Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

1

2

(

y k

) 0

k 

u

y

u

y

k

# _|Å

k 

k

5

## Time Sequence

f

(

k

)

n

A p

i

k

i

i

1

,

k

0,1, 2,

...

Z



F

(

z

)

n

### 

A
i

i

1

z

z p

i

• Bounded sequence for poles in the closed unit disc (i.e. on or inside the unit circle).

• Sequence decays exponentially for poles in the open unit disc (i.e. inside the unit circle).

• Unbounded sequence for repeated poles on the unit circle.

• For real time sequences poles and partial fraction coefficients are either real or complex conjugate pairs.

6

7

## Proof

(

y k

n

)

a

n 1

(

y k

 

n

1)

...

(

a y k

1

1)

a

0

(

y k

)

(

b u k

m

m

)

(

b u k

m

m

1)

...

(

b u k

1

1)

b u

0

(

k

)

k 0,1, 2, ...

Response of the system due to ICs y(0), y(1), , y(n)

Y

(

z

)

N

(

z

)

z

n

a

n 1

n 1

z

 

...

az

1

a

0

• 1. Denominator of the output z-transform = denominator of the z-transfer function for no pole-zero cancellation.

• 2. Poles of Y(z) = poles of transfer function.

• 3. Y(z) due to initial conditions is bounded for system poles in the closed unit disc unit (no repeated poles on the unit circle) & decays exponentially for system poles

in the open unit disc (inside the unit circle).

8

## Solution

### Determine the asymptotic stability of the following systems:

Use Theorem 1 can (a) and (b) without pole- zero cancellation.

Ignore zeros, (do not affect response due ICs)

H

4

z

2

b

H

4

z

0.2

### 

• a) Pole outside the unit circle unstable

a

)

(

z

)

z

2

z

0.1

)

(

z

)

z

0.2

### 

z

0.1

• b) All poles inside the unit circle asymptotically stable.

)

H

(

z

)

5

z

0.3

d

)

H

(

)

8

z

0.2

c

z

0.2

z

0.1

z

z

0.1

z

### 1

• c) All poles inside the unit circle asymptotically

• d) One pole on the unit circle marginally stable.

stable.

9

10

k

( ) 

yk

(

hk

iui

)

( ),

k

012

,

,

, ...

i 0

0

b

h

1

(

h k

)

b

h

2

 

,

k

0,1, 2, ...

y ( k )

k

(

h k

i

0

)

i u

( )

i

b

h 1

k

( ),

u i

i

0

k

0,1, 2, ...

( )

u i

1,

i

0,1,

unbounded output

i 0

k

i 0

k

u

k

# 

i 0

13

i 0

14

(

h k

)

n

A p

i

k

i

,

k

0,1, 2,

...



H

(

z

)

n

A

i

z

i

1

i

1

z p

i

(

h k

)

n
k
A p
i
i
i  0
h i
( )

n

i 0

n

i 0

A

i

A

r

p

i

0

k
p
 nA
p
i
r
s
1
i
 n A
s
r
1  p
s

k

,

 

k

0,1, 2,

17

18

i

0

m

i

0

19

a

)

H

(

z

)

4

z

2

z

2

z

0.1

b

)

H

(

z

)

4

z

0.2

z

0.2

z

0.1

c

)

H

(

z

)

5

z

0.3

z

0.2

z

0.1

d

)

H

(

z

)

8

z

0.2

z

0.1

z

20

21

Im[z]

Unit Circle
STABLE
Re[z]

22

23

## MATLAB: ddamp

### Gives the pole locations,  and  n

Eigenvalue

Magnitude Equiv. Damping

 + 0.7428I 0.2306 0.7778 0.1941 12.9441 - 0.7428I 0.2306 0.7778 0.1941 12.9441 -0.6612 0.6612 0.1306 31.6871

24

## Theorem 4-4

If all the transfer functions that relate the system inputs (R and D) to the possible

### The system of Figure 4-3 is internally stable if and only if all the closed-loop

system outputs (Y and U) are BIBO stable, then the system is internally stable.

D(z
E(z)
U(z)
C(z)
G ZAS (z)

R(z)

+

Y(z)

D(z
E(z)
U(z)
C(z)
G ZAS (z)

R(z)

+

Y(z)

C (

)

z G

ZAS

(

z

)

G

ZAS

(

z

)

 

R

(

z

D

(

z

Y

U

(

(

z

)

z

)

 

1

C

(

)

z G

C

(

z

ZAS

)

(

z

)

1

C

(

)

z G

ZAS

(

z

)

C

(

)

z G

ZAS

(

z

)

)

)

1

C

(

)

z G

ZAS

(

z

)

1

C

(

)

z G

ZAS

(

z

)

25

26

C

(

z

)

N

C

(

z

D

C

(

z

)

)

G

ZAS

(

z

)

N

D

G

(

z

)

G

(

z

)

Y

1

N

C

N

G

D

C

N

G

  

R

U

D

C

D

G

N

C

N

G

N

C

D

G

N

C

N

G

 

  

D

27

28

29

## Solution

Discretized process transfer function

)
G s
(
0.075997 (
z 
1.334)
 1
Z
G
(
z
) = 1 
z
ZAS
s
(
z
0.8149)(
z
0.7655)

30

C (

## Solution (Cont.)

10(
z
0.8149)(
z
0.7655)
0.075997 (
z 
1.334)
z G
)
(
z
) 
ZAS
(
z
1)(
z
1.334)
(
z
0.8149)(
z
0.7655)

violates condition (ii) of Thm. 4-5: pole at 1.334 cancels in the loop gain

31

32

## Example 4.4

Find stability conditions for
Easy stability test for low-order polynomials.
Difficult for high order z-polynomials.
a)
The first order polynomial
For high order polynomials, use symbolic
manipulation.
a z  a
,
a
0
1
0
1
n
n  1
b)
The second order polynomial
Fz
(
)
az
a
z

...
a
n
n  1
0
1  w
n
n  1
2
z 
1  w
1
 w
az
 ,
az
a
a
 0
  a 
1  w
 a
  a
...
2
10
2
n
n  1
1  w
1
 w
0
33
34

a
0
a
1

35

## Solution: 2 ndorder

z

1 2
,

2

a
a
 4
aa
1
1
0
2
2 a
2
• Stability determination by solving for roots is difficult.

• Monic polynomial

• constant term = product of poles

• For pole magnitudes < 1

• Necessary stability condition

• Sufficient for complex conjugate poles

a
0
a
2

1

   

a

0

a

2

&

a

0

a

2

36

## Bilinear Transformation

a

2

1

1

w

w

2

a

1

1

1

w

w

  a

0

• 210 2



a

aw

2

aw

20



210

a

a

### 

Routh-Hurwitz criterion: poles of 2nd order w-polynomial

### complex conjugate roots and only necessary for real roots.

remain in the LHP iff its coefficients are all positive.

aaa   0

210

a

2

a

0

0

aaa   0

210

### and +1.

Adding the first and third conditions gives the condition

obtained earlier

a

2

a

0

0

37

38

## Jury Test

2

1

0

0

1

### a

0

a 0

 1
1
 0
a 0 = 1
stable a 0 = a 1 1
a 1  1
 0
1
1
a 1
1
 0

The roots of the polynomial are inside the unit

circle iff

n

n 1

n

(1)

n 1

F(1) > 0

1

0

n

### 

(2)

(1) n F(1) > 0

(3)

| a 0 |

< a n

(4)

| b 0 | > | b n 1 |

(5)

| c 0 | > | c n 2 |

39

(n+1)

| r 0 | >

|

r 2 |

40

## Jury Table

 Row z 0 z 1 z 2  z n  k  z n  1 z n 1 a 0 a 1 a 2  a n  k  a n  1 a n 2 a n a n  1 a n  2  a k  a 1 a 0 3 b 0 b 1 b 2  b n  k  b n  1 4 b n  1 b n  2 b n  3  b k  b 0 5 c 0 c 1 c 2   c n  2 6 c n  2 c n  3 c n  4   c 0 . . . .   . . . .   . . . .   2 s n  5 0 s 1 s 2 s 3 2 s n  4 3 s 2 s 1 s 0 2 r 0 n  3 r 1 r 2

41

b

k

a

0

a

n

a

n

k

a

k

,

k

01,, ,

n



1

c

k

b

0

b

n

1

b

n k

1

b

k

.

,

.

.

k

0,1,

,

n

2

r

0

s

0

s

3

s

3

s

0

r

1

s

0

s

3

s

2

s

1

r

2

s

0

s

3

s

1

s

2

42

## Remarks

• 1. First row of Jury table: listing of the coefficients of the polynomial F(z) in order of increasing power of z.

• 2. Number of rows of table 2 n 3 is always odd and the coefficients of each even row are the same as the odd row directly above it with the order of the coefficients reversed.

• 3. The n + 1 conditions for n +1 coefficients of F(z).

• 4. Conditions 3 through n +1 calculated using the coefficient of the first column of the Jury table, together with the last coefficient of the last row.

• 5. The middle coefficient of the last row is never used and need not be calculated.

• 6. Conditions (1) and (2) are calculated from F(z) directly. If one of the first two conditions is violated, F(z) has roots on or outside the unit circle (no need to construct the Jury table or test the remaining conditions).

43

## Remarks (cont.)

7- Condition (3) with a

n

= 1, requires the constant term of

the polynomial to be less than unity in magnitude. The

constant term is simply the product of the roots and must

be smaller than unity for all the roots to be inside the unit

circle.

• 8 For first and second order systems, the Jury stability conditions reduce to the conditions derived earlier.

9- For higher order systems, applying the Jury test by hand

is laborious and it is preferable to test the stability of a

polynomial F(z) using a CAD package.

10- If the coefficients of the polynomial are functions of

system parameters, the Jury test can be used to obtain

the stable ranges of the system parameters.

44

## Solution

 Test the stability of the polynomial (1) F(1) = 1 + 2.6  0.56  2.05 + 0.0775 +0.35 =1.4175 > 0 (2) (1) 5 F(1) = (1)(1+2.6+0.562.050.0775+0.35) =  0.3825 < 0 54 056 . 3 2 05 . 2 0 0775 . 0 35 .  0 Fz()  z  2 6 . z  z  z  z  (3) | 0.35 | < 1 (4) | 0.8775 | > | 0.8325 | Row z 0 z 1 z 2 z 3 z 4 z 5 (5) | 0.0770 | < | 0.5151 | 1 0.35 0.0775 2.05 0.56 2.6 1 2 1 2.6 0.56 2.05 0.0775 0.35 • (6) | 0.2593 | < | 0.3472 | 3 0.8775 2.5729 0.1575 1.854 0.8325 • Conditions (2), (5) & (6) violated . Condition (2) is sufficient to conclude instability. 4 0.8325 1.854 0.1575 2.5729 0.8775 No. of conditions violated  No. of roots outside the unit circle. 5 0.0770 0.7143 0.2693 0.5151 • Polynomial has roots on or outside the unit circle. 6 0.5151 0.2693 0.7143 0.0770 7 0.2593 0.0837 0.3472 F () z  z 07. z  05. z  05. z  08. z  25.   0 45 •Root at  2.5 outside the unit circle. 46

## Solution

Find the stable range of the gain K for the unity

feedback digital control system with analog plant

Transfer function for analog subsystem, ADC and DAC

G

ZAS

(

z

) 1

z

1

-1

(

G s

)

s

 

1

1

###  Z _

-1

K

 

G

(

s

)

K

  z

(

s s

3)

 

s 3

K

K

1

1

Partial fraction expansion

with DAC and ADC if the sampling period is 0.02 s.

Transfer function

G

(

s s

3

)

3

s s 3

19412 . 10

2

K

ZAS (

z

)

47

z 0 . 9418

48

## Closed-loop System

Unity feedback, closed-loop characteristic equation

ZAS (

##  0

z 0.9418 + 1.9412 10 2 K = 0

Stability conditions

0.9418 1.9412 10 2 K < 1

0.9418 + 1.9412 10 2 K < 1

Hence, the stable range of K is

3 < K < 100.03

49

## Example

Find the stable range of the gain K for the digital

position control system with the analog plant

transfer function

(

G s

)

K

(

s s

10)

and with DAC and ADC if T= 0.05 s.

50

## Solution

G

ZAS

(

z

)

1

z

1

-1

(

G s

)

s

 

1

  z

1

###  Z _

-1

K

s

2

(

s

10)

 

 

Partial fraction expansion

K

s

2

(

s

10)

0.01 K

10

  s

1

 

s

2

1

s

10  

Transfer function

G

ZAS

(

z

)

1.0653 10

2

K

z

0.8467

z

z

0.6065

51

G

ZAS

(

z

)

1.0653 10

2

K

z

0.8467

z

z

0.6065

ZAS

z

1

z

0.6065

1.0653 10

2

K

z

0.8467

z

2

1.0653 10

2

K

1.6065

z

0.6065 + 9.02

10

3

K

= 0

52

Imaginary Axis

## Stability Testing

1.6065)z+0.6065+9.02

1) F(1)=1+ (1.0653 10 2 K 1.6065) +0.6065 + 9.0210 3 K > 0

K > 0

2) F(1) =1(1.065310 2 K1.6065)+0.6065+9.0210 3 K > 0

K < 1967.582

3) | 0.6065 + 0.00902 K | <1

+ (0.6065 + 0.00902 K ) <1

(0.6065 + 0.00902 K ) <1

178.104 < K < 43.6199

&

The stable range is 0 < K < 43.6199

53

## Thm. 4-7 Nyquist Criterion

N =no. of counterclockwise encirclements of the

point (1,0) for a loop gain L(z) when traversing

the stability contour (i.e. N clockwise)

L(z) has P open-loop poles inside the contour.

• Then the system has closed-loop poles outside

the unit circle with given by

Z=(N)+P

(N=ZP)

Corollary: An open-loop stable system is closed-

loop stable iff the Nyquist plot does not encircle

the point (1,0) (i.e. N= 0)

54

## Example

4.95
z 
4.901
 5
( z) = 10
G ZAS
2
z
1.97
z
0.9704
Nyquist Diagram
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

Real Axis

N =0, no poles | | 1, the system is closed-loop stable.

55

+
C(z)
R(s)
G(z)
G(z)

56

57

58

59

Nyquist Diagram
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Imaginary Axis

60

Real Axis

## GM & PM

Nyquist Diagram
2
K=1, N=0 stable
1.5
K=5
1
Z 
 N
 P
0.5
System: untitled1
Real: -1.41
Imag: 0.000741
 2  0
0
-0.5
>> [gm,pm]=margin(gtd)
-1
System: gdt
Real: -0.795
Imag: -0.624
gm =
3.4817
-1.5
pm =
-2
-5
-4.5
-4
-3.5
-3
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
Real Axis
Imaginary Axis

37.5426

61