
( 30 50 )
, 15-12
E.coli 20 Mycobacterium tuberculosis
.

- :Budding
, ,
, Yeasts
Ancalomicrobium ,Hyphomicrobium
,
( )46 ( )46
.

- : Spores
,
, Bacillus , Clostridium
,
, ( PELCZAR et al
. )1977

- : Conjugation

, ( DNA
3800 E.Coli)
.
Tatum ,Lederberg 1946 E.coli
( VB1)
, ,
.

62

microbiology

) ( F ) sexual factor (F

) ( F ) (F .

( )47 ,
) (F DNA

) ( F ) . ( F

Serratia , Pseudomonas, Salmonella

-:
- : The Growth Curve

( )t
( )log b ()48
:

-1 :Lag phase

,
. ,
, , .
,
,
.

:

: , .
:
.
: .

-2 :Logarithmic phase

,
( ) ,

63

microbiology

, ,
. .

-3 :Stationary phase
,
, , .

( PH ).
,
.

-4 :Decline phase

, ,
, . ,
. ,
72 ,
.

- :
, ,
:
n

122 2 2 2 ..2 .
n

2 ( )n .
Generation Time
)35-15( E.coli ,
)20-12( Mycobacterium tuberculosis , (
, ) , ,
(.)9
,
.
24 ( )
,

, Blank .

64

microbiology

, ,
, , :
-B .
-b .
-t .
-G .
-n .

,
1000
( )10 , :

b 1 2n

2n

n .

, ( )B :

()2

b B 2n

( )2 :

log b log B n log 2


(:)n

log b log B
log 2

()3

log 2 ( )2 0.301 :

()4

log b log B
0.301

G ()t ( : )n

()5

t
n

65

microbiology


b
) (n 3.3 log
B

()6
n ( )4:

()6

t 0.301
t

) log b log B 3.3 log( b


B

( )9 .

()

Bacteria

Protista

Fungi

-

:

66

microbiology

.1

.2

.3

-a :
.
( 0.01)
1 .
petroff hausser ( )49
.
.

-b :
(1 )

( 24 ) E.coli
. Azotobacter

( )50
( )300 30
1.

.

-c :
.

67

microbiology

.
.
.
.
( Mc CRAD )

-d :
Millipore
.
( .) 51

-e :Turbidimetrice method
.
.

.
Spectrophotometer Colorimeter ( Turbidimeter
)52 Io I
. Beer&Lambert
E : .
C .
I .
:
= -ElC

log

Transmittance ( )T T%
100 :

100

= T%

68

microbiology

absorpance ( )A
:
= - log T

A = log

.

. .

-f :

( %5.5 )
.

,
.

-g :

.

-h :


.
Nitrogenase C2H2 C2H4

.

-i :Synchronous growth
.

.

69

microbiology




Defferential centrifugation .

-j : Continuous culture



( Chemostat )53
.Turbidostat
.

:

:
-1 :



.
.
-2


.

.
.

spores
( )
.
( 15) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (

70

microbiology

17) Streptococcus ( 25) .


( Lyophilzation .)54
:
.1 ( ) .
.2 75.
.3 .
.4 .
.5 .
75 76 -
( ) .

.
-3 Temperature :

.
.


optimum growth temperature

( .)55
,
( :)56

Psychrophiles :

30 20 15 .
7- 30 20

( .)57

71

microbiology

Mesophiles :
40 - 25
15 10 45 .
saprophiles
37.

- Thermophiles :
60 45
45 25
75 90 .

:
Facultative thermophiles

Obligate thermophiles

( 60 )
.
.
4 PRESSURE

:

-1 :
2

650 /
2
1200 /


.parophiles
6000 -300
45 20.000
.

-2 :

72

microbiology


:
hypotonic . hypertonic . Isotonic .
Plasmolysis
.
%30.5 ( )25-5
(100 90 )
Halophilic (%25-15
) ClNa
Seratia salinaria
.
5 Oxygen concentration :

.
(:)58

- :Obligate aerobe
Azotobacter Nitrobacter
( -) .

anaerobe

:Strict

Bacteriodes Clostridium


() () .
( )Eh .

:Facultative anaerobe
vibrio Escherichia

.

73

microbiology

:Aerotolerant anaerobe

Enterococcus faecalis .

- : Microaerophile

lactobacillus
.



.

:
.1
HSCH2 COONa SODIUM THIOGLYCOLATE
.

.2

()
.

.3

+ C6H3 (OH)3 .
.4 GASPAK ( )59
.GASPAK
Palladium
.
Acidity
or
Alkalinity
-6 (:)PH
PH PH

.
PH 8-6.5
. 9 -4

74

microbiology

4 3.5
. 7 = PH
.
() Buffer Solutions
PH .
KH2PO4 K2HPO4
PH .
-7 :

2

20 72.2/
.

2

(28

/ ) ( 40/ ) Detergents
.



.

( )
.
-8 Radiation :


( :)60

Electromagnetic :
ultra violet
visible rays infra red

.

75

microbiology

Ionizing :
()
x cosmic rays .
:

- Ultra violet :
A 2950 A 2000
.

. Mutation

.

.

- ():
A1000 0.06
()

.
.
.
-9 :

Bacterio Static

Bactericidale
detergent disinfectants .....

.

.
microbistasis .

76

microbiology


.


.
-11 :
Antibiotic

.
.
:
penicillium .griseo fulvin
bacillus Bacitracinpolymyxin
Actinomyetes streptomyces
streptomycin chloramphenicol
tetracycline .erythromycin


.

. :
.i


Muramic acid
- Mucopoly saccharide -
.
Penicilinase
Staphylococcus
.

.ii



Antagonisme
( ).

77

microbiology

.iii


Permease

.Colistine & Polymyxine

.iv



.Tetracyclins

- :
Microbial Metabolism
:

. :

)Anabolism or Biosynthetic( :

...... NH3, NO3, CO2 ,
,
.Endothermic

(Catabolism or Degradative( :

, :
,
, ,
.CO2
,
, , ,
,
.

78

microbiology


, ,
.

- :Anabolism
.A :

, ,
substrate .
S

ES

E +

DNA
, ,
Adaptive Induced ,
E.coli Lactose
B-galactosides
, .
Enzyme Induction Enzyme
Repression
,
:
.a :Structural genes
mRNA ,
.mRNA

.B :Operon genes
, .mRNA
.b :Regulator genes
.

.C :ATP

79

microbiology

ATP
( .)61
61 ATB

.D :
,
Baceriochlorophyll Wassink
,1939 ) (a -CO-CH3 -CH=CH2
-C6H5 CH3 .

Chromataiaceae , Chlorobacteriaceae

, H2S

:

CO2
, ,
,Chemosynthesis
,
:

.1 :Nitrobacteria
Winogradsky
,1890 ,
:
:

,Nitrosofication
,Nitrosomsnas , :

80

microbiology

Nitratation
,Nitrobacter , :

CO2 .
.2 :Thiobacteria
, ,
,Achromatium
,Beggiatoa Thiobacillus
thioparus :
:


, :

, co2
.
.3 :Ferrobacteria
:

Leptothrix
, .Didymohelix ferruginea

.4 :Mydrogenobacterria

:

Hydrogenomonas Ruhland
,
CO2 :

.5 :Methanobacteria

81

microbiology

,
Bacillus methanicus

,CO2 CO2
( ) ,
Methanococcus .
, 5%
,
.

- :Catabolism
,
,
.
,
.

.A :
,
,
,Aerobic Respiration
Fermentation ,Anaerobic Respiration
.

.a :

:

62 :

82

microbiology

Glycolysis
CH3-CO-COOH Krebs cycle
, CO2
The Citrice acid cycle
, ATP
,
CH3-CO-COOH
CO2 .H2O

GLYCOLYSIS

GLUCOSE
2ATP

2Pyrovic
acid

2NADH
H

2NADH
H

2CO2

+2H
step

2Acetyl CoA

Prearatory

83

microbiology

6NADH
H

+6H

4CO2
KREBS

2FADH2

CYCLE
6CO2

+H
2ATP

10NADH
2FADH2
)(TOTAL

Electrons

34ATP

+12H

62

38ATP

6O 2

6H2O

) ,(38ATP
,
( NAD FAD NADH )FADH .

.b :Fermentation
,
,

,
:
.i :Alcoholic fermentation
.

.Klebsiella aerogenes
.ii

:Homofermentative bacteria

84

microbiology

Lactic Acid


Lactobacillus lactis L.casei
.Streptococcus lactis
.iii :Heterofermentative
() Succinic acid
, , ,
:

Leuconostoc dextranium Streptococcus thermophils


.
.iv :Propionic fermentation
,
:

Propionibacterium ,
.
.v :Butyric fermentation
( Butyric acid)
:

Clostridium C.butyricum
C.butylicum C.acetobutylicum
.
.vi :Enterobacteriaceae
( Formic acid)
H-COOH CH3-(COOH)2-CH3 .

85

microbiology

,
,
Adenosine tri phosphate ATP
( - 6 -)
.63

- ) Etenra Doudorova (E.D ,


- - )Embden System Meyerhof Parnsa (E.M.P
,
) Hexose Monophosphate Shunt (H.M.P
.

ATP +
- 6- ADP+

-1-
+
+

2ATP
2H

-6-
-6-1-

3
2H


CO2

86

microbiology


+

2ATP
2H

)(E.M.P

)(E.D

((H.M.P
63
.

- :

Clostridium pasteurinum
, C.pectinovorum
,
,
Methanobacterium .CH4

.B :

,
.

.a

, ,
Azotobacter Spirillum -Clostridium
.Rhizobium

87

microbiology

.b

:

:

Clostridium C.histolyticum Actinomyces


Proteus, Pseudomonas
Streptococcus ,
.Bacillus pyocyanic
() Labeled
15N2
:

N2

.c

():

,

Micrococcus Proteus vulgarism ,
Deamination Decarboxylation CO2
() :
,
) (ONH2 ).(-NH2

.
().
,
.
.d

:
()
,
Nitrosomonas Nitrobacter ,
Nitrosocystes ocean .

.e

:Dinitrification
,
Chromobacterium Serratia
:

88

microbiology

Thiobacillus
.Clostridium

.C :

, Nocardia corllina Bacillus
megaterium ,
,Purines ATP ,Pyrimidines .
CO2 Ca3(PO4)2
) (Ca HPO4 .
,
.

.D :

, E.coli Bacillus subtilis
H2S ,
:

Thiothrix Beggiatoa H2S :

H2S
, CO2 H2S
.
Thiobacillus
.

microbiology

89