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NEETU SIKARWAR ELECTRONICS ENGGSTUDENT, ITM, GWALIOR UNIVERSITY: RGPV,BHOPAL(M.P.) Email:neetusik1@gmail.com

ABSTRACT During the research equalizer is always a matter of strategies.When a signal is transmitted over a radio channel,it is subject to reflection,refraction and diffraction and also the type of modulation technique selected at transmitter.The communication environment changes quickly and thus introduce more complexity and uncrtainity to channel response.Ofdm is one of the best multiplexing technique which compensate intersymbol- interference as well as cochannelinterference.In wireless Communication ,scare resources and hence imposes a high cost on the high data rate transmission.fortunately,the emergence of multiple antenna system has opened another very resourceful dimension space,for information transmission in the air.It has been demonstrated that multiple antenna system provides very promising gain in capacity without increasing the use of gain,throughput,spectrum,reliability,and less sensivity to fading,hence leading to a breakthrough in the data rate of wireless communication system.Since than multiple input multiple output(MIMO) system has become one of the major focuses in the research community of wireless communication and information theory.The study of performance limit of information system become very important,since it gives a lot of insights in understanding designing the practical MIMO system.In order to observe the effect of multipath fading channel on the transmitted signal,a whole digital communication system simulator is developed.Ofdm along with MIMO strategies are very good to increase the capacity of the system and minimize to intersymbol-interference.MMSE equalizer under the multipath fading and MIMO strategy has improved Bit Error Rate Perfomence in this paper. 1. INTRODUCTION A balanced linear equalizer is the Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) equalizer, which does not usually eliminate ISI completely but instead minimizes the total power of the noise and ISI components in the output, therefore preferred in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). We want to solve the problem of Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) therefore the joint operation of OFDM with MMSE.In statistics and signal processing, MMSE estimator describes the approach, which minimizes the mean square error (MSE), which is a common measure of estimator quality.The term MMSE specifically refers to estimation in a Bayesian setting, since in the alternative frequency setting there does not exist a single estimator having minimal MSE. A somewhat similar concept can be obtained within the frequentist point of view if one requires

unbiasedness, since an estimator may exist that minimizes the variance (and hence the MSE) among unbiased estimators. Such an estimator is then called the minimum-variance unbiased estimator (MVUE). 2. OFDM BASIC PRINCIPLES OFDM is a multicarrier transmission technique used in applications catering to both Wired and Wireless Communications To generate OFDM signals successfully the relationship between all carriers must be carefully controlled in order to maintain orthogonality. Shown below is the frequency spectrum depicting the various carriers/channels (used interchangeably). Rectangular windowing of transmitted pulses results in a sinc-shaped frequency response for each channel. As can be seen, whenever any particular carrier frequency attains peak amplitude, the remaining carriers have a null point.

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International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies

ISSN: 2319-2690

The OFDM signal showed high degrees of tolerance (BER is not affected adversely) even if it was heavily clipped. The clipping distortions mostly arise from the Power Amplifier transmitting the signal. b.Gaussian Noise Tolerance of OFDM: Since the transmitted signal is similar to standard FDM, it is found that the SNR performance is similar to standard single carrier digital transmission. The BER is found to be adversely affected, if the SNR drops below 6dB. c.Time-Synchronization Errors The Synchronization factor in an OFDM system is the most critical one. When the receiver is initially turned on, it is not in synchronization with the transmitter. For this reason, data transmission in an OFDM system might need data to be sent in frames. At the beginning of each frame a null symbol is transmitted, so that the receiver can detect incoming data using simple envelope detection techniques. 3. M ULTIPATH CHANNEL In wireless telecommunications, multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio signals reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths. Causes of multipath include atmospheric ducting, ionospheric reflection and refraction, and reflection from water bodies and terrestrial objects such as mountains and buildings.The effects of multipath include constructive and destructive interference, and phase shifting of the signal. This causes Rayleigh fading. The standard statistical model of this gives a distribution known as the Rayleigh distribution.Rayleigh fading with a strong line of sight content is said to have a Rician distribution, or to be Rician fading.In facsimile and television transmission, multipath causes jitter and ghosting, seen as a faded duplicate image to the right of the main image. Ghosts occur when transmissions bounce off a mountain or other large object, while also arriving at the antenna by a shorter, direct route, with the receiver picking up two signals separated by a delay.

Fig. 1: Frequency spectrum showing N channels for an OFDM system with N carriersover bandwidth

2.1. OFDM GENERATION The spectrum required is first chosen based on the input data and the modulation scheme used (typically Differential BPSK, QPSK or QAM). Data to be transmitted is assigned to each carrier that is to be produced. Amplitudes and phases of the carriers are calculated based on the chosen scheme of modulation. The required spectrum is then converted back to its time domain signal by employing Inverse Fourier Transform algorithms like the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (CooleyTukey Algorithm).The next step is that of adding a guard period to the symbol to be transmitted. This ensures robustness against multipath delay spread. This step can be achieved by having a long symbol period, which minimizes intersymbol interference. The level of robustness can be further increased by the addition of a guard period between successive symbols. 2.2.BENEFITS CRITERIA OF OFDM AND PERFORMANCE

The four main criteria for evaluating the performance of the OFDM system are tolerance to multipath delay spread, peak power clipping, channel noise and time synchronization errors. The performance of different OFDM systems under varied channel conditions, keeping in mind the above criteria is now discussed. a.Peak Power Clipping:

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International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies

ISSN: 2319-2690

Figure.2: Radar multipath echoes from an actual target cause ghosts to appear. 4.2.MMSE ESTIMATOR In many cases, it is not possible to determine a closed form for the MMSE estimator. In these cases, one possibility is to seek the technique minimizing the MSE within a particular class, such as the class of linear estimators. The linear MMSE estimator is the estimator achieving minimum MSE among all estimators of the form AY + b. If the measurement Y is a random vector, A is a matrix and b is a vector. (Such an estimator would more correctly be termed an affine MMSE estimator, but the term linear estimator is widely used.) a.Under some weak regularity assumptions, the MMSE estimator is uniquely defined, and is given by

3.1.INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE In radar processing, multipath causes ghost targets to appear, deceiving the radar receiver. These ghosts are particularly bothersome since they move and behave like the normal targets (which they echo), and so the receiver has difficulty in isolating the correct target echo. These problems can be overcome by incorporating a ground map of the radar's surroundings and eliminating all echoes which appear to originate below ground or above a certain height.In digital radio communications (such as GSM) multipath can cause errors and affect the quality of communications. The errors are due to intersymbol interference (ISI). Equalisers are often used to correct the ISI. Alternatively, techniques such as orthogonal frequency division modulation and rake receivers may be used.Multipath propagation may also happen in wired media, especially in cases in which impedance mismatches cause signal reflections. 4. MINIMUM MEAN SQUARE ERROR (MMSE)

In other words, the MMSE estimator is the conditional expectation of X given the observed value of the measurements. b.if X and Y are jointly Gaussian, then the MMSE estimator is linear, i.e., it has the form aX + b for constants a and b. As a consequence, to find the MMSE estimator, it is sufficient to find the linear MMSE estimator. Such a situation occurs in the example presented in the next section. The orthogonality principle: An estimator only if is MMSE if and

in statistics and signal processing, a minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimator describes the approach which minimizes the mean square error (MSE), which is a common measure of estimator quality.The term MMSE specifically refers to estimation in a Bayesian setting, since in the alternative frequentist setting there does not exist a single estimator having minimal MSE. A somewhat similar concept can be obtained within the frequentist point of view if one requires unbiasedness, since an estimator may exist that minimizes the variance (and hence the MSE) among unbiased estimators. Such an estimator is then called the minimumvariance unbiased estimator (MVUE). 4.1.MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATION Let X be an unknown random variable, and let Y be a known random variable (the measurement). An estimator is any function of the measurement Y, and its MSE is given by

for all functions f(Y) of the measurements. A different version of the orthogonality principle exists for linear MMSE estimators. 5. MIMO WITH MMSE EQUALIZER 22 MIMO channel In a 22 MIMO channel, probable usage of the available 2 transmit antennas can be as follows: 1.Consider that we have a transmission sequence, for example

where the expectation is taken over both X and Y.The MMSE estimator is then defined as the estimator achieving minimal MSE.

2.In normal transmission, we will be sending in the first time slot, in the second time slot, and so on.

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International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies

ISSN: 2319-2690

3.However, as we now have 2 transmit antennas, we may group the symbols into groups of two. In the first time slot, send and from the first and second antenna. In second time slot, send and from the first and second antenna, send and in the third time slot and so on. 4.Notice that as we are grouping two symbols and sending them in one time slot, we need only transmission data time slots to complete the (b)Using the hist function compute the simulated probability density for both and Using the knowledge of the equation (which we just derived), compute the theoretical probability density function (PDF) (d)plot the simulated and theoretical probability density functions (PDF) and show that they are in good agreement.

rate is doubled.This forms the simple explanation of a probable MIMO transmission scheme with 2 transmit antennas and 2 receive antennas

Fig.4: Simulated/theoretical PDF of Rayleigh random variable B.BER SIMULATION OF BPSK IN A 10-TAP RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNEL FOLLOWS TO PERFORM THIS TASK AS: (a)Generation of random binary sequence.BPSK modulation i.e bit 0 represented as -1 and bit 1 represented as +1 (b)Assigning to multiple OFDM symbols where data subcarriers from -26 to -1 and +1 to +26 are used, adding cyclic prefix, Convolving each OFDM symbol with a 10-tap Rayleigh fading channel. The fading on each symbol is independent. The

Fig. 3: Transmit 2 Receive (22) MIMO channel 6. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MIMO A.DERIVING PDF OF RAYLEIGH RANDOM VARIABLE Simulation model is provided here for plotting the probability density of and . The script performs the following: (a)Generate two independent zero mean, unit variance Gaussian random variables

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ISSN: 2319-2690

frequency response of fading channel on each symbol is computed and stored. (d)Concatenation of multiple symbols to form a long transmit sequence (e)Adding White Gaussian Noise.Grouping the received vector into multiple symbols, removing cyclic prefix (f)Counting the number of bit errors.Repeating for multiple values of Eb/No.The simulation results are as shown in the plot below. with MMSE using OFDM how this will change the obtainable error.

BER for BPSK modulation with 2x2 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) sim (nTx=2, nRx=2, MMSE) 10

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Fig 5: BER plot for BPSK with OFDM modulation in a 10tap Rayleigh fading channel

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C.SIMULATION OF MIMO OFDM FOR COMPUTING MINIMUM MEAN SQUARE ERROR (MMSE): Let us first see the response of MIMO without OFDM then we will start with the MIMO with OFDM. It is clearly seen from the simulation result of MIMO with MMSE without OFDM that, in increase SNR then Probability of error will get decrease.Now we want to find practically the results of MIMO

=2 =2

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ISSN: 2319-2690

Frame Length=50 Channel Order L=5 Cyclic Prefix Length=

MIMO OFDM STBC with MMSE and 64 point FFT with L=5 and CPLen=32 0.08

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Here after setting simulation parameters as shown above, we find that the Minimum Mean Square Error is shown by 0.042 with 0 SNR and after varying SNR we get tremendous decrease in BER. Simulation of the script took 10 minutes. See the following graph of MIMO with MMSE with OFDM:

MIMO OFDM STBC with MMSE and 256 point FFT 0.045 0.04

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Figure. 9: MIMO OFDM STBC with MMSE and 64 point FFT with L=5 and CPLen=32 CaseIII: Number of Transmitting Antennas=2 Number of Receiving Antennas= 2 FFT Length=64 Frame Length=50 Channel Order L=5 Cyclic Prefix Length= 64 Here after setting simulation parameters as shown above, we find that the Minimum Mean Square Error is shown by 0.091 with 0 SNR and after varying SNR we get tremendous decrease in BER. Simulation of the script took 10 minutes. See the following graph of MIMO with MMSE with OFDM:

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Figure.8 : MIMO OFDM STBC with MMSE and 256 point FFT Case II: Number of Transmitting Antennas=2 Number of Receiving Antennas=2 FFT Length=512 Frame Length=50 Channel Order L=5 Cyclic Prefix Length=16 Here after setting simulation parameters as shown above, we find that the Minimum Mean Square Error is shown by 0.04 with 0 SNR and after varying SNR we get tremendous decrease in BER. Simulation of the script took 30 minutes. This time the system hard disc is running two fast. Therefore it is recommended that the size of hard disc should be sufficient enough to accommodate the data. See the following graph of MIMO with MMSE with OFDM:

MIMO OFDM STBC with MMSE and 64 point FFT with L=5 and CP LEN=64 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06

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Figure. 10: MIMO OFDM STBC with MMSE and 64 point FFT with L=5 and CPLen=62 Case IV: Number of Transmitting Antennas=2 Number of Receiving Antennas =2 FFT Length=64 Frame Length=100 Channel Order L=5

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International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies

ISSN: 2319-2690

Cyclic Prefix Length=16 Here after setting simulation parameters as shown above, we find that the Minimum Mean Square Error is shown by 0.058 with 0 SNR and after varying SNR we get tremendous decrease in BER. If we compare performance of Frame Length 50 and 100 we find that the errors obtainable are 0.091 and 0.058. Simulation of the script took 15 minutes. See the following graph of MIMO with MMSE with OFDM. The motivation for using OFDM techniques over TDMA techniques is twofold. First, TDMA limits the total number of users that can be sent efficiently over a channel. In addition, since the symbol rate of each channel is high, problems with multipath delay spread invariably occur. In stark contrast, each carrier in an OFDM signal has a very narrow bandwidth (i.e. 1 kHz); thus the resulting symbol rate is low. This results in the signal having a high degree of tolerance to multipath delay spread, as the delay spread must be very log to cause significant inter-symbol interference (e.g. > 500usec). Based on the above simulation result now we select the suitable combination to recover and equalizer our data. From the following simulation results we find that the theoretical performance of Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity technique is best among all the receiver techniques. And there is a big difference of practical performance of MMSE . The Synchronization factor in an OFDM system is the most critical one. When the receiver is initially turned on, it is not in synchronization with the transmitter. For this reason, data transmission in an OFDM system might need data to be sent in frames. At the beginning of each frame a null symbol is transmitted, so that the receiver can detect incoming data using simple envelope detection techniques. However, the noise in the signal might interfere with the envelope detection process. In general, it has been found that the receiver synchronizes itself with the transmitter in a time interval less than or equal to the guard interval. The complexity of performing an FFT is dependent on the size of the FFT. However, it can be seen that because the symbol period increases with a larger FFT, the extra processing required is minimal. For e.g. the 2048-point FFT requires only 1.1 times the time required for processing a 1024-point FFT . MATLAB language and provides a very extensive library of predefined functions to make technical programming tasks easier to solve technical problem in MATLAB than in other language. Now let us think about the other results of different MIMO strategies with MMSE receiver. What a great change we got in 2x3 MIMO with MMSE (without OFDM) as compared to the MRC. We achieved a difference of 1db between the MRC and MMSE. And the MMSE equalizer is now able to show better performance in comparison with MRC. More better results can be obtained if we increase size of the MIMO.

BER for BPSK modulation with 2x2 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) theory (nTx=1, nRx=1, MMSE) theory (nTx=1, nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=2, nRx=2, MMSE)

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SIMULATION MATLAB provide a simple and easy way to demonstrate fading taking place. MATLAB (short for Matrix Laboratory) is a special purpose computer program optimized to perform engineering and scientific calculations. The

Neetu* et al.

International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies

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BER for BPSK modulation with 2x3 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) theory (nTx=1, nRx=1, MMSE) theory (nTx=1, nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=2, nRx=3, MMSE)

BER for BPSK modulation with 2x4 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) theory (nTx=2,nRx=2, ZF) theory (nTx=2, nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=2, nRx=4, MMSE)

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Figure. 12: MIMO MMSE without OFDM Let us look at the performance of the 2x4 MIMO with MMSE equalizer without OFDM technique we find that the MMSE shows 7.8db of gain in comparison with MRC.

BER for BPSK modulation with 2x4 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) theory (nTx=1, nRx=1, MMSE) theory (nTx=1, nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=2, nRx=4, MMSE)

Figure. 14:Bit Error Rate without OFDM for 24 MIMO Consider another case of simulation model where we consider 2x2 MIMO with OFDM and MMSE along with MRC and ZF equalizers. In following simulation result we again achieved a very good performance of MMSE with OFDM in comparison with MRC and ZF. As OFDM is specially used for the InterSymbol-Interference (ISI) and Co-Channel Interference problem therefore we are able to get better performance of MMSE equalizer in OFDM environment in comparison with MRC and ZF equalizers.

BER for BPSK modulation with 2x2 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) with OFDM

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theory (nTx=2,nRx=2, ZF) theory (nTx=1,nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=2, nRx=2, MMSE)

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Figure. 15: BER for BPSK modulation with 22 MIMO Now consider another case of OFDM based MMSE equalizer in rayleigh fading channel with AWGN with 2x3 MIMO

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International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies

ISSN: 2319-2690

strategy. Here we achieved a very big difference between MRC and MMSE equalizer. MMSE is now showing a gain of 14.9db.

BER for BPSK modulation with 2x3 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) with OFDM theory (nTx=2,nRx=2, ZF) theory (nTx=1,nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=2, nRx=3, MMSE)

Consider another MIMO strategy with Tx=4 and Rx=6 antennas. In this case we get around 14.5db of gain in comparison with MRC and ZF equalizers.

BER for BPSK modulation with 4x6 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) with OFDM theory (nTx=2,nRx=2, ZF) theory (nTx=1,nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=4, nRx=6, MMSE)

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Figure.16:BER for BPSK modulation with 23 MIMO and MMSE equalizer with OFDM Consider one more MIMO strategy with Tx=2 and Rx=4 antennas. In this case we get around 13db of gain in comparison with MRC and ZF equalizers. And more better response in comparison with 2x3 MIMO with MMSE and OFDM.

BER for BPSK modulation with 2x4 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) with OFDM theory (nTx=2,nRx=2, ZF) theory (nTx=1,nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=2, nRx=4, MMSE)

Figure.18 :BER for BPSK modulation with 46 MIMO and MMSE equalizer with OFDM OFDM is a multicarrier transmission technique used in applications catering to both Wired and Wireless Communications. However, in the wired case, the usage of the term Discrete Multi-Tone is more appropriate. The OFDM technique divides the frequency spectrum available into many closely spaced carriers, which are individually modulated by low-rate data streams. In this sense, OFDM is similar to FDMA (The bandwidth is divided into many channels, so that, in a multi-user environment, each channel is allocated to a user). However, the difference lies in the fact that the carriers chosen in OFDM are much more closely spaced than in FDMA (1kHz in OFDM as opposed to about 30kHz in FDMA), thereby increasing its spectral usage efficiency. The orthogonality between the carriers is what facilitates the close spacing of carriers. Consider the case of 3x3 MIMO with OFDM and MMSE equalizer we find the following results:

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Figure.17:BER for modulation with 24 MIMO and MMSE equalizer with OFDM

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Figure.19: BER for BPSK modulation with 33 MIMO and MMSE equalizer with OFDM

BER for BPSK modulation with 3x3 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) with OFDM theory (nTx=3,nRx=3, ZF) theory (nTx=2,nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=3, nRx=3, MMSE) 10

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From the above graph we find that the MMSE shows nearly about 15db of gain in comparison with MRC and ZF equalizers

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Consider the case of MIMO strategy with Tx=6 and Rx=6 antennas. In this case we get around 12db of gain in comparison with MRC and ZF equalizers.

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BER for BPSK modulation with 6x6 MIMO and MMSE equalizer (Rayleigh channel) with OFDM theory (nTx=2,nRx=2, ZF) theory (nTx=1,nRx=2, MRC) sim (nTx=6, nRx=6, MMSE)

CONCLUSION We realized that the MIMO capacity plays very important role in closing the BER performance with the vertical axis. And also the power of OFDM we realized in our equalizer. From the simulation results obtained in our case with MIMO and OFDM based MMSE equalizer, we find that the MRC may be powerful receiver technique, but due to the combination of OFDM and MMSE we achieved better response of our considered equalizer. Therefore we conclude with the statement that 3x3, 6x6 MIMO strategies along with OFDM can be considered in mobile receivers. MMSE with OFDM has showed varying gain and the close performance with the vertical axis in comparison with other receiver techniques and this is a very big advantage in MIMO and OFDM based systems to solve the problem of ISI.

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Figure.20: BER for BPSK modulation with66 MIMO and MMSE equalizer with OFDM

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International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies

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REFERENCES [1] B. Lu and X. Wang, Iterative receivers for multiuser space-time coding systems, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 23222335, (Nov. 2000). X. Zhu and R. D. Murch, Layered spacefrequency [12] equalization in a single-carrier MIMO system for frequency-selective channels, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 701708, (May 2004). [13] M. R. McKay and I. B. Collings,Capacity and performance of MIMO-BICM with zeroforcing receivers, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 7483, (Jan. 2005). [14] J.H.Kotecha and A.M.Sayeed,Transmit signal design for optimal estimation of Correlated Journal of [15] Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 2005 - 2010 JATIT. All rights reserved. www.jatit.org [16] 21 MIMO channels Kotecha, IEEE transaction on signal processing, Vol.52, PP.546-577(Feb 2004). A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. BlcskeiAn overview of MIMO communication-A [17] Key to Gigabit Wireless, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 92, No. 2, PP. 198-218(Feb. 2004). [18] Kyung Won Park and Yong Soo Cho,"An MIMOOFDM technique for high-speed mobile channels," IEEE Communications Letters, Volume 9, No. 7, PP. 604 606(July 2005). [19] H. Bolcskei,MIMO-OFDM wireless systems: Basics, perspectives, and challenges, IEEE Journal on Wireless Communications, Vol. 13, No. 4, PP. 31-37 ( [20] Aug. 2006). M.Cicerone, O.Simeone and U.Spagnolini, Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Systems by Modal [21] Analysis/Filtering, IEEE transaction on communication, Vol.54, No.11, PP..20622074(Nov.2006). [22] Ove Edfors, Magnus Sandell, Jan-Jaap van de Beek, Daniel Landstrom, Frank Sjoberg An Introduction to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing University of Lulea, September,1996 Eric Lawrey The suitability of OFDM as a modulation technique for wireless communication, with a CDMA comparison James Cook University, October,1997 [11] Adrian Bohdanowicz, Chris van den Bos, Maarten Ditzel, Wouter A. Serdijn, Gerard J.M. Janssen, Ed. F.A. Deprettere Wireless Link using OFDM Modulation: Performance prediction, Modeling and Implementation Michael Speth OFDM Receivers for Broadband Transmission Radio Broadcast Technologies Research division of the Communications Research Centre (CRC), Ottawa, Canada Digital Radio Broadcasting www.drb.crc.doc.ca Texas Instruments ETS 300 401 DSP DAB modulator www.ti.com Johnson, D. (22 November 2004). Minimum Mean Squared Error Estimators. Connexions Prediction and Improved Estimation in Linear Models, by J. Bibby, H. Toutenburg (Wiley, 1977). This book looks almost exclusively at minimum mean-square error estimation and inference. Jaynes, E. T. Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. Cambridge University Press, 2003. Lehmann, E. L.; Casella, G. (1998). Theory of Point Estimation. Springer. pp. 2nd ed, ch. 4. ISBN 0-38798502-6. Kay, S. M. (1993). Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Estimation Theory. Prentice Hall. pp. 344 350. ISBN 0-13-042268-1. Moon, T.K. and W.C. Stirling. Mathematical Methods and Algorithms for Signal Processing. Prentice Hall. 2000. G. J. Foschini, Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication a fading environment when using multiple antennas, Bell Labs.Tech. J., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 4159, Autumn 1996. G. J. Foschini and M. J. Gans, On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas, Wireless Personal Commun., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311335, Mar. 1998.

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- Hg 3413361339Transféré parAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- CableFree Amber Crystal HPR MIMO AC2X2 Radio DatasheetTransféré pariomerito
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