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DATE 2,11,2011

JOB NO 5
DETERMINATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS OF THE SOIL
BY TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION TEST
OBJECTIVE
Determination of cohesion c and
APPARATUS

Triaxial compression machine(Strain controlled)


Triaxial cell
Remolding device
Rubber membrane
Oven
Weighing balance
Containers

RELATED THEORY

Triaxial Compression Test


In triaxial compression test, additional vertical load is applied to have a failure of the soil
sample called deviator stress.
Advantages of the test
Triaxial compression test is the most reliable test for determining the shearing strength.
It can be done for all types of soil.
The drainage conditions can be controlled.
Pore water pressure can de found out.
Triaxial Condition
In field there are stresses all around the sample. To simulate field conditions in lab stress
from different directions is applied it is triaxial condition.
Test Conditions
Unconsolidated Undrained Test (UU Test)

In this type of test drainage is neither permitted in the consolidation stage nor in the shear
stage. It is done mostly in emergency construction conditions e.g. for construction of flood
protection buns.Undrained test is done for clays.
Consolidated Undrained Test (CU Test)
In this type of test, drainage is allowed in consolidation stage but no drainage allowed in
shear stage. It is done on soils subjected to high rise building built on clay stratum.
Consolidated Drained Test (CD Test)
In this type of test, drainage is allowed both in consolidation stage and in shear stage. It is
done for any structure built in loose soils.
PROCEDURE
1. The density and moisture content of the soil were known, the weight of the soil needed for
test was calculated.
2. The specified moisture was added to the dry soil and mixed thoroughly.
3. Cylindrical soil sample of required density was prepared by packing the soil in the specimen
mould.
4. The membrane was smoothly fited into the stretcher, folding the ends of the membrane over
the ends of the stretcher.
5. The sample was inserted into the membrane and sample was sealed by rubber bands. The
upper and lower plates were attached to the cell.
6. The cell was placed in the machine and the predetermined pressure was applied on the cell.
7. Deflection dial gauge was set to zero.
8. Readings were observed on the load dial gauge corresponding to each increment of 25 on
deflection gauge.
9. Observations were observed until there was a drop in readings.
COMMENTS
For group 1 the amount of moisture content added was not according to 12% but
according to 16% since density of soil was not same as that in shear test so reading in
erroneous and mohr circle did not touch failure envelope however sample was failed
experimentally
Since soil sample was not same as in shear test so results of both tests cannot be
compared
The value of deviator stress obtained was before 15% strain
Group no

psi

psi

1=

3+

psi

1
2
3

10
20
30

43.9
101.2
105.8

53.9
121.2
135.8

The shear strength parameters obtainted are as follows


c

soil.
This test can be done for all soils
Shear parameters determined are helpful for bearing capacity, earth pressure
determination and slope stability analysis.
Samples After failure
Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

Observations and calculations

Dry Density of soil


Diameter of sample d= 1.5"
Length of sample LO = 3"
Volume

=.00306 in3

Area of soil cylinder

=1.767 in2

Mass of soil sample =164.2 g


Proving ring constant P.R.C=.82
Least count of deflection gauge L.C =.0005 in
Least count of load gauge =.0001 in

Groups

GROUP
1

Group
2

No.
of
obs

`1
`2
`3
`4
`5
`6
`7
`8
`9
`10
`11
`12
`13
`14
`15
`16
`17
`18
`19
`20
`21
`22
`23
`24

Deflection
Dial
gaugeRea
ding

Load dial
gauge
Reading

Sample
Deflecti
on

D/R

L/R

(D/R
*L.C)
in

0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
525
550
575

22
35
46.25
55
63
69.25
74.5
78.25
82.5
85.75
88.75
91
93.25
95.25
97
98
99
100
100.25
103
103.25
104
105.25

0
0.0125
0.025
0.0375
0.05
0.0625
0.075
0.0875
0.1
0.1125
0.125
0.1375
0.15
0.1625
0.175
0.1875
0.2
0.2125
0.225
0.2375
0.25
0.2625
0.275
0.2875

Unit
strain

Area
correc
tion

Correct
ed
Area

Load on
Sample

Stress

In2

(D/R
*PRC)
lb

lb/in2

0
1.774
1.782
1.789
1.797
1.805
1.812
1.820
1.828
1.836
1.844
1.852
1.860
1.868
1.876
1.885
1.893
1.902
1.910
1.919
1.928
1.936
1.945
1.954

0
18.040
28.700
37.925
45.100
51.660
56.785
61.090
64.165
67.650
70.315
72.775
74.620
76.465
78.105
79.540
80.360
81.180
82.000
82.205
84.460
84.665
85.280
86.305

0
10.167
16.107
21.195
25.098
28.627
31.333
33.564
35.103
36.850
38.135
39.298
40.118
40.930
41.624
42.201
42.446
42.688
42.926
42.839
43.815
43.722
43.839
44.162

10
0.004
0.008
0.013
0.017
0.021
0.025
0.029
0.033
0.038
0.042
0.046
0.050
0.054
0.058
0.063
0.067
0.071
0.075
0.079
0.083
0.088
0.092
0.096

0
0.996
0.992
0.988
0.983
0.979
0.975
0.971
0.967
0.963
0.958
0.954
0.950
0.946
0.942
0.938
0.933
0.929
0.925
0.921
0.917
0.913
0.908
0.904

`25

600

105

0.3

0.100

0.900

1.963

86.100

43.854

1
`2
`3
`4
`5

0
25
50
75
100

0
20
28
83
127

0
0.0125
0.025
0.0375
0.05

0
0.004
0.008
0.013
0.017

0
0.996
0.992
0.988
0.983

0
1.774
1.782
1.789
1.797

0
16.400
22.960
68.060
104.140

0
9.243
12.885
38.036
57.954

Rem
arks

Sam
ple
failu
re

Group
3

`6
`7
`8
`9
`10
`11
`12
`13
`14
`15
`16

125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375

155
173
185
194
202
208
213
215
221
226
228

0.0625
0.075
0.0875
0.1
0.1125
0.125
0.1375
0.15
0.1625
0.175
0.1875

0.021
0.025
0.029
0.033
0.038
0.042
0.046
0.050
0.054
0.058
0.063

0.979
0.975
0.971
0.967
0.963
0.958
0.954
0.950
0.946
0.942
0.938

1.805
1.812
1.820
1.828
1.836
1.844
1.852
1.860
1.868
1.876
1.885

127.100
141.860
151.700
159.080
165.640
170.560
174.660
176.300
181.220
185.320
186.960

`17

400

232

0.2

0.067

0.933

1.893

190.240

`18

425

235

0.2125

0.071

0.929

1.902

192.700

`19

450

237

0.225

0.075

0.925

1.910

194.340

`20

475

239

0.2375

0.079

0.921

1.919

195.980

70.431
78.276
83.348
87.027
90.226
92.503
94.315
94.785
97.003
98.760
99.194
100.48
5
101.33
0
101.73
4
102.13
1

`21

500

238

0.25

0.083

0.917

1.928

195.160

101.24
3

`1
`2
`3
`4
`5
`6
`7
`8
`9
`10
`11
`12
`13
`14
`15
`16
`17
`18

0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425

0
51
89
118
137
151
162
170
174
182
190
197
201
205
208
212
221
227

0
0.0125
0.025
0.0375
0.05
0.0625
0.075
0.0875
0.1
0.1125
0.125
0.1375
0.15
0.1625
0.175
0.1875
0.2
0.2125

0
0.004
0.008
0.013
0.017
0.021
0.025
0.029
0.033
0.038
0.042
0.046
0.050
0.054
0.058
0.063
0.067
0.071

0
0.996
0.992
0.988
0.983
0.979
0.975
0.971
0.967
0.963
0.958
0.954
0.950
0.946
0.942
0.938
0.933
0.929

0
1.774
1.782
1.789
1.797
1.805
1.812
1.820
1.828
1.836
1.844
1.852
1.860
1.868
1.876
1.885
1.893
1.902

0
41.820
72.980
96.760
112.340
123.820
132.840
139.400
142.680
149.240
155.800
161.540
164.820
168.100
170.560
173.840
181.220
186.140

0
23.569
40.957
54.075
62.517
68.614
73.299
76.590
78.055
81.292
84.498
87.230
88.613
89.980
90.895
92.233
95.721
97.881

Sam
ple
failu
re

`19

450

233

0.225

0.075

0.925

1.910

191.060

`20

475

236

0.2375

0.079

0.921

1.919

193.520

`21

500

240

0.25

0.083

0.917

1.928

196.800

`22

525

243

0.2625

0.088

0.913

1.936

199.260

`23

550

247

0.275

0.092

0.908

1.945

202.540

`24

575

250

0.2875

0.096

0.904

1.954

205.000

`25

600

252

0.3

0.100

0.900

1.963

206.640

`26

625

255

0.3125

0.104

0.896

1.972

209.100

`27

650

258

0.325

0.108

0.892

1.982

211.560

`28

675

257

0.3375

0.113

0.888

1.991

210.740

100.01
7
100.84
9
102.09
4
102.90
0
104.11
6
104.89
8
105.25
0
106.00
9
106.75
8

105.84
7

Moisture content table


Group
no
1
2
3

Moisture content
added
%
16
12
12

Can
no
64
94
83

Empty wt of
can
gm
15.74
13.13
15.16

Wt of can
+wet soil
gm
72.09
31.96
28.87

Wt of can+dry
soil
gm
64.19
30.01
27.39

Moisture
content
%
16.3
11.55
12.1

Sam
ple
faiur
e

STRESS~STRAIN CURVE

120

STRESS PSi

100
Group 1

80

Group 2

60

Group 3

40
20
0
0

6
Strain %

10

12