Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 264

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~

~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~


~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~

~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~
~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~

~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~


~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~
~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~

~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~

~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~


~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~

~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~


~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~

~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~


~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~

~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~

~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~-~ ~~ ~~~

~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~-~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~

~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~

~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~


~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~

~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~
~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~

~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~

~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~

~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~

~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~


~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~

~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~

~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~


~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~
~~
~~~~~
~
~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~

~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~

~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~

~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~

~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~

~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~


~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~

~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~


~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~
~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~

~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~


~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~

~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~

~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~
~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~
-~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~

~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~

~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~


~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~

~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~


~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~
~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~

~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~
~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~

~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~
~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
-~~~~
~~~-~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~
~ ~~ ~ ~~

~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~

~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~

~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~

~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~

~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~
~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~

~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~
~
~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~

~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~

~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~

~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~

~ ~ -~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~

~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~


~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~

~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~
~
~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~

~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~
~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~
~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~
~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~

~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~


~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~

~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~
~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~
~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~

~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~

~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~-~~~
~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~

~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~
~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~
~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~

~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~
~~~
~
~~~~~ ~~

~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~
~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~
~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~
~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~

~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~

~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~

~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~



~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~

~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~
~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~
~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~

~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~
~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~
~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~

~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~
~
~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~

~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~-~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~

~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~


~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~
~ ~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~

~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~

~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~


~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~
~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~

~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~
~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~

~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~
~
~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~-~ ~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~-~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ -~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ -~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~

~~ ~ -~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ -~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~

~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~

~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~
~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~

~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~~~ ~

~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~
~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~

~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~

~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~


~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~-~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~

~~ ~~ ~

~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~
~~~

~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~-~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~

~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~

~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~

~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~
~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~


~~~~~~~~ ~
~
~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~

~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~

~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~
~ ~~~~~~

~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~

~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~
~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~
~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~
~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~
~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~

~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ -~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~
~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~ -~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~-~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~


~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~
~ ~~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~ ~
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~ ~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~~~ ~~
~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~

~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~
~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~


~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~

~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~~~ ~ ~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~

~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~~
~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~

~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~


~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~
~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~
~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~

~~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~
~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~
~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~
~ ~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~

~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~


~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~
~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~ ~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~ ~~
~~

~
~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~
~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~ ~~ ~
~
~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~
~ ~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~ ~~
~
~~ ~~~~~ ~~
~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~ ~
~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ ~
~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~ ~~~ ~~~~
~~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~

~ ~ ~~~~~ ~
~
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~
~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~~ ~

t i a t i v e s o f t h e D o p o l a v o r o a n d h a s g i v e n t h e m a s s
o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n j o y " e x -
c e l l e n t p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m be r
o f m a s t e r p i e c e s . D u r i n g 1 9 3 4 t h e m u s i c a l C a r o f
T h e s p i s g a v e g o p e r f o r m a n c e s , c o v e r e d a d i s t a n c e
o f 5
. 0 0 0 k i l o m e t r e s a n d a s s e m bl e d i n i t s o p e n
a i r a u d i t o r i u m a t o t a l a u d i e n c e o f 3 7 0 . 0 0 0
s p e c t a t o r s .
P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n h a s be e n g i v e n t o s p o r t .
S p o r t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s h a v e i n c r e a s e d f r o m 1 . 5 6 3
t o 2 0 3 . 2 8 4 a n d t h e s e c t i o n s e n g a g e d i n o r g a n i s i n g
s p o r t f r o m 4 6 7 t o 8
. 0 2 5 .
Be f o r e t h e a d v e n t o f Fa s c i s m
t h e p o p u l a r
c l a s s e s k n e w v e r y l i t t l e o f I t a l y . No w t h r o u g h
o r g a n i s e d e x c u r s i o n s , t h e D o p o l a v o r o h a s m a d e
i t p o s s i bl e f o r a l l I t a l i a n s t o g e t t o k n o w t h e
i n n u m e r a bl e be a u t i e s o f t h e i r c o u n t r y . T o u r i n g
by bi c y c l e , w a l k i n g t o u r s , f i x e d a n d m o bi l e
c a m p s , v o l u n t a r y r e - a f f o r e s t a t i o n , e x c u r s i o n s ,
v i s i t s i n p a r t i e s t o m o d e r n w o r k s a n d h i s t o r i c a l
p l a c e s , a n d c r u i s e s h a v e g r e a t l y c o n t r i bu t e d t o -
w a r d s r a i s i n g t h e c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f t h e p e o p l e
T h e s e c t i o n s e n g a g e d i n t h i s a c t i v i t y h a v e i n -
c r e a s e d f r o m 4 6 7 t o 7 . 9 6 0 a n d t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s
f r o m 9 7 5 t o 5 3 . 9 7 5 .
7 7
ROAD S AND C OMMUNI C AT I ONS
Ra i l w a y s - T h e s t a f f - T h e n e w d i s c i p l i n e - P e r f e c t s e r -
v i c e - I n c r e a s e i n r a i l w a y l i n e s - P o s t a n d t e l e g r a p h s -
A S t a t e c o n c e r n w i t h a s u r p l u s
- Ni n e t e e n , n i l i a r d s o f l i r e
d e p o s i t e d i n t h e p o s t a l s a v i n g s - ba n k s - T e l e p h o n e s - A
s i g n o f c i v i l i s a t i o n - S e v e n t h o u s a n d k i l o m e t r e s o f n e w
r o a d s - /Mo t o r r o a d s - T h e Me r c a n t i l e Ma r i n e - P o r t s
a n d h a r bo u r s .
T h e r e i s a f i e l d i n w h i c h t h e Fa s c i s t Re g i m e
h a s a c h i e v e d r e s u l t s w h i c h n o o n e c a n d i s p u t e
n a m e l y , t h e g r e a t p u bl i c w o r k s by w h i c h i t i s
g r a d u a l l y t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e f a c e o f I t a l y
.
T h e p o l i c y o f p u bl i c w o r k s i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h
t h e d e m o g r a p h i c p o l i c y w i t h a v i e w t o i n c r e a s i n g
t h e bi r t h - r a t e o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d o n t h e o t h e r
t o r e d u c i n g i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n . I t f o r m s p a r t o f
t h e i n t e g r a l l a n d - r e c l a m a t i o n s c h e m e , w h i c h a bo v e
a l l , i s t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f h u m a n l i v e s .
Ac c o r d i n g t o a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a c o l l e c t e d
by t h e Ho n . D e S t e f a n i i n a bo o k o f h i s d e a l i n g
w i t h t h e a c t i o n o f t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e i n f a v o u r o f
p u bl i c w o r k s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e S t a t e , f r o m 1 8 8 2
t o
1 9 2 2 ,
s p e n t a l t o g e t h e r a bo u t
2 3
m i l l i a r d s o f
7 8
l i r e , w h i l e f r o m Oc t o be r 1 9 2 2 t o Ju n e
1 9 3 4 ,
t h e
v a r i o u s Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f P u bl i c W o r k s ,
o f t h e
Au t o n o m o u s S t a t e I n s t i t u t e o f Ro a d s a n d o f I n -
t e g r a l L a n d Re c l a m a t i o n ,
a s s u m e d u n d e r t a k i n g s
t o a n o u t l a y o f 4 3 m i l l i a r d s , o f w h i c h 2 1 m i l l i a r d s
a r e a l r e a d y p a i d
. T o t h i s m u s t be a d d e d 7 m i l -
l i a r d s o f l i r e p a i d by p u bl i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o t h e r
t h a n t h o s e m e n t i o n e d a bo v e f o r v a r i o u s w o r k s a n d
f o r w a r r e p a r a t i o n s a n d c a l a m i t i e s , s u c h a s e a r t h -
q u a k e s e t c
. , t h e t o t a l e x p e n s e o f w h i c h h a s be e n
2 8 m i l l i a r d s o f l i r e
.
I n p r o m o t i n g t h e c o u n t r y ' s e c o n o m i c r e g e n e r a t -
i o n , Fa s c i s m
c o u l d n o t p o s s i bl y n e g l e c t w h a t
m a y be c o n s i d e r e d a s i t s a r t e r i a l s y s t e m ,
n a m e l y
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .
Ra i l w a y s , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . W h e n Fa s c i s m
c a m e i n t o p o w e r , i t w a s f a c e d w i t h a n e x t r e m e l y
c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n ,
bo t h a s r e g a r d s m a n a g e m e n t ,
w h i c h w a s c o m p l e t e l y d i s o r g a n i s e d , a n d a s r e -
g a r d s c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h h a d c o m e t o a c o m -
p l e t e s t a n d s t i l l
. Go v e r n m e n t r a i l w a y s a p p e a r e d
t o be d e s t i n e d t o r o t a n d r u i n
. T h e c o n t i n u a l ,
a l m o s t c h r o n i c t u r bu l e n c e o f t h e
s t a f f , w i t h
a n e p i d e m i c o f g e n e r a l a n d p a r t i a l s t r i k e s , be s i d e s
a m i s t a k e n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e e i g h t
h o u r s d a y , h a d o n t h e o n e h a n d
c o m p l e t e l y
d i s o r g a n i s e d t h e r a i l w a y s e r v i c e , w h i l e o n t h e
7 9
o t h e r h a n d t h e r a i l w a y s t a f f h a d r i s e n t o 2 4 1
. 0 0 0
m e n .
W i t h o u t a n y p o s s i bi l i t y o f n e w c o n s t r u c t i o n s
o r c a r r y i n g o u t r a d i c a l a n d o r g a n i c r e p a i r s o f
m a t e r i a l , w h i c h w a s r e d u c e d t o a m o s t d e -
p l o r a bl e s t a t e , c h i e f l y o w i n g t o t h e i n t e n s e w o r k
i n w a r - t i m e , t h e r e w a s n e v e r t h e l e s s a d e f i c i t o f
t m i l l i a r d 4 3 1
m i l l i o n s o f l i r e .
T h e e n e r g e t i c w e e d i n g - o u t o f t h e s t a f f by
Fa s c i s m s o o n br o u g h t ba c k t h e n e c e s s a r y d i -
s c i p l i n e
; t h e n f o l l o w e d t h e f i n a n c i a l a n d a d m i -
n i s t r a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Ra i l w a y s
. T h e
n u m be r o f r a i l w a y e m p l o y e e s w a s r e d u c e d f r o m
2 4 1 . 0 0 0 t o 1 3 6
. o o o , p r o p o r t i o n i n g t h e n u m be r o f
e m p l o y e e s t o t h e w o r k t o be c a r r i e d o u t i n m i l -
l i o n s o f k i l o m e t r e s p e r a x l e , a m a x i m u m o f 6 4
h a s f a l l e n t o
2 8
n a m e l y , l e s s t h a n i n p r e - w a r
t i m e s . At p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e o n l y e i g h t e m p l o y e e s
p e r k i l o m e t r e , c o m p a r e d t o
1 5 i n 1 9 2 2 a n d i i
i n 1 9 1 4 .
W h i l e 7 8 k i l o s o f c o a l p e r l o o t o n - k i l o m e t r e
w a s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y , c o n s u m p t i o n h a s n o w
be e n r e d u c e d t o 4 9 , 8 , w h i l e e v e n i n p r e - w a r d a y s
i t w a s
5 3 , 9 .
T h e s e c u r i t y o f t r a n s p o r t w a s a s s u r e d
by t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e a n d t h e e x p e n d i -
t u r e o n c o m m e r c i a l i n d e m n i t i e s f e l l f r o m i i i
m i l l i o n l i r e i n 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 2 2 t o a
f i g u r e w h i c h i s
n o w i n s i g n i f i c a n t
.
T h e
r a i l w a y d e f i c i t w h i c h
8 o
a m o u n t e d t o i % m i l i a r d l i r e d u r i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l
y e a r 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 2 2 g r a d u a l l y w a s r e d u c e d t o 1 0 3 2 m i l -
l i o n l i r e i n
1 9 2 2 - 1 9 2 3 a n d t o 4 1 2 i n 1 9 2 3 - 1 9 2 4 , t i l l
a s u r p l u s o f 3 7 8
m i l l i o n l i r e w a s r e a c h e d i n
1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 6
.
L a t e r , o w i n g t o t h e w o r l d t r a f f i c -
r e d u c t i o n , t h e r e w a s a n o t h e r d e f i c i t i n 1 9 3 2 ,
w h i c h t h e m a n a g e m e n t , a f t e r f i v e y e a r s ' h a r d
s t r u g g l e , h a s s u c c e e d e d i n n e u t r a l i s i n g .
No t w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e
Ra i l w a y Ma n a g e m e n t c o n t i n u e d i n i t s p r o g r e s s i v e
a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e p o l i c y
. T h e S t a t e Ra i l w a y s
t o -
d a y a m o u n t t o a t o t a l o f 1 7 . 0 0 0 k i l o m e t r e s
.
D u r i n g t h e l a s t 1 4 y e a r s s e v e r a l n e w l i n e s w e r e
o p e n e d by t h e S t a t e Ra i l w a y s a n d by p r i v a t e e n -
t e r p r i s e a m o u n t i n g t o a n o t h e r 3 5 0 6 k i l o m e t r e s
.
I n 1 9 2 4 t h e Bo l o g n a - V e r o n a l i n e w a s c o m p l e t -
e d ; i n
1 9 2 7 t h e w h o l e Ro m e - Na p l e s e x p r e s s l i n e
h a s be e n o p e n e d , m o s t i m p o r t a n t f r o m a t o u r i s t
p o i n t o f v i e w , w h e r e by i t i s n o w p o s s i bl e t o c o v e r
t h e d i s t a n c e i n 2 h o u r s
5 0
m i n u t e s , i n s t e a d o f
i n 4 h o u r s 1 5
m i n u t e s a s o n t h e o l d l i n e .
On t h e 2 2 n d o f Ap r i l 1 9 3 4 t h e e x p r e s s l i n e
Bo l o g n a - Fl o r e n c e w a s i n a u g u r a t e d , be i n g o n e o f
t h e m o s t d a r i n g r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e
w o r l d , o w i n g t o t h e 1 8 k i l o m e t r e s l o n g t u n n e l
t h r o u g h t h e Ap e n n i n e s ,
t h e l o n g e s t t u n n e l i n
e x i s t e n c e , w h i c h h a s g r e a t l y a bbr e v i a t e d d i s t a n c e s
be t w e e n C e n t r a l a n d S o u t h e r n I t a l y .
8 r
6 i n g .
Mo s t i m p o s i n g a r e a l l t h e s u bs i d i a r y w o r k s
i n br i c k w o r k a n d
r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e :
t h e
n e w
Mi l a n r a i l w a y s t a t i o n i s a m a s t e r p i e c e o f a r c h i t e c -
t u r a l a n d e n g i n e e r i n g s k i l l .
E l e c t r i c t r a c t i o n h a s be e n t r i p l e d : t h e e l e c -
t r i c l i n e s h a v e be e n i n c r e a s e d f r o m 7 0 0 t o 2 0 3 0 .
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n -
c r e a s e s i n t h e s p e e d o f r a i l w a y t r a i n s f r o m 1 9 2 2
u p t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . T h e d i s t a n c e f r o m T u r i n
t o Ge n o a i s n o w c o v e r e d i n 2 h o u r s i n s t e a d o f 3 ;
f r o m Ge n o a t o Ro m e , 6 h o u r s a n d a h a l f i n s t e a d
o f 1 o ; f r o m Mi l a n t o Ro m e ( v i a Bo l o g n a ) , 8 h o u r s
a n d a h a l f i n s t e a d o f 1 2 ; f r o m Mi l a n t o Ge n o a i n 2
h o u r s i n s t e a d o f 3 ; f r o m V e n t i m i g l i a t o Ge n o a
i n 3 h o u r s i n s t e a d o f 4 ; f r o m Mi l a n t o V e n i c e
i n 3 h o u r s i n s t e a d o f 4 a n d a h a l f ; f r o m t h e
Br e n n e r P a s s t o Bo l o g n a i n 8 h o u r s i n s t e a d
o f 9 ; f r o m V e n i c e t o Bo l o g n a i n 2 h o u r s i n s t e a d
o f 3
; f r o m Na p l e s t o Re g g i o C a l a br i a i n 1 o
h o u r s
a n d a h a l f i n s t e a d o f 1 3 . T h e t r i a l r u n s o f e l e c t r i c -
t r a i n s c o v e r e d t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m Bo l o g n a t o Fl o -
r e n c e i n 4 7 m i n u t e s , a n d t h a t be t w e e n Bo l o g n a
a n d Na p l e s i n
5
h o u r s 3 6 m i n u t e s .
T h e S t a t e Ra i l w a y f u n c t i o n i n g a s a n a u t o n -
o m o u s o r g a n i s a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e d by t r a n s p o r t
s e r v i c e s c o n c e d e d t o p r i v a t e f i r m s . Fa s c i s m h a s
d e v e l o p e d t h e s e s e r v i c e s v e r y c o n s i d e r a bl y
.
T h e
r a i l w a y s s e r v e d by s t e a m t r a c t i o n h a v e i n c r e a s e d
f r o m 3 8 3 0 k i l o m e t r e s ( 1 9 2 2 ) ,
t o
4 1 3 9 ;
e l e c t r i c
r a i l w a y s f r o m 5 9 2 t o 1 7 4 5
; e x t r a - u r ba n bu s s e r -
v i c e s , f r o m 4 0 . 4 7 0 k i l o m e t r e s t o I o g . 6 7 9 ;
u r ba n
s e r v i c e s ( t r a m s a n d bu s e s ) , f r o m
1 4 4 4
k i l o m e t r e s
t o 2 6 8 6 .
T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e
r a i l -
w a y s , a n d , i n g e n e r a l , o f a l l o t h e r m e a n s o f i n -
t e r n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P o s t s
a n d T e l e g r a p h s
a l s o u n d e r w e n t a c o m p l e t e
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e a d v e n t
o f Fa s c -
i s m a n d w a s c o n s t i t u t e d a s a n a u t o n o m o u s o r g a -
n i s a t i o n , d e p e n d i n g f r o m t h e Mi n i s t e r o f C o m u -
n i c a t i o n s .
T h e bu d g e t o f t h e Au t o n o m o u s Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n
w h i c h Fa s c i s m i n h e r i t e d w i t h
a d e f i c i t o f 3 3 8
m i l l i o n l i r e , n o w s h o w s a s u r p l u s ,
a m o u n t i n g
t o i m i l l i a r d
t o o m i l l i o n l i r e f o r P o s t s a n d
T e l e g r a p h s a n d n e a r l y 2 0 0 m i l l i o n s f o r t h e S t a t e
T e l e p h o n e s w h i c h h a s r e s u l t e d i n a r e d u c t i o n i n
t a r i f f s , a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n s e r v i c e a n d t h e c o n s -
t r u c t i o n o f bu i l d i n g s f o r o f f i c e s a n d
s t a f f . T h e
d e p o s i t s a t t h e p o s t o f f i c e s a v i n g s ba n k s w h i c h
o n 3 1 D e c e m be r , 1 9 2 2 , a m o u n t e d t o 8 7 2 0 m i l l i o n
l i r e , h a d r i s e n t o 1 9 . 8 0 0 m i l l i o n l i r e a t t h e e n d
o f 1 9 3 4 .
I n 1 9 2 2 t h e T e l e p h o n e S e r v i c e w a s m a n a g e d
d i r e c t l y by t h e S t a t e , w i t h v e r y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
r e s u l t s
. I n 1 9 2 5 t h e u r ba n a n d i n t e r - u r ba n s e r v i c e s
8 3
o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o z o n e s
a n d c o n c e d e d
t o p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s w i t h t h e
o bl i g a t i o n t o c a r r y o u t a n e x t e n s i v e p r o g r a m m e
o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . An a u t o n -
o m o u s S t a t e o r g a n i s a t i o n w a s a l s i n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e
m a i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w h i c h h a s
r e p l a c e d t h e
s c a n t y n e t w o r k o f o v e r - h e a d w i r e s by a n u p - t o -
d a t e s u bt e r r a n e a n i n s t a l l a t i o n . A f e w f i g u r e s w i l l
s u f f i c e t o g i v e a n i d e a
o f t h e e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s
a c h i e v e d :
i n 1 9 2 5 t h e a u t o m a t i c c e n t r a l s h a d a
p o t e n t i a l i t y o f 4 5 0 0 0 n u m be r s w i t h 3 1 0 0 0 s u bs c r i -
be r s . At t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t t h i s p o t e n t i a l i t y h a s
r i s e n t o w e l l a bo v e h a l f a m i l l i o n n u m be r s , a n d
t h e s u bs c r i be r s t o 3 8 0 . 0 0 0 i n a d d i t i o n 8 3 % o f t h e
t e l e p h o n e s a r e a u t o m a t i c
. I n 1 9 2 5 t h e r e w e r e o n l y
4 7 i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d 1 7 5 7 i n t e r - u r ba n
t e l e p h o n e
l i n e s . T o d a y t h e r e a r e
1 2 7
i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i n e s
( c h i e f l y u n d e r g r o u n d ) 4 6 9 0 i n t e r - u r ba n a n d m o r e
t h a n 1 0 . 0 0 0 u r ba n l i n e s . T h e t o t a l e x t e n s i o n o f
t h e S t a t e t e l e p h o n e l i n e s i s o v e r 3 0 0
. 0 0 0 k i l o -
m e t r e s .
T h e s e l i n e s a r e s e r v e d by 2 4 2 4
i n t e r - u r ba n
o f f i c e s a n d 1 5
. 2 8 9 p u bl i c t e l e p h o n e s . T h e i n t e r n a -
t i o n a l c a bl e s Mi l a n - C h i a s s o ,
Ud i n e - T a r v i s i o a n d
t h a t o f T u r i n - Mo d a n e , n o w i n c o u r s e o f c o n s -
t r u c t i o n , h a v e p u t I t a l y i n t e l e p h o n i c a n d r a d i o -
t e l e p h o n i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h a l m o s t
e v e r y
8 4
c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d w h i l e i n 1 9 2 5 i t w a s o n l y
p o s s i bl e t o s p e a k t o s i x c o u n t r i e s .
I f t h e Fa s c i s t Re g i m e i s d e s e r v i n g o f a l l p r a i s e
i n r e s p e c t o f r a i l w a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , i t i s m o r e
d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e a d e q u a t e l y i t s w o r k i n r e g a r d
t o r o a d - m a k i n g . I n t h i s br a n c h e v e r y t h i n g h a d
t o be d o n e o r d o n e o v e r a g a i n .
T h e Au t o n o m o u s I n s t i t u t e o f t h e Ro a d h a s
be e n c r e a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t a k i n g o v e r t h e
t e c h n i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
r o a d s , c l a s s i f i e d a s S t a t e Ro a d s , a n d a m o u n t i n g
t o 1 3 7 , be g i n n i n g w i t h t h e a n c i e n t C o n s u l a r Ro a d s
w h i c h s t a r t f r o m Ro m e , a n d e x t e n d o v e r
2 1 . 0 0 0
k i l o m e t r e s . On l y 2
p e r c e n t o f t h e s e r o a d s ( 4 6 3
k m
. ) w e r e p a v e d i n 1 9 2 2 i n s u c h a w a y a s t o
r e q u i r e n o f u r t h e r r e - bu i l d i n g . T o d a y t h e p a v e d
r o a d s e x t e n d o v e r a d i s t a n c e o f
1 0 . 0 0 0 k i l o m e t r e s .
T h e Fa s c i s t Re g i m e h a s n o t be e n c o n t e n t w i t h
r e s t o r i n g a n d a d a p t i n g a n c i e n t r o a d s f o r m o d e m
t r a f f i c , bu t i t h a s o p e n e d u p c o m p l e t e l y n e w
r o a d s
. Am o n g t h e s t a t e r o a d s , h a v i n g a l e n g t h
o f 6 9 9 k i l o m e t r e s , a r e t h e t w o g r e a t s e a - bo a r d
a r t e r i e s , t h e T y r r h e n i a n a n d t h e I o n i c .
Al t o g e t h e r t h e n e w r o a d s c o v e r 7 0 0 0 k i l o -
m e t r e s a n d c o s t i / m i l l i a r d s o f l i r e . S a r d i n i a ,
C a l a br i a , S i c i l y a n d t h e Abr u z z i h a v e d e r i v e d
t h e g r e a t e s t be n e f i t f r o m t h e s e n e w r o a d s , a s i n
8 5
s o m e d i s t r i c t s p e a s a n t s g o i n g t o m a r k e t h a d
t o
g o a c r o s s c o u n t r y w i t h t h e i r p a c k - m u l e s .
I n r e s p e c t o f r o a d s , i t m a y be m e n t i o n e d t h a t
4 0 o n e w br i d g e s h a v e be e n bu i l t . Am o n g t h e
m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e br i d g e o v e r t h e T a g l i a -
m e n t o n e a r l y o n e k i l o m e t r e l o n g , w i t h 3 5 c o n c r e t e
a r c h e s ; t h e Me s t r e br i d g e , o v e r o n e k i l o m e t r e l o n g ,
w i t h 5 3 g r e a t a r c h e s o f r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e , t h e
br i d g e o v e r t h e P o be t w e e n Re v e r e a n d Os t i g l i a
5 i o m e t r e s i n l e n g t h c o n s i s t i n g o f 7 i r o n a r c h e s w i t h
p i l e s a n d bu t r e s s e s i n br i c k . Bu t t h e g r e a t -
e s t e n g i n e e r i n g f e a t o f a l l i s t h e br i d g e
u n i t i n g
V e n i c e t o t h e Ma i n l a n d . I t i s a l m o s t p a r a l l e l t o
t h e r a i l w a y br i d g e a n d i s 5 k i l o m e t r e s l o n g , w i t h
2 2 8 a r c h e s a n d a w i d t h o f 2 o m e t r e s
.
T h i s br i e f s u m m a r y w o u l d be i n c o m p l e t e
w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g t h e m o t o r - r o a d s . Mo s t i m p o r -
t a n t o f a l l i s t h e Ge n o a - S e r r a v a l l e - S c r i v i a p l a n n e d
by t h e D u c e w i t h a v i e w t o p r o v i d i n g a r a p i d
a n d c o n v e n i e n t m e a n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n be t w e e n
t h e p o r t o f Ge n o a a n d t h e V a l l e P a d a n a a n d
w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e p o s s i bl e u l t e r i o r d e -
v e l o p m e n t o f t r a f f i c . I t s t a r t s f r o m t h e p o r t o f
Ge n o a , a n d , , c r o s s i n g t h e Ap e n n i n e s t h r o u g h v a -
r i o u s t u n n e l s , c o n n e c t s w i t h t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g
s t a t e - r o a d s l e a d i n g t o Mi l a n a n d T u r i n . I t i s 5 0
k i l o m e t r e s l o n g , w i t h i i t u n n e l s , 3 o br i d g e s a n d
v i a d u c t s : o v e r t h i s r o a d m a y p a s s t w o c o l u m n s
8
6
o f c a m i o n s w i t h a s p a c e be t w e e n f o r m i n o r t r a f f i c
.
At c r o s s r o a d s t h e r e a r e o v e r h e a d
a n d u n d e r -
g r o u n d c r o s s i n g s
: a v e r i t a bl e m a r v e l o f e n g i n e e r i n g
s k i l l . I t s c o s t i s
2 1 o m i l l i o n l i r e .
T h e n f o l l o w t h e Mi l a n - L a k e s r o a d w h i c h c o n -
n e c t s Mi l a n w i t h t h e L a k e s o f C o m o a n d V a r e s e
( 8 6
k m l o n g ; t o t a l c o s t 7 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 l i r e ) ; t h e Mi l a n -
Be r g a m o r o a d ( 4 8 k m l o n g ; t o t a l c o s t 5 6 . 0 0 0
. 0 0 0
l i r e ) ; t h e Na p l e s - P o m p e i r o a d ( 2 1
k m l o n g ; t o t a l
c o s t 3 6 . 0 0 0
. 0 0 0 l i r e ) ; t h e Be r g a m o - Br e s c i a r o a d
( 4 5
k m l o n g ; t o t a l c o s t 5 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 l i r e )
; t h e Fl o r e n c e -
t o - t h e - s e a r o a d ( 8 3
k m l o n g
; t o t a l c o s t
1 2 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0
l i r e )
; t h e Mi l a n - T u r i n r o a d ( 1 2 5 k m l o n g ; t o t a l
c o s t 1 4 5 . 0 0 0
. 0 0 0 l i r e ) ; t h e P a d u a - V e n i c e r o a d ( 2 6
k m l o n g ; t o t a l c o s t 2 9 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 l i r e ) a n d t h e Ro m e -
Os t i a r o a d .
I n 1 9 1 8
t h e I t a l i a n n a v y i s s u e d f r o m t h e w a r
w i t h o n l y 9 0 0 . 0 0 0 t o n s ,
c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e
i . 6 6 o . o o o
w h i c h s h e p o s s e s s e d i n 1 9 1 4
. Fo l l o w i n g
p u r c h a s e s f r o m a br o a d a n d t h e a c q u i s a t i o n o f t h e
V e n e z i a Gi u l i a n a v y t h e t o n n a g e w a s i n c r e a s e d
t o
2 . 7 0 0
. 0 0 0 i n 1 9 2 2 ,
bu t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e s e
s h i p s w e r e w o r n o u t a n d o f l i t t l e u s e . I n 1 9 2 2
t h e s h i p s l y i n g i d l e i n p o r t a m o u n t e d t o
8 o o . o o o
t o n s , w h i l e n o n e w s h i p s w e r e p l a c e d o n t h e s l i p s .
Fa s c i s m be g a n by i m p o s i n g o r d e r a n d d i s c i -
p l i n e :
t h u s t w o o l d p e s t s o f t h e I t a l i a n m e r -
c h a n t m a r i n e , d e s e r t i o n a n d s m u g g l i n g ,
w e r e
8 7
e l i m i n a t e d
. T h e s y n d i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n h a s r e s u l t e d
i n t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y s e t t l e m e n t o f d i f f e r e n c e s a n d
d i s p u t e s be t w e e n c a p i t a l a n d m a r i t i m e l a bo u r a n d
h a s a l s o p r o v i d e d a n o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r a s s i s t a n c e
o f e v e r y d e s c r i p t i o n .
T h e n e w l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g n a v a l c o n s t r u c -
t i o n g a v e a f r e s h i m p u l s e t o t h e s h i p bu i l d i n g
y a r d s
. Fr o m 2 . 7 0 0 . 0 0 0 t o n s i n 1 9 2 2 ,
a s w i f t p a s -
s a g e w a s m a d e t o
3 . 0 1 2 . 9 7 5 t o n s . T h e bi g t r a n s -
a t l a n t i c s h i p s r e n o w n e d f o r t h e i r s p e e d , a c c o u n t
f o r a t o t a l o f 4 0 0 . 0 0 0 t o n s
. An d i t m u s t be r e -
m e m be r e d t h a t i n
1 9 3 3 , f r o m Au g u s t
1 2 t o 1 6 ,
t h e a
Re x c a r r i e d o f f t h e bl u e r i bbo n , c r o s s i n g
t h e At l a n t i c i n 4 d a y s , 1 3 h o u r s a n d
5 0
m i n u t e s ,
a t a n a v e r a g e s p e e d o f 2 8 . 9 2 m i l e s a n h o u r
.
T h e s u bs i d i s e d m e r c h a n t s e r v i c e h a s
be e n
c o m p l e t e l y r e f o r m e d
. T h e I t a l i a n s h i p p i n g l i n e s
n o w e x t e n d o v e r t h e w h o l e w o r l d , s u c c e s s f u l l y
c o m p e t i n g w i t h f o r e i g n f l a g s
. I t i s e n o u g h t o m e n -
t i o n t h e l i n e s t o S o u t h a n d E a s t Af r i c a , t o t h e
Fa r E a s t , S o u t h e r n P a c i f i c a n d D u t c h I n d i e s ,
w h i c h h a v e a v e r y br i l l i a n t f u t u r e be f o r e t h e m
.
T h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h E g y p t , t h e Fa r E a s t ,
t h e S o u t h P a c i f i c , a r e v e r y p o p u l a r a n d t h e i n d i -
s p e n s a bl e l i n e s c o n n e c t i n g I t a l y w i t h t h e I s l a n d s
a n d t h e c o l o n i e s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e v e r e s t m o d e m
c r i t e r i o n .
T h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a s h o w t h a t f r o m
1 9 2 2 t o
8 8
1 9 3 4 ,
t h e s u bs i d i s e d m e r c h a n t s e r v i c e s h a v e
a c h i e v e d be t t e r r e s u l t s a t a l o w e r c o s t . T h e d i s -
t a n c e i n m i l e s c o v e r e d h a s r i s e n f r o m 4
. 3 9 6
. 0 0 0
7 . 7 0 0 . 0 0 0 ; t h e t o n n a g e f r o m 3 9 0 t o 8 8 o m i l l i o n s ,
t h e a v e r a g e l i f e o f s h i p s , f r o m 2 2 t o 1 3 y e a r s ,
w h i l e t h e a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e a n d s u bs i d i e s c o s t
h a v e d r o p p e d f r o m 3 1 7 t o 2 8 0 m i l l i o n l i r e
.
T h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e m e r c h a n t m a r i n e
n a t u r a l l y i m p l i e d a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n p o r t s a n d
h a r bo u r s .
Fa s c i s m h a s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y a n d t e c h n i c a l l y
r e f o r m e d t h e p o r t s ( n o t a bl y Au t o n o m o u s C o n s o r -
t i u m o f t h e p o r t o f Ge n o a ) t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r -
a t i o n l o c a l n e e d s . D r a s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s h a v e
t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e p o r t s o f Na p l e s , ( w h e r e i m p o s -
i n g d r y d o c k s a r e be i n g bu i l t ) Ba r i , V e n i c e , P a -
l e r m o , e t c .
T h e t o t a l s u m e x p e n d e d o n a l l t h e s e w o r k s
f r o m 1 9 2 7 ( i n c l u d i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l y e a r
1
9 3 3
- 1 9 3 4 )
a m o u n t e d t o o n e m i l l i a r d 8 o o m i l l i o n l i r e .
8 9
P UBL I C W ORKS
W h i t e c o a l - Hy d r o e l e c t r i c p o w e r p l a n t s
- T h e h o u s i n g
p r o bl e m - Ne w s c h o o l s , - Ac q u e d u c t s - T h e d e v a s t a t e d
a r e a s - Fa s c i s t Ro m e - Ar c h e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s
-
T h e
Mu s s o l i n i Fo r u m - Mo d e r n r o a d s o n t h e I m p e r i a l Ar e a -
A m o u n t a i n r e s o r t a n d a be a c h f o r Ro m e - T h e Ma u s o -
l e u m o f Au g u s t u s .
I t a l y , l a c k i n g i n c o a l a n d o t h e r f u e l , h a s u n -
t o l d w e a l t h o f w a t e r p o w e r f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n
r a n g e s w h i c h bo u n d h e r i n t h e No r t h a n d p r o -
v i d e a ba c k bo n e f o r t h e e n t i r e l e n g t h o f t h e p e -
n i n s u l a , f r o m w h i c h s h e d e r i v e s
a
w h i t e c o a l
t o c o v e r m o s t o f h e r n e e d s . I n
1 9 2 2 ,
w h e n
Fa s c i s m c a m e t o p o w e r , h y d r o e l e c t r i c e n e r g y w a s
a l r e a d y be i n g g e n e r a t e d o n a c o n s i d e r a bl e s c a l e ,
t h e e x i s t i n g p l a n t s t o t a l l i n g a p o w e r o f 1 . 4 5 0
k i l o w a t t s w i t h a n a n n u a l o u t p u t o f f o r c e o f o v e r
f o u r m i l l i a r d s o f k i l o w a t t - h o u r s . On e m i l l i a r d o f
t h i s w a s p r o d u c e d i n P i e d m o n t a n d L o m ba r d y ,
a g o o d p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l p r o v i n c e s ,
bu t
p r a t i c a l l y n o n e h o w e v e r i n S i c i l y a n d S a r d i n i a .
T h a n k s t o t h e i m p e l l i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e
9 0
Fa s c i s t Go v e r n m e n t a n d t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f I t a l i a n
t e c h n i c i a n s , t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h i s r e s o u r c e h a s
be e n p r e s s e d t o t h e u t m o s t , s o t h a t I t a l y n o w
r a n k s f o r e m o s t a m o n g E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s p o s -
s e s s i n g h y d r o e l e c t r i c p o w e r p l a n t s . At t h e e n d
o f 1 9 3 3 , 1 2 1 3 p l a n t s w e r e i n f u l l e f f i c i e n c y w i t h
a t o t a l p o w e r o f 5 m i l l i o n k i l o w a t t s g e n e r a t i n g
a n n u a l l y a bo u t i i m i l l i a r d k i l o w a t t - h o u r s , t h r e e
t i m e s t h e a m o u n t d e v e l o p p e d i n 1 9 2 2 . T w e l v e
p e r c e n t o f t h e e n e r g y i s u s e d f o r l i g h t i n g , 9 %
f o r t r a n s p o r t s , 5 0 % f o r e l e c t r o m o t i v e p o w e r , 2 8 %
f o r t h e i n d u s t r i e s .
Re s e r v o i r s a r e a n o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e
g e n e r a l h y d r o - e l e c t r i c s y s t e m a n d a r e p a r t i c u l a l y
i m p o r t a n t i n S o u t h e r n I t a l y w h e r e w a t e r i s l e s s
a bu n d a n t t h a n i n t h e No r t h a n d C e n t r e . 1 6 8 o f
t h e m a l r e a d y e x i s t w i t h a t o t a l c a p a c i t y o f 1 . 3 0 0
m i l l i o n c u bi c m e t r e s , bu t a n o t h e r h u n d r e d a r e
u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . Mo s t o f t h e m a r e bu i l t o f
c o n c r e t e , o t h e r s t a k e t h e f o r m o f d a m s w i t h
a r c h e s a n d p i l l a r s i n m a s o n r y , s t o n e a n d e a r t h
w o r k . Am o n g t h e m o s t d a r i n g f e a t s o f e n g i n e e r -
i n g , d o u bt l e s s a r e t h e r e s e r v o i r s o f Os c h i r i i n
S a r d i n i a , ( 1 7 4 f t . h i g h w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f
2 4 2
m i l l i o n c u bi c m e t e r s ) a n d o f T i r s o a l s o i n S a r -
d i n i a , ( 1 8 9 f t . h i g h w i t h a c a p a c i t y o f
4 0 0 m i l -
l i o n c u bi c m e t r e s ) .
I t m a y s a f e l y be s a i d t h a t s u c h p l a n t s a s h a v e
9 1
be e n s e t u p i n I t a l y o v e r t h e l a s t f e w
y e a r s a r e
u n e q u a l l e d i n t h e w o r l d
. T h e i r t o t a l v a l u e i s
e s t i m a t e d a t 2 5 m i l l i a r d l i r e , n e a r l y a l l p r i v a t e l y
r a i s e d , S t a t e c o n t r i bu t i o n
a m o u n t i n g t o h a l f a
m i l l i a r d o f l i r e m o s t l y i n v e s t e d i n t h e n e w p l a n t s .
Y e a r l y Go v e r n m e n t g r a n t s m a d e f o r t h e d e v e l o p -
m e n t o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c a n d t h e r m o - e l e c t r i c p l a n t s ,
a r t i f i c i a l l a k e s , e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y s , e t c
. , a m o u n t t o
a n a v e r a g e o f z o o m i l l i o n s .
I t a l y , w h i c h h a s a c l a i m t o be i n g t h e c r a d l e
o f f l u v i a l h y d r a u l i c s a n d w h i c h f o r c e n t u r i e s h a s
d o n e w o n d e r s by h a r n e s s i n g w a t e r s o u r c e s
a n d
a c t u a l l y c h a n g i n g t h e f a c e o f c e r t a i n
p r o v i n c e s
t h r o u g h i r r i g a t i o n p l a n t s ( s u f f i c e i t t o r e c a l l
t h e
w o r k d o n e by t h e E t r u s c a n s a n d by t h e Ro m a n s
w h o c r e a t e d t h e Ma r m o r e Fa l l s , e t c . ) h a s , i n
t h i s f i e l d a s i n m a n y o t h e r s , g o n e ba c k t o
h e r
o l d e s t a n d
m o s t s u c c e s s f u l t r a d i t i o n s . Mo d e r n
t e c h n i q u e , h a s be e n s k i l f u l l y m e r g e d w i t h c e r t a i n
f u n d a m e n t a l
r u l e s d i s c o v e r e d a n d d e v e l o p p e d
i n a n c i e n t t i m e s .
Ge n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , , a n d t o t h e
e x c l u s i o n o f
l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n w o r k
w h i c h i s a c h a p t e r i n
i t s e l f , d a m s a n d f r o n t a l
d e f e n c e s m a d e u n d e r
Fa s c i s m e x t e n d o v e r a t o t a l l e n g t h o f g o o k i l o m e -
t r e s , e m ba n k m e n t s o v e r a l e n g t h 5 0 o k i l o m e t r e s ,
a l l o f w h i c h h a s i m p r o v e d a n d p r o t e c t e d f r o m
f l o o d s a n a r e a e q u a l t o o n e t e n t h o f t h e p e n i n -
9 2
s u l a a t a c o s t o f o n e a n d a h a l f m i l l i a r d s o f l i r e
.
S t a t e a c t i v i t y i n t h e f i e l d o f
t o w n - p l a n n i n g
a n d h o u s i n g c o v e r s p u bl i c bu i l d i n g s , s c h o o l s , a n d
h o m e s f o r t h e w o r k e r s , a s w e l l a s t h e m o d e r n -
i z a t i o n o f o l d c i t i e s w i t h a v i e w t o i m p r o v i n g
t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g a r t i s t i c be a u t y
.
T h e n u m be r o f e d i f i c e s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e
f i n a n c i a l ba c k i n g o f t h e S t a t e i s i n d e e d i m p o s -
i n g , i f o n e c o n s i d e r s t h a t a p p r o p r i a t i o n s
m a d e
f o r s u c h w o r k o n t h e bu d g e t o f t h e P u bl i c Mi n -
i s t r y a l o n e n o w a m o u n t s t o o n e m i l l i a r d a n d
s e v e n h u n d r e d m i l l i o n l i r e .
P o p u l a r h o u s i n g , a n o u t s t a n d i n g
p r o bl e m i n
a l l c o u n t r i e s t o d a y , w a s t a c k l e d w i t h v i g o u r by
t h e Re g i m e , w h i c h p r o m o t e d i n t e n s e bu i l d i n g
a c t i v i t y i n a l l Mu n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d l a r g e r c e n t r e s
.
Ho u s i n g f o r w o r k e r s c a r r i e d o u t by Mu n i c i p a l i -
t i e s h a s e n t a i l e d a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f 1 5 0 m i l l i o n
l i r e , by w h i c h 4 0 0 0
e c o n o m i c f l a t s w e r e p r o v i d e d
f o r w o r k e r s . Bu i l d i n g f i r m s , m o s t o f t h e m S t a t e -
s u bs i d i z e d , h a v e e r e c t e d
s o m e 1 7 0 0 t e n n e m e n t
h o u s e s w i t h a t o t a l o f 2 4 . 0 0 0 f l a t s e n t a i l i n g a
c o s t o f 8 6 o m i l l i o n l i r e , p a r t l y c o n t r i bu t e d by t h e
Go v e r n m e n t . P r i v a t e c o - o p e r a t i v e
bu i l d i n g c o n -
c e r n s e r e c t e d 2 . 1 0 0
h o u s e s w i t h 1 1 3 . 0 0 0 f l a t s a t
a c o s t o f c l o s e u p o n o n e a n d a h a l f m i l l i a r d l i r e
w i t h a S t a t e c o n t r i bu t i o n o f
3 5 m i l l i o n l i r e p e r
y e a r . Ra i l w a y m e n s ' c o - o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s bu i l t
9 3
4 . 6 6 0 f l a t s f o r h a l f a m i l l i a r d , a n d t h e Na t i o n a l
I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e Ho u s i n g o f C i v i l S e r v a n t s c o n -
s t r u c t e d 2 6 7 bu i l d i n g s w i t h 2 . 6 o o f l a t s a t a c o s t
o f
4 3 5
m i l l i o n l i r e .
T h e t o t a l s u m o f bu i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r w o r -
k e r s i s c a l c u l a t e d a t 6 . 5 1 2 bu i l d i n g s w i t h 5 2 . 0 0 0
f l a t s , w i t h a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f 3 m i l l i a r d s , 4 5 6
m i l l i o n s t o w h i c h t h e S t a t e c o n t r i bu t e d , i n c a -
p i t a l a n d i n y e a r l y s u bs i d i e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y
7 2 3
m i l l i o n s .
S c h o o l p r e m i s e s , h a d u n t i l r e c e n t l y be e n i n -
a d e q u a t e t o m e e t r e q u i r e m e n t s e x c e p t i n g , p e r h a p s ,
i n t h e v e r y l a r g e c i t i e s . A g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f
s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s , c a r r i e d o u t i n 1 9 2 3 , s h o w e d
t h a t f o r a t o t a l
o f 8 3 . 0 0 0
c l a s s e s
t h e r e w e r e
o n l y 4 5 . 0 0 0 s u i t a bl e s c h o o l r o o m s , a n d
3 2
. 0 0 0
i n a d e q u a t e o n e s , l e a v i n g a s h o r t a g e o f o v e r 5 . 0 0 0 .
C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e S o u t h e r n p r o v i n c e s a n d i n t h e
i s l a n d s w e r e e v e n m o r e d i s a s t r o u s , t h e c o n s t a n t
g r o w t h i n a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l s m a k i n g t h e p r o -
bl e m i n c r e a s i n g l y u r g e n t
. L o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s
w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e n f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t by t h e
Fa s c i s t Go v e r n m e n t t o bu i l d s c h o o l s i n t h e t o w n s
a s w e l l a s i n c o u n t r y v i l l a g e s , h a l f o f t h e a p p r o -
p r i a t i o n s o n t h e S t a t e bu d g e t m a d e f o r s c h o o l -
p r e m i s e s h a v i n g a c t u a l l y be e n s p e n t i n t h e S o u t h
a n d i n t h e i s l a n d s .
E l e v e n t h o u s a n d n e w c l a s s - r o o m s w e r e c o m -
9 4
p l e t e d be t w e e n 1 9 2 2 a n d 1 9 3 2 , r e p r e s e n t i n g 3 0 %
o f r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
a t a c o s t o f 6 7 o m i l l i o n l i r e
o f w h i c h t h e S t a t e c o v e r e d a s h a r e o f 2 1 2 m i l -
l i o n s . E i g h t t h o u s a n d m o r e c l a s s - r o o m s
w e r e
u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n o n Ju n e
3 0 ,
1 9 3 4
e n t a i l i n g
a n e x p e n d i t u r e by t h e S t a t e o f 4 0 0
m i l l i o n l i r e .
Hi g h S c h o o l s a n d Un i v e r s i t i e s
l i k e w i s e r e -
q u i r e d be t t e r p r e m i s e s a n d h e r e a g a i n t h e S t a t e
c a m e f o r w a r d w i t h l i be r a l f i n a n c i a l
s u p p o r t ,
o w i n g t o w h i c h t h e Un i v e r s i t i e s a n d Hi g h e r I n s -
t i t u t e s a t Ge n o a , Mi l a n , P a v i a , Bo l o g n a , P a d u a
a n d Fl o r e n c e a r e be i n g r e s t o r e d o r , w h e r e n e c e s -
s a r y , g i v e n n e w p r e m i s e s . .
T h e Un i v e r s i t y C i t y a t Ro m e , o p e n e d i n No -
v e m be r 1 9 3 5 , i s o n e o f t h e be s t e q u i p p e d i n t h e
w o r l d a n d e n t a i l e d a n e x p e n d i t u r e
o f 7 6 m i l -
l i o n l i r e .
S o m u c h f o r s c h o o l p r e m i s e s . No w a w o r d
a bo u t s a n i t a r y p l a n t s a n d g e n e r a l h y g i e n e t o
w h i c h t h e Fa s c i s t Go v e r n m e n t h a s d e v o t e d c o n -
s t a n t a t t e n t i o n e v e r s i n c e c o m i n g t o p o w e r
. No t
o n l y h a v e e x i s t i n g p l a n t s be e n r e s t o r e d a n d
i m -
p r o v e d by t h e S t a t e , bu t t h e l a t t e r h a s a l s o c o v -
e r e d t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f m a n y n e w o n e s i n a r e a s
w h e r e s a n i t a t i o n w a s i n a d e q u a t e o r l a c k i n g
. Al -
t h o u g h s u c h w o r k i s n o r m a l l y t h e t a s k o f l o c a l
Ad m i n i s t r a t i o n s , o w i n g t o t h e u r g e n c y o f t h e
9 5
p r o bl e m t h e S t a t e h a s g i v e n
a c o n t r i bu t i o n o f
7 0 0 m i l l i o n l i r e
.
Ac q u e d u c t s a n d i r r i g a t i o n a r e a n o t h e r o f t h e
g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t s w h i c h
t h e Re g i m e h a s c a r -
r i e d t o c o m p l e t i o n i n t h e s h o r t e s t p o s s i bl e d e l a y
.
Fr o m
1 9 2 2 t o t h i s y e a r d r i n k i n g w a t e r h a s be e n
m a d e a v a i l a bl e i n
2 . 6 0 0 i n h a bi t e d c e n t r e s w h e r e
w e l l s h a d be e n t h e o n l y s u p p l y i n t h e p a s t , a n d
t h i s t h a n k s t o t h e l a y i n g d o w n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y
9 9 9
k i l o m e t r e s o f m a j o r p i p e s w i t h 4 0 0 k i l o m e t r e s
o f l o c a l d i s t r i bu t o r s
.
T h e r e bu i l d i n g o f a r e a s d e v a s t a t e d by t h e
Gr e a t W a r w a s by n o m e a n s o n e o f t h e s m a l l e s t o f
t h e m a n y p r o bl e m s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e n e w Go v e r n -
m e n t : n o l e s s t h a n
2 . 0 0 0 h o u s e s h a d be e n r a z e d
t o t h e g r o u n d , be s i d e s 1 6 3 t h o u s a n d w h i c h w e r e
s e r i o u s l y d a m a g e d
. E x p e n d i t u r e e n t a i l e d by s u c h
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f r o m
1 9 2 2 t o 1 9 3 2 a m o u n t e d t o
o v e r t h r e e m i l l i a r d s , o n e h a l f o f w h i c h d e v o t e d
t o p u bl i c bu i l d i n g s a n d p o p u l a r h o u s i n g , a n d t h e
r e s t t o t h e r e f u n d i n g f o r d a m a g e t o p r i v a t e
o w n e r s
. D e v a s t a t i o n c a u s e d by e a r t h q u a k e s d u r - -
i n g t h e l a s t t w e n t y f i v e y e a r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f
I t a l y a l s o c a l l e d f o r d r a s t i c m e a s u r e s o n t h e p a r t o f
t h e Go v e r n m e n t , t e m p o r a r y h o u s i n g p r o v i d e d f o r
r o o f l e s s f a m i l i e s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s h a v i n g be e n a l -
l o w e d t o s u r v i v e e m e r g e n c y c i r c u m s t a n c e s m u c h
t o o l o n g , be f o r e t h e p r e s e n t Go v e r n m e n t ' s a c -
9 6
c e s s i o n t o p o w e r
. T h e c o s t e n t a i l e d by w o r k i n
t h i s f i e l d i s c a l c u l a t e d a t 3 m i l l i a r d s 5 2 1 m i l l i o n s
f o r t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r e a s d e v a s t e d by e a r t h -
q u a k e s , f l o o d s a n d l a n d s l i d e s .
Ro m e , h o w e v e r , i s t h e be s t e x a m p l e o f t h e
v a s t s c a l e u p o n w h i c h Fa s c i s m h a s u n d e r t a k e n
t h e r e - p l a n n i n g o f a n c i e n t c i t i e s t o m e e t t h e r e -
q u i r e m e n t s o f e v e r g r o w i n g t r a f f i c a n d o f a n
e x p a n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n . W h e n t h e bo a r d o f e x p e r t s
a p p o i n t e d t o s t u d y t h e r e - p l a n n i n g o f Ro m e w a s
s u m m o n e d by Mu s s o l i n i t o d i s c u s s t h e v a r i o u s
a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o bl e m i n h i s p r e s e n c e , I I D u c e
e x p o u n d e d h i s o w n v i e w i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s
( c
I l i k e t o d i v i d e t h e p r o bl e m s o f T w e n t i e t h C e n -
t u r y Ro m e u n d e r t w o h e a d s : p r o bl e m s o f n e c e s -
s i t y a n d p r o bl e m s o f g r a n d e u r . T h e f i r s t a r i s e o u t
o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l
a n d a l s o c o m e u n d e r t w o h e a d s : h o u s i n g a n d
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . T h e p r o bl e m s o f g r a n d e u r a r e
o f a n o t h e r k i n d
: w e m u s t r e l e a s e a n c i e n t a n d m e -
d i a e v a l Ro m e f r o m u g l y a n d i n a d e q u a t e s u r -
r o u n d i n g s , w e m u s t c r e a t e a m o n u m e n t a l Ro m e
o f o u r o w n a g e
. Ro m e c a n n o t a n d m u s t n o t be
a m o d e r n c i t y i n t h e a c c e p t e d s e n s e o f t h e t e r m
;
i t m u s t be a c i t y w o r t h y o f p a s t s p l e n d o u r s a n d
t h e s e s p l e n d o u r s m u s t be c o n s t a n t l y r e n e w e d t h a t
t h e y m a y g o d o w n i n t o h i s t o r y f o r f u t u r e g e n e r -
a t i o n s t o a d m i r e a n d r e s p e c t u .
9 7
7
i n g .
E x p e n d i t u r e e n t a i l e d
by t h e r e bu i l d i n g o f t h e
C a p i t a l h a s be e n a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be p r o -
d u c t i v e a l s o f r o m a d e m o g r a p h i c a l s t a n d p o i n t .
Ro m e i s o n e o f t h e f e w l a r g e c i t i e s o f t h e w o r l d
w h i c h h a s p r e s e r v e d a n
e x c e s s o f bi r t h s o v e r
d e a t h s , a n d t h e o n l y c a p i t a l w h e r e m a r r i a g e s a n d
bi r t h s a r e i n c r e a s i n g i n s t e a d o f w a n i n g . T h i s r e -
v e a l s t h e u n r e l e n t i n g v i t a l i t y o f t h e h e a r t o f I t a l y
w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e s Ro m e f r o m o t h e r c a p i t a l s
w h e r e d e p r a v i t y a n d s t e r i l i t y a r e be c o m i n g d a n -
g e r o u s l y p o w e r f u l .
Am o n g o u t s t a n d i n g e x a m p l e s o f
t h e Fa s c i s t
c o n c e p t i o n o f m o d e m a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e Mu s s o l i n i
Fo r u m i n Ro m e a s t r u c t u r e u n i q u e o f i t s k i n d ,
d e s e r v e s m a r k e d a t t e n t i o n . I t s s o l i d u p r i g h t o u t -
l i n e , i t s p l e a s a n t c o l o u r i n g , a d e q u a t e l y s y m bo l i s e
t h e Ne w Ro m e , r o o t e d i n t o t h e s o i l o f An c i e n t
Ro m e . T h e Fo r u m c o m p r i s e s t h e i m p o s i n g m a s s
o f t h e Ac a d e m y o f P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g a s t a d i u m
w i t h t e n t i e r s o f m a r bl e s e a t s , c r o w n e d by 9 2
s t a t u e s o f a t h l e t e s , o n e f o r e a c h P r o v i n c e o f t h e
Ki n g d o m , a n d t h e Mu s s o l i n i o be l i s k , a s i n g l e
m a r bl e bl o c k m e a s u r i n g a bo u t z i o ft . i n h e i g h t ,
w h i c h c o m p l e t e s t h e a d m i r a bl e p i c t u r e .
E v e n -
t u a l l y t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a w i l l be a l l o t t e d t o
t e n n i s c o u r t s , s w i m m i n g p o o l s , , s m a l l e r s t a d i a a n d
a c c o m o d a t i o n f o r t h e p u bl i c . u A n e w a r t m u s t
be c r e a t e d , Mu s s o l i n i t o l d t h e a r c h i t e c t s w h e n t h e
9
8
Fo r u m
w a s be i n g p l a n n e d , w e m u s t n o t e x p l o i t
o u r o l d t r e a s u r e s
. S t y l e i s t h e e t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r -
i s t i c o f t h e r a c e , n o t o n l y d o e s i t p r o v i d e m e n o f
t h e f u t u r e w i t h a n o r m f o r t h e e r e c t i o n o f n e w
c i t i e s , bu t i t l a y s d o w n a e s t h e t i c l a w s w h i c h g u i d e
n a t i o n a l h a r m o n y u
.
An e n t i r e v o l u m e w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o l i s t t h e
w o r k d o n e i n Ro m e by t h e Re g i m e
. I n a s p e e c h
d e l i v e r e d f r o m t h e C a p i t o l i n 1 9 2 6 , Mu s s o l i n i o u t -
l i n e d t h e p r o g r a m m e o f Ro m e ' s r e n o v a t i o n i n t h e
f o l l o w i n g w o r d s :
u Ro m e s h a l l be c o m e s u c h a s t o
a m a z e t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e w o r l d , v a s t , w e l l o r d e r -
e d , p o w e r f u l a s i n t h e d a y s o f Au g u s t u s
. Y o u
s h a l l r e l i e v e t h e t r u n k o f t h e o l d o a k o f g r o w t h s
t h a t c l i n g t o i t
; y o u s h a l l c l e a r t h e a r e a a r o u n d
t h e T h e a t r e o f Ma r c e l l u s , t h e Au g u s t e u m , t h e C a -
p i t o l , t h e P a n t h e o n ; a l l t h a t s p r a n g u p i n t h e
a g e s o f d e c a d e n c e s h a l l v a n i s h , a n d y o u s h a l l
r e l e a s e t h e t e m p l e s o f C h r i s t i a n Ro m e f r o m p r o -
f a n e p a r a s s i t e s
. T h e m i l l e n a r y m o n u m e n t s o f o u r
h i s t o r y s h a l l s t a n d o u t a s g i a n t s i n s o l i t a r y s p l e n -
d o u r . Y o u s h a l l g i v e h o u s e s , s c h o o l s , ba t h s
a n d
g a r d e n s , s p o r t s g r o u n d s a n d p l a y g r o u n d s t o
t h e
Fa s c i s t p e o p l e w h o w o r k
.
Mo s t o f t h i s h a s a l r e a d y m a t e r i a l i z e d . W e h a v e
d e s c r i be d t h e n e w T o w n - P l a n w h i c h i s t o be g r a d -
u a l l y l a i d o u t a n d i n t h e m e a n w h i l e a r c h x o l o g -
9 9
i c a l s i t e s c o m p r i s i n g t h e i m p o s i n g r e m a i n s o f
I m p e r i a l Ro m e h a v e a l l be e n r e s t o r e d .
T h e m a g n i f i c e n t V i a d e l l ' I m p e r o r u n n i n g
f r o m t h e P i a z z a V e n e z i a ( n o w t h e h e a r t o f Ro m e
a f t e r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e P a l a z z o V e n e z i a w h e r e
t h e He a d o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t h a s h i s o f f i c e ) t o
t h e C o l o s s e u m , t h r o u g h t h e r e v i v e d I m p e r i a l
Fo r a , c o m p l e t e d be t w e e n 1 9 2 4 a n d 1 9 3 2 , e n t a i l e d
a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f 7 1 m i l l i o n l i r e
. An y o n e w a l k i n g
d o w n t h a t r o a d t o d a y w i l l h a r d l y r e m e m be r t h e
c o u n t l e s s d i n g y s t r e e t s a n d a l l e y s w h i c h s p o i l t o n e
o f t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g a n d i m p o r t a n t s i t e s o f An -
c i e n t Ro m e
.
T h e L i c t o r s P a l a c e , t o r i s e h a l f w a y d o w n t h e
V i a d e l l ' I m p e r o , w i l l r e p r e s e n t m o d e r n a r c h i t e c -
t u r e s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e C l a s s i c
Ag e . T h i s n e w bu i l d i n g , w h i c h w i l l t o w e r a bo v e
t h e o t h e r s i n t h i s s t r e e t , w i l l f i l l m o d e m r e q u i r e -
m e n t s w h i l e r e m a i n i n g a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n h a r m o n y
w i t h i t s c l a s s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s .
T h e V i a d e l l ' I m p e r o c o n t i n u e s be y o n d t h e
C o l o s s e u m w i t h t h e n a m e o f V i a d e i T r i o n f i , ( t h e
Ro a d o f T r i u m p h s ) j o i n i n g u p w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g
Ar c h a e o l o g i c a l P r o m e n a d e i n a l a r g e s q u a r e , f r o m
w h i c h r a d i a t e t h e Av e n t i n e Av e n u e ( 1 2 o f t
. w i d e )
a n d t h e V i a d e l C i r c o Ma s s i m o ( t h e Ro a d o f t h e
C i r c u s Ma x i m u s ) , o p e n e d t o t r a f f i c o n Oc t o be r
2 8 t h , 1 9 3 4 . T h e l a t t e r ( 2 4 0 0 f t . l o n g a n d 9 o f t .
1 0 0
w i d e ) c i r c u m v e n t s t h e s i t e u p o n w h i c h t h e a n c i e n t
Ro m a n c i r c u s o n c e r o s e , a n d d u e t o be e x c a -
v a t e d s h o r t l y , a n d p r o v i d e s a u n i q u e v i s t a o v e r
t h e P a l a t i n e a n d Av e n t i n e h i l l s .
T h i s g i r d l e o f r o a d s p l a c e d a r o u n d t h e , I m -
p e r i a l a r e a i s c o m p l e t e d by t h e V i a d e l Ma r e ( t h e
Ro a d t o t h e S e a ) , w h i c h f l a n k s t h e C a p i t o l a n d
t h e T h e a t r e o f Ma r c e l l u s .
I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e g i r d l e p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l l i n k
be t w e e n t h e S e a a n d t h e Hi l l s , n o w e a s i l y a c -
c e s s i bl e t h a n k s t o t h e r e c e n t w i d e n i n g o f t h e
Ne w Ap p i a n W a y w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e Ro m a n Hi l l
T o w n s . Mo d e r n h i g h r o a d s d e s i g n e d t o o f f e r a d m i r -
a bl e v i e w s o f t h e c o u n t r y - s i d e a s t h e t r a v e l l e r
w e n d s h i s w a y t o w a r d s t h e Al ba n h i l l s , d e s c e n d
a s f a r a s V e l l e t r i a n d t h e n c e t o t h e s e a t h r o u g h
t h e r e c l a i m e d P o n t i n e Ma r s h e s .
T h e m o t o r o a d t o Os t i a r u n n i n g f r o m S t . P a u l ' s
Ga t e t o t h e L i d o o n a p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t c o u r s e ,
r a n k s f o r e m o s t i n E u r o p e a m o n g g o o d t h o r o u g h -
f a r e s f o r m o t o r i s t s .
T e n y e a r s a g o a n y o n e a n t i c i p a t i n g s u c h i m -
p r o v e m e n t s a s h a v e be e n c a r r i e d o u t i n Ro m e
w o u l d h a v e be e n c a l l e d a v i s i o n a r y ! T h e c o s t o f
s u c h w o r k ? Of f i c i a l f i g u r e s p u bl i s h e d i n Au g u s t
1 9 3 6 r e v e a l a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f h a l f a m i l l a r d f r o m
1 9 2 6 t o 1 9 3 6 , f o r t h e r e c o n d i t i o n i n g a n d u p k e e p
o f r o a d s . T h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e n e w T o w n - p l a n ,
I OI
i n c l u d i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s , h a s c o s t 6 o o
m i l l i o n s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , r o a d - m a k i n g a n d t o w n -
p l a n n i n g h a v e e n t a i l e d a n o u t l a y o f o n e m i l l i a r d
2 2 9 m i l l i o n l i r e .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s m a n y p u bl i c w o r k s , t o t h e
e x c l u s i o n o f s c h o o l s , h a v e be e n c o m p l e t e d a t a
c o s t o f 1 6 8 . 4 1 9 . 3 0 4 l i r e . L o c a l p o l i c e s e r v i c e s a n d
h y g i e n i c p l a n t s h a v e c a l l e d f o r a c o n s t a n t o u t l a y
o f f u n d s a m u n t i n g t o a bo u t 2 o 6 m i l l i o n l i r e i n
t e n y e a r s .
S c h o o l s , i n Ro m e a l o n e , d u r i n g t h e s a m e p e r -
i o d h a v e c o s t t h e C i t y a n d t h e S t a t e j o i n t l y 1 7 4
a n d a h a l f m i l l i o n l i r e
. T h i s f i g u r e a d d e d t o t h a t
s p e n t o n s u n d r y p u bl i c w o r k s a n d t o w n - p l a n n i n g
a c t i v i t i e s r e v e a l s t h e s c a l e u p o n w h i c h t h e
r e n o v a t i o n o f Ro m e h a s be e n c o n d u c t e d . An o t h e r
5 5 m i l l i o n s w e r e e n t a i l e d by t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f
m o n u m e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s a n d s h o u l d be a d d e d
t o t h e g r a n d t o t a l o f 2 m i l l i a r d s , 7 3 9 m i l l i o n s
3 0 8 . 1 1 5 l i r e c o v e r i n g a l l w o r k d o n e f o r t h e t e c h n i -
c a l a n d a r t i s t i c i m p r o v e m e n t o f Ro m e , i n t h e
s p a c e o f t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s .
Ro m e h a s a c o n v e n i e n t s e a s i d e r e s o r t a t Os t i a ,
a n d a m o u n t a i n r e s o r t i s n o w be i n g m a d e a c c e s -
s i bl e n o t f a r o u t o f t h e S a bi n a d i s t r i c t .
Up o n a s t o r m y d a y i n Ja n u a r y 1 9 3 2 Mu s s o -
l i n i m o t o r e d t o Ri e t i a n d t h e n c e t o t h e t o p
o f a m o u n t a i n c a l l e d T e r m i n i l l o . C h a r m e d by
1 0 2
t h e be a u t y
o f t h i s l i t t l e - k n o w n s p o t h e d e c r e e d
t h a t T e r m i n i l l o s h o u l d be m a d e e a s i l y a c c e s s i bl e
t o m o u n t a i n - l o v i n g Ro m a n s . V e r y f e w d a y s e l a p -
s e d be f o r e t h e D u c e ' s w i s h be g a n t o m a t e r i a l i z e
a r o a d , a n a c q u e d u c t , a n e l e c t r i c p l a n t a n d a r e g -
u l a r p l a n f o r t h e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e m o u n t a i n
s l o p e s t o o k s h a p e . A be a u t i f u l h i g h r o a d l e a d i n g
t o T e r m i n i l l o i s n o w o p e n t o t r a f f i c , r e a c h i n g a n
a l t i t u d e o f 4 2 5 3 f t . a bo v e s e a l e v e l , w h e r e a n o t h e r
s t r e t c h o f
1 7
k i l o m e t r e s o f s t e e p e r c l i m b h a v e
j u s t r e c e n t y be e n c o m p l e t e d . I n w i n t e r a n d s u m -
m e r T e r m i n i l l o ( 6 6 3 9 f t . ) i s a n i d e a l g o a l f o r Ro -
m a n e x c u r s i o n i s t s , a c c e s s i bl e a s i t i s f r o m t h e
C a p i t a l i n j u s t o v e r o n e h o u r ' s e a s y r i d e
.
T o c o n c l u d e t h i s o u t l i n e o f w o r k d o n e i n Ro m e
by t h e Fa s c i s t Re g i m e , w e s h a l l r e c a l l h o w , o n
t h e e v e o f t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t
o f t h e XI V t h
y e a r o f t h e Fa s c i s t Re g i m e , Mu s s o l i n i h i m s e l f
d e a l t t h e f i r s t bl o w o f t h e p i c k t o t h e t u m bl e d o w n
h o u s e s a r o u n d t h e Ma u s o l e m o f Au g u s t u s . Ha r d l y
h a s t h i s w o r k be e n s t a r t e d t h a t i t s c o m p l e t i o n
i s a l r e a d y a t h a n d
. D i n g y s t r e e t s , u g l y u n h e a l t h y
h o u s e s a r e be i n g q u i c k l y p u l l e d d o w n t o m a k e
r o o m f o r a w i d e o p e n a r e a a r o u n d t h e T o m b o f
t h e Gr e a t Ro m a n E m p e r o r , a n a c h i e v e m e n t w h i c h ,
i n c i d e n t a l l y , w i l l a l s o s e t t l e t h e l o n g - s t a n d i n g p r o -
bl e m o f c i r c u l a t i o n i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e t o w n . T w o
y e a r s h e n c e , a s t h e Au g u s t a n Y e a r be g i n s , t h e
1 0 3
e n t i r e a r e a w i l l be o p e n e d t o p u bl i c t r a f f i c
. I n d e e d
t h e bi m i l l e n a r y o f t h e bi r t h o f Au g u s t u s c o u l d
h a r d l y be c o m m e m o r a t e d i n a m o r e i m p o s i n g a n d
w o r t h y m a n n e r t h a n by r e s t o r i n g t h e s i t e w h e r e
Au g u s t u s w a s bu r i e d a t h i s r e q u e s t , a n d w h e r e h i s
o w n w r i t t e n r e c o r d o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f h i s
p r i n c i p a t e w e r e p o s t e d u p o n br o n z e p i l l a r s t o
i n s p i r e t h e Ro m a n s w i t h a w i l l t o c o n t i n u e h i s
w o r k i n t o f u t u r e a g e s .
1 0 4
S C HOOL S , E D UC AT I ON, C UL T URE
Fa s c i s t S c h o o l Re f o r m - Fo r m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r -
S t a t e
e x a m i n a t i o n s - Au t o n o m y o f Un i v e r s i t i e s
- Un i v e r s i t y
p r o f e s s o r s ' o a t h - T h e I t a l i a n Ac a d e m y - T h e Na t i o n a l
Re s e a r c h C o u n c i l - Na t i o n a l Fa s c i s t c u l t u r e - T h e Op e -
r a Na z i o n a l e Ba l i l l a - Mu l t i p l e f o r m s o f a s s i s t a n c e -
S p o r t a n d g a m e s - Re l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n - L i br a r i e s - C o u r -
s e s i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .
T h e s c h o o l r e f o r m m e r i t s s p e c i a l m e n t i o n . T h e
c u r r i c u l a , m e t h o d s a n d o bj e c t i v e s w e r e r e n e w e d .
T h e o l d s c h o o l w a s o f a n e x c l u s i v e l y i n f o r m a t i v e
a n d n o n - r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r . T h e v a r i o u s s u bj e c t s
w e r e t a u g h t i n a d i s o r g a n i s e d m a n n e r w i t h o u t a n y
r e c i p r o c a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n a n d e a c h t e a c h e r t r i e d
t o d e a l w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i bl e n u m be r o f s u b-
j e c t s . T h e r e w a s a v e r y e n c y c l o p w d i e c o n c e p t i o n
o f e d u c a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n f r a g m e n t a r y k n o w l e d g e .
T h e Fa s c i s t r e f o r m w a s i n s p i r e d by a s t r i c t l y
u n i t a r i a n c r i t e r i o n . E a c h s u bj e c t w a s i n t e g r a t e d
a n d h a r m o n i s e d w i t h t h e o t h e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
t y p e a n d o bj e c t i v e s o f t h e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s , a n d
a t t h e s a m e t i m e e v e r y g r a d e o f s t u d i e s w a s
1 0 5
i n t e n d e d t o
d e v e l o p t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d m o u l d
t h e c h a r a c t e r .
T h e ba s i s o f t h e r e f o r m i s t h e S t a t e e x a -
m i n a t i o n w h i c h p l a c e s p u bl i c a n d p r i v a t e s c h o o l s
o n a p l a n e o f e q u a l i t y
. At t h e e n d o f s e c o n d a r y
s t u d i e s a s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o p e n s t h e w a y t o
h i g h e r s t u d i e s . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n i s
h e l d be f o r e
a m i x e d c o m m i s s i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f
u n i v e r s i t y
p r o f e s s o r s a n d t e a c h e r s o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s
w h o i n n o c a s e m a y be s e l e c t e d f r o m a m o n g t h e
s c h o o l s a t t e n d e d by t h e c a n d i d a t e s
. S t u d e n t s a n d
e x a m i n e r s a r e u n k n o w n t o e a c h o t h e r
.
T h i s r u l e , f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s n o
e x c e p t i o n ,
h a s be e n m a d e f o r t h r e e p u r p o s e s . Fi r s t o f a l l t o
g u a r a n t e e t h e s a m e c o n d i t i o n s f o r p u p i l s f r o m
p u bl i c a n d p u p i l s f r o m p r i v a t e s c h o o l s
. S e c o n d l y ,
t o i n s t i t u t e , t h r o u g h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s ,
a s t r i c t c o n t r o l o f bo t h p u bl i c a n d p r i v a t e s c h o o l s ,
a n d t h i r d l y , t o c a r r y o u t a r i g o r o u s s e l e c t i o n
a m o n g t h e s c h o l a s t i c s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n
.
T h e S t a t e e x a m i n a t i o n , i n f a c t , s h o u l d be t h e
a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h a t p e r m a n e n t e x a m i n a t i o n w h i c h
i s i m p o s e d by t h e w h o l e o f h u m a n l i f e
. Fo r t h i s
r e a s o n , t h e o bj e c t i v e i s t o a s c e r t a i n , n o t s o m u c h
t h e a m o u n t o f k n o w l e d g e a c q u i r e d by t h e c a n d i -
d a t e s , a s t h e i r s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e i r g e n e r a l
p r e p a r a t i o n a n d t h e i r m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n .
He n c e ,
t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l r e f o r m a t h o r o u g h a n d
l a s t -
i o 6
i n g k n o w l e d g e i s r e q u i r e d o f s t u d e n t s a n d t h e
t r a d i t i o n a l m e m o r y t e s t s h a v e
be e n a ba n d o n e d .
I n r e s p e c t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , a w i d e a u t o -
n o m y p e r m i t s t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s t o o r g a n i s e t h e i r
a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e w a y m o s t s u i t e d t o l o c a l r e q u i -
r e m e n t s a n d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r t r a d i t i o n s , a l s t o i n s -
t i t u t e s c h o o l s f o r s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s a n d c o n t i n u a -
t i o n c o u r s e s . T h i s a u t o n o m y p r e s u p p o s e s l o y a l t y
t o t h e Re g i m e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f ,
h e n c e t h e o a t h t a k e n by u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s
.
T h e I t a l i a n Ac a d e m y , f o u n d e d o n 7 Ja n u a r y ,
1 9 2 6 , p r o m o t e s a n d c o - o r d i n a t e s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l
m o v e m e n t i n t h e f i e l d o f s c i e n c e , a r t s a n d l e t t e r s .
I t s o bj e c t i v e i s t o p r e s e r v e t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r
a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s p i r i t a n d t r a d i t i o n , a n d t o i n -
c r e a s e i t s i n f l u e n c e o u t s i d e n a t i o n a l f r o n t i e r s . I t
h a s l e g a l p e r s o n a l i t y a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t o n o m y
u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e S t a t e .
T h e Ac a d e m y i s d i v i d e d i n t o 4 s e c t i o n s : m o -
r a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s ; p h y s i c a l , m a t h e m a t i c a l
a n d n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ; l e t t e r s ; a r t s . E a c h s e c t i o n
c o n s i s t s o f 1 5 a c a d e m i c i a n s , f o r m i n g a t o t a l o f
s i x t y
. T h e i r n o m i n a t i o n i s f o r l i f e a n d i s c o n -
f i r m e d , a f t e r n o m i n a t i o n by t h e Ac a d e m y , by
Ro y a l D e c r e e o n t h e p r o p o s a l o f t h e He a d o f
t h e Go v e r n m e n t i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e Mi n i s t e r o f
E d u c a t i o n a n d a p p r o v a l by t h e C o u n c i l o f Mi -
n i s t e r s .
1 0 7
T h e Na t i o n a l Re s e a r c h C o u n c i l ( R. D . i 8 No -
v e m be r , 1 9 2 3 ) h a s a d u a l f u n c t i o n : t o a c t u a t e t h e
o bj e c t i v e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s t a t u t e o f t h e I n t e r -
n a t i o n a l Re s e a r c h C o u n c i l a t Br u s s e l s , o n w h i c h
I t a l y i s r e p r e s e n t e d , a n d t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e n a -
t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e v a r i o u s br a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e
a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e g e n -
e r a l e c o n o m y o f t h e c o u n t r y .
T h e Na t i o n a l Fa s c i s t I n s t i t u t e o f C u l t u r e i s
n o t a n d i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be a p o p u l a r Un i v e r -
s i t y ; i t d o e s n o t n o r i s i n t e n d e d t o s u bs t i t u t e t h e
e x i s t i n g Un i v e r s i t i e s ; i t i s n o t i n t e n d e d f o r s p r e a d -
i n g s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e a m o n g t h e p e o p l e ; i t s i s
n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n c c q u a n t i t a t i v e c u l t u r e f o r a n d
by t h e p e o p l e . I t s o bj e c t i v e i s q u a l i t a t i v e n c u l -
t u r e a n d i t s i n t e r e s t s a r e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f r i g h t
i d e a s a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e h u m a n c o n -
s c i e n c e . T h e Fa s c i s t I n s t i t u t e o f C u l t u r e i s i n t e n d -
e d t o f o r m t h e n e w I t a l i a n s
; t h e p r o bl e m s be f o r e
i t a r e n o t t h o s e r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , bu t
p r o bl e m s e f f e c t i n g t h e n a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e c o l -
l e c t i v e c o n s c i e n c e .
T h e m u l t i p l e c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e
s c o p e o f t h e Mi n i s t r y o f Na t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a r e
c o - o r d i n a t e d by t h e Mi n i s t r y f o r P r e s s a n d P r o p a -
g a n d a i n s t i t u t e d by Ro y a l D e c r e e o n 2 4 Ju n e ,
1 9 3 5
. T h e m u s i c a l a n d d r a m a t i c t h e a t r e , t h e c i -
n e m a t o g r a p h , bo o k s , n e w s p a p e r s , r e v i e w s , p u bl i -
i o 8
c a t i o n s o f a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s , t o u r i n g , a r e h e r e u n i t e d
a n d g i v e n u n i f o r m d i r e c t i o n .
An i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e
n e w g e n e r a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e Op e r a
Na z i o n a l e Ba l i l l a , f o u n d e d by t h e L a w o f 3
Ap r i l , 1 9 2 6 . I t i s a m o r a l E n t i t y h a v i n g a s i t s
o bj e c t i v e s t h e a s s i s t a n c e a n d m o r a l a n d p h y s i c a l
e d u c a t i o n o f t h e y o u t h o f t h e c o u n t r y f r o m 7 t o
1 8 y e a r s o f a g e c a r r i e d o u t by m e a n s o f a c o n t i -
n u o u s a c t i v i t y i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l s a n d
i n t e n d e d t o t r a n s f o r m t h e I t a l i a n n a t i o n
a
bo d y
a n d s o u l u . T h e Op e r a p e r f o r m s i t s f u n c t i o n s
t h r o u g h t h e Ba l i l l a a n d Av a n g u a r d i s t i i n s t i t u t i o n s .
C h i l d r e n f r o m 8 t o 1 4 y e a r s o l d be l o n g t o t h e
Ba l i l l a a n d t h e Av a n g u a r d i s t i i n c l u d e bo y s f r o m
1 4 t o 1 8 y e a r s o f a g e . I n r e s p e c t o f g i r l s , t h e P i c -
c o l e I t a l i a n e c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e Ba l i l l a , a n d t h e
Gi o v a n i I t a l i a n e t o t h e Av a n g u a r d i s t i .
On 3 1 Au g u s t , 1 9 3 6 - XI V m e m be r s h i p o f t h e
Op e r a Na z i o n a l e Ba l i l l a - v a s a s f o l l o w s : Ba l i l l a
2 . 3 3 2 . 2 8 4 ; P i c c o l e I t a l i a n e 2 . 0 0 7 . 7 1 0 ; Av a n g u a r -
d i s t i 7 8 8 . 8 9 6 ; Gi o v a n i I t a l i a n e 3 8 1 . 9 2 5 . T o t a l
5 . 5 1 0
. 8 1 5 .
T h e a i m s o f t h e Op e r a a r e e d u c a t i o n a l , f o r m a -
t i v e a n d i n t h e n a t u r e o f a s s i s t a n c e
. I t d i f f u s e s
t h r o u g h o u t a l l s o c i a l s t r a t a s t h a t t r a i n i n g i n a r m s
w h i c h h a s r e s t o r e d t o h o n o u r t h e v i r t u e o f c o u -
r a g e , p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i bi l i t y a n d i n i t i a t i v e .
1 0 9
T h r o u g h t h e Op e r a Ba l i l l a h a s be e n br o u g h t i n t o
be i n g t h a t n e w d e m o c r a c y a s t h e ba s i s o f t h e
Re g i m e w h i c h i s a bo v e a l l a r e g i m e o f t h e p e o p l e .
T h e r e i s n o t a f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t h e be n e -
f i c e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e Op e r a h a s n o t m a d e
i t s e l f f e l t . I t s a c t i o n i s f a r r e a c h i n g , i n c e s s a n t a n d
p r o g r e s s i v e . I n s t r u c t i o n , g y m n a s t i c s , s p o r t , c a m p -
i n g , c r u i s e s , m i l i t a r y e x e r c i s e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l , a r t -
i s t i c , m u s i c a l , c h o r a l a n d t h e a t r i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d
e x c u r s i o n s a l l t e n d t o c r e a t e a n a t m o s p h e r e o f
e q u a l i t y , e m u l a t i o n , a n d s o l i d a r i t y w h i c h h a s n o t
be e n a c h i e v e d by a n y o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e
w o r l d .
T h e w o r k o f h e a l t h a s s i s t a n c e i s u n t i r i n g .
Fr o m
i
Ja n u a r y , 1 9 2 9 - V I I t o
2 8
Oc t o be r ,
1 9 3 5 -
XI I I , 9 2 . 4 5 5 m e m be r s w e r e a s s i s t e d f o r a
t o t a l s u m o f 1 0 . 1 6 3 . 1 2 2 l i r e .
S c h o l a s t i c a s s i s t a n c e i s f a r s e e i n g i n e v e r y s e n s e
o f t h e w o r d . I n t h e y e a r XI I a l o n e 3
. 3 9 4
.
6 6
8 . 7 7
l i r e w e r e s p e n t o n s t a t i o n a r y a n d d i s t r i bu t e d
a m o n g p u p i l s ; 7 9 8 . 2 0 8 t e x t bo o k s w e r e bo u g h t
f o r a s u m o f 4
. 8 5 4 . 0 4 8
. 2 1 l i r e . C l o t h i n g a n d u n i -
f o r m s , t o t h e v a l u e o f 2
. 4 5 0 . 7 6 3 . 3 9
l i r e w e r e d i -
s t r i bu t e d , w h i l e 6 3 5 . 7 8 8 . 9 8 l i r e w e r e s p e n t o n
f o o t w e a r a n d 6 8 1
. 0 2 4 . 2 5 l i r e o n m e d i c i n a l r e -
q u i s i t e s .
T h e t o t a l s u m s p e n t by t h e P a t r o n s o n t h i s
f o r m o f a s s i s t a n c e a m o u n t e d t o a t o t a l o f
I I 0
1 2 . o i 6 . 2 6 6 . 6 o l i r e
a n d t h e p u p i l s w h o be n e f i t e d
n u m be r e d 1
. 1 9 7 . 7 3 2 .
I n t h e s a m e y e a r t h e
P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e s
a w a r d e d g r a n t s i n m o n e y t o 2 5 2
. 9 8 3 n e e d y m e m -
be r s t o a t o t a l s u m o f I . o o o . i 8 i l i r e
.
S c h o o l m e a l s , w h i c h a r e r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r e d
a s o n e o f t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e f o r m s o f a s s i s t a n c e ,
w e r e p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l
y e a r
1 9 3 4 -
3 5 ,
s o l e l y by t h e Op e r a Ba l i l l a by m e a n s o f i t s P a -
t r o n s a n d w a s c a r r i e d o u t i n s u c h a w a y a s t o
be o f r e a l be n e f i t t o a g r e a t n u m be r o f n e e d y
c h i l d r e n .
T h e t o t a l s u m s p e n t o n s c h o l a s t i c a s s i s t a n c e
a n d m e a l s w a s , i n t h e y e a r XI I I , 1 9 . 7 1 0 . 5 7 2 . 8 7
l i r e . T h e p u p i l s a n d m e m be r s a s s i s t e d n u m be r e d
1 . 7 7 7
. 8 8 8 .
L o c a l i t i e s e q u i p p e d f o r g y m n a s t i c s a n d s p o r t
a r e c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g , a n d h a v e r i s e n f r o m 5 0 2
i n t h e y e a r V I t o 3 0 6 5 a t t h e p r e s e n t d a y
. S p o r t s
f i e l d s n o w a m o u n t t o 5 7 6 0 . Gy m n a s t i c f e s t i v a l s i n
Ma y o f t h e y e a r XI V t o o k p l a c e i n 6 3 8 4 c o m -
m u n e s w i t h
t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f
2 . 0 4 8
. 5 3 6
m e m be r s .
V a r i o u s c o u r s e s
( p r e - a t h l e t i c , l i g h t a t h l e t i c s ,
g y m n a s t i c s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t ,
r y t h m i c s , d e p o r t -
m e n t , s w i m m i n g a n d d i v i n g , f e n c i n g , s k i i n g , r i d -
i n g , c y c l i n g , s k a t i n g , t e n n i s , Gr a e c o - Ro m a n
I I I
w r e s t l i n g , bo a t i n g ) n u m be r e d 5 8 . 8 3 0 a t t e n d e d by
4 . 0 1 4 . 9 6 1 m e m be r s .
P r a c t i c e t e a m g a m e s ( f o o t - ba l l , w a t e r p o l o a n d
o t h e r ba l l g a m e s ) :
4 5 . 4 6 5
w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
o f 3 . 2 6 1 . 8 4 0 m e m be r s .
I n t h e v a r i o u s s p o r t s 3 3 . 1 0 3 m a l e g r o u p s h a v e
be e n f o r m e d w i t h m o r e t h a n 5 0 0
. 0 0 0 m e m be r s
a n d 1 1 . 1 7 5 f e m a l e g r o u p s w i t h 9 9 . 8 9 2 g i r l s i n
a t t e n d a n c e .
P h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g i s i n n o w a y d e t r i m e n t a l
t o r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e s p i r i t u a l e d u c a t i o n
o f t h e m e m be r s , w h i c h i s o f s u c h g r e a t i m p o r -
t a n c e f o r t h e i r c o m p l e t e d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n t i n u e s
t o be t h e o bj e c t o f s p e c i a l c a r e o n t h e p a r t o f
t h e Ba l i l l a .
T h e C h a p l a i n s a t t a c h e d t o t h e y o u t h o r g a n i s a -
t i o n s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 1 4 2 5 i n t h e y e a r XI I t o 1 6 3 2
i n t h e y e a r XI I I .
L e c t u r e s o f a r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r g i v e n f o r
m e m be r s by t h e v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l a n d C o m m u -
n a l C o m m i t t e e s a m o u n t t o a t o t a l o f 3 0 . 4 2 7 i n
t h e y e a r XI I I , s h o w i n g a n i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e p r e -
v i o u s y e a r s o f 1 0 . 7 6 2 .
T h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i t t e e s h a v e g i v e n p a r t i -
c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s i n w h i c h ,
a l t h o u g h t h e c h o i c e o f t h e s u bj e c t t o be t r e a t e d i s
f r e e , m a t t e r s r e l a t i v e t o t h e W o r l d W a r a n d t h e
1 1 2
Fa s c i s t Re v o l u t i o n
a l w a y s t a k e a n o u t s t a n d i n g
p l a c e .
At t h e be g i n n i n g o f a l l t h e c o u r s e s a bs t r a c t s
f r o m t h e D u c e ' s s p e e c h e s a r e r e a d .
I n t h e y e a r XI I I a t o t a l o f 7 6
. 8 6 3 l e c t u r e s
w e r e
g i v e n t o m e m be r s ( e x c l u d i n g
r e l i g i o u s
s u bj e c t s ) , s h o w i n g a n i n c r e a s e o f 1 3 . 4 5 7 o v e r t h e
y e a r XI I . Of t h e s e 3 2
. 3 0 9 w e r e o n p o l i t i c a l
s u bj e c t s 2 q . o 3 9 o n h i s t o r i c a l , 9
. 5 1 2 o n l i t e r a r y ,
7 . 1
5 3 o n s c i e n t i f i c a n d 3
. 8 5 0 o n a r t i s t i c s u bj e c t s .
At t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r XI I I t h e l i br a r i e s o f
t h e Op e r a Ba l i l l a n u m be r e d
3 . 7 5 5
s h o w i n g a n
i n c r e a s e o f 9 4 8 c o m p a r e d t o t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r
.
T h e v o l u m e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s e l i br a r i e s
be -
l o n g i n g t o t h e Op e r a Ba l i l l a a m o u n t t o 3 5 0
. 8 4 0
w h i l e 2 6 1
. 9 3 0 v o l u m e s t h e p r o p e r t y o f o t h e r bo d -
i e s a r e a v a i l a bl e f o r t h e u s e o f m e m be r s
. T h e
t o t a l n u m be r o f bo o k s a v a i l a bl e t o t h e m e m be r s
i s 6 1 2 . 7 7 0 .
C o u r s e s i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g
g i v e n i n t h e
y e a r XI I I i n e v e r y p r o v i n c e by t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n s
d e p e n d e n t o n t h e Op e r a Ba l i l l a w e r e a s f o l l o w s
4
. 8 8 2 i n g e n e r a l c u l t u r e w i t h 1 8 6
. 5 3 4
P u p i l s
; 1
. 4 1 6
i n d r a w i n g w i t h 2 5
. 9 2 2 p u p i l s ; 3 3 6 8 i n d o m e s t i c
e c o n o m y w i t h 8 0 . 3 6 8 p u p i l s
;
7 4 4
i n p u e r i c u l t u r e
w i t h 2 9 . 7 9 0 p u p i l s ; 3
. 8 3 4 i n h y g i e n e a n d f i r s t a i d
w i t h
5 4 . 9 1 7
P u p i l s ; 5 . 0 9 9 i n c u t t i n g o u t , s e w i n g
a n d e m br o i d e r y w i t h 1 3 1
. 3 6 4 p u p i l s ; 2 5 4 i n t e l e -
1 1 3
8 i n g .
g r a p h y a n d w i r e l e s s t e l e g r a p h y w i t h 4
. 2 1 5 p u -
p i l s ; 8 9 7 i n a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h 1 8 . 7 3 1 p u p i l s ; 4 6 1
i n v a r i o u s h a n d i c r a f t s w i t h 6 . 5 3 0 p u p i l s .
T h e f a r m s a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l f i e l d s i n w h i c h
t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u r s e s a r e h e l d w e r e 3 . 2 2 5 i n t h e
y e a r XI I a n d c o v e r e d a t o t a l a r e a o f 1 0 . 7 2 2 . 3 9 8
s q u a r e m e t r e s .
T h e a m a t e u r d r a m a t i c s o c i e t i e s w h i c h f u n c t i o n -
e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e s u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e
Op e r a Ba l i l l a w e r e 3
. 2 2 5 i n t h e y e a r XI I I a n d
g a v e m o r e t h a n s i x t h o u s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e s . T h e
m e m be r s h i p o f t h e s e s o c i e t i e s a m o u n t e d t o a t o t a l
o f
5 5 . 2 4 5
s h o w i n g t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e y o u n g
g e n e r a t i o n f o r t h e t h e a t r e .
Al s o i n r e s p e c t o f t h e c i n e m a t o g r a p h t h e a c t i -
v i t y o f t h e C o m m i t t e e s i n t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s
h a s r e a c h e d a c o n s i d e r a bl e s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t .
Of t h e 1 . 0 7 2 c i n e m a t o g r a p h s a v a i l a bl e t o t h e
Op e r a Ba l i l l a , 3 2 3 a r e e x c l u s i v e l y t h e p r o p e r t y
o f t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e y e a r XI I I , 1 6 . 6 5 2
c i n e m a t o g r a p h p e r f o r m a n c e s w e r e g i v e n i n t h e
a bo v e m e n t i o n e d l o c a l i t i e s .
T h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a s h o w t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f
m u s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e y e a r XI I I :
Ac a d e m i e s o f c h o r a l s i n g i n g : 9 2 8 w i t h 6
5 . 7 3 3
p u p i l s ( i n t h e y e a r XI t h e r e w e r e o n l y
5 3 9
Ac a -
d e m i e s w i t h 3 6 . 4 1 6 p u p i l s ) .
C o u r s e s f o r s t r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s : 1 6 9 w i t h 4 . 0 3 8
1 1 4
p u p i l s
( 3 9 c o u r s e s m o r e t h a n i n t h e y e a r s XI I ) .
Ba n d s w i t h t h e f u l l c o m p l e m e n t o f p e r f o r m e r s :
1 2 5 ( a n i n c r e a s e o f 5 o v e r t h e y e a r XI I ) .
Fa n f a r e s w i t h t h e f u l l c o m p l e m e n t o f p e r f o r -
m e r s : 3 5 5 ( a n i n c r e a s e o f 6 3 o v e r t h e y e a r XI I ) .
Gr o u p s o f t a m bo u r i n e p l a y e r s : 8 8 2 ( a n i n -
c r e a s e o f 3 8 5 o v e r t h e y e a r XI I ) .
Me m be r s be l o n g i n g t o t h e ba n d s o r f o l l o w i n g
c o u r s e s i n m u s i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e a m o u n t
t o 1 8 . 1 8 9 .
D u r i n g t h e y e a r XI I I n u m e r o u s c h o r a l r e c -
i t a l s a n d c o n c e r t s t o o k p l a c e , a l s o 1 . 9 9 7 ba n d
c o n c e r t s , 3 0 6 o r c h e s t r a l c o n c e r t s a n d 6 . 7 4 2 c h o r a l
a n d v o c a l t e s t s .
T h e n u m be r o f c o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l s i n t h e
y e a r XI I w a s
4 . 1 5 5
a s c o m p a r e d t o 2 . 8 0 7 i n t h e
p r e v i o u s y e a r a n d w e r e a t t e n d e d
by 2 8 8
. 3 5 3
p u p i l s .
W i t h t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e t o t h e Op e r a Ba l i l l a
o f a l l t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s i n P i e d m o n t , L o m ba r d y ,
V e n e t i a , L i g u r i a , E m i l i a , T u s c a n y a n d t h e C a m -
p a n i a , m a n a g e d by v a r i o u s bo d i e s d e l e g a t e d f o r
t h e p u r p o s e , t h e n u m be r o f r u r a l s c h o o l s a d m i n -
i s t e r e d by t h e Op e r a Ba l i l l a i n t h e y e a r XI I I
r e a c h e d a t o t a l o f 4 . 8 2 7 .
1 1 5
T HE AT RE , C I NE MAT OGRAP H,
RAD I O AND T OURI NG
Re p e r t o r i e s -
D r a m a t i c c o m p a n i e s - Au t h o r s ' r i g h t s -
Mu s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e s
- T h e a L u c e o I n s t i t u t e - C i n e m a
c r e d i t s - Br o a d c a s t i n g - P r o p a g a n d a a n d i n s t r u c t i o n -
u E n i t o - Or g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e h o t e l bu s i n e s s
.
T h e d i r e c t a n d m e t h o d i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e
Re g i m e i n f a v o u r o f t h e t h e a t r e i s o f r e c e n t o r i -
g i n a n d d a t e s ba c k t o Ap r i l ,
1 9 3 5
w h e n t h e Mi n -
i s t r y f o r P r e s s a n d P r o p a g a n d a t o o k c h a r g e o f
t h e w h o l e o f t h e t h e a t r i c a l a n d m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y
.
I t w a s a q u e s t i o n o f m a k i n g t h e be s t p o s s i bl e
u s e o f I t a l i a n t h e a t r i c a l w o r k s , c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e
d r a m a t i c c o m p a n i e s , o r g a n i s i n g t h e m a n a g e m e n t
o f t h e a t r e s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f a u t h o r s , a c t o r s a n d
t h e p u bl i c w i t h o u t c o n f i n e m e n t w i t h i n t o o n a r r o w
a n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h w o u l d be h a r m f u l t o t h e
a r t i s t i c e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e , o r i n a n y w a y ,
c u r t a i l i n g p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e w h i c h i s o n e o f t h e
f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e C o r p o r a t e Re g i m e .
T h e r e s u l t s o bt a i n e d a r e h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y
i i 6
a n d p r o v e t h a t t h e m o s t v a r i e d
i n t e r e s t s h a v e
be e n e q u i t a bl y h a r m o n i s e d .
I n 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 , 2
. 5 0 7 I t a l i a n a n d 2 . 1 3 0 f o r e i g n
p l a y s w e r e p e r f o r m e d ; 5 2 I t a l i a n n e w p r o d u c -
t i o n s w i t h 9 3 3 r e p e a t p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d 3 7 f o -
r e i g n n e w p r o d u c t i o n s w i t h 4 2 4 r e p e a t p e r -
f o r m a n c e s .
I n
1 9 3 5 - 3 6 ,
3 . 2 3 2 I t a l i a n p l a y s w e r e g i v e n
a n d 1 . 4 7 9 f o r e i g n ; 8 o n e w I t a l i a n p r o d u c t i o n s
w i t h
9 3 3
r e p e a t p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d 3 7 n e w f o -
r e i g n p r o d u c t i o n s w i t h 4 2 4 r e p e a t p e r f o r m a n c e s .
Re c e i p t s f r o m e n t r a n c e f e e s t o t h e a t r e s h a v e
r i s e n f r o m 1 5 . 4 2 6 . 8 0 2 l i r e i n 1 9 3 4
- 3 5 t o 1 7 . 1 6 9 . 7 0 4
l i r e i n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r i o d i n
1 9 3 5 - 3 6
s h o w i n g
a n i n c r e a s e o f i o % . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y
i m p o r t a n t i n r e s p e c t o f I t a l i a n a u t h o r s . Au t h o r s
r i g h t s , w h i c h i n
1 9 3 4 - 3 5
a m o u n t e d t o 7
. 3 7 8 . 5 0 1
h a d r i s e n i n
1 9 3 5 - 3 6
t o 1 1 . 3 8 1 . 4 2 1 w i t h a n i n c r e a -
s e o f 5 5 %
.
T h e
a S a t u r d a y m a t i n e e h a s be e n i n s t i t u t e d
w i t h a v i e w t o i n c r e a s i n g p u bl i c
a t t e n d a n c e a t
t h e a t r e s a n d , i n t h i s w a y , g r e a t n u m be r s o f w o r -
k e r s h a v e be e n a bl e t o be p r e s e n t a t f i r s t c l a s s
p e r f o r m a n c e s a t m i n i m u m p r i c e s . Fr o m Ja n u a r y
t o Ma y , 1 9 3 6 , g o d r a m a t i c p e r f o r m a n c e s w e r e
g i v e n by 2 5 c o m p a n i e s a n d 1 3 g r e a t m u s i c a l
p e r f o r m a n c e s i n t h e f o u r l a r g e s t o p e r a h o u s e s i n
1 1 7
I t a l y ; a t o t a l o f 2 0 0 p e r f o r m a n c e s w i t h 4 0 0 . 0 0 0
s p e c t a t o r s .
W i t h a v i e w t o m a k i n g t h e t h e a t r e i n c r e a s i n g l y
a c c e s s i bl e t o t h e m a s s e s , t h e Mi n i s t r y f o r P r e s s
a n d P r o p a g a n d a h a s o r g a n i z e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d
o p e n a i r p e r f o r m a n c e s i n e v e r y w a y
. S p e c i a l
m e n t i o n s h o u l d be m a d e o f t h e c l a s s i c a l p e r f o r -
m a n c e s g i v e n i n t h e Gr e e k T h e a t r e a t S y r a c u s e
be f o r e a t o t a l a u d i e n c e o f 3 5 . 0 0 0 s p e c t a t o r s a n d
t h e m a g n i f i c e n t p e r f o r m a n c e o f m u s i c a l w o r k s i n
t h e Ar e n a a t V e r o n a be f o r e a n a u d i e n c e o f m o r e
t h a n
1 5 0 . 0 0 0
p e r s o n s .
T h e p r o bl e m o f t h e m u s i c a l t h e a t r e w a s t h e
m o s t u r g e n t , be g i n n i n g w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f
t h e s u i t a bl e bu i l d i n g s
. T h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e
e x i s t i n g t h e a t r e s w e r e n o l o n g e r a d a p t e d t o m o -
d e r n r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d m a n y c e n t r e s l a c k e d a d e -
q u a t e e q u i p m e n t . T h e Re g i m e h a s s l o v e d t h i s
p r o bl e m by g r a n t i n g l a r g e c r e d i t s t o t h e C o m m u -
n e s f o r t h e r e n o v a t i o n o f o l d a n d t h e bu i l d i n g o f
n e w t h e a t r e s .
S u bs t a n t i a l s u bs i d i e s h a v e r a i s e d c o n s i d e r a bl y
t h e t o n e o f m u s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e s . I n
1 9 3 5 - 3 6 ,
8 3
m u s i c a l s e a s o n s w e r e s u bs i d i s e d i n I t a l y a n d
a br o a d . Mo r e t h a n h a l f a m i l l i o n l i r e h a s be e n
g r a n t e d t o 2 6
c o n c e r t s o c i e t i e s i n I t a l y a n d a n
e q u a l s u m f o r 6 4 p e r f o r m a n c e s a br o a d .
No l e s s f u n d a m e n t a l w a s t h e a c t i v i t y i n a i d
I I 8
o f t h e c i n e m a t o g r a p h w h e r e e v e r y t h i n g n e e d -
e d t o be o r g a n i s e d a n e w . T h e C i n e m a D e p a r t -
m e n t a t t h e Mi n i s t r y f o r P r e s s P r o p a g a n d a u n d e r -
t o o k t h e w o r k o f r e m e d y i n g t h e d a m a g e d o n e by
1 - 7 y e a r s o f t h e g r a v e s t c r i s i s i n t h i s f i e l d
.
T h e w o r k w a s c a r r i e d o u t a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e -
a r r a n g e d p l a n i n t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s i n t o w h i c h
t h e c i n e m a t o g r a p h bu s i n e s s i s d i v i d e d . I t w a s f i r s t
n e c e s s a r y t o c l e a r t h e w a y by r e m o v i n g a l l t h a t
w a s u s e l e s s a n d d e t r i m e n t a l
. T h u s , a l l i n i t i a t i v e i n
t h e I t a l i a n c i n e m a w a s c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d s o a s t o
e l i m i n a t e a l l t h a t w h i c h , o w i n g t o a t o o s p e c u l a t i v e
n a t u r e o r d e f i c i e n c y o f s o u n d f i n a n c e , w a s l i a bl e
t o h i n d e r t h e r e g u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n .
T h e L u c e , > i n s t i t u t e w a s t h e n a u t h o r i s e d t o p a r -
t i c i p a t e i n i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l c i n e m a t o -
g r a p h e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h a v i e w t o a s s u r i n g n a t i o n a l
p r o d u c t i o n a n a d e q u a t e p l a c e i n t h e i n t e r n a l m a r -
k e t a n d t h e E n t e Na z i o n a l e I n d u s t r i e C i n e m a t o -
g r a f i c h e w a s f o u n d e d w h i c h t o d a y c o n t r o l s o n e o f
t h e l a r g e s t o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n I t a l y f o r t h e s a l e a n d
d i s t r i bu t i o n o f I t a l i a n f i l m s .
T h e q u a l i t y o f t h e o u t p u t a n d a n a d e q u a t e
c o m p e n s a t i o n be i n g t h u s a s s u r e d , t h e c i r c u l a t i o n
o f c a p i t a l i n t h e c i n e m a bu s i n e s s i s f a c i l i t a t e d
by m e a n s o f S t a t e g r a n t s f o r t h e n a t i o n a l c i n e m a
v o t e d i n
1 9 3 5
a d d e d t o t h e e x i s t i n g bo n u s e s r e s e r -
v e d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l f i l m s .
1 1 9
By m e a n s o f t h e s e S t a t e c r e d i t s t h e Mi n i s t r y
f o r P r e s s a n d P r o p a g a n d a i s a u t h o r i s e d t o a d v a n -
c e l o a n s t o t h e c i n e m a t o g r a p h i n d u s t r y f o r t h e
p r o d u c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l f i l m s . A s p e c i a l f u n d w a s
c o n s t i t u t e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a t t h e Mi n i s t r y o f Fi -
n a n c e t o t h e a m o u n t o f i o m i l l i o n l i r e p e r a n n u m
f o r 5 f i n a n c i a l y e a r s , be g i n n i n g w i t h t h e y e a r
1 9 3 5 - 3 6 .
T h e l o a n s m a y n o t e x c e e d o n e t h i r d o f t h e d i -
r e c t e x p e n d i t u r e o n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f i l m a n d
i s p a i d i n a l u m p s u m a f t e r t h e p r o d u c e r h i m s e l f
h a s a d v a n c e d h i s s h a r e o f t h e e x p e n d i t u r e .
Of t h e 1 o m i l l i o n l i r e g r a n t e d a n n u a l l y f o r f i -
n a n c i n g n a t i o n a l f i l m s , 6 m i l l i o n s a r e d i s t r i bu t e d
e a c h y e a r by t h e Mi n i s t r y f o r P r e s s a n d P r o p a -
g a n d a a n d 4 m i l l i o n s a r e s e t a s i d e t o c o n s t i t u t e
h a l f o f t h e ba n k c r e d i t f u n d
.
T h e ba n k c r e d i t s a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e
Na t i o n a l L a bo u r Ba n k o f w h i c h a n a u t o n o m o u s
s e c t i o n g r a n t s c r e d i t s f o r t h e c i n e m a i n t h e
f o r m o f l o a n s n o t e x c e e d i n g 6 0 % o f t h e t o t a l c o s t
o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f i l m . T h e e n d o w m e n t
f u n d i s c o n s t i t u t e d by a S t a t e g r a n t o f
2 0
m i l l i o n
l i r e t o be d r a w n o n a t t h e r a t e o f
4
m i l l i o n l i r e p e r
a n n u m , p l u s
2 0
m i l l i o n l i r e p r o v i d e d by t h e Na -
t i o n a l L a bo u r Ba n k . T h i s f u n d o f
4 0
m i l l i o n l i r e
m a y be i n c r e a s e d by d o n a t i o n s f r o m o t h e r i n s t i -
t u t i o n s .
1 2 0
Bo n u s e s f o r p r o d u c t i o n , l i m i t e d t o n a t i o n a l
f i l m s r e v e a l i n g p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t i c m e r i t a n d a
h i g h s t a n d a r d o f t e c h n i c a l e x e c u t i o n , a m o u n t t o
a n a n n u a l s u m o f 2 m i l l i o n l i r e , d r a w n f r o m t h e
r e c e i p t s f r o m t h e f e e s p a y a bl e o n d o u bl i n g f o r e i g n
f i l m s a n d f i x e d a t 3 0 . 0 0 0 l i r e p e r f i l m .
Al l a p p r o v e d n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n s h a v e a l s o
t h e r i g h t t o e x e m p t i o n f r o m t h e f e e s p a y a bl e o n
t h r e e f o r e i g n f i l m s , t h u s a d d i n g a f u r t h e r bo n u s
o f g o . o o o l i r e f o r e v e r y n a t i o n a l f i l m .
I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h i s r e - o r g a n i s e d a n d f i -
n a n c e d p r o d u c t i o n w i t h a t e c h n i c a l l y p e r f e c t a n d
s u i t a bl y e q u i p e d c e n t r e o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e Mi -
n i s t r y h a s g i v e n i t s a c t i v e s u p p o r t t o t h e n e w a C i -
n e s > > e s t a bl i s h m e n t w h i c h w i l l be bu i l t a t t h e Q u a -
d r a r o a n d w i l l be t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e s t a bl i s h -
m e n t f o r f i l m p r o d u c t i o n i n E u r o p e .
T h e t o t a l a r e a o f t h e Q u a d r a r o w i l l be 6 o o . o o o
s q u a r e m e t r e s , i 2 o . o o 0 o f w h i c h be c o v e r e d by
t h e a t r e s a n d bu i l d i n g s o f v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d
4 8 0 . 0 0 0 w i l l be u t i l i s e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f
e x t e r i o r s . T h e s t u d i o s w i l l be u l t r a m o d e r n
e i g h t o f t h e m w i l l be g r o u p e d i n p a i r s s o a s
t o c o n s t i t u t e s e p a r a t e n u c l e i e q u i p e d w i t h a l l t h e
n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s a n d a v a i l a bl e t o a l l p r o d u -
c e r s .
I n
a d d i t i o n
t o
t h i s
w i l l be s t u d i o s f o r
s y n c h r o n i s a t i o n , f o r c o m p o s i t i o n , f o r s e t s , f o r
1 2 1
< < t r a n s p a r e n c y , o f f i c e s a n d w o r k s h o p s f o r s c e -
n e r y a n d a m o d e l c i n e m a h a l l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
o p t i c a n d s o u n d v a l u e o f t h e f i l m .
T h e e l e c t r i c p l a n t w i l l h a v e a n o u t p u t o f 3 . 2 0 0
h p
. a n d a s p e c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e w a l l s w i l l g u a r -
a n t e e t h e p e r f e c t r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o u n d .
T h e Mi n i s t r y h a s a l s o e s t a bl i s h e d t h e
a C e n -
t r o S p e r i m e n t a l e d i C i n e m a t o g r a f i a n w i t h a v i e w
t o t r a i n i n g e x p e r t s f o r t h e f u t u r e . T h i s o r g a n i s a -
t i o n h a s be e n i m i t a t e d by o t h e r n a t i o n s a n d p r o -
v i d e s y o u n g p e r s o n s w i t h t h e p o s s i bi l i t y o f s t u d y -
i n g t h e s e c r e t s o f t h e c i n e m a bu s i n e s s
.
On e o f t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t s a m o n g t h e c u l t u r a l
a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e D i r e c t i o n Ge n e r a l f o r t h e C i n e m a -
t o g r a p h w a s t o i n s t i t u t e t h e g r e a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l
C i n e m a E x h i bi t i o n n o w h e l d a n n u a l l y i n V e n i c e
a n d w h i c h h a s a w a k e n e d t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e p r e s s
t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d
.
An o r g a n i s a t i o n w h i c h h a s a c q u i r e d i n c r e a s -
i n g i m p o r t a n c e i n I t a l y i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e , i s
t h a t o f t h e Ra d i o .
Br o a d c a s t i n g i s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o s e c t i o n s
: f o r
I t a l y a n d f o r a br o a d
. T h e e x e c u t i v e bo d y i s t h e
E n t e I t a l i a n o Au d i z i o n i Ra d i o f o n i c h e w h i c h , i n
t e n y e a r s , h a s a t t a i n e d a n o u t s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n
i n t h e w o r l d . At t h e C o n g r e s s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l
Ra d i o p h o n i c Un i o n , h e l d i n P a r i s i n
1 9 3 5 ,
i t w a s
r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e a r t i s t i c p r o g r a m m e s o f t h e I t a -
1 2
2
l i a n Ra d i o w e r e u n q u e s t i o n a bl y s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e
o f a n y o t h e r c o u n t r y .
Br o a d c a s t i n g f o r I t a l y i s e f f e c t e d o v e r a r e l a y
o f t h r e e p r i n c i p a l s t a t i o n s ; t h e g e n e r a l p l a n t
c o m p r i s e s 1 5 c e n t r e s o p e r a t i n g o n
1 9 o Km s o f
a e r i a l
.
Br o a d c a s t i n g t o a br o a d i s g i v e n o n m e d i u m
w a v e l e n g t h , a n d f o r d i s t a n c e s o v e r s e a s o n s h o r t
w a v e l e n g t h .
T h e p r o g r a m m e s f o r C e n t r a l E u r o p e a r e
br o a d c a s t e d f r o m T r i e s t e , Bo l z a n o , Mi l a n a n d
T u r i n , f o r S o u t h e r n E u r o p e f r o m Ba r i a n d t h e r e -
m a i n d e r f r o m t h e s h o r t - w a v e Ro m e s t a t i o n o f
P r a t o S m e r a l d o . T h i s s t a t i o n h a s a t r a n s m i t t i n g
p o w e r o f 2 o k w . p e r a e r i a l a n d i s a bl e t o br o a d -
c a s t o n f o u r d i f f e r e n t w a v e l e n g t h s s o a s t o r e a c h
t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n t i n e n t s d u r i n g t h e v a r i o u s s e a s o n s
o f t h e y e a r by u s i n g t h e w a v e l e n g t h m o s t s u i t a bl e
t o v a r y i n g a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s
. A s y s t e m o f
d i r e c t i o n a l a n t e n n a e c o n v e r g e s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n
t o w a r d s No r t h a n d S o u t h Am e r i c a , Af r i c a a n d
t h e Fa r E a s t .
T o t h i s p o w e r f u l , bu t a l r e a d y i n a d e q u a t e , s t a -
t i o n w i l l s o o n be a d d e d a n e v e n m o r e p o w e r f u l s t a -
t i o n s i t u a t e d a t S a n t a P a l o m ba , w h e r e by t h e w o r k
o f t h e o t h e r s t a t i o n s r e - l a y i n g w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y
a n d f o r a br o a d w i l l be o r g a n i s e d m o r e s a t i s f a c -
1 2 3
t o r i l y a n d t h e v o i c e o f I t a l y m a y be h e a r d a l l o v e r
t h e w o r l d a t a n y h o u r o f t h e d a y o r n i g h t
.
T h e p r i n c i p a l Ra d i o p r o g r a m m e s
f o r h o m e
c o n s u m p t i o n a r e : t h e ( ( Ne w s bu l l e t i n ) ) g i v i n g n e w s
a t v a r i o u s t i m e s d u r i n g t h e d a y ; t h e
( (
Fa r m e r s
Ho u r ) ) g i v i n g a d a i l y v a r i e t y p r o g r a m m e , i n f o r -
m a t i o n u s e f u l t o f a r m e r s a n d a n s w e r s t o r e q u e s t s
r e c e i v e d f r o m l i s t e n e r s i n t h e c o u n t r y ; ( ( T h e v o i -
c e s o f t h e W o r l d
) ) i n w h i c h t h e m o s t n o t e d n a t i o -
n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s g i v e
t a l k s o n
t h e e v e n t s a n d p r o bl e m s o f t h e p r e s e n t d a y
;
( ( T e n
m i n u t e s f o r t h e w o r k e r ) ) be i n g p e r i o d i c a l t a l k s i n -
t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p t h e s y n d i c a l a n d c o r p o r a t i v e
c o n s c i e n c e o f t h e w o r k i n g m a s s e s ; ( ( T h e C h i l -
d r e n s ' C o r n e r
) ) , i n t e n d e d t o i n t e r e s t t h e c h i l d r e n
o f I t a l y i n t h e e v e n t s o f t h e d a y
;
( (
T e n m i n u t e s
o f t h e D o p o l a v o r o
) ) ; T h e C h r o n i c l e o f t h e Re g i -
m e , s u m m a r i s i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l e v e n t s i n f o r e i g n
a n d i n t e r n a l p o l i c y a n d g i v e n by c o m p e t a n t p e r -
s e n s w e l l k n o w n t o t h e p u bl i c ; ( (
T h e S p o r t i n g
C h r o n i c l e ) ) ,
i n t h e c h a r g e o f t h e C . O. N . I . ; ( (
T h e
T o u r i n g C h r o n i c l e ) ) .
T h e s e r e g u l a r p r o g r a m m e s a r e f o l l o w e d by t h e
t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e a t r i c a l ,
m u s i c a l a n d v a r i e t y
p e r f o r m a n c e s f r o m t h e p r i n c i p a l t h e a t r e s a n d h a l l s
a t h o m e a n d a br o a d
. I t s h o u l d a l s o be m e n t i o n e d
t h a t f o r br o a d c a s t i n g c o n c e r t s f r o m i t s o w n
s t u -
d i o s t h e D a y p o s s e s s e s i t s o w n s p e c i a l o r c h e s t r a s ,
1 2 4
s i n g e r s ,
e t c ,
w h i c h a r e a m o n g t h e be s t e x i s t i n g ,
a n d e x c e l l e n t c o m p a n i e s f o r d r a m a t i c p e r f o r -
m a n c e s .
T h e m a i n p r o g r a m m e s f o r a br o a d a r e : ( ( Ne w s ) )
i n v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s ( I t a l i a n , Fr e n c h , E n g l i s h ,
S p a n i s h , P o r t u g e s e , Ge r m a n , Hu n g a r i a n ,
Ru m a -
n i a , He br e w , Gr e e k , Ar a bi c , Hi n d u s t a n i , C h i n e s e ,
Ja p a n e s e a n d E s p e r a n t o ) ; ( ( T h e V o i c e s o f Ro m e ) ) ,
a s e r v i c e w h i c h g i v e s l i s t e n e r s c o m m e n t s o n
t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s o f t h e d a y ; c c L e c -
t u r e s a n d T a l k s ) ) by w e l l - k n o w n p e r s o n s o n s u b-
j e c t s o f p r e s e n t a n d w i d e s p r e a d p u bl i c i n t e r e s t ;
a T r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e a t r i c a l , m u s i c a l a n d c o n c e r t
p r o g r a m m e s n
; a L e s s o n s i n t h e I t a l i a n l a n g u a g e n ;
Ne w s a n d s p e c i a l p r o g r a m m e s f o r I t a l i a n s i n
E a s t Af r i c a .
T h e e x t e n t o f t h i s a c t i v i t y m a y be s e e n f r o m
t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s :
l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d f r o m l i s -
t e n e r s u p t o 3 1 Ju l y , 1 9 3 6 , a bo u t 8 o . o o o ; r e q u e s t s
f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n r e p l i e d t o by v a -
r i o u s a n n o u n c e r s : 6 1 . o o o ; p u bl i c a t i o n s o n Fa s -
c i s m , o n t h e w a r , i n E a s t Af r i c a , o n v a r i o u s s y n -
d i c a l a n d c o r p o r a t i v e p r o bl e m s d i s t r i bu t e d o n t h e
r e q u e s t o f m o r e t h a n 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 l i s t e n e r s ; 3 5 . 6 7 9 p u -
p i l s r e g i s t e r e d f o r t h e c o u r s e s i n I t a l i a n u p t o t h e
e n d o f Ap r i l , 1 9 3 6 .
I n r e s p e c t o f T o u r i n g , t h e d i r e c t i o n w a s g i v e n
by t h e D u c e w h o s a i d
u
I w i s h t h a t I t a l y s h o u l d
1 2 5
be v i s i t e d by t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i bl e n u m be r o f f o -
r e i g n t o u r i s t s w h o w i l l f i n d a m o s t be a t i f u l c o u n -
t r y a n d a p e o p l e w h o a r e o r d e r l y a n d f r a n k l y
h o s p i t a bl e
.
Be f o r e t h e c o m i n g o f Fa s c i s m t h e r e e x i s t e d a n
o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r t o u r i n g i n t e n d e d t o e n c o u r a g e f o -
r e i g n v i s i t o r s , bu t i t s a c t i v i t y w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t
a n d w a s l a c k i n g i n m e a n s . T o r e c t i f y t h i s s t a t e o f
a f f a i r s , a D i r e c t i o n Ge n e r a l o f T o u r i n g w a s e s t a -
bl i s h e d a t t h e Mi n i s t r y f o r P r e s s a n d P r o p a g a n d a .
T h e f i r s t t a s k o f t h i s n e w i n s t i t u t i o n w a s t o s e t
u p a s o u n d o r g a n i s a t i o n o f o f f i c e s c a p a bl e o f
p r o m p t a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n by
t h e c e n t r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . I n t h i s w a y u n i f o r m i t y o f
m e t h o d w a s r e a c h e d . T h e E n t e Na z i o n a l e d e l l e
I n d u s t r i e t u r i s t i c h e w a s a l s o t r a n s f o r m e d a n d
p r o v i d e d w i t h a d e q u a t e m e a n s a n d t h e p o w e r a n d
a u t o r i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i t s v a s t
;a c t i v i t y .
T h e m e a n s o f a c t i o n h a v i n g be e n p r o v i d e d f o r ,
a t t e n t i o n w a s t h e n g i v e n t o d r a w i n g u p p r o g r a m -
m e s f o r s u i t a bl e p u bl i c i t y . No f o r m o f p u bl i c i t y
w a s n e g l e c t e d , f r o m a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n n e w s p a p e r s
a n d r e v i e w s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d , t o p a m p h l e t s
i n v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s s h o w i n g t h e be a u t y a n d
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s p e c t s o f I t a l y , a n d p r o p a g a n d a
t h r o u g h t h e Ra d i o . I n t h e f i r s t n i n e m o n t h s o f i t s
1 2 6
a c t i v i t y , t h e D i r e c t i o n Ge n e r a l h a s d i s t r i bu t e d 5
m i l l i o n p u bl i c a t i o n s
.
T h e o f f i c e s o f t h e
E n i t w e r e t h e n i n c r e a s e d c o n -
s i d e r a bl y a n d a l s o t h o s e o f t h e br a n c h o f f i c e s , n o w
s p r e a d a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d , a n d p r o v i n c i a l t o u r i n g
o r g a n i s a t i o n s w e r e i n s t i t u t e d w h i c h c a r r y o u t t h e
d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a l
r e q u i r e m e n t s . I n t h i s w a y , t h e m a x i m u m u n i t y
h a s be e n o bt a i n e d c o m bi n e d w i t h t h e m a x i m u m
v a r i e t y o f i n i t i a t i v e s .
T h e v i s i t o r s t a x w a s r e g u l a t e d t h r o u g h a p r o -
p e r r e f o r m s o a s t o p r e v e n t e v a s i o n a n d t o r e n -
d e r i t , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , o n l y a s m a l l f i n a n c i a l
bu r d e n t o f o r e i g n e r s . Ra i l w a y a n d r o a d t r a n s p o r t
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w e r e i m p r o v e d , c o m bi n i n g r a p i d -
i t y w i t h l o w p r i c e s , r e d u c t i o n s a n d f a c i l i t i e s , o f
e v e r y d e s c r i p t i o n w e r e g r a n t e d f o r s i n g l e t r a v e l -
l e r s , f a m i l i e s , a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d p a r t i e s .
An i n s t i t u t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e w a s
t h e t o u r i s t l i r a w h e r e by f o r e i g n e r s w e r e a bl e t o
be n e f i t by a bo u t 3 0 % o n t h e e x c h a n g e . S p e c i a l
m e n t i o n s h o u l d be m a d e a l s o o f t h e h o t e l a n d
p e t r o l c o u p o n s , w h i c h a s w e l l a s be i n g p r a c t i c a l
a n d c o n v e n i e n t , r e s u l t i n c o n s i d e r a bl e s a v i n g f o r
t r a v e l l e r s .
I t h a s be e n u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i s e d t h a t I t a l y
i s t h e c o u n t r y w h e r e t r a v e l l i n g i s t h e m o s t s p e e d y
a n d c o m f o r t a bl e o w i n g t o t h e p u n c t u a l i t y a n d
1 2 7
c l e a n l i n e s s
o f
t r a i n s ,
t h e c o u r t e s y o f t h e s t a f f
a n d t h e i n c o m p a r a bl e z e a l o f t h e Ra i l w a y Mi l i t i a
.
An a s p e c t o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e w a s t h e h o -
t e l i n d u s t r y
. I n t h i s r e s p e c t a l s o t h e D i r e c t i o n Ge -
n e r a l o f T o u r i n g s h o w e d d e c i s i o n , r e s o l u t i o n a n d
p r o m p t n e s s
. T h e s a l e a n d l o c a l i s a t i o n o f bu i l d -
i n g s i n t e n d e d f o r h o t e l s w e r e o r g a n i s e d a n d p r o -
t e c t e d by m e a n s o f t h e n e c c e s s a r y D e c r e e s
. T h e
S t a t e h a s c o n t r i bu t e d a g r a n t t o w a r d s r e l i e v i n g
t h e bu r d e n s o n t h e h o t e l bu s i n e s s , w h i c h a m o u n -
t e d t o m o r e t h a n 3 0 0 m i l l i o n l i r e , bu t , a t t h e
s a m e t i m e , h a s r e g u l a t e d t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f h o t e l s
i n t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s a n d s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d
p r i c e s s o t h a t a bu s e s a r e p r e v e n t e d a n d f o r e i g n e r s
a r e s p a r e d u n p l e a s a n t s u r p r i s e s
. At p r e s e n t i t i s
c o m p u l s o r y e v e r y w h e r e t o r e p o r t h o t e l p r i c e s
w h i c h a r e p u bl i s h e d by t h e
E n i t i n a n o f f i c i a l An -
n u a l , a n d n o e x c e p t i o n i s p e r m i t t e d f o r a n y m o -
t i v e w h a t s o e v e r .
Al l c l a i m s s e n t t o t h e D i r e c t i o n Ge n e r a l o f
T o u r i n g a r e p r o m p t l y a t t e n d e d t o a n d , i f w e l l -
f o u n d e d , i m m e d i a t e a n d g e n e r o u s c o m p e n s a t i o n
i s g i v e n .
1 2 8
RE V I V AL O F S P ORT
Mu s s o l i n i ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f s p o r t
- P r e c e d e n t s - A s p o r t s -
g r o u n d f o r e a c h C o m m u n e - T h e I t a l i a n Ol y m p i c C o m -
m i t t e e - C o n t e s t s a n d p r i z e s
- I t a l y a t t h e Ol y m p i c
Ga m e s - L e a d e r s h i p i n Av i a t i o n - S p o r t i n g Fe d e r a t i o n s -
I n c r e a s i n g m e m be r s h i p
- T h e D u c e ' s d i c t u m .
T h e e x a c t m e a n i n g o f s p o r t i n Fa s c i s t I t a l y
h a s be e n c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d by Mu s s o l i n i h i m s e l f
i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s :
u I t w i l l n e v e r be p o s -
s i bl e t o a c q u i r e a p e r f e c t l y l u c i d i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d
a m i n d o p e n t o a t o t a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f l i f e ,
u n l e s s t h e r e be h a r m o n y be t w e e n p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h
a n d t h e s p i r i t .
S p o r t a s a l u x u r y , i n o t h e r w o r d s , s p o r t
i n t e n d e d t o br i n g o u t a f e w c h a m p i o n s i s t h e r e f o r e
ba n i s h e d , be c a u s e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p u r p o s e o f Fa s -
c i s t s p o r t i s t o a c h i e v e t h e p h y s i c a l ,
m o r a l a n d
m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h o f t h e n a t i o n
. T h u s i n I t a l y s p o r t
a c q u i r e s a n e m i n e n t l y p o p u l a r a n d d e m o c r a t i c
c h a r a c t e r . T h i s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t p r e c l u d e a s e -
l e c t i v e p r o c e s s a m o n g t h e m u l t i t u d e w i t h a v i e w
t o br i n g i n g o u t s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s a s a r e c a p a bl e o f
1 2 9
0 i n g .
u p h o l d i n g I t a l y ' s n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i n i n t e r n a -
t i o n a l c o n t e s t s
.
Fa s c i s m h a s a l w a y s d e v o t e d m u c h a t t e n t i o n
t o t h e m o r a l a s p e c t o f s p o r t , a s a n i n f l u e n t i a l f a c -
t o r i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r a n d w i l l - p o w e r .
I n a d d r e s s i n g a t h l e t e s o n t h e V i a d e i T r i o n f i o n
Oc t o be r 2 8 t h ,
1 9 3 4
I l D u c e d e c l a r e d : ( ( Y o u m u s t
be t e n a c i o u s , c h i v a l r o u s , d a r i n g
. Re m e m be r t h a t
w h e n y o u e n t e r a c o m p e t i t i o n o u t s i d e n a t i o n a l
f r o n t i e r s , t h e s p o r t i n g p r e s t i g e o f t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n
i s e n t r u s t e d t o y o u r m u s c l e s a n d
e s p e c i a l l y t o
y o u r s p i r i t . ) )
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o f i n d t h a t d u r i n g t h e p a s t
c e n t u r y I t a l y d i d n o t h o l d e n t i r e l y a l o o f f r o m t h e
g r e a t m o v e m e n t i n f a v o u r o f s p o r t w h i c h
t o o k
s h a p e i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , s u c h a s Ge r m a n y w h e r e
i t w a s g u i d e d by , Ja h r , a n d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s
s u c h a s S w e d e n a n d E n g l a n d u n d e r t h e l e a d e r -
s h i p o f L i n g a n d Ar n o l d r e s p e c t i v e l y
.
T h e I t a l i a n Al p i n e C l u b, o l d e r t h a n i t s Fr e n c h
a n d Ge r m a n c o u n t e r p a r t s w a s f o u n d e d i n
1 8 6 3 ;
t h e Fe d e r a t i o n o f Gy m n a s t i c s i n
1 8 6 9 ; t h a t o f
T a r g e t s h o o t i n g i n 1 8 8 2
; t h e j o c k e y C l u b i n 1 8 8 1 ;
t h e S t e e p l e C h a s e S o c i e t y i n 1 8 8 5 ; t h e Bo a t i n g
Fe d e r a t i o n i n 1 8 8 8 a n d t h e S w i m m i n g Fe d e r a t i o n
i n 1 8 8 9 . Fe n c i n g , o f c o u r s e , h a s a l w a y s be e n
p r a c t i c e d i n I t a l y a n d h a s n e v e r be e n n e g l e c t e d
.
W h e n Fa s c i s m c a m e t o p o w e r i n I t a l y , a c e r -
3 , C
t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n t h e f i e l d o f s p o r t
a s w e l l a s a m e a s u r e o f t r a i n i n g ( c a r r i e d o u t c h i e f l y
by t h e m i l i t a r y a c a d e m y o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g o f
t h e Fa r n e s i n a ) , y e t s p o r t l o v e r s w e r e r e m a r k a bl y
f e w a n d t h e m a s s w e r e e n t i r e l y e s t r a n g e d f r o m
s p o r t s u c h a s i t w a s p r a c t i c e d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .
,
Mu s s o l i n i i s r e s p o n s i bl e f o r t h e r e v i v a l o f
s p o r t i n I t a l y , o f w h i c h h e r e a l i z e d t h e u r g e n c y ,
bo t h p h y s i c a l a n d m o r a l , f r o m t h e o u t s e t o f h i s
c o m i n g t o p o w e r
. On e o f h i s f i r s t a c t s w a s t o
d e c r e e t h e c o m p u l s o r y l a y i n g o u t o f s p o r t s g r o u n d s
i n e v e r y o n e o f t h e s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d C o m m u n e s
i n I t a l y .
Fi r m l y be n t u p o n m a k i n g s p o r t a c c e s s i bl e t o
t h e p e o p l e o f e v e r y a g e a n d c l a s s , i n 1 9 2 6 Mu s s o -
l i n i p l a n n e d a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n i n t o w h i c h
t h e y o u t h o f I t a l y w a s g r o u p e d t h r o u g h t w o i n s t i -
t u t i o n s k n o w n a s a Op e r a Na z i o n a a l e Ba l i l l a
a a n d
< < Op e r a Na z i o n a l e D o p o l a v o r o
. W h e n t h e s c h e -
m e t o o k s h a p e s p o r t c a m e w i t h i n r e a c h o f e v e n
t h e p o o r e s t c h i l d o f t h e l a bo u r c l a s s e s
.
A p r o bl e m a r o s e , h o w e v e r , w h c h w a s t h a t o f
p r o v i d i n g s u i t a bl e t e a c h e r s f o r s u c h a m u l t i t u d e
o f w o u l d - be s p o r t s m e n
. T h e s o l u t i o n w a s f o u n d by
s e t t i n g u p t w o a c a d e m i e s , o n e f o r m e n i n s t r u c t o r s
a t Ro m e a n d o n e f o r w o m e n a t Or v i e t o
.
T h e f a r - r e a c h i n g t a s k o f i n d u c i n g t h e w h o l e
c o u n t r y t o t a k e a n a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n s p o r t , d i d
1 3 1
n o t p r e v e n t
t h e r e g i m e f r o m g i v i n g t h e p r o p e r
t r a i n i n g t o t h e y o u n g a s a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i n t e r -
n a t i o n a l c o n t e s t s . I n 1 9 2 6 ,
t h e I t a l i a n Na t i o n a l
Ol y m p i c C o m m i t t e e w h i c h h a d n o t
be e n o v e r -
a c t i v e i n t h e p a s t , w a s o r g a n i s e d o n be t t e r l i n e s
a n d e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f a l l s p o r t -
i n g e v e n t s i n t h e c o u n t r y .
. T h e C o m m i t t e e , k n o w n a s C ONI f o r s h o r t , i s
p r e s i d e d o v e r by t h e S e c r e t a r y Ge n e r a l o f t h e
Fa s c i s t P a r t y , a n d h a s
2 5 a f f i l i a t e d Fe d e r a t i o n s
c o m p r i s i n g a t o t a l m e m be r s h i p o f s e v e n h u n d r e d
t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s .
T h e h e l p g i v e n by t h e C ONI t o t h e
2 5 Fe -
d e r a t i o n s i s n o t o n l y t e c h n i c a l o r m o r a l , bu t a l s o
f i n a n c i a l , t h e C o m m i t t e e p o s s e s s i n g a y e a r l y f u n d
o f t h r e e m i l l i o n l i r e w h i c h i t
i s e m p o w e r e d t o
d i v i d e a m o n g a f f i l i a t e d Fe d e r a t i o n s i n p r o p o r t i o n
t o t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t . No t a l l t h e Fe d e r a t i o n s n e e d
o r r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l ba c k i n g , bu t a l l a r e g i v e n s u c h
s u p p o r t a s c o m e s t o t h e m f r o m p r o v i s i o n s o f
a
t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r p l a n n e d by t h e Re g i m e f o r
t h e e x p a n s i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p o r t
a m o n g
t h e p e o p l e .
On e o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f Fa s c i s m
h a s be e n t h e
( c Me d a l f o r At h l e t i c V a l o u r
a n d t h e a
S t a r f o r S p o r t i n g Me r i t s , a w a r d e d
e a c h y e a r p e r s o n a l l y by I l D u c e t o a t h l e t e s w h o
w i n n a t i o n a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a m p i o n s h i p s ,
a n d
1 3 2
t o i n s t r u c t o r s a n d m a n a g e r s o f Fe d e r a t i o n s w h o
d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m s e l v e s by t h e i r a c t i v i t y .
At p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e f i v e s e p a r a t e , y e t c o n -
n e c t e d , f o r m s o f s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t y i n I t a l y
:
t h e
Op e r a Na z i o n a l e Ba l i l l a f o r t h e m o r a l a n d p h y s -
i c a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e y o u n g , w h i c h i s i n c h a r g e
o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g i n e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l s
; t h e Op e r a Na z i o n a l e D o p o l a v o r o , w h o s e
t a s k i t i s t o p o p u l a r i z e s p o r t a m o n g w o r k e r s a n d
p e a s a n t s ; t h e S p o r t i n g Fe d e r a t i o n s a f f i l i a t e d
w i t h
t h e C ONI w h i c h s e l e c t t e a m s a n d i n d i v i d u a l
p l a y e r s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e s t s ; t h e j u n i o r Fa -
s c i s t P a r t y a n d t h e GUF ( Un i v e r s i t y g r o u p s )
w h o s e a c t i v i t y i s u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e
C ONI . E a c h o f t h e s e bo d i e s p r o m o t e s
c o n t e s t s
a n d c o m p e t i t i o n s w i t h p r i z e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s a n d
t e a m s . T h e L i t t o r i o P r i z e i s a w a r d e d a n n u a l l y t o
t h e Fe d e r a t i o n h a v i n g a c q u i r e d g r e a t e s t m e r i t a t
h o m e a n d a br o a d d u r i n g t h e y e a r .
T h e Op e r a Na z i o n a l e Ba l i l l a a n d t h e Op e r a
Na z i o n a l e D o p o l a v o r o o r g a n i z e c o l l e c t i v e
g y m -
n a s t i c d i s p l a y s o f c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s r e s p e c -
t i v e l y a t Ro m e , w h i c h a r e r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d e d by
I l D u c e a n d m e m be r s o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t .
T e n y e a r s o f s u c h a r e v i v a l o f s p o r t , a n d o f
e x t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g h a v e r e d u c e d t h e n u m -
be r o f c i t i z e n s d e c l a r e d u n f i t f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e
t o a m i n i m u m , a n d h a v e e n t i r e l y w i p e d o u t t h e
1 3 3
c a t e g o r y o f m e n
a
u n f i t f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i n
t i m e o f w a r .
T h e p r o g r e s s o f s p o r t i n I t a l y m a y be g l e a n e d
f r o m r e s u l t s a t Ol y m p i c g a m e s : t o At h e n s ( 1 8 9 6 )
I t a l y s e n t f o u r c h a m p i o n s , t o P a r i s
( 1 9 0 0 )
o n l y t w o ; s h e w a s a bs e n t f r o m t h e Ga m e s a t S t .
L o u i s ( 1 9 0 4 ) , t o L o n d o n i n 1 9 o 8 s h e s e n t i o 8
c h a m p i o n s , t o S t o c k h o l m
( 1 9 1 2 ) , s h e s e n t 1 2 0 ,
t o An t w e r p ( 1 9 2 0 ) s h e s e n t
2 2 0 ,
t o P a r i s
( 1 9 2 4 )
s h e s e n t 3 2 5 , t o Am s t e r d a m ( 1 9 2 8 ) s h e s e n t
3 1 6 ,
t o L o s An g e l e s ( 1 9 3 2 ) s h e s e n t 1 1 5 ; t o Be r l i n
( 1 9 3 6 ) s h e s e n t 2 2 4 .
I t a l i a n a t h l e t e s s e c u r e d o n e Ol y m p i c c h a m -
p i o n s h i p i n P a r i s i n 1 9 0 0 , t w o i n L o n d o n i n
1 9 o 8 ,
t h r e e i n S t o c k h o l m i n
1 9 1 2 , e l e v e n a t An t w e r p
i n 1 9 2 0 , s e v e n i n P a r i s i n 1 9 2 4 , s e v e n a t Am -
s t e r d a m i n 1 9 2 8 , t w e l v e a t L o s An g e l e s i n
1 9 3 2
a n d e i g h t i n Be r l i n i n 1 9 3 6 . At L o s An g e l e s I t a l y
r a n k e d s e c o n d a m o n g a l l n a t i o n s i n t h e w o r l d
a n d f i r s t a m o n g E u r o p e a n p a r t i c i p a n t s .
T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ol y m p i c C o m m i t t e e a w a r d s
a s p e c i a l p r i z e t o t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s
i t s e l f m o s t i n a n y g i v e n f i e l d d u r i n g t h e f o u r
y e a r s e l a p s i n g be t w e e n t h e g a m e s . I n t h e f i e l d
o f a v i a t i o n I t a l y h a s s c o r e d 3 4 r e c o r d s , i n c l u d i n g
t h e w o r l d s p e e d r e c o r d
( 7 0 9 k m s . p e r h o u r ) .
An i d e a o f t h e a c t i v i t y d e v e l o p p e d by t h e
Re g i m e t o i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
1
3
4
s p o r t d u r i n g t h e l a s t f o u r t e e n y e a r s m a y be h a d
by c o m p a r i n g t h e p r e s e n t m e m be r s h i p o f s p o r t i n g
Fe d e r a t i o n s w i t h t h a t r e g i s t e r e d be f o r e Fa s c i s m
c a m e t o p o w e r . S o c i e t i e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e Fe -
d e r a t i o n o f L i g h t At h l e t i c s w e r e 3 5 7 i n 1 9 2 2 a n d
3 8 7 2 i n
1 9 3 5
( i n d i v i d u a l m e m be r s h i p w a s 8 3 2 i n
1 9 2 2 a n d 5 3 . 2 0 7 i n 1 9 3 5 ) ; He a v y At h l e t i c s h a v e
r i s e n f r o m 4 8 t o 7 1 ( m e m be r s h i p f r o m 4 8 5 t o
7 8 4 )
; Fo o t ba l l f r o m
1 0 4 0
t o 2 2 8 0 ( m e m be r s h i p
f r o m 1 5 . 0 0 0 t o 6 4 . 0 0 0 ) ; Bo a t i n g f r o m 8 6 t o 2 0 7
( m e m be r s h i p f r o m 1 8
. o o 6 t o 2 8 . 7 8 5 ) ; Bi c y c l i n g
f r o m 6 o 1 t o 1 3 6 2 ( m e m be r s h i p f r o m 5 1 9 9 t o
1 7 . 1 5 3 ) ; Bo x i n g f r o m 1 3 8 t o 4 3 6 ( m e m be r s h i p f r o m
7 8 1 t o 4 6 2 3 ) ; W i n t e r s p o r t s f r o m 2 8 t o 4 4 6 ( m e m -
be r s h i p f r o m 3 . 0 0 0 t o 2 1 . 1 1 4 ) ; Al p i n e C l u bs f r o m
6 1 t o 1 5 7 ( m e m be r s h i p f r o m 2 6 . 5 0 4 t o 5 8 . 6 5 1 ) ;
Ho c k e y a n d Ro l l e r s k a t i n g f r o m 5 t o 1 1 6 ( m e m -
be r s h i p f r o m 3 8 t o 1 3 2 8 ) ; Go l f f r o m 3 t o 2 3 ( m e m -
be r s h i p f r o m 4 7 t o 1 0 7 3 ) ; Mo t o r c y c l i n g f r o m 9 o t o
2 3 5 ( m e m be r s h i p
f r o m 1 6 3 9 , t o 1 1 6 3 4 ) ; Mo t o r n a u -
t i c s f r o m 5 t o 2 8 ( m e m be r s h i p f r o m 5 5 t o 2 6 0 ) ;
Ru g by f r o m 3 2 t o 7 1 9 ( m e m be r s h i p f r o m i i i t o
2 2 3 4 ) ; T e n n i s f r o m 2 8 t o 5 1 9 ( m e m be r s h i p 4 1 9 t o
8 2 0 0 ) ; P i d g e o n s h o o t i n g f r o m 2 5 t o 9 1 5 ( m e m -
be r s h i p f r o m 2 3 7 t o 7 4 9 7 )
Ri d i n g t o o h a s d e v e l o p p e d c o n s i d e r a bl y , a s
i s s h o w n by t h e f a c t t h a t Ho r s e S h o w s h e l d a n -
n u a l l y i n I t a l y h a v e r i s e n f r o m 1 4 t o 1 9 2 1 t o
1
3
5
3 3
i n 1
9 3 4 .
S w i m m i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e 3 8 0 w i t h
a m e m be r s h i p o f 1 5 0 1 , Ba s k e t Ba l l a s s o c i a t i o n s
a r e 1 3 9 0 w i t h
1 1 . 0 0 0 m e m be r s ( p r e - Fa s c i s t f i g u r e s
a r e n o t a v a i l a bl e ) , Fe n c i n g s o c i e t i e s a r e 1 1 4 w i t h
1 2 5 4 m e m be r s . I n 1 9 3 5 t h e Fe d e r a t i o n o f T a r g e t -
s h o o t i n g h a d 8 5 0 a f f i l i a t e d s o c i e t i e s w i t h 5 6 8 9
m e m be r s .
Mo t o r i n g i s i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y , r a c e s a n d c o n -
t e s t s o r g a n i s e d l o c a l l y h a v i n g c o n t r i bu t e d t o t h e
p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h i s f o r m o f s p o r t , a s w e l l a s
i n t e r n a t i o n a l e v e n t s s u c h a s t h e Gr a n d P r i x o f
I t a l y a n d t h e T h o u s a n d Mi l e Ra c e .
Me m be r s h i p o f t h e v a r i o u s Fe d e r a t i o n s n o w
e q u a l s t h e f o r c e o f a r e g u l a r a r m y , y e t i t o n l y
c o m p r i s e s Ba l i l l a Bo y s a n d Gi r l s , m e m be r s o f t h e
Fa s c i s t Un i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t s g r o u p s , a n d D o p o l a -
v o r o Or g a n i s a t i o n . T h e f i g u r e g o e s i n t o m i l l i o n s
a n d f o r m s a m u l t i t u d e o f m e n a n d w o m e n w h o
a r e p h y s i c a l l y a n d s p i r i t u a l l y f i t t o f a c e a n y t e s t ,
g u i d e d a s t h e y a r e by t h e D u c e ' s d i c t u m : ( (
S p o r t -
i n g f e a t s i n c r e a s e n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , a c c u s t o m m e n
t o l o y a l c o n t e s t s i n t h e o p e n f i e l d , w h e r e t h e
p e o p l e s o f e v e r y c o u n t r y m e a s u r e t h e i r p h y s i c a l
a bi l i t y a s w e l l a s t h e i r m o r a l v i g o u r a n d s t r e n g t h . ) )
1 3 6
T HE RE FORM OF T HE P E NAL C OD E
AND T HE D E C RE AS E I N C RI MI NAL I T Y
T h e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l a n d t h e n e e d s o f t h e p o s i t i v e s c h o o l
- S y n t h e s i s o f t h e t w o s y s t e m s - S a f e t y m e a s u r e s
-
P e n a l
c o l o n i e s a n d h a r d l a bo u r - T h e d e a t h p e n a l t y - Us u r y -
Me n t a l d e r a n g e m e n t
-
Ra p i d d e c r e a s e i n c r i m i n a l i t y
-
I t s
c h a r a c t e r s a n d i t s c a u s e s
-
D e l i n q u e n c y a m o n g m i n o r s -
I t s c o n s t a n t d e c r e a s e - S o c i a l p r o p h i l a x i s .
T h e v a s t a n d f u n d a m e n t a l w o r k f o r t h e p r o -
t e c t i o n o f s o c i e t y a n d t h e r a c e c o u l d n o t f a i l t o
h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e o n p e n a l l e g i s l a t i o n
. Bu t i t
w a s o n l y w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f Fa s c i s m t h a t t h e
r e f o r m o f t h e P e n a l C o d e , w h i c h s c i e n c e a n d
e x p e r i e n c e h a d be e n d e m a n d i n g
f o r t h e l a s t
t h i r t y y e a r s , w a s p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n .
T h e n e w I t a l i a n P e n a l C o d e u n i t e s t h e p r i n -
c i p l e s o f t h e c l a s s i c a l w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
t h e p o s i t i v e s c h o o l : j u s t i c e t e m p e r e d by m e r c y .
T h e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l , s t a r t i n g f r o m p r e m i s e s o f
a m e t a p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e f i r s t
p l a c e t h e c r i m i n a l ; t h e p o s i t i v e s c h o o l , o n t h e
c o n t r a r y , c o n s i d e r s c r i m e a s a s o c i a l
p h e n o m e -
1 3 7
n o n . He n c e t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n o f p u n i s h -
m e n t . W h i l e , f o r t h e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l , p u n i s h m e n t
s h o u l d , a bo v e a l l , r e s t o r e t o t h e c u l p r i t t h a t
e q u i l i br i u m w h i c h h a d be e n d e s t r o y e d a n d br i n g
a bo u t h i s r e d e m p t i o n , f o r t h e p o s i t i v e s c h o o l t h e
f i r s t o bj e c t i v e o f p u n i s h m e n t s h o u l d be t o r e p a i r
t h e d a m a g e t o s o c i e t y p l a c i n g t h e c u l p r i t i n a
p o s i t i o n t o d o n o f u r t h e r h a r m .
T h e n e w c o d e a v o i d s bo t h e x t r e m e s . S t a r t -
i n g f r o m t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t m a n i s c a p a bl e o f
r e g u l a t i n g h i s c o n d u c t o f h i s o w n f r e e w i l l , a
p r i n c i p l e f r o m w h i c h i s d e r i v e d t h e o t h e r p r i n c i p l e
o f p e n a l r e s p o n s a bi l i t y f o r h u m a n a c t i o n s , i t h a s
t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h o s e m o t i v e s w h i c h m a y
i n f l u e n c e t h e w i l l , r e f u s i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e l a t t e r
a s i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l c a u s a l l a w s .
He n c e a r e p r e s s i v e , bu t a l s o a p r e v e n t i v e
a c t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e l a w , a l t h o u g h t h e
p r o p h y l a t i c a c t i v i t y a g a i n s t t h e d a n g e r o f d e l i n -
q u e n c y i s a l r e a d y c a r r i e d o n m a i n l y t h r o u g h s o c i a l
l e g i s l a t i o n , p u bl i c a s s i s t a n c e , e d u c a t i o n a n d r e -
e d u c a t i o n , a n d by m e a n s o f p o l i c e m e a s u r e s
.
T h e s a f e t y m e a s u r e s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e p e n a l
c o d e w i t h a p r e v e n t i v e o bj e c t i v e a r e p r e c a u t i o n s
a g a i n s t t h e c a u s e s , e v e n i n d i v i d u a l c a u s e s , o f
c r i m e , a n d t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m p o l i c e
m e a s u r e s i n a s m u c h a s t h e y a r e a p p l i e d o n l y a f t e r
t h e c r i m e h a s be e n c o m m i t t e d a n d o n l y f o r t h e
1 3 8
p u r p o s e o f e s t a bl i s h i n g w h e t h e r t h e c u l p r i t i s a n
h a bi t u a l c r i m i n a l .
T h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e a p p l i e d by t h e m a g i s t r a t e
w i t h a l l t h e g u a r a n t e e s o f a j u d i c i a r y p r o c e d u r e .
T h e C o d e p r o v i d e s f o r t w o t y p e s o f m e a s u r e s
f o r p u bl i c s a f e t y : p e r s o n a l ( w i t h o r w i t h o u t i m -
p r i s o n m e n t ) , a n d f i n a n c i a l
.
T h e m e a s u r e s r e s t r i c t i n g p e r s o n a l l i be r t y c o n s -
i s t o f c o n f i n e m e n t i n a n a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l o n y , o r
i n p r i s o n w i t h h a r d l a bo u r ( e c a s a d i l a v o r o ) ;
c o n f i n e m e n t i n a h o u s e o f d e t e n t i o n o r a c r i m -
i n a l a s y l u m . Ot h e r d e t e n t i v e m e a s u r e s c o n s i s t o f
f r e e d o m u n d e r p o l i c e s u p e r v i s i o n ; p r o h i bi t i o n t o
r e s i d e i n a g i v e n t o w n o r p r o v i n c e ; p r o h i bi t i o n
t o e n t e r w i n e s h o p s a n d o t h e r p l a c e s w h e r e a l c o -
h o l i c l i q u o r i s s o l d ; i n t h e c a s e o f f o r e i g n e r s ,
e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e S t a t e .
Ha bi t u a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i m i n a l s a n d t h o s e
h a v i n g a t e n d e n c y t o c r i m e , a r e s e n t t o t h e
a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l o n i e s o r t o p r i s o n w i t h h a n d
l a bo u r . T h i s i m p o s e s o n t h e m a g i s t r a t e a m o s t
c a r e f u l a n d s c r u p u l o u s i n q u i r y i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r
o f t h e a c c u s e d , h i s m o r a l t e n d e n c i e s , w h e t h e r h e
s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s d a n g e r o u s , h i s c a p a c i t y
t o a m e n d , t h e p o s s i bi l i t y o f h i s r e - e d u c a t i o n .
T h e f i n a n c i a l m e a s u r e s f o r p u bl i c s a f e t y c o n -
s i s t i n t h e p a y m e n t o f a s u m o f m o n e y by t h e
s u s p e c t e d p e r s o n , a s a g u a r a n t e e o f h i s g o o d
1 3 9
c o n d u c t , a n d c o n f i s c a t i o n o f h i s p r o p e r t y i n c a s e
o f a c r i m i n a l r e l a p s e
.
T h e m e a s u r e s f o r p u bl i c s a f e t y , w h i c h s u bs -
t i t u t e o r c o m p l e t e t h e p e n a l t y , a r e ba s e d o n t h e
i d e a o f p r o v i d i n g a m o r e e f f i c i e n t s o c i a l d e f e n c e ,
a n d p r e s u p p o s e a l e s s a bs t r a c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f
t h e l a w bu t m o r e s u i t e d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e
c u l p r i t .
No t a bl e r e f o r m s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e n e w P e n a l
C o d e a r e : r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y by
s h o o t i n g a n d o n l y t o be a p p l i e d w h e n o v e r h e l m -
i n g p r o o f s a r e a v a i l a bl e o f t h e c u l p r i t ' s g u i l t ;
a bo l i t i o n o f s o l i t a r y c o n f i n e m e n t , r e g a r d e d a s a
u s e l e s s i n c r e a s e o f p u n i s h m e n t , i n e v i t a bl y l e a d i n g
t o a c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c o n d e m n e d m a n ' s
p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l f o r c e s ; e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e
d i s t i n c t i o n be t w e e n d e t e n t i o n a n d r e c l u s i o n a n d
a u t h o r i t y g i v e n t o t h e m a g i s t r a t e t o i n f l i c t p e c u -
n i a r y p u n i s h m e n t i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e e c o n o m i c
s i t u a t i o n o f t h e c u l p r i t .
T h e n e w C o d e p u n i s h e s w i t h e x t r e m e s e v e r -
i t y , g r e a t l y e x c e e d i n g p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n , c r i m e s
a g a i n s t t h e S t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y e s p i o n a g e
; i t r e - e n f o r -
c e s t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e r a c e , s e v e r e l y p u n i s h i n g
a bo r t i o n , a n d t h e d e f e n c e o f t h e f a m i l y , by p u n -
i s h i n g d e s e r t i o n a n d n e g l e c t o f t h e f a m i l y , n o w
c o n s i d e r e d a s c r i m e s .
Us u r y , w h i c h r e m a i n e d u n p u n i s h e d u n d e r t h e
1 4 0
o l d C o d e , i s n o w p u n i s h a bl e by a s p e c i a l p e n a l
l a w .
As r e g a r d s p e r s o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c r i m e ,
t h e n e w C o d e e l i m i n a t e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n be t w e e n
a c t i v e
( c o r r e i t a ) a n d p a s s i v e c o m p l i c i t y i n c r i m e
i n i t s t w o t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m s : o f n e c e s s i t y a n d o f
n o n - n e c e s s i t y , a n d t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g a l l d e g r e e s
o f c o m p l i c i t y a n d e s t a bl i s h i n g t h a t a l l c o m p l i c i t y
i n c r i m e s h o u l d be p u n i s h e d i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r .
T h i s s e v e r e c o n c e p t i s m i t i g a t e d by a r t . 1 1 4 ,
w h i c h a u t h o r i s e s t h e m a g i s t r a t e t o g r a n t a r e d u c -
t i o n i n p u n i s h e m e n t i n c a s e s o f v e r y s l i g h t c o m -
p l i c i t y i n c r i m e .
T a k e n a s a w h o l e , t h e p e n a l t i e s i m p o s e d by
t h e n e w C o d e a r e m o r e s e v e r e , a n d t h e s o - c a l l e d
j u r i d i c a l a c c u m u l a t i o n i s a bo l i s h e d by w h i c h v a r -
i o u s c r i m e s c o m m i t t e d by t h e s a m e i n d i v i d u a l
w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s o n e s i n g l e c r i m e a n d p u n i s h e d
a s s u c h , t h e p e n a l t y be i n g m u c h i n f e r i o r t h a n t h a t
o f t h e s u m t o t a l o f c r i m e s t a k e n s i n g l y . Ac c o r d i n g
t o t h e n e w C o d e c o l l e c t i v e c r i m e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d
s i n g l y a n d d e a l t w i t h f a r m o r e s e v e r e l y . Fo r
i n s t a n c e , i n c a s e o f a d o u bl e s e n t e n c e t o l i f e i m -
p r i s o n m e n t , t h e c u l p r i t i s s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h .
T h e n e w C o d e d e a l s w i t h
t h e q u e s t i o n o f
m e n t a l d e r a n g e m e n t w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p e n a l a n d
s c i e n t i f i c c a r e . Hu m a n p a s s i o n s c a n n o t be r e g a r d -
e d a s a f o r m o f m e n t a l d e r a n g e m e n t , a n d i n a l l
' 4 '
c a s e s o f a r e d u c t i o n o r e l i m i n a t i o n o f m e n t a l r e s -
p o n s i bi l i t y , t h e c u l p r i t m u s t be c o n f i n e d f o r a
d e t e r m i n e d p e r i o d i n a s a n a t o r i u m o r i n a c r i m i n a l
a s y l u m
. Fo r s e r i o u s c a s e s o f h o m i c i d e , t h e p e r i o d
o * c o n f i n e m e n t i n a c r i m i n a l a s y l u m c a n n o t be
l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s
.
T h e n e w c o d e i s v e r y s e v e r e i n r e s p e c t o f c r i -
m e s a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e f t , a n d a g a i n s t
p e r s o n s
. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p u n i s h m e n t f o r
f o r g e r y i s m i t i g a t e d
.
W i t h r e g a r d t o a s s a u l t a n d ba t t e r y , t h e n e w
C o d e e l i m i n a t e s t h e i d e a o f u n i n t e n t i o n a l w o u n d -
i n g , w h i c h r e m a i n s s o l e l y i n c a s e o f h o m i c i d e ,
w h e n i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p e r s o n w h o k i l l e d h a d
o n l y t h e i n t e n t i o n o f w o u n d i n g .
T h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e n e w C o d e , a n d , i n g e n e r a l ,
o f t h e r e s t o r a t i v e a n d p r o p h y l a c t i c p o l i c y o f Fa -
s c i s m , i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y d e c r e a s e
i u c r i m e .
I n
1 9 3 3 ,
o n l y t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n
o f t h e n e w C o d e , a s c e r t a i n e d c r i m e s n u m be r e d
5 2 9 . 0 5 9
. I n t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r t h e y w e r e 6 1 6
. 2 6 7 .
C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e d e c r e a s e i n c r i m i n a l i t y i n a
s i n g l e y e a r a m o u n t e d t o 8 7
. 2 0 8 .
T h e f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e f i g u r e s i s be t t e r
a p p r e c i a t e d by c o m p a r i s i o n . T o a v o i d e x c e s s i v e
a n a l y s i s , w e w i l l e x a m i n e t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e
p h e n o m e n o n o n a t h r e e y e a r a v e r a g e . I n 1 9 2 4 -
1 4 2
1 9 2 6 , t h e r e w e r e 6 8 4 . 5 6 8 c r i m e s ; i n t h e p e r i o d
1 9 2 7 - 1 9 2 9 t h e y f e l l t o 6 1 1 . 5 1 1 , i n 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 2 t h e y
h a d d r o p p e d t o 5 8 7 . 2 7 3 , w h i l e i n 1 9 3 3 t h e n u m -
be r o f c r i m e s a m o u n t e d t o o n l y
5 2 9 . 0 5 9 .
T h e
d e s c e n d i n g l i n e i s c o n s t a n t a n d m a n i f e s t .
A p r o o f o f t h i s f a c t w i l l be f o u n d by e x a m i n -
i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l c u r v e o f t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s . I n
1. 9 2 6 t h e r e w e r e 1 7 4 8 c r i m e s f o r e v e r y i o o . o o o i n -
h a bi t a n t s ; i n 1 9 2 7 t h e y d r o p p e d t o
1 5 7 5 ;
i n 1 9 2 8
t o
1 5 5 5 ;
i n 1 9 2 9 t o
1 4 5 5 ;
i n 1 9 3 0 t o
1 4 3 5 ;
i n 1 9 3 1
t o 1 3 6 o ; i n 1 9 3 2 t o 1 4 8 7 ; i n
1 9 3 3
t o 1 2 7 1
; i n
1
9 3 4 t o 1 2 6 5 ; i n 1 9 3 5 t o 1 2 5 4
.
P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e s t u d y o f s t a t i s -
t i c a l d a t a p e r g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f c r i m e
. T h e
t w o p r i n c i p a l o n e s a r e t h o s e a g a i n s t p e r s o n s a n d
a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y . Bo t h s h o w a d e c r e a s e i n p r o -
p o r t i o n t o t h e f i g u r e s g i v e n a bo v e .
I n s t e a d o f t h e 8 1
. 8 6 o c a s e s o f a s s a u l t a n d t h e
1 8 3 4 c a s e s o f h o m i c i d e o r a t t e m p t e d h o m i c i d e i n
1 9 3 2 , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e r e w e r e o n l y 6
5 . 4 5 6
c a s e s o f a s s a u l t a n d 1 6 1 6 c a s e s o f h o m i c i d e o r
a t t e m p t e d h o m i c i d e . I n 1 9 3 2 t h e r e w e r e 2 2 6 . 6 7 1
c a s e s a s a g a i n s t 2 1 0 . 0 3 8 i n
1 9 3 3 .
Ag a i n a s c o n y
p a r e d w i t h t h e 2 3 5 2 c r i m e s o f r o bbe r y w i t h v i o -
l e n c e , e x t o r t i o n w i t h m e n a c e s a n d k i d n a p p i n g
c o m m i t t e d i n 1 9 3 2 , t h e r e w e r e o n l y 1 9 2 4 i n 1 9 3 3
.
A d e s c e n d i n g c u r v e i s a l s o t o be o bs e r v e d f o r
o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f c r i m e . Fo r i n s t a n c e , c r i m e s o f
1
4 3
f r a u d h a v e d e c r e a s e d f r o m 5 2 . 5 3 8 t o 2 2 . 4 4 6 ;
t h o s e
a g a i n s t
h o n o u r , f r o m
3 4 . 1 4 5
t o 2 6 . 4 1 4 ;
t h o s e a g a i n s t p e r s o n a l r e p u t a t i o n , f r o m
3 4 . 1 4 5
t o
2 6 . 4 1 4 ; t h o s e a g a i n s t p u bl i c e c o n o m y , f r o m 5 6 1 3
t o 4 1 8 6 ; t h o s e o f v i o l e n c e , r e s i s t a n c e a n d i n s u l t s t o
t h e p o l i c e , f r o m 1 3 . 3 1 6 t o 1 1 . 6 2 9 ; t h o s e a g a i n s t
t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , f r o m 1 4 . 1 9 3 t o
1 1 . 4 7 0 ; t h o s e a g a i n s t p u bl i c o r d e r f r o m 1 2 1 7 t o
8 1 6 ; t h o s e a g a i n s t m o r a l s a n d g o o d be h a v i o u r
f r o m 9 . 8 8 7 t o 9 . 0 3 2 ; t h o s e a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l l i -
be r t y , f r o m 1 4 . 7 0 1 t o i i . 8 o 6 .
Al m o s t a l l f o r m s o f c r i m e a r e , t h e r e f o r e , o n
t h e d e c l i n e . I t i s a r e m a r k a bl e f a c t , be c a u s e t h e
c o m m o n o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n c a n n o t be
e x p l a i n e d e x c e p t by t h e c o m m o n o c c u r r e n c e o f
t h e c a u s e . W h e n a c a t e g o r y o r s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s
o f c r i m e t e n d t o d e c r e a s e , w h i l e o t h e r s r e m a i n s t a t -
i o n a r y o r h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o i n c r e a s e , t h e s t u d -
e n t o f c r i m i n o l o g y a t o n c e r e a l i s e s t h a t i t i s
c a u s e d by a c o n t i n g e n t a n d p a r t i c u l a r f a c t . W e a r e
s t i l l f a r r e m o v e d f r o m t h e f u l l r e c o v e r y a n d i m -
p r o v e m e n t i n t h e m o r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e .
W h e n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e q u o t a o f c r i m -
i n a l i t y d e c r e a s e s , t h e n a l l r e s e a r c h e s a s t o t h e
c a u s e i n a s p e c i a l s e c t o r s h o u l d be a ba n d o n e d a n d
c o n t i n u e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s o c i a l l i f e i n
g e n e r a l
. T h e n e w p e n a l l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e p r e v e n t i v e
m e a n s o f s o c i a l p r o p h i l a x i s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e
1 4 4
Re g i m e , t h e < < Fa s c i d i C o m ba t t i m e n t o o , t h e Na t -
i o n a l Mi l i t i a , t h e
a
D o p o l a v o r o o , t h e j u v e n i l e
o r g a n i s a t i o n s , e t c . , m a y be c o n s i d e r e d a s c a u s e s
c o n t r i bu t i n g t o w a r d t h i s i m p r o v e m e n t i n m o r a l
s t a n d a r d s .
I n f a c t I t a l y m a y n o w be c o n s i d e r e d a s a l m o s t
i m m u n e f r o m t h a t f o r m o f m o r e s o c i a l l y d a n g e r -
o u s c r i m i n a l i t y , n a m e l y h a bi t u a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l
c r i m i n a l s , a n d t h o s e w h o h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o -
w a r d s c r i m e . I n 1 9 3 2 t h e h a bi t u a l c r i m i n a l s s e n t -
e n c e d w e r e 1 4 8 3 ; i n
1 9 3 3
t h e n u m be r f e l l t o
1 1 9 9 ; i n
1 9 3 4
t o 8 9 3 ; i n
1 9 3 5
t o 8 2 8 .
I n 1 9 3 2 t h e n u m be r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i m i n a l s
c o n d e m n e d w a s i i i ; i n
1 9 3 3
t h i s f i g u r e w a s r e -
d u c e d t o 6 8 ; i n
1 9 3 4
t o 7 2
; i n 1 9 3 5 t o 5 4 .
T h e n u m be r o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a t e n d e n c y
t o w a r d s d e l i n q u e n c y i n 1 9 3 2 w a s 1
4 3
; 3 4
i n 1
9 3 3 ,
4 2 i n 1 9 3 4 ; 4 0 i n 1 9 3 5
Ju v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y o f f e r s a n o t h e r a n d
d e c i s i v e a r g u m e n t . I n t h e t r i e n n i u m 1
9 2 9 - 1 9 3 1
i t s h o w s a p r o g r e s s i v e a n d v e r y a p p a r e n t d e c r e a s e ,
a s f r o m 2 6 . 6 9 6 c o n d e m n e d j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s i n
1 9 2 9 ,
t h e n u m be r f e l l t o
2 0 . 5 8 8 i n 1 9 2 9
a n d
1 6 . 4 1 7 i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s . T h e c a u s e s o f t h i s
d i m i n u t i o n e x e r c i s e d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n f l u e n c e o n
c r i m e a n d o n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , a s
i n t h e f i r s t w e f i n d t h e d e c r e a s i n g s e r i e s 2 0
. 2 9 9 -
1 6 . i 2 9 - 1 2 . 6 5 2 , a n d i n t h e s e c o n d t h e p r o p o r -
1 4 5
1 0 i n g .
t i o n a t e l y d e c r e a s i n g s e r i e s 6 .
3 9 7 - 4 . 4 5 9 - 3 . 7 6 5 .
T h e l e g i s l a t i v e c a u s e s , a n d , t o be m o r e p r e -
c i s e , t h e n e w a g e l i m i t f o r a m i n o r a d o p t e d by
t h e P e n a l C o d e , o n l y h a d o f f e c t d u r i n g t h e s e c -
o n d h a l f o f t h e y e a r 1 9 3 1 , w h e n t h e n e w C o d e
c a m e i n t o f o r c e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e d e c r e a s e w h i c h
t o o k p l a c e , w i t h e q u a l i n t e n s i t y , i n t h e p r e c e d i n g
y e a r s o f t h e t r i e n n i u m n o w u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n ,
m u s t be a t t r i bu t e d t o c a u s e s o f a n o t h e r n a t u r e ,
w h i c h m u s t u n d o u bt e d l y be r e g a r d e d a s o f a s o -
c i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r c o n s i s t i n g , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t ,
o f t h o s e m e a s u r e s o f s o c i a l p r o p h i l a x i s r e g a r d i n g
m a t e r n i t y a n d c h i l d h o o d , w h i c h h a v e be e n a d o p t -
e d a n d i n t e n s i f i e d o f r e c e n t y e a r s by t h e Re g i m e .
T h e m o s t r e c e n t s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e Mi n i s t r y o f
Ju s t i c e f u l l y c o n f i r m t h e f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .
I n f a c t , w h i l e i n 1 9 3 1 t h e m i s d e m e a n o u r s p e r p e -
t r a t e d by m i n o r s a m o u n t e d , a s w e h a v e s e e n , t o
1 2
. 6 5 2 , i n 1 9 3 2 t h e n u m be r f e l l t o 7 1 5 0 , a n d i n
1 9 3 5
t o
2 7 3 3 .
T h e s e a r e f i g u r e s w h i c h m e r i t o u r u t m o s t
r e s p e c t .
1 4 b
T HE ARMY
T h e D i a z o r g a n i s a t i o n -
Mu s s o l i n i Mi n i s t e r o f W a r -
Nu m be r o f r e c r u i t s -
V a r i o u s p e r i o d s o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e
-
Ad v a n c e m e n t a n d p r o m o t i o n -
E x a m i n a t i o n s - T h e
a r m y k e e p s a l o o f f r o m p o l i t i c s -
Mo t o r i s a t i o n - T h e
t a c t i c a l C o d e -
T r a i n i n g o f t h e s o l d i e r -
Y e a r l y c o s t o f
a s o l d i e r - C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e I t a l i a n Ar m y
.
s
I t i s c o m m o n l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e I t a l i a n a r m e d
f o r c e s a r e a c r e a t i o n o f Mu s s o l i n i a n d be a r t h e
c l e a r i m p r i n t o f t h e D u c e ' s t h o u g h t a n d w i l l
. T h e
e x p r e s s i o n i s e x a c t , bu t i t d o e s n o t g i v e a n a d e -
q u a t e i d e a o f t h e a m p l i t u d e a n d d e p t h o f Mu s s o -
l i n i ' s p e r s o n a l a c t i o n i n t h e m d l i t a r y
f i e l d , a n d
m i g h t g i v e r i s e t o t h e d o u bt t h a t h e l i m i t e d h i m s e l f
t o t h e c h o i c e o f e x p e r t s , g i v i n g t h e m a u t h o r i t y ,
e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d m e a n s . T h e r e a l f a c t s a r e
v e r y d i f f e r e n t .
T h e D u c e h a s o f t e n p o i n t e d o u t t h e s o l u t i o n
o f a m i l i t a r y p r o bl e m , t a k i n g a d i r e c t p a r t i n
e s s e n t i a l d e c i s i o n s . He h i m s e l f h a s e x p r e s s l y d e -
c l a r e d i n h i s
C o l l o q u i o r C o n v e r s a t i o n s
:
T h e r e
i s a d a n g e r t h a t e x p e r t s m a y c o n f r o n t t h e He a d
1 4 7
o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t w i t h d e c i s i o n s f o r w h i c h h e h a s
n o t t h e n e c e s s a r y ba s e s . I n t h i s c a s e t h e r e i s n o t h -
i n g t o be d o n e bu t t o s t u d y t h e m a t t e r a n d g r a -
d u a l l y m a s t e r i t > > .
I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o r d t h e c o n d i t i o n s
o f t h e I t a l i a n Ar m y i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e m a r c h
o n Ro m e . T h e y w e r e s u c h a s r e q u i r e d a n i m m e -
d i a t e w o r k o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
. Mu s s o l i n i a c c o m -
p l i s h e d i t by g r a d u a l s t a g e s .
I n t h e f i r s t s t a g e , e x t e n d i n g f r o m Oc t o be r
2 8 ,
1 9 2 2 t o Ma y , 1 9 2 5 t h e Ar m y r e p a i r e d t h e d a m -
a g e s u s t a i n e d d u r i n g f o u r y e a r s o f c r i s i s , f o l l o w i n g
t h e p l a n o u t l i n e d by D i a z i n Ja n u a r y 1 9 2 3 . T h e
v a r i o u s u n i t s , n o l o n g e r h a m p e r e d w i t h p o l i c e
s e r v i c e s , r e t u r n e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n ; t h e r e g u l a r r e -
c r u i t i n g o f o f f i c e r s w a s r e s u m e d , a n d t h e i r e c o -
n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i m p r o v e d ; s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n w a s
g i v e n t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a r e s e r v e o f o f f i c e r s ;
i n s t i t u t e s o f m i l i t a r y e d u c a t i o n w e r e a g a i n s t i m u l -
a t e d t o f u l l a c t i v i t y ; t h e o r d i n a r y t e r m o f s e r v i c e
w i t h t h e c o l o u r s w a s f i x e d a t
1 8 m o n t h s
; t h e h i g h
c o m m a n d w a s r e o r g a n i s e d . Af t e r t w o y e a r s , o r a
l i t t l e m o r e , t h e Ar m y h a d a n e w a s p e c t , p e r m i t t i n g
t h o s e f u r t h e r c h a n g e s w h i c h c a r e f u l s t u d y , e x p e r -
i e n c e a n d f o r e s i g h t a d v i s e a n d w i t h o u t d r a s t i c
o r p r e c i p i t a t e m e a s u r e s .
W e t h u s c o m e t o t h e y e a r 1 9 2 6 , i n w h i c h
Mu s s o l i n i d r e w u p t h e n e w m i l i t a r y s t a t u t e , w h i c h
1 4 8
h e h i m s e l f p u t i n t o e x e c u t i o n , l a t e r e n t r u s t i n g i t
t o a m i n i s t e r w h o w a s h i m s e l f a n o f f i c e r .
T h e Ar m y i s m o u l d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s n e w
s t a t u t e , i t c a r r i e s o u t s t u d i e s a n d e x p e r i m e n t s ,
i t p e r f e c t s i t s e l f , i m p r o v e s i t s t a c t i c a l c o d e s , c r e -
a t e s n e w a r m a m e n t s
; bu i l d s m i l i t a r y r o a d s a n d
f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , c o m p l e t e s i t s e q u i p m e n t
; i n s i l e n c e
bu t w i t h t h e u t m o s t t e n a c i t y i t s e e k s f o r t h e m o s t
s a t i s f a c t e r y m i l i t a r y d i v i s i o n s a n d t h e m o s t s u i t a bl e
r e g u l a t i o n s f o r w o r k , f o r o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d f o r c o m -
m a n d
; e v e r y d a y , i t be c o m e s p a r t o f t h e Re g i m e
a n d
m a r c h e s s h o u l d e r t o s h o u l d e r w i t h i t
; i t be -
c o m e s a n o bj e c t o f a d m i r a t i o n a n d c o n f i d e n c e
.
I t a l y h a s a d o p t e d , f o r a l l i t s a r m e d
f o r c e s ,
t h e s y s t e m o f r e c r u i t i n g by c o n s c r i p t i o n . T h e o bl i g -
a t i o n t o p e r f o r m m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e be g i n s a t t h e
a g e o f 2 1
a n d e n d s - o w i n g t o a r e c e n t r e g u l a -
t i o n - a t t h e a g e o f 5 5
T h e r e i s n o l a c k o f m e n i n I t a l y
. On e l e v y
o f o n e c l a s s a m o u n t s t o a bo u t h a l f a m i l l i o n y o u n g
m e n , bu t o w i n g t o a v e r y s e v e r e s e l e c t i v e c r i t e r -
i o n , o n l y 2 6 o
t h o u s a n d a r e l i s t e d i n t h e Ar m y ,
a n d o f t h e s e n o t a l l a r e c a l l e d ' t o t h e c o l o u r s . T h e
m a x i m u m d u r a t i o n o f c o n t i n u o u s s e r v i c e w h i c h
i s c o m p u l s o r y f o r t h e a r m y i s 1 8 m o n t h s , bu t t h e
e n t i r e p e r i o d i s s e r v e d o n l y by a c e r t a i n p r o p o r -
t i o n o f t h e r e c r u i t s . T h e r e s t s e r v e f o r p e r i o d s
o f 1 2 , 6
a n d 3 m o n t h s .
1 4 9
T h i s s y s t e m o f v a r i a bl e p e r i o d s w i t h t h e
c o -
l o u r s i s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e n e e d s o f a s o c i a l c h a r -
a c t e r ( r e d u c e d p e r o d o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e f o r t h o s e
w h o s e f a m i l i e s a r e i n s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ) ,
t o
t h o s e o f a Mi l i t a r y c h a r a c t e r ( n e e d f o r a l o n g e r
p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h o s e w h o r e q u i r e s p e -
c i a l i s a t i o n , a n d n e e d f o r a m i l i t a r y n u c l e u s t o
a c t a s a p o i n t o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n r o u n d w h i c h t h e
Ar m y m a y be m o bi l i s e d a n d t o s e c u r e t h e c o n t i -
n u i t y o f t h e l i f e o f t h e Ar m y ) , a n d w i t h t h o s e o f
a f i n a n c i a l c h a r a c t e r , ( k e e p i n g e x p e n s e s w i t h i n
t h e l i m i t s f i x e d by t h e bu d g e t ) .
S e l e c t i o n i s v e r y s e v e r e i n o r d e r t o o bt a i n
f r o m t h e m a s s o f o f f i c e r s a h i e r a r c h y o f c o m m a n -
d e r s e m i n e n t l y c a p a bl e bo t h i n p e a c e a n d w a r .
P r o m o t i o n t o t h e r a n k s o f m a j o r a n d c o l o n e l t a k e s
p l a c e by e x a m i n a t i o n , a n d t h i s s y s t e m , a d o p t e d
o f r e c e n t y e a r s , a f t e r m u c h d e ba t e , t r i u m p h e d
c h i e f l y o w i n g t o t h e D u c e ' s w i l l , e x p r e s s e d i n
t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t w o r d s : T o g i v e a n e x a m i n a t i o n
i s n o t h u m i l i a t i n g . I t i s h u m i l i a t i n g t o be r e j e c t e d .
Bu t I m a y a d d t h a t l i f e i s o n e c o n t i n u a l e x a m i -
n a t i o n . W e m u s t a l l g o t h r o u g h i t , a n d s o m u s t
o f f i c e r s w h o h a v e t h e s u bl i m e a n d t r e m e n d o u s
d u t y o f l e a d i n g m e n i n t o ba t t l e . W h e n a n a t i o n
e n t r u s t s h e r s o n s t o o t h e r m e n , s h e m u s t h a v e
f u l l f a i t h i n t h e s e m e n . As r e g a r d s t h e h i g h e r
h i e r a r c h y - c o m m a n d e r s o f a r m y - c o r p s a n d d i -
1 5 0
v i s i o n s
-
s e l e c t i o n i s t h e o n l y m e t h o d o f a d v a n -
c e m e n t , a n d i s ba s e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c a p a c i t y
a r r i v e d a t by a c e n t r a l c o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f
t h e h i g h e s t m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s , w h o m u s t t a k e
i n t o a c c o u n t t h e m o r a l q u a l i t i e s a n d t h e a p r e -
s t i g e o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s f o r p r o m o t i o n
.
Of f i c e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t i m e - h o n o u r e d t r a -
d i t i o n s o f t h e I t a l i a n Ar m y , m u s t a bs t a i n f r o m
p o l i t i c s
. Mu s s o l i n i c l e a r l y a f f i r m e d t h i s i n o n e o f
h i s v e r y f i r s t a c t s o n a s s u m i n g p o w e r , w h e n h e
f o r ba d e
-
o n No v e m be r 1 ,
1 9 2 2 - a m a n i f e s t -
a t i o n t o w h i c h a n e w s p a p e r h a d i n v i t e d a l l t h e
o f f i c e r s o n a c t i v e s e r v i c e i n t h e Ro m a n g a r r i s o n
c ( No m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , e i t h e r f o r m e o r f o r o t h e r s .
Y o u ) ) , h e s a i d t o t h e Ge n e r a l i n c o m m a n d o f t h e
Ro m e D i v i s i o n , a a n d a l l y o u r o f f i c e r s w i l l u n d e r -
s t a n d t h e s e r i o u s a n d i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s f o r m y
a t t i t u d e . T h e Na t i o n a l Ar m y c a n n o t a n d m u s t
n o t a p p l a u d o r d i s a p p r o v e . I t m u s t o n l y a n d
a l w a y s f a i t h f u l l y o be y . I n t h i s l i e s i t s s t r e n g t h ,
i t s g r e a t n e s s a n d i t s g l o r y u .
T o c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m o bi l i s a -
t i o n , n a m e l y t h e c a l l t o t h e c o l o u r s o f t r a i n e d
r e c r u i t s , I t a l y h a s a r e s e r v e o f o f f i c e r s , w h o a r e
v e r y n u m e r o u s
.
I n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a c l o s e l i a i s o n be t w e e n
t h e r e s e r v e o f o f f i c e r s a n d t h e Ar m y , a n d t o
e n a bl e t h e f o r m e r t o k e e p i n t o u c h w i t h t h e
1 5 1
p r o g r e s s o f a r m a m e n t s a n d m e t h o d s o f w a r f a r e ,
c o u r s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a r e g i v e n , o f a n i n f o r m -
a t i v e a n d p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r , by o f f i c e r s o n t h e
r e g u l a r s t a f f .
T h e w a r - m a t e r i a l , w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e
m a n p o w e r , f o r m s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l bi n o m i u m o f
m o d e r n a r m i e s , h a s r e c e i v e d a l l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t
a n d i m p r o v e m e n t a l l o w e d by t h e s o m e w h a t l i m -
i t e d m e a n s .
On e o f t h e p r o bl e m s w h i c h t h e m i l i t a r y o r g a -
n i s e r s h a v e h a d t o s o l v e i s t o w h a t e x t e n t m o t o r
p o w e r s h o u l d be e m p l o y e d , e i t h e r a s a w e a p o n
o r a s a m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t
. S t a r t i n g f r o m t h e i d e a
t h a t m o t o r i s a t i o n w i l l i n e v i t a bl y i n c r e a s e i n a l l
br a n c h e s o f t h e a r m y - w h e t h e r l o g i s t i c , t a c t i c
o r s t r a t e g i c , i t h a s be e n d e c i d e d t o m a k e u s e o f
t h e m a c h i n e u p t o t h e l i m i t be y o n d w h i c h t h e
n a t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y r e n d e r s i t s e m p l o y m e n t
i m p o s s i bl e . I t h a s be e n k e p t i n m i n d t h a t t h e
I t a l i a n a r m y i s f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d u p o n t o f i g h t i n
a m o u n t a i n o u s c o u n t r y , i n r e g i o n s w h e r e i t i s
d i f f i c u l t f o r m a c h i n e s t o m a n o e u v r e . Mo t o r i s a t i o n
h a s be e n l a r g e l y a p p l i e d t o v e h i c l e s d e s t i n e d t o
m o v e a l o n g r o a d s .
I n o r d e r h a t bo t h t r a i n i n g i n p e a c e a n d a c -
t i o n i n w a r s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e i n d i s -
p e n s a bl e u n i t y , c o m p l e x r u l e s h a v e be e n e v o l v e d
d u r i n g t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d i n s p i r e d by a
1 5 2
m i l i t a r y d o c t r i n e w h i c h , a f t e r
h a v i n g f i x e d t h e
g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f a f u t u r e w a r , a s f a r a s i t i s p o s -
s i bl e t o f o r e s e e a t p r e s e n t , d e t e r m i n e t h e m a n n e r
i n w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s u n i t s m u s t a c t . T h e f i r s t
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e I t a l i a n t a c t i c a l c o d e i s t h a t
i t i s i n s p i r e d be t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f m a n a s o f m o r e
i m p o r t a n c e t h a n t h e w e a p o n o f t h e m a c h i n e , a n d
c o n s i d e r i n g e v e r y t a c t i c a l a c t n o t o n l y f r o m t h e
p o i n t o f v i e w o f a r m a m e n t p o w e r a n d a bi l i t y i n
m a n c e u v r e s , bu t a l s o a s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f w i l l
a n d o f f a i t h .
T r a i n i n g i s d i v i d e d i n t o v a r i o u s p h a s e s ; t h e
s o l d i e r f i r s t i s t a u g h t t h e u s e o f t h e a r m s w h i c h
h e m u s t h a n d l e , ( v a r i o u s a r m s , m a c h i n e s , h o r s e s ) ,
a t t h e s a m e t i m e t r a i n i n g i n m i l i t a r y g y m n a s -
t i c s i s g i v e n n o t w i t h
t h e o bj e c t o f c r e a t i n g
s p o r t s c h a m p i o n s , bu t r a t h e r t o g r a d u a l l y i m p r o v e
t h e s o l d i e r ' s p h y s i q u e a n d t o e n a bl e h i m t o w i t h -
s t a n d t h e s t r a i n a n d f a t i g u e o f w a r f a r e . Af t e r
i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n h a s be e n g i v e n i n
t h e u s e
o f a r m s , h o r s e s , a r m o u r e d c a r s
e t c . , c o l l e c t i v e
t r a i n i n g f o l l o w s w i t h v a r i o u s u n i t s ; t h e n , c a m p -
i n g o u t i n t h e o p e n ; m a n o e u v r e s w i t h l a r g e u n i t s ,
w i n t e r m a n o e u v r e s a n d s p e c i a l c o u r s e s
f o r s p e -
c i a l i s t s .
E a c h c a m p h a s be e n t h e o bj e c t o f s p e c i a l
s t u d y a n d c a r e , w i t h o u t , h o w e v e r ,
a n y e x a g g e -
r a t i o n , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e be e n i m p o s s i bl e f o r f i -
1
5 3
n a n c i a l r e a s o n s a n d w h i c h t h e D u c e w o u l d n o t
h a v e t o l e r a t e d . Al l t h a t w a s n e c e s s a r y h a s be e n a c -
c o m p l i s h e d , h a r m o n i s i n g s c r u p u l o u s c a r e o f t h e
m e n w i t h t h a t o f w a y s a n d m e a n s . Bu t e c o -
n o m y , t h e m o s t r i g i d e c o n o m y , h a s be e n t h e p a -
r a m o u n t i d e a . I n f a c t , t h e a v e r a g e y e a r l y c o s t
o f a s o l d i e r ( e v e r y t h i n g i n c l u d e d , n a m e l y m a i n -
t a i n a n c e a n d t r a i n i n g , ba r r a c k s , a n i m a l s a n d w a r -
m a t e r i a l , o f f i c e r s a n d n o n - c o m m i s s i o n e d o f f i c e r s
f o r t r a i n i n g p u r p o s e s ) , h a s be e n r e d u c e d t o t h e
m o d e s t s u m o f l i r e 7 8 3 0 , w h i l e t h e y e a r l y c o s t
o f a s o l d i e r i n Fr a n c e i s 1 5 3 0 0 f r a n c s , a n d o v e r
2 0 0 0 0 f r a n c s i n S w i t z e r l a n d .
T h e I t a l i a n Fa s c i s t a r m y h a s a d e f i n i t e c h a -
r a c t e r o f i t s o w n . I t o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e Ar m y o f
t h e g r e a t w a r , a n d i s i n s p i r e d by a l i v i n g m e m o r y
o f t h e g r e a t v i c t o r y a n d p r i d e i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l
E t h i o p i a n c a m p a i g n . Fr o m t h e s p i r i t o f Fa s c i s m ,
i n w h i c h
i t
l i v e s ,
i t
d e r i v e s i t s f e r v o u r a n d
i m p u l s e t o p e r f e c t i o n .
Bo t h o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d p r e p a r a t i o n a r e ba s e d
o n t h e i d e a t h a t s h o u l d w a r br e a k o u t , i t w i l l be
f o u g h t i n a m o u n t a i n o u s c o u n t r y , br o k e n a n d
c o v e r e d w i t h f o r e s t s . He n c e t h e a d o p t i o n o f l a r g e ,
l i g h t u n i t s - t h e t e r n a r i e d i v i s i o n s c o n s i s t i n g o f
t h r e e br i g a d e s e n t i r e l y a u t o n o m o u s i n r e s p e c t o f
s e r v i c e s a n d p r o v i d e d w i t h e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t a bl e
m a t e r i a l , i f n e c e s s a r y o n m u l e - ba c k , Mo bi l e i n -
1
5
4
f a n t r y u n i t s , w i t h
g r e a t f i r i n g a n d m a n c e u v r i n g
c a p a c i t y
; a p o w e r f u l a n d m o bi l e a r t i l l e r y ; s p e -
c i a l u n i t s f o r Al p i n e a n d w i n t e r w a r f a r e
; l i m i t e d
bu t e x c e l l e n t c a v a l r y s u p p o r t e d by m o r e p o w e r f u l
m o bi l e t r o o p s ; a bu n d a n t , m o d e r n a n d p r a c t i c a l
m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t by t r a c t i o n w i t h -
o u t u n d u e p r e j u d i c e s i n f a v o u r o f w h o l l y m o -
t o r i s e d u n i t s n o t s u i t e d f o r h i l l y c o u n t r i e s . T h i s
i s t h e I t a l i a n Ar m y , a n d i t s p r e s e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
.
1 5 5
T HE FAS C I S T MI L I T I A
Or i g i n o f t h e Mi l i t i a - I t s o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d s c o p e -
Re c r u i t i n g - S p e c i a l Mi l i t i a s - P r e - m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g - I t s
c o s t
-
T h e ba p t i s m o f f i r e i n E a s t Af r i c a
.
W h a t i s t h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a ? I t i s a t r a n s f o r -
m a t i o n i n t o a V o l u n t e e r Mi l i t i a f o r Na t i o n a l
S a f e t y o f t h e < < S q u a d r e d ' a z i o n e > w h i c h f o r m -
e d t h e s t o r m t r o o p s o f Fa s c i s m u p t o t h e Ma r c h
o n Ro m e
. T h e d e c r e e i n s t i t u t i n g t h e Mi l i t i a ( r 4 t h
Ja n u a r y , 1 9 2 3 ) n . 3 1 , c o n t a i n s r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t -
t i o n s e s t a bl i s h i n g t h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a a s a n o r g a n i -
s a t i o n d e r i v i n g i t s l e g a l t i t l e e x i s t d i r e c t l y f r o m
t h e S t a t e . T h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a i s d e v o t e d a t o t h e
s e r v i c e o f Go d a n d o f t h e I t a l i a n Fa t h e r l a n d > ;
i t f o r m s p a r t o f t h e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s e n g a g e d i n
t h e s e r v i c e o f p u bl i c s a f e t y a n d a t t h e o r d e r s
o f t h e He a d o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t . L i k e t h e o t h e r
a r m e d f o r c e s o f t h e S t a t e i t m a i n t a i n s p u bl i c
o r d e r a t h o m e , a n d c e
p r e p a r e s c i t i z e n s f o r t h e
d e f e n c e o f I t a l i a n
i n t e r e s t s
t h r o u g h o u t
t h e
w o r l d n ; i t p e r f o r m s c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s a s o r d e r e d
1 5 6
by h e He a d o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t , a n d h a s p e r -
m a n e n t d u t i e s , s u c h a s t h e p r e - m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g
o f y o u t h .
I t h a s i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e c l a s s i c a l Ro m a n m i -
l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e n a m e s o f u n i t s a n d r a n k s ,
a l s o t h e Ro m a n s a l u t e , w h i c h h a s be c o m e t h e
o f f i c i a l Fa s c i s t s a l u t e , a n d o n c e r t a i n o c c a s i o n s
i s a d o p t e d a l s o by m e m be r s o f o t h e r a r m e d f o r c e s .
At p r e s e n t t h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a c o n s i s t s , o n a
s t r i c t l y t e r r i t o r i a l ba s i s , o f 1 2 0 l e g i o n s , g r o u p e d
i n 3 3 c o m m a n d s w h i c h a r e r e g r o u p e d i n 4 c o m -
m a n d s ( Mi l a n , Bo l o g n a , Ro m e a n d Na p l e s ) ; t h e
I s l a n d s h a v e t w o s e p a r a t e c o m m a n d s o f Bl a c k
S h i r t s . T h e g r o u p c o m m a n d c o r r e s p o n d s a p p r o x -
i m a t e l y t o t h a t o f a D i v i s i o n i n t h e Ar m y , a n d
t h e n u m be r o f l e g i o n s v a r i e s ( f r o m
2 t o 7 )
. T h e
l e g i o n c o m m a n d e d by a C o n s u l , c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l
c o h o r t s , c o m m a n d e d by s e n i o r s ( c a p t a i n s ) , a n d
s o m e o f t h e s e c o h o r t s a r e f o r m e d i n t o a Bl a c k
S h i r t ba t t a l i o n f o r a n t i - a i r d e f e n c e .
Mo r e o v e r , t h e r e a r e 1 3 c o m p l e m e n t a r y l e g i o n s
o f o n e s i n g l e c o h o r t ; s i x a u t o n o m o u s c o h o r t s a n d
a l e g i o n o f w a r - w o u n d e d , s t a t i o n e d i n Ro m e , be -
s i d e s a
d e t a c h m e n t o f w a r - w o u n d e d f o r e a c h l e -
g i o n , s t a t i o n e d i n t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s .
E n l i s t e m e n t i n t h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a i s v o l u n t a r y , bu t
a p p l i c a n t s m u s t be u n d o u bt e d p a t r i o t s a n d o f
g o o d m o r a l c o n d u c t , e n t e r e d i n t h e Na t i o n a l
1 5 7
Fa s c i s t P a r t y , n o t u n d e r
2 0 o r o v e r 5 0 y e a r s o f
a g e
. S o l d i e r s s e r v i n g i n t h e r e g u l a r a r m y a r e
n o t a d m i t t e d , n o r a r e c a n d i d a t e s w h o h a v e n o t
p a s s e d a v e r y s e a r c h i n g m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n .
T h e Fa s c i s t l e v y , a s i t i s c a l l e d , i s h e l d
e v e r y 2 4 t h o f Ma y - a n n i v e r s a r y o f I t a l y ' s e n t r y
i n t o t h e w a r
. T h e l i t t l e Ba l i l l a w h o h a v e r e a c h e d
t h e i r 1 4 t h y e a r , p a s s i n t o t h e r a n k s o f t h e Av a n -
g u a r d i s t i , w h o a t t h e a g e o f 1 8 be c o m e Y o u n g
Fa s c i s t s , a n d a t 2 o a r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e Mi l i t i a . On
r e a c h i n g t h e i r 2 1 s t y e a r , t h o s e w h o m u s t p e r f o r m
t h e i r m i l i t a r y d u t i e s l e a v e t h e Mi l i t i a f o r t h e
r e g u l a r a r m y , a n d i f t h e y s o w i s h , r e t u r n o n
c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e .
Be s i d e s t h e o r d i n a r y Mi l i t i a a r e s e v e r a l s p e c -
i a l i s e d br a n c h e s , w h o s e d u t i e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by
t h e i r n a m e s : f r o n t i e r Mi l i t i a - w h i c h p o l i c e s
t h e f r o n t i e r z o n e s - r a i l w a y s , p o s t s , t e l e g r a p h s
a n d t e l e p h o n e s , p o r t s a n d h a r bo u r s , r o a d s , a i r - d e -
f e n c e , c o n s i s t i n g o f m e n o f o v e r 4 0 w h o h a v e n o
m i l i t a r y d u t i e s a n d y o u n g Fa s c i s t s f r o m 1 8 t o
2 0 y e a r s o f a g e . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e Un i v e r s i t y Mi -
l i t i a a n d t w o p e r m a n e n t L y bi a n l e g i o n s c o n s t i t -
u t e d i n 1 9 2 4 , o n e s t a t i o n e d i n T r i p o l i t a n i a a n d
o n e i n C y r e n a i c a .
T h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a n u m be r s 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 m e n . E x -
c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f s p e c i a l i s e d br a n c h e s , h a v i n g a
p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r a n d a l i m i t e d n u m be r
1 5 8
o f m e n , m i l i t i a m e n a r e k e p t i n r e s e r v e , be i n g o n l y
r e c a l l e d f o r br i e f p e r i o d s , o f t e n f o r o n e d a y o n l y ,
f o r r e v i e w s o r m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n o r p o l i c e d u t i e s .
T h e p r i n c i p a l o bj e c t o f t h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a a n d
t h e r e a s o n f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e , i s e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l :
u T h e Mi l i t i a i s t h e a r m e d g u a r d o f t h e Fa s c i s t
Re v o l u t i o n > > . Bu t o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s h a v e
be e n e n t r u s t e d t o i t . Be s i d e s t h e s u bs i d i a r y c o n t r o l
i n t r u s t e d by c e r t a i n S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t s t o t h e
s p e c i a l i s e d br a n c h e s , t h e Mi l i t i a s i n c e 1 9 2 6 i s
i n c h a r g e o f t h e p r e m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n o f y o u t h ,
bo t h s o l d i e r s a n d s a i l o r s .
P r e - m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n w a s r e n d e r e d c o m p u l -
s o r y i n 1 9 3 0 , a n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e r e
w e r e m o r e t h a n o n e m i l l i o n p u p i l s , t h e r e s u l t o f
t w o l e v i e s , s u bd i v i d e d i n 6 8 6 5 c o u r s e s
. I n t h e
y e a r XI I I o f t h e Fa s c i s t e r a t h e i n s t r u c t o r s o f
7 0 3 2 c o u r s e s , p l u s a bo u t 3 0 0 0 s e c t i o n s o f c o u r s e s
w e r e 3 5 . 8 2 7 . T h e n u m be r o f p u p i l s e n t e r e d f o r
p r e m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n w e r e 6 3 6 . 2 8 8 , o f w h o m
5 7 0 . 5 7
0 w e r e e x a m i n e d ; 5 5 2 . 4 2 3 w e r e s u c c e s s f u l ,
n a m e l y 9 6 p e r c e n t .
T h e s e f i g u r e s n e e d n o c o m m e n t a n d s h o w t h e
h i g h m o r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l v a l u e o f t h e f u n c t i o n
e n t r u s t e d t o t h e Mi l i t i a
. I t i s by v i r t u e o f t h i s
t h a t e v e r y I t a l i a n c i t i z e n u p t o t h e a g e o f 5 5 i s
a s o l d i e r , a s e s t a bl i s h e d by Mu s s o l i n i ' s r e c e n t l a w ,
a n d t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f s e r v i c e h a s be e n r e d u c e d .
1 5 9
T h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f e n t r u s t i n g t h i s t r a i n i n g t o t h e
Mi l i t i a i s e v i d e n t , be c a u s e t h e t e r r i t o r i a l c h a r a c t e r
o f t h e Mi l i t i a e n a bl e s i t t o h o l d c o u r s e s i n n u m e r -
o u s c e n t r e s , e v e n t h e s m a l l e s t , w i t h a m i n i m u m
o f i n c o n v e n i e n c e a n d l e s s e x p e n s e f o r a l l .
I n 1 9 2 9 Bl a c k S h i r t ba t t a l i o n s w e r e f o r m e d ,
a n a l o g o u s t o i n f a n t r y ba t t a l i o n s bu t n u m e r i c a l l y
l e s s t r o n g , a r m e d w i t h m u s k e t s a n d m a c h i n e -
g u n s a n d h a n d g r e n a d e s . T h e s e ba t t a l i o n s , e a s i l y
m o bi l i s e d a n d l i g h t e r a n d f a s t e r t h a n i n f a n t r y
ba t t a l i o n s , a n i m a t e d by t h e g r e a t e s t e n t h u s i a s m
a n d m i l i t a r y s p i r i t , a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e r e g u l a r
a r m y i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t w o ba t t a l i o n s f o r e a c h
d i v i s i o n s . As t h e s e ba t t a l i o n s c o n s i s t o f v o l u n t e e r s
w h o h a v e a l r e a d y s e r v e d i n t h e r e g u l a r a r m y a n d
w h o i n c a s e o f m o bi l i s a t i o n , be i n g u n d e r
3 6
y e a r s
o f a g e , w o u l d be r e c a l l e d t o t h e c o l o u r s , t h e y d o
n o t r e p r e s e n t a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e m o bi l i s e d a r m y ,
bu t o n l y a m a n n e r o f u t i l i s i n g r e s e r v e s
.
T h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a o n l y c o s t s t h e S t a t e t h e
v e r y l i m i t e d s u m o f 6 o m i l l i o n l i r e . T h i s f o r c e
o f 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 m e n c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s p a r t
o f t h e r e g u l a r a r m y i n p e a c e - t i m e , a s f r o m t h e
p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e a r m y i t c a n o n l y be r e g a r d -
e d a s a m a s s o f t r a i n e d r e s e r v e s , s u c h a s e x i s t
i n a l l S t a t e s , n o r i s i t a p a r t o f t h e a r m y i n
w a r - t i m e , be c a u s e m o bi l i s a t i o n h a s t h e e f f e c t o f
d i s s o l v i n g t h e Mi l i t i a a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y , a s a l l
1 6 o
m i l i t i a m e n c a l l e d t o t h e c o l o u r s a r e s e n t t o t h e i r
r e s p e c t i v e r e g i m e n t s o r t o t h e Bl a c k
S h i r t Ba t -
t a l i o n s .
T h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a c o n s t i t u t e s a g r e a t m o r a l
f o r c e , be c a u s e i t c o n t i n u e s v o l u n t a r y e n l i s t m e n t
o n t h e g r e a t Ga r i ba l d i a n t r a d i t i o n - . An d i t m u s t
be a d m i t t e d t h a t t i t i s a m o s t v a l u a bl e s u bs i d i a r y
e l e m e n t a s i t r e l i e v e s t h e a r m y o f p o l i c e d u t y ,
o f
p r e m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i a l
a n t i - a i r d e -
f e n c e s o t h a t t h e a r m y m a y d e v o t e i t s e l f ,
bo d y
a n d s o u l , a s t h e D u c e s a i d , t o i t s s u p r e m e o bj e c -
t i v e , w h i c h i s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w a r .
T h e Fa s c i s t Mi l i t i a c e l e br a t e d i t s 1 4 t h a n n i v e r -
s a r y u n d e r f i r e i n E a s t Af r i c a , w h e r e I t a l y w a s
f i g h t i n g f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f h e r c o l o n i e s , h e r l e g i t i -
m a t e n e e d f o r e x p a n s i o n a n d h e r r i g h t t o c a r r y o u t
h e r w o r k o f c i v i l i s a t i o n . I t c o v e r e d i t s e l f w i t h
g l o r y i n t h e ba t t l e s o f Ga n a l e D o r i a a n d t h e T e m -
bi e n , w h e r e t h e c <
2 8 Ot t o br e n D i v i s i o n w o n t h e
p r a i s e o f t h e D u c e f o r h a v i n g h e l d o u t a g a i n s t a n
e n e m y s u p e r i o r i n n u m be r s ,
f i n a l l y d e f e a t i n g i t
a n d p u t t i n g i t t o f l i g h t
. I t w a s a m o s t m e m o r a bl e
a c t i o n . T h e Mi l i t i a f o u g h t a n d w o n a t Abbi Ad d i ,
Gu l a Gu l e , i n t h e D e br j z o n e , a t D e br a Am ba ,
S e l a c l a c a , a n d Ma i - Gh e r g h e d a ,
s h o w i n g t h a t i t
d e s e r v e d t h e c o n f i d e n c e p l a c e d i n i t by t h e h i g h
C o m m a n d a n d by t h e Na t i o n
.
1 6 1
1 1 i n g .
T HE NAV Y
I h e I t a l i a n Na v y a f t e r t h e w o r l d - w a r
- T h e P a c t o f
W a s h i n g t o n a n d i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s
- Ne w c o n s t r u c t i o n s
a n d p r o g r a m m e s .
At t h e t i m e o f t h e Ma r c h o n Ro m e t h e I t a l i a n
Na v y w a s s t i l l i n a s t a t e o f e x h a u s t i o n , t h e r e s u l t
t w o c o n s e c u t i v e w a r s . T h e I t a l o - T u r k i s h w a r h a d
c a u s e d s e v e r e n a v a l l o s s e s a n d t h e n a v y h a d
e m e r g e d f r o m t h e w o r l d w a r w i t h c o n s i d e r a bl y
i n c r e a s e d m o r a l e bu t m a t e r i a l l y g r e a t l y r e d u c e d
.
A d o u bl e p r o g r a m m e w a s i m p e r a t i v e
; r e c o n -
s t r u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l a n d r e s t o r a t i o n
t o f u l l
s t r e n g t h
. Bo t h m e a s u r e n a t u r a l l y t o be i n a c c o r -
d a n c e w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l p a c t s a n d c o n v e n t i o n s
a n d a m o n g t h e s e t h e P a c t o f W a s h i n g t o n , w h i c h
e s t a bl i s h e d a s o r t o f h i e r a r c h y a m o n g m a r i t i m e
n a t i o n s
. An d o n t h e ba s i s o f t h i s h i e r a r c h y w e r e
f i x e d t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e l i m i t s o f
t h e n u m be r o f
s h i p s t o be a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a r i o u s f l e e t s ,
a n d
t h e q u a l i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h t y p e . I n
d e f i n i n g t h e s e l i m i t s ,
t h e P a c t o f W a s h i n g t o n
1
6 2
w a s ba s e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e d u c i n g a r m a m e n t s ,
a n d a l s o o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e g r e a t w a r ,
w h i c h h a d s h o w n t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g i m p o r t a n c e
o f l i g h t c r a f t a n d s u bm a r i n e s .
Be i n g a s i g n a t o r y t o t h e P a c t o f W a s h i n g t o n ,
I t a l y w a s bo u n d t o r e s p e c t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e
r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f
i t s f l e e t , w h i c h s h o u l d h a v e
c o m p r i s e d
S e v e n i o
. o o o t o n c r u i s e r s , c a r r y i n g g u n s o f
2 0 3 m m . T h i s t o n n a g e a n d c a l i br e w e r e t h e m a x -
i m u m g r a n t e d by t h e T r e a t y o f W a s h i n g t o n
. By
v a r y i n g s p e e d a n d a r m a t u r e , t w o c l a s s e s h a v e
be e n o bt a i n e d ; t h e f i r s t c o n s i s t i n g o f f a s t bu t
l i g h t l y a r m o u r e d c r u i s e r s w h i c h c a n e a s i l y r e a c h a
s p e e d o f 3 6 k n o t s , a n d t h e s e c o n d o f l e s s s p e e d y
( 3 3 k n o t s ) bu t m o r e h e a v i l y a r m o u r e d c r u i s e r s .
T h e s e s e v e n c r u i s e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y n a m e d a f t e r
t h e r e d e e m e d c i t i e s ,
( Za r a , Go r i z i a , Fi u m e , P o l a ,
T r e n t o , T r i e s t e , Bo l z a n o ) , f o r m t w o h o m o g e n e o u s
g r o u p s o f s h i p s c a p a bl e o f s u p p o r t i n g e a c h o t h e r
i n a c o m bi n e d a c t i o n .
T w e l v e s m a l l e r c r u i s e r s a r m e d w i t h 1 5 2 m m
.
g u n s c o n s t i t u t e a C o n d o t t i e r i c l a s s
. T h e h a v e
be e n n a m e d a f t e r f a m o u s I t a l i a n s o l d i e r s :
Gi o -
v a n n i d e l l e Ba n d e
: W e r e , Al be r i c o d a Ba r bi a n o ,
C o l l e o n i , Al be r t o d a Gi u s s a n o , C a d o r n a , D i a z ,
At t e n d o l o , E u g e n i o d i S a v o i a , Mo n t e c u c c o l i , D u c a
d ' Ao s t a , Ga r i ba l d i , D u c a d e g l i Abr u z z i
. T h e s e
1 6 3
t o o c o n t i t u t e t w o g r o u p s o f a r m o u r e d c r u i s e r s
c a p a bl e o f m a e e u v e r i n g a t h i g h s p e e d .
T w e l v e s c o u t s o f 2 0 0 0 t o n s , a r m e d w i t h s i x
g u n s o f 1 2 0 m m . , a n d f o u r t o r p e d o - t u be s . Gi v e n
t h e i r s p e e d o f 3 8 k n o t s , t h e y a c t a s s c o u t s a n d
e x p l o r e r s f o r t h e t o r p e d o s q u a d r o n s
. T h e y h a v e
be e n n a m e d a f t e r g r e a t n a v a l p i o n e e r s : Us o d i -
m a r e , P e s s a g n o , P a n c a l d o , Ma l o c e l l o , D a No t
: ,
T a r i g o , Ze n o , V i v a l d i , D a Re c c o , D a V e r a z z a n o ,
D a Mo s t o . P i g a f e t t a .
T w e n t y - e i g h t t o r p e d o - d e s t r o y e r s o f f o u r d i s -
t i n c t t y p e s , w i t h a s i m i l a r a r m a m e n t o f f o u r 1 2 0
m m . g u n s , 6 t o r p e d o t u be s a n d a s p e e d o f n e a r l y
3 8 k n o t s . T h e r e h a s be e n a g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n
t o w a r d s g r e a t e r t o n n a g e , f r o m s h i p s o f 1 . 0 7 0 t o n s
n a m e d a f t e r s t a t e s m e n a n d m a r t y r s i n t h e n a t i o n -
a l c a u s e , t o t h e i . i i o t o n s o f t h e a W i n d Fl o -
t i l l a n , ( E u r o , T u r bi n e e t c . ) , t h e 1 2 4 0 t o n s o f t h e
f o u r
Fr e c c i a a n d Fo l g o r e , a n d f i n a l l y t o t h e 1 . 4 8 o
o f t h e f o u r Ma e s t r a l i .
Fi f t y f o u r s u bm a r i n e s a r e s u bd i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t
l o n g d i s t a n c e , t w e n t y f o u r m e d i u m , n i n e t e e n
s m a l l ; t h r e e m i n e - l a y e r s . T h e s e u n i t s c o n s t i t u t e
a v a l u a bl e c o m p l e m e n t t o t h e f l e e t .
Fi n a l l y s i x 6 o o t o n t o r p e d o - bo a t s : S i l i c a ,
As t o r e , P e r s e o , S i r i o , C l i m e n e , C e n t a u r o .
Al t h o g e t h e r t h e r e a r e 1 1 9 u n i t s , w i t h a t o t a l
o f
2 5 3 . 7 5 0
t o n s , a l l bu i l t i n I t a l i a n y a r d s
. W i t h -
1 6 4
o u t
t a k i n g i n t o
a c c o u n t
m i n o r
a r t i l l e r y , t h e y
c a r r y 3 5 6 m e d i u m a n d h e a v y c a l i br e g u n s , a n d
t h e i r e n g i n e s d e v e l o p 1 3 . 8 4 0 . o o o H . P .
I n t h e a bo v e l i s t t h e u n i t s bu i l t be f o r e
1 9 2 2
d o n o t f i g u r e , n a m e l y t h e f o u r i r o n c l a d s : C e s a r e ,
C a v o u r , D o r i a a n d D u i l i o ; f o u r l i g h t c r u i s e r s
An c o n a , T a r a n t o , Ba r i , Q u a r t o ; s e v e n s c o u t s :
T i g r e , P a n t e r a , L e o n e , e t c
.
; e i g h t t o r p e d o d e s t r o y -
e r s o f t h e P a l e s t r o t y p e ; t w o s u bm a r i n e s o f N
a n d t w o o f X t y p e .
As w i l l be s e e n , I t a l y p o s s e s s e s a f o r m i d a bl e
n a v y , w h i c h t h e Fa s c i s t Go v e r n m e n t i s e n g a g e d
i n m a k i n g e v e n m o r e p o w e r f u l .
T h e T r e a t y o f W a s h i n g t o n e x p i r e s i n D e -
c e m be r 1 9 3 6 a n d w a s n o t r e n e w e d a t t h e l a s t C o n -
f e r e n c e o f L o n d o n . I t i s t o be f o r e s e e n t h a t t h e
l e a d i n g m a r i t i m e P o w e r s w i l l r e v e r t t o d r e a d -
n o u g h t s .
T h e D u c e h a s n o t a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o be
c a u g h t n a p p i n g u . He h a s f o r e s e e n t h e c o u r s e
o f e v e n t s a n d h a s t a k e n s t e p s f o r t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l
i n c r e a s e o f t h e n a v y .
T h i s p r o g r a m m e i s ba s e d p r i n c i p a l l y o n f o r m -
i n g a n u c l e u s o f ba t t l e s h i p s p o w e r f u l l y a r m o u r e d
a n d a r m e d .
T h e f i r s t s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n h a s be e n t o
br i n g u p t o d a t e t w o o f t h e f o u r s u p e r a n n u a t e d
u n i t s n a m e l y t h e C a v o u r a n d C e s a r e , i n c r e a s i n g
1 6 5
t h e i r s p e e d a n d a r m a m e n t s . S e c o n d d e c i s i o n : c o n -
s t r u c t i o n o f t w o i r o n c l a d s o f t h e m a x i m u m t o n -
n a g e a l l o w e d by t h e t r e a t i e s ( 3 5 . 0 0 0 t o n s ) . T h e
h u l l s o f t h e L i t t o r i o a n d t h e V i t t o r i o V e n e t o a r e
a l r e a d y o n t h e s l i p s , a n d w o r k i s p r o c e e d i n g w i t h
t h e g r e a t e s t s p e e d .
T h e s e , i n t h e m a i n , a r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l i n e s
o f I t a l y ' s n a v a l p r o g r a m m e ; bu t i t w a s n e c e s s a r y
t o a d d a f e w f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s . Fo r i n s t a n c e , t h e
d e s t r o y e r s w e r e f o u n d t o be a bs o l u t e l y i n a d e q u a t e
t o t h e t a s k o f e s c o r t a n d c o n s o r t e d a c t i o n
w i t h
l a r g e r ba t t l e s h i p s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n
o f f o u r n e w t o r p e d o d e s t r o y e r s w a s d e c i d e d u p o n ,
a l l o f t h e Ma e s t r a l e t y p e , n a m e l y : Or i a n i , Gi o -
be r t i , Al f i e r i , C a r d u c c i . At t h e s a m e t i m e t e n
c o a s t i n g s u bm a r i n e s h a v e
be e n p l a c e d o n t h e
s l i p s ( P e r l a , I r i d e , Ge m m a , e t c ) . Fi n a l l y i t h a s
be e n d e c i d e d t o bu i l d t e n 6 o o t o n t o r p e d o - bo a t s ,
f o u r g u n bo a t s , a t o r p e d o bo a t f o r t h e C o l o n i e s
a n d 2 0 M. A. S .
T h e w h o l e o f t h e v a s t bu i l d i n g p r o g r a m m e i s
i n t h e h a n d s o f I t a l i a n e n g i n e e r s a n d I t a l i a n l a -
bo u r .
1 6 6
AV I AT I ON
Mu s s o l i n i c r e a t o r o f I t a l i a n a v i a t i o n - Ai r - c r u i s e s - T h e
i d e a o f m a s s f o r m a t i o n - Fi n a n c i a l g r a n t s - Bo m bi n g
p l a n e s - Fl i g h t a u t o n o m y - Fi g h t e r s a n d t h e i r s p e e d -
Av i a t i o n i n E a s t Af r i c a .
T w o m o n t h s a f t e r h a v i n g c o m e i n t o p o w e r ,
i n D e c e m be r o f 1 9 2 2 , Mu s s o l i n i o r d e r e d a n i n q u i r y
t o be m a d e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f a v i a -
t i o n . T h e c o n c l u s i o n s w e r e d i s a s t r o u s
. T h e m a t -
e r i a l w h i c h h a d be e n v a l u e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t
o n e m i l l a r d l i r e t u r n e d o u t t o be w o r t h l e s s t h a n
2 0 0
m i l l i o n l i r e
. On l y 6 6 a e r o p l a n e s a n d h y d r o -
p l a n e s h a d a c o n t i n o u s f l y i n g c a p a c i t y o f , o n
a n a v e r a g e , o n l y o n e h o u r a n d w i t h o u t a n y bo m bs
o r a m m u n i t i o n . On l y 5 0 0 m e n o f t h e a i r a r m o f
t h e a r m y a n d n a v y w e r e i n r e c e i p t o f f l y i n g i n -
d e m n i t i e s . Fr o m Oc t o be r 1 9 1 8 , t h e e v e o f t h e
a r m i s t i c e , t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n
o f i n q u i r y , n o t a s i n g l e n e w m a c h i n e h a d be e n
a d d e d t o t h e a i r - f l e e t .
On l e a r n i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n q u i r y , Mu s s o -
l i n i s e t a bo u t r e m e d y i n g t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w i t h
1 6 7
h i s c u s t o m a r y e n e r g y . On t h e 2 4 t h o f Ja n u a r y
1 9 2 3 h e f o u n d e d t h e Ai r C o m m i s s a r i a t , i n d e p e n -
d e n t f r o m t h e a r m y a n d t h e n a v y a n d e q u a l
i n s t a t u s .
I n t h e f i n a n c i a l y e a r 1 9 2 3 - 1 9 2 4 t h e c r e d i t s f o r
t h e Ae r o n a u t i c a s w e r e br o u g h t u p t o 4 0 0 m i l -
l i o n l i r e , w h i c h e n a bl e d 3 0 o n e w m a c h i n e s t o be
l i n e d u p a t t h e Ro m a n a e r o d r o m e o f C e n t o c e l l e .
Na t u r a l l y t h e I t a l i a n a i r o r g a n i s a t i o n , i n i t s i n i t i a l
p h a s e , h a d t o h a v e r e c o u r s e t o f o r e i g n i n d u s t r y .
I n t h e s u m e r o f 1 9 2 5 - t h e n e w Mi n i s t r y o f
Ae r o n a u t i c s w a s f o u n d e d , a n d Mu s s o l i n i p e r s o n -
a l l y a s s u m e d c o n t r o l .
D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s I t a l y ' s a i r - p o l i c y
h a d t h r e e o bj e c t i v e s : a r a p i d a n d o r g a n i c i n -
c r e a s e i n t h e a i r u n i t s , w i t h a l l t h e i r a t t e n d a n t
s e r v i c e s ; e s t a bl i s h m e n t o f u n i f o r m i t y f r o m t h e
p o i n t o f v i e w o f t e c h n i q u e a n d t r a i n i n g ; f i n a l l y
p r e p a r a t i o n a n d e x e c u t i o n o f a f i r s t g r o u p o f s o l o
f l i g h t s , c a l c u l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d
t h e p r e s t i g e o f I t a l i a n a v i a t i o n .
I n t h e t h r e e s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s , f r o m ' 2 9 t o ' 3 2 ,
t h e i d e a o f m a s s a n d t h e c o l l e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n w e r e
p r e d o m i n a n t S e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t f l i g h t s w e r e c a r -
r i e d o u t , i n t h e Me d i t e r r a n e a n a n d S o u t h - At l a n -
t i c . Fo r t h e f i r s t t i m e a n i m p o s i n g m a s s o f o v e r
i o o o a e r o p l a n e s a n d s e a p l a n e s w e r e e n g a g e d i n
1 6 8
e x t e n s i v e m a n o e u v r e s , i n f o r m a t i o n s o f m e d i u m
a n d l a r g e u n i t s .
T h e t e n t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e Re g i m e , i n 1 9 3 2 ,
w a s t h e h i g h w a t e r - m a r k o f I t a l y ' s a v i a t i o n p r e s -
t i g e
. A s q u a d r o n o f 2 5 bo m bi n g s e a p l a n e s s u c -
c e s s f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e a s t o n i s h i n g f l i g h t f r o m
I t a l y t o t h e Un i t e d S t a t e s a n d ba c k . T h e a u d a c -
i t y o f t h e i n i t i a t i v e w a s s e c o n d e d by i n d u s t r i a l
t e c h n i q u e a n d e x c e l l e n t m a t e r i a l . I n t h e m e a n -
t i m e t h e i n c r e a s i n g Ai r bu d g e t a p p e a r e d t o h a v e
be c o m e s t a bi l i s e d i n a s u m o f f r o m 7 0 0 t o 8 o o
m i l l i o n l i r e a y e a r
. Bu t o w i n g t o t h e s p e c i a l r e -
q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e E a s t Af r i c a n c a m p a i g n a n d t h e
m e n a c i n g s i t u a t i o n i n t h e Me d i t e r r a n e a n
. Mu s s o -
l i n i d e c i d e d t o a s s i g n a s p e c i a l c r e d i t o f 1 2 0 0 m i l -
l i o n l i r e f o r a r a d i c a l r e n e w a l o f t h e a i r - f o r c e .
T h e f l y i n g m a t e r i a l n o w a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e
I t a l i a n Ai r Fo r c e i s f i r s t c l a s s a s s h o w n by t h e
f a c t t h a t I t a l y f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s h a s h e l d t h e r e -
c o r d f o r a bs o l u t e h i g h t
( 1 4
. 4 3 3
m e t r e s ) , a n d f o r
s p e e d ( 7 0 9 k i l o m e t r e s p e r h o u r ) .
T h e I t a l i a n bo m bi n g s q u a d r o n h a v e n o w
r e a c h e d a s p e e d v a r y i n g be t w e e n 3 0 0 a n d 3 5 0 p e r
h o u r w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s f l i g h t c a p a c i t y o f a bo u t
3 0 0 k i l o m e t r e s , c a r r i n g 2 t o n s o f bo m bs , e t c .
Fi g h t e r s a t t a i n s p e e d s s u p e r i o r t o 4 0 0 k i l o m e -
t r e s p e r h o u r , w i t h a c l i m bi n g s p e e d o f f r o m i o
t o i i k i l o m e t r e s , a d a r e a r m e d w i t h 4 , a n d s o m e -
1 6 9
t i m e s
f i v e m a c h i n e - g u n s o f m e d i u m c a l i br e a n d
s m a l l g u n s o f 2 0 m m .
At t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t t h e s p e c i a l a i r m a t e r i a l
e x i s t i n g i n I t a l y m a y be c a l c u l a t e d a s h a v i n g a
v a l u e o f n o t l e s s t h a n e i g h t m i l l i a r d s o f l i r e
. T h e
bu d g e t f o r t h e I t a l i a n Ai r Fo r c e n o r m a l l y a m o u n t s
t o i m i l l i a r d l i r e .
D u r i n g t h e r e c e n t E a s t
Af r i c a i n c a m p a i g n ,
I t a l i a n a v i a t i o n a c c o m p l i s h e d
o v e r 3 5 t h o u s a n d
h o u r s o f f l i g h t , c a r r y i n g
2 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 k i l o s o f bo m bs
a n d r e v i c t u a l i n g t h e t r o o p s w i t h a bo u t o n e m i l l i o n
k i l o g r a m s o f m a t e r i a l
. Of t h e 4 0 0 p l a n e s e m p l o y e d
2 5 9 w e r e h i t by e n e m y f i r e , a n d 8 w e r e br o u g h t
d o w n .
I t m u s t a l s o be s t a t e d t h a t t h e
I t a l i a n Ai r
Fo r c e h a s s u c c e e d e d i n a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y e m a n -
c i p a t i n g i t s e l f f r o m o t h e r S t a t e s a s r e g a r d s
m a -
t e r i a l o f a l l k i n d s .
1 7 0
I T AL Y ' S RE L I GI OUS P OL I C Y
AND T HE C ONC I L I AT I ON
T h e Ro m a n Q u e s t i o n , be f o r e , d u r i n g a n d a f t e r t h e w o r l d
w a r - A s p e e c h by Mu s s o l i n i a t t h e C h a m be r o f D e p u t i e s
- T h e p r e j u d i c e d a t t i t u d e o f t h e C h u r c h - T h e P a c t s o f
t h e L a t e r a n - T h e T r e a t y - T h e V a t i c a n C i t y - I t s n e u t r a l -
i t y a n d i n v i o l a bi l i t y - Re c o g n i t i o n , o n t h e p a r t o f t h e
P o n t i f f , o f Ro m e a s C a p i t a l o f t h e I t a l i a n Ki n g d o m -
T h e Fi n a n c i a l C o n v e n t i o n - T h e C o n c o r d a t - Ma t r i m o n y
- T h e Az i o n e c a t t o l i c a a n d i t s l i m i t a t i o n s - D i s c u s s i o n
o n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s i s f u l l y a l l o w e d
- T h e e d u c a t i o n o f
y o u t h i s t h e d u t y o f t h e S t a t e - Re l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g .
Bo r n i n o p e n a n d r a d i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o s o c i a l -
i s m a n d m a t e r i a l i s m ; a f f i r m i n g n a t i o n a l v a l u e s
a s s u p r e m e v a l u e s a n d r e g a r d i n g t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y
a n d t h e i r p r e d o m i n a n c e a s s o v e r e i g n a n d i n t r a n -
s i g e n t , Fa s c i s m , a n d t h e S t a t e o r g a n i s e d by i t ,
c o u l d n o t h a v e l i m i t e d i t s e l f , w i t h o u t be i n g i n e v i t -
a bl y i n c o h e r e n t , t o a t a s k o f e c o n o m i c r e f o r m a n d
s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e c o u n t r y . T h e Fa s c i s t S t a t e
w a s i n s t i n c t i v e l y d r a w n t o w a r d s o v e r c o m i n g a l l
t h e o l d d i v i s i o n s o f t h e n a t i o n a l c o l l e c t i v i t y , a m a l -
g a m a t i n g i n a s o l i d a n d h o m g e n e o u s m a s s a l l t h e
' 7 r
s t r a t a a n d a l l t h e v a r i o u s c u r r e n t s o f t h e p o p u -
l a t i o n .
T h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n t o be s o l v e d w a s t h e o l d
Ro m a n Q u e s t i o n
. T h e P a p a c y h a d n e v e r c e a s e d
t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e I t a l i a n o c c u p a t i o n o f Ro -
m e
. Fo r o v e r t h i r t y y e a r s , i n d e e d , t h e a f f i r m a -
t i o n o f t e m p o r a l p o w e r h a d be e n t h e l e i t - m o t i v
o f V a t i c a n d i p l o m a c y . I f t h e p a p a l i n t r a n s i g e n c e
h a d a p p e a r e d t o h a v e be c o m e s o m e w h a t m o d i f i e d
w i t h P i u s X' a d v e n t t o t h e t h r o n e , i t s e e m e d , o n
t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h a t a n a t i o n a l i s t r e v i v a l s h o u l d
h a v e c o m p e l l e d t h e P a p a c y t o c l a i m a bs o l u t e
a u t o n o m y , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e be e n i m p o s s i bl e
w i t h o u t a t e r r i t o r y o f i t s o w n , h o w e v e r s m a l l . At
t h e o u t br e a k o f t h e w o r l d - w a r m a n y p e o p l e be -
l i e v e d t h a t t h e P a p a c y w o u l d h a v e p r o f i t e d by t h e
o c c a s i o n t o o bt a i n a s o l u t i o n o f t h e Ro m a n q u e s -
t i o n f r o m I t a l y ' s e n e m i e s
. Bu t t h i s w a s n o t t h e
c a s e . T h e Ho l y S e e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i t c o u l d o n l y
h o p e f o r a s o l u t i o n o f i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e I t a -
l i a n S t a t e f r o m I t a l y i t s e l f .
T h e c o n s t a n t p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e a bo l i t i o n o f
T e m p o r a l P o w e r , w h i c h d a t e d ba c k t o P i u s I X
a n d w h i c h L e o XI I I h a d e m p h a s i s e d a n d m a d e
bi n d i n g o n a l l h i s s u c c e s s o r s , w a s e x p r e s s e d i n
p a r t i c u l a r l y m o d e r a t e t e r m s i n t h e E n c y c l i c a l Ad
be a t i s s i m i ,
o f No v e m be r 1 9 1 4 ; a n d i f i n h i s c o n -
s i s t o r i a l a l l o c u t i o n o f 6 D e c e m be r 1 9 1 5 P o p e Be -
1 7 2
n e d i c t XV c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e
Ro m a n P o n t i f f w a s n o t s u c h t c a s t o a l l o w h i m
t h e f u l l u s e o f t h a t l i be r t y w h i c h h e n e e d e d i n
t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e C h u r c h , a d d i n g t h a t t h i s
r e s t r i c t i o n h a d be c o m e e v e n m o r e m a n i f e s t o w i n g
t o t h e w a r a n d i t s c o n s e q u e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s , h e n e -
v e r t h e l e s s a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e I t a l i a n Go v e r n m e n t
h a d d o n e i t s u t m o s t , a t o m i t i g a t e t h e c o n s e q u e n -
c e s a n d i n c o n v e n i e n c e s o f t h e w a r , a v o i d i n g
a n y m e n t i o n o f t e m p o r a l p o w e r .
As C a r d i n a l Ga s p a r r i h a d d e c l a r e d a f e w
m o n t h s p r e v i o u s l y , o n Ju n e 2 8 , 1 9 1 5 , w h e n I t a l y
h a d j u s t e n t e r e d o n t h e E u r o p e a n w a r , t h e Ho l y
S e e e x p e c t e d t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f i t s s i t u a t i o n i n I t a l y
c c n o t f r o m f o r e i g n a r m s , bu t f r o m t h e s e n s e o f
j u s t i c e o f t h e I t a l i a n p e o p l e , i n t h e i r o w n r e a l i n -
t e r e s t . I n 1 9 1 6 C a t h o l i c s f o r m e d p a r t o f t h e Na -
t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n Mi n i s t r y , w h i l e p r i e s t s , h o l d i n g
a r m y r a n k a s m i l i t a r y c h a p l a i n s , s e r v e d v a l i a n t l y
a t t h e f r o n t , t h u s c o n t r i bu t i n g t o w a r d s e a s i n g t h e
s i t u a t i o n a n d d i r e c t i n g C a t h o l i c s m o r e d e c i s i v e l y
t o w a r d s n a t i o n a l i s m .
I n h i s f i r s t s p e e c h a t t h e C h a m be r o f d e p u t i e s ,
i n Ju n e 1 9 2 1 , Mu s s o l i n i t o o k u p
a d e f i n i t e s t a n d i n
t h i s r e s p e c t : c < I a f f i r m i n t h i s Ho u s e t h a t t h e L a -
t i n t r a d i t i o n o f I m p e r i a l Ro m e i s t o d a y r e p r e s e n t -
e d by C a t h o l i c i s m . I f , a s Mo m m s e n s a i d , i t i s i m -
p o s s i bl e t o r e m a i n i n Ro m e w i t h o u t a u n i v e r s a l
1 7 3
i d e a , I be l i e v e a n d a f f i r m t h a t t h e o n l y u n i v e r s a l
i d e a n o w e x i s t i n g i n Ro m e i s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d
by t h e V a t i c a n . I a m v e r y m u c h d i s t u r be d w h e n
I s e e c h u r c h e s be i n g f o u n d e d o n a n a t i o n a l ba s i s ,
be c a u s e i t m e a n s t h a t m i l l i o n s a n d m i l l i o n s o f
m e n n o l o n g e r l o o k t o w a r d s I t a l y a n d t o w a r d s
Ro m e . An d t h i s i s w h y I a d v a n c e t h i s h y p o t h e -
s i s : I be l i e v e t h a t , s h o u l d t h e V a t i c a n d e f i n i t e l y
g i v e u p i t s t e m p o r a l d r e a m s - a n d I be l i e v e
t h a t i t i s a l r e a d y w e l l o n t h i s r o a d - I t a l y , l a y
o r p r o f a n e , s h o u l d a f f o r d t h e V a t i c a n a l l m a -
t e r i a l h e l p a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r i t s s c h o o l s ,
i t s c h u r c h e s , i t s h o s p i t a l s o r a n y o t h e r p i o u s a n d
c i v i l m a n i f e s t a t i o n . Be c a u s e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f
C a t h o l i c i s m i n t h e w o r l d , a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e f o u r -
h u n d r e d m i l l i o n m e n w h o l o o k t o w a r d s Ro m e
f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e e a r t h , i s o f i n t e r e s t a n d a
s c u r c e o f p r i d e f o r u s I t a l i a n s . n
T h e s e w o r d s w e r e n o t s a i d by c h a n c e a n d
w e r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e a c t i o n o f Fa s c i s m
t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y i n r e s p e c t o f r e l i g i o n a n d
t h e c l e r g y . D e s p i t e t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e P o p u l a r
P a r t y , Fa s c i s m , f i r s t a s a p a r t y , t h e n a s a g o -
v e r n m e n t n e v e r s w e r v e d a n i n c h f r o m i t s a t t i -
t u d e t o w a r d s r e l i g i o n a n d t o w a r d s t h e C h u r c h .
On t h e ba s i s o f i t s h i s t o r y a n d i t s d o g m a t i c
t r a d i t i o n , t h e Ho l y S e e h a d a l w a y s d e c l a r e d t h a t
a n y a r r a n g e m e n t d e s t i n e d t o g u a r a n t e e i t s i n d e -
1 7 4
p e n d e n c e
a n d l i be r t y c o u l d n o t be d e r i v e d s o l e l y
f r o m t h e S t a t e be c a u s e t h e Ho l y S e e d i d n o t r e -
c o g n i s e t h e r i g h t o f a n y o n e t o r e g u l a t e i t s v e r y
e x i s t e n c e . An y l a w t e n d i n g
t o r e g u l a t e i t s r e -
l a t i o n s w i t h t h e I t a l i a n e S t a t e s h o u l d be f r e e l y
d i s c u s s e d a n d s e a l e d by a p a c i f i c C o n c o r d a t . Al l
o t h e r p r o p o s a l s , h o w e v e r g o o d , h o w e v e r p e r f e c t ,
bu t n o t f u l l y a n s w e r i n g t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s f r o m
w h i c h t h e Ho l y S e e c o u l d n o t p o s s i bl y d r a w
ba c k , m u s t be a bs o l u t e l y r e f u s e d
. Fo r t h i s r e a s o n
t h e Ho l y S e e h a d a l w a y s d e c l a r e d
t h e L a w o f
Gu a r a n t e e s t o be i n a c c e p t a bl e . I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y
t o p o i n t o u t h o w t h i s p r e j u d i c e d p o i n t - o f - v i e w
c o n s t i t u t e d a n u n s o r m o u n t a bl e ba r r i e r f o r t h e
f o r m e r I t a l i a n S t a t e , i n w h i c h t w o d i s t i n c t l y
a n t i c l e r i c a l c u r r e n t s w e r e p r e v a l e n t
: t h e j a c o bi n -
d e m o c r a t i c a n d t h e l i be r a l c u r r e n t ba s e d u p o n
t h e He g e l i a n t r a d i t i o n , a f t e r t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e
o f C a v o u r , a u t h o r o f t h e f o r m u l a : Fr e e C h u r c h
i n Fr e e S t a t e .
Fo r Mu s s o l i n i t h i s p r o bl e m d i d n o t e v e n e x i s t .
T h a t t h e Fa s c i s t S t a t e p r o c l a i m s i t s e l f a C a -
t h o l i c S t a t e i s a w e l l - k n o w n f a c t w h i c h n o o n e
d i s p u t e s . Fa s c i s m h a s t o o k e e n a s e n s e o f l i f e
a n d o f h i s t o r y t o i g n o r e t h e p r i c e l e s s v a l u e o f r e -
l i g i o n a n d t o d i s r e g a r d t h e f a c t t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y
a l l I t a l i a n s a r e C a t h o l i c s , f o r w h o m t h e f a i t h o f
t h e i r f a t h e r s i s a n i r r a d i c a bl e d a t u m i n t h e i r c o n -
1 7 5
s c i e n c e
a n d t h e i r
c u s t o m s .
An d
i f
t h i s
e x p l a i n s
a n d j u s t i f i e s t h e a t t i t u d e o f d e e p r e g a r d a n d
p r i v i l e g e t o w a r d s t h e C h u r c h , i t s c u l t a n d i t s
m i n i s t e r s , i t d o e s n o t i n t h e l e a s t c o n s t i t u t e ,
t h e o r e t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t m o t i v e
o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n .
T h e C o n c i l i a t i o n w a s r e a c h e d
n o t o w i n g t o
c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a p r a c t i c a l o r d e r , bu t t h r o u g h
i t s o w n i d e o l o g y
. T h e Fa s c i s t S t a t e h a s n o t
r e -
p u d i a t e d t h e l i be r a l - d e m o c r a t i c p o s i t i o n w i t h a
v i e w t o a c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e Ho l y S e e ; o n
t h e c o n t r a r y i t w a s d r a w n t o w a r d s C o n c i l i a t i o n
by a n a bs o l u t e l y a u t o n o m o u s i d e o l o g y , w h i c h
h a d d i s p e r s e d t h e l a s t r e m a n t s o f j a c o bi n i s m .
Af t e r l a bo r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s a n d n e g o t i a t i o n s
w h i c h l a s t e d t w o y e a r s t h e s o - c a l l e d L a t e r a n
T r e a t y w a s s i g n e d o n i i Fe br u a r y
1 9 2 0 . T h e
a g r e e m e n t s be t w e e n I t a l y a n d t h e Ho l y S e e
w e r e c o n t a i n e d i n a p o l i t i c a l T r e a t y , a f i n a n c i a l
C o n v e n t i o n a n d a C o n c o r d a t .
T h e p o l i t i c a l T r e a t y r e g u l a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s
be t w e e n I t a l y a n d t h e Ho l y S e e , t h e c e n t r a l a n d
t h e r e f o r e s u p e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n o f t h e C a t h o l i c
C h u r c h . T h e C o n c o r d a t r e g u l a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s
be t w e e n t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e a n d t h e I t a l i a n C h u r c h ,
a p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s a l C h u r c h . T h e f i n a n c i a l
C o n v e n t i o n a i m s a t i n d e m n i f y i n g , i f o n l y i n
p a r t , t h e Ap o s t o l i c S e e f o r t h e d a m a g e s s u s t a i n -
1 7 6
e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e l o s s o f t h e p a t r i m o n y o f S t .
P e t e r , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e a n c i e n t P o n t i f i c a l S t a t e s
a n d C h u r c h p r o p e r t y .
T h e p o l i t i c a l T r e a t y c o n s i s t s o f a f o r e w o r d a n d
o f t w e n t y s e v e n a r t i c l e s . I t r e a f f i r m s t h e p r i n c i p l e
e n u n c i a t e d i n a r t . i o f t h e S t a t u t e , w h i c h d e c l a r e s
t h a t t h e Ro m a n C a t h o l i c Ap o s t o l i c r e l i g i o n i s t h e
o n l y S t a t e r e l i g i o n ( a r t . 1 ) .
I t t h e n r e c o g n i s e s t h e f u l l r i g h t o f o w n e r s h i p
a n d t h e e x c l u s i v e s o v e r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e
Ho l y S e e o v e r t h e V a t i c a n , a s a t p r e s e n t c o n s -
t i t u t e d ( a r t . z ) . Fo r t h i s p u r p o s e i t c r e a t e s t h e
u t h e V a t i c a n C i t y , a n d d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e I t a l i a n
Go v e r n m e n t h a s n o r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e t h e r e i n ,
a n d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be n o o t h e r a u t h o r i t y e x c e p t
t h a t o f t h e Ho l y S e e ( a r t . 4 ) .
T h e P i a z z a o f S t . P e t e r ' s t h o u g h f o r m i n g p a r t
o f t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e a t h e V a t i c a n C i t y ,
w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r e m a i n o p e n a s u s u a l t o t h e p u b-
l i c , a n d w i l l be u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e I t a l i a n
p o l i c e . T h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e c c t h e V a t i c a n C i t y
a r e s h o w n i n a m a p a n n e x e d t o t h e T r e a t y
( a r t . 3 ) .
T h e T r e a t y s p e c i f i e s t h e p e r s o n s w h o a r e s u b-
j e c t t o t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e Ho l y S e e , n a m e l y
t h o s e r e s i d i n g h a bi t u a l l y i n t h e
c c
t h e V a t i c a n
C i t y ) > . T h i s r i g h t o f r e s i d e n c e i s n o t f o r f e i t e d
by a t e m p o r a r y s o j o u r n e l s e w h e r e w i t h o u t
1 7 7
1 2 i n g .
a ba n d o n m e n t o f r e s i d e n c e u n l e s s o t h e r
c i r c u m -
s t a n c e s p r o v e
t h e a ba n d o n m e n t o f s a i d r e s i d -
e n c e ( a r t . 9 ) .
T h e f r a n c h i s e a n d p r i v i l e g e s a r e a l s o e s t a bl i s h -
e d f o r d i g n i t a r i e s o f t h e C h u r c h w h o d o n o t r e s i d e
i n t h e C i t y , p e r s o n s be l o n g i n g t o t h e P o n t i f i c a l
C o u r t a n d f u n c t i o n a r i e s w h i c h t h e Ho l y S e e c o n -
s i d e r s a s i n d i s p e n s a bl e
. Al l t h e s e p e r s o n s s h a l l a l -
w a y s a n d i n e v e r y c a s e be e x e m p t e d f r o m m i -
l i t a r y s e r v i c e o r f r o m a n y o t h e r d u t y o f a p e r s o n a l
c h a r a c t e r ( a r t . i
o ) .
T h e r e i s a l s o e s t a bl i s h e d t h e t e r r i t o r i a l i m m u -
n i t y o f t h e p a t r i a r c h a l Ba s i l i c a s
a n d o f c e r t a i n
o t h e r bu i l d i n g s p l a c e d o u t s i d e t h e p r e c i n c t s o f
t h e
( (
t h e V a t i c a n C i t y ) )
i n w h i c h t h e Ho l y S e e
h a s p l a c e d o f w i l l p l a c e i t s C o n g r e g a t i o n s , be -
s i d e s t h e o f f i c e s a n d s e r v i c e s
n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( a r t
. 1 5 ) .
I t a l y r e c o g n i s e s t h e Ho l y S e e ' s r i g h t t o a c t i v e
a n d p a s s i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g e n -
e r a l r u l e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w . Bo t h bi n d t h e m -
s e l v e s t o e s t a bl i s h n o r m a l d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s by
a c c r e d i t i n g a n I t a l i a n Am ba s s a d o r t o t h e Ho l y
S e e a n d a P o n t i f i c a l Nu n c i o t o I t a l y , t h e l a t e r t o
be r e g a r d e d a s t h e d o y e n o f t h e d i p l o m a t i c c o r p s ,
a c c o r d i n g t o p r e c e d e n t s r e c o g n i s e d by t h e V i e n n a
C o n g r e s s o n Ju n e 9 , 1 8 1 5 . ( a r t . 1 2 ) .
I t i s f u r t h e r e s t a bl i s h e d t h a t t h e t r e a s u r e s o f
1 7 8
a r t a n d
s c i e n c e e x i s t i n g
i n t h e ( ( t h e V a t i c a n
C i t y a n d i n t h e L a t e r a n P a l a c e w i l l c o n t i n u e
t o be a c c e s s i bl e t o s t u d e n t s a n d v i s i t o r s ( a r t . 1 8 ) .
An o t h e r c l a u s e o f t h e T r e a t y s t a t e s t h a t , a t
t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e Ho l y S e e , by d e l e g a t i o n w h i c h
m a y be g i v e n p e r m a n e n t l y i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , I t a l y
w i l l p u n i s h i n h e r t e r r i t o r y t h e c r i m e s w h i c h
m a y be c o m m i t t e d i n t h e a t h e V a t i c a n C i t y
( a r t . 2 2 ) .
I n l i k e m a n n e r t h e Ho l y S e e w i l l h a n d o v e r
t o t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e s u c h p e r s o n s w h o m a y s e c k
r e f u g e i n t h e a t h e V a t i c a n C i t y u , a f t e r h a v i n g
c o m m i t t e d i n I t a l i a n t e r r i t o r y , a c t s r e g a r d e d a s
c r i m i n a l by t h e l a w s o f bo t h S t a t e s ( a r t . 2 2 ) .
An o t h e r c l a u s e p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e Ho l y S e e ,
u
d e c l a r e s t h a t i t w i s h e s t o d i s i n t e r e s t i t s e l f f r o m
t e m p o r a l d i s c u s s i o n s be t w e e n o t h e r S t a t e s a n d
f r o m i n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s e s a s s e m bl e d f o r s u c h
p u r p o s e s , u n l e s s t h e
c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s a p p e a l
t o t h e Ho l y S e e t o p e r f o r m i t s m i s s i o n a s p e a c e -
m a k e r a n d i n a l l c a s e s r e s e r v i n g t h e r i g h t t o
e x e r c i s e i t s m o r a l a n d s p i r i t u a l p o w e r . I n c o n s e -
q u e n c e o f t h i s t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e
c c
t h e V a t i c a n
C i t y s h a l l a l w a y s be c o n s i d e r e d , i n e v e r y c a s e ,
a s a n e u t r a l a n d i n v i o l a bl e t e r r i t o r y .
T h e r e f o l l o w s a f i n a l d e c l a r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o
w h i c h : ( (
T h e Ho l y S e e i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t by
t h e s e a g r e e m e n t s n o w s i g n e d , i t i s a d e q u a t e l y
1 7
9
p r o v i d e d f o r i n a l l t h a t r e g a r d s i t s f r e e d o m a n d
i n d e p e n d e n c e i n t h e p a s t o r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e
Ro m e D i o c e s e a n d o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n
I t a l y a n d i n t h e w o r l d ; i t d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e
Ro m a n Q u e s t i o n i s d e f i n i t e l y a n d i r r e v o c a bl y
s e t t l e d a n d t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e d , a n d r e c o g n i s e s
t h e k i n g d o m o f I t a l y u n d e r t h e S a v o y D y n a s t y
w i t h Ro m e _ a s c a p i t a l o f t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e . I t a l y
o n t h e o t h e r h a n d r e c o g n i s e s t h e V a t i c a n C i t y
S t a t e u n d e r t h e s o v e r e i g n i t y o f t h e P o n t i f f . T h e
l a w o f 1 3 Ma y 1 8 7 1 , n . 2 1 4 i s a br o g a t e d , a s a l s o
a n y o t h e r d i s p o s i t i o n c o n t r a r y t o t h e p r e s e n t
T r e a t y v .
T h e C o n c o r d a t c o n s i s t s o f 4 5 a r t i c l e s . I t c o n -
t a i n s , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , a d e c l a r a t i o n i n w h i c h
I t a l y , i n p u r s u a n c e o f a r t . i o f t h e T r e a t y ,
g u a -
r a n t e e s f r e e d o m a n d p u bl i c e x e r c i s e o f r e l i g i o n
t o t h e s p i r i t u a l p o w e r , a s a l s o i t s f u l l j u r i s d i c t i o n
i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m a t t e r s , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e
r u l e s o f t h e C o n c o r d a t .
Fu r t h e r , i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s a c r e d c h a r -
a c t e r o f Ro m e , e p i s c o p a l S e e o f t h e S u p r e m e
P o n t i f f a n d c e n t r e o f t h e C a t h o l i c w o r l d , t h e I t a -
l i a n Go v e r n m e n t bi n d s i t s e l f t o p r e v e n t a n y o c -
c u r r e n c e i n Ro m e t h a t m i g h t be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h
t h a t c h a r a c t e r .
I n a n o t h e r c l a u s e i t i s s t i p u l a t e d t h a t o n S u n -
d a y s a n d r e c o g n i s e d f e a s t d a y s , i n a l l c h u r c h e s
1 8 o
w h e r e
a
C h a p t e r o f f i c i a t e s , t h e c e l e br a n t o f t h e
c o n v e n t u a l Ma s s s h a l l s i n g , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h
t h e r u l e s o f h i s l i t u r g y , a p r a y e r f o r t h e p r o s p e r -
i t y o f t h e Ki n g o f I t a l y a n d o f t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e .
T h e n f o l l o w s o m e i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e s r e f o r m -
i n g t h e I t a l i a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n h a r m -
o n y w i t h t h e T r e a t y ,
a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s t h e
j u r i d i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y o f r e l i g i o u s C o n g r e g a t i o n s
a n d t h e f r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C h u r c h p r o p e r t y ;
w i t h o u t a n y a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e c i v i l l a w s c o n c e r n i n g
t h e a c q u i s i t i o n s o f m o r a l bo d i e s .
Of e s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e a r t i c l e w h i c h c o n -
c e r n s m a t r i m o n y
: ( (
T h e I t a l i a n S t a t e , be i n g d e -
s i r o u s t o r e s t o r e t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a t r i m o n y ,
w h i c h i s t h e ba s i s o f t h e f a m i l y , a d i g n i t y c o n -
f o r m i n g t o t h e C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n o f i t s p e o p l e ,
r e c o g n i s e s t h e h o l y s a c r a m e n t o f m a t r i m o n y ,
e s t a bl i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o c a n o n l a w , a s v a l i d i n
a l l c i v i l e f f e c t s ) ) .
T h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f r e l i g i o u s m a t r i m o n y ,
s h a l l be p u bl i s h e d n o t o n l y i n t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h
bu t a l s o i n t h e C o m m u n a l Ha l l . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r
t h e r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y , t h e p a r i s h - p r i e s t s h a l l
e x p l a i n t o t h e br i d a l c o u p l e t h e c i v i l e f f e c t s o f
m a t r i m o n y , r e a d i n g t o t h e m t h e
a r t i c l e s
o f t h e
C i v i l C o d e r e g a r d i n g t h e r i g h t s a n d d u t i e s o f
m a r r i e d p e r s o n s a n d w i l l d r a w u p t h
, ; m a r r i a g e
c e r t i f i c a t e , a c o p y o f w h i c h w i l l be t r a n s m i t t e d
1 8 1
w i t h i n f i v e d a y s t o t h e C o m m u n a l a u t h o r i t y , t o
be e n t e r e d i n t h e C i v i l S t a t u s r e g i s t e r .
T h e l a w s u i t s c o n c e r n i n g n u l l i t y o f m a r r i a g e
a n d d i s s o l u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e a c e l e br a t e d bu t
n o t c o n s u m m a t e d n a r e r e s e r v e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n
o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l t r i bu n a l s a n d C o n g r e g a t i o n s .
W h e n t h e d e c i s i o n s a n d s e n t e n c e s h a v e be c o m e
d e f i n i t e a n d e x e c u t i v e , t h e y s h a l l be br o u g h t be -
f o r e t h e S u p r e m e T r i bu n a l o f t h e S e g n a t u r a ,
w h i c h w i l l a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h e r u l e s o f C a n o n
L a w c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e j u d g e , t h e
s e r v i n g o f t h e w r i t , t h e l e g i t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
o r a bs e n c e o f t h e p a r t i e s , h a v e be e n r e s p e c t e d .
T h e d e c i s i o n s a n d f i n a l s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e d e -
c r e e s o f t h e S u p r e m e T r i bu n a l o f t h e S e g n a t u r a
s h a l l be t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e C o u r t o f Ap p e a l o f
t h e S t a t e , h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e t e r r i t o r y ,
w h i c h by Or d e r i n C o u n c i l C h a m be r , s h a l l r e n d e r
t h e m e x e c u t i v e i n a l l c i v i l e f f e c t s , a n d s h a l l o r d e r
t h e m t o be e n t e r e d i n t h e C i v i l S t a t u s r e g i s t e r
i n t h e m a r g i n o f t h e m a r r i a g e c e r t i f i c a t e
.
As t o l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n s u i t s t h e Ho l y S e e
a g r e e s t h a t t h e y be h e a r d i n t h e o r d i n a r y
c i v i l t r i bu n a l s . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o t h e r d i s p o s i -
t i o n s , I t a l y a g r e e s t h a t r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n ,
h i t h e r t o g i v e n o n l y i n p u bl i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ,
be e x t e n d e d t o t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , a c c o r d -
1 8 2
i n g t o c u r r i c u l a t o be j o i n t l y e s t a bl i s h e d by t h e
Ho l y S e e a n d t h e S t a t e .
An o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c l a u s e by w h i c h t h e S t a t e
r e c o g n i s e s t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e
Az i o n e c a t t o l i c a , i n a s m u c h a s t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e
e x t r a n e o u s t o a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a s e s t a bl i s h e d
by t h e Ho l y S e e , a n d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f
t h e h i e r a r c h y o f t h e C h u r c h f o r t h e d i f f u s i o n a n d
a p p l i c a t i o n o f c a t h o l i c p r i n c i p l e s .
At t h e e n d o f t h e C o n c o r d a t i t i s e s t a bl i s h e d
t h a t , i n f u t u r e , s h o u l d s o m e d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e c o n -
c e r n i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s a m e , t h e Ho l y
S e e a n d I t a l y w i l l , by m u t u a l a g r e e m e n t , a r r i v e
a t a f r i e n d l y s o l u t i o n .
I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e f i n a n c i a l C o n v e n t i o n ,
t h e I t a l i a n Go v e r n m e n t bi n d s i t s e l f t o p a y , a n d
t h e Ho l y S e e d e c l a r e s t o a c c e p t , t h u s d e f i n i t e l y
s e t t l i n g a l l o u t s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h I t a l y a s a
r e s u l t o f t h e e v e n t s o f 1 8 7 0 , t h e s u m o f 7 5 0 m i l -
l i o n l i r e a n d f i v e p e r c e n t be a r e r bo n d I t a l i a n
C o n s o l s t o t h e n o m i n a l v a l u e o f o n e m i l l i a r d l i r e ;
a s u m m u c h i n f e r i o r t o t h a t w h i c h t h e S t a t e w o u l d
h a v e h a d t o p a y u p t o d a t e t o t h e Ho l y S e e , i n
c a r r i n g o u t t h e a g r e e m e n t e n t e r e d i n t o by t h e l a w
o f 1 3 Ma y , 1 8 7 1 .
T h i s , i n g e n e r a l o u t l i n e s , i s t h e s u bs t a n c e
o f t h e h i s t o r i c d o c u m e n t s
. W e h a v e s a i d t h a t Mu s -
s o l i n i h a d be e n i n d u c e d t o t a k e t h i s g r e a t s t e p
1 8 3
f r o m
p u r e l y n a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,
n a m e l y by
t h e n e c e s s i t y
o f u n i t i n g a l l I t a l i a n c i t i z e n s i n a
c o m p a c t m a s s .
T h i s e x p l a i n s w h y a n d h o w Mu s s o l i n i p r o c l a i m -
e d d u r i n g a n d a f t e r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s
w h i c h l e d
t o t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n , t h e m o r a l a u t o n o m y
o f t h e
S t a t e , i t s e s s e n t i a l l y e t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r , a n d w h y h e
c l a i m e d f o r t h e S t a t e , w i t h o u t a n y e q u i v o c a t i o n
o r p o s s i bi l i t y o f c o m p r o m i s e ,
t h e r i g h t , o r
r a t h e r t h e d u t y , t o p r e s i d e o v e r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f
t h e y o u n g g e n e r a t i o n s : a An o t h e r r e g i m e
- d e -
c l a r e d t h e D u c e a t t h e C h a m i
e r o f D e p u t i e s o n
Ma y 1 3 w h e n t h e L a t e r a n P a c t s w e r e u n d e r d i s -
c u s s i o n , -
a r e g i m e o t h e r t h a n o u r s a d e m o -
l i be r a l r e g i m e , s u c h a s w e d e s p i s e , -
m a y h o l d i t
a d v i s a bl e t o d i s i n t e r e s t i t s e l f f r o m t h e e d u c a t i o n
o f t h e y o u n g g e n e r a t i o n s
. W e h o l d e n t i r e l y o p p o -
s i t e o p i n i o n s
. I n t h i s f i e l d w e a r e i n t r a c t a bl e . E d u -
c a t i o n m u s t be o u r s
. T h e s e c h i l d r e n m u s t be
br o u g h t u p i n o u r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h
: bu t w e n e e d
t o c o m p l e t e t h i s e d u c a t i o n , w e m u s t g i v e
t h e s e
y o u n g p e o p l e a s e n s e o f v i r i l i t y , o f p o w e r , o f c o n -
q u e s t
. Abo v e a l l w e m u s t t r a n s m i t t o t h e m o u r
f a i t h a n d o u r h o p e .
Ot h e r p o i n t s w e r e l i k e w i s e s e t t l e d i n a s a t i s f a c -
t o r y m a n n e r
. By t h e T r e a t y w h i c h g u a r a n t e e d t o
t h e Ho l y S e e a u v i s i bl e a i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e s o -
v e r e i g n t y o v e r a m i n u t e t e r r i t o r y , t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e
1 8 4
d i d n o t by a n y m e a n s d i m i n i s h i t s o w n i n t e g r i t y .
W e h a v e n o t r e s u s c i t a t e d t h e t e m p o r a l p o w e r
o f t h e P o p e s
: w e h a v e bu r i e d i t . By t h e T r e a t y
o f Fe br u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 2 9 n o t e r r i t o r y i s d e l i v e r e d o v e r
t o t h e C i t y o f t h e V a t i c a n be y o n d w h a t i t a l r e a d y
p o s s e s s e d a n d w h i c h n o p o w e r o n e a r t h a n d n o
r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d h a v e t o r n f r o m i t . T h e t r i c o l o u r
f l a g i s n o t l o w e r e d , be c a u s e i t w a s n e v e r h o i s t e d
t h e r e u
.
W h a t e x a c t l y i s m e a n t by t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f
t h e Ho l y S e e ? I t s h o u l d n o t be i m a g i n e d t h a t
t w o s o v e r e i g n t i e s c o - e x i s t . T h e r e i s o n e f o r t h e
V a t i c a n C i t y a n d a n o t h e r f o r t h e Ki n g d o m o f
I t a l y , w h i c h i s t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e . T h e r e t w o a r e
a s d i s t i n c t a s i f t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s s e p a r a t e d
t h e m i n s t e a d o f a f e w m i n u t e s w a l k . T h e r e a r e ,
t h e r e f o r e , t w o d i s t i n c t s o v e r e i g n t i e s , m u t u a l l y
r e c o g n i s i n g t h e i r c o m p l e t e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . W i t h i n
t h e S t a t e t h e C h u r c h i s n e i t h e r s o v e r e i g n n o r
f r e e
. I t i s n o t s o v e r e i g n a s s u c h a c o n d i t i o n o f
a f f a i r s w o u l d be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Ne i t h e r i s i t
f r e e a s i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d i t s m e m be r s a r e s u bj e c t
t o t h e s p e c i a l c l a u s e s o f t h e C o n c o r d a t
. T h e s i t u a -
t i o n m a y be t h e r e f o r e d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s : t h e
S t a t e i s s o v e r e i g n i n t h e Ki n g d o m o f I t a l y
; t h e
C a t h o l i c C h u r c h h a s c e r t a i n v o l u n t a r i l y r e c o g -
n i s e d a n d r e s p e c t e d p r i v i l e d g e s
; o t h e r r e l i g i o n s
m a y be f r e e l y p r a c t i c e d .
1 8 5
Fo l l o w i n g t h e T r e a t y a n d
t h e C o n c o r d a t t h e
Ho l y S e e d e f i n i t e l y r e n o u n c e d
a l l c l a i m s , e v e n
m o r a l o n e s , o v e r Ro m e a n d ,
w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n
o f t h e V a t i c a n C i t y , a e x p l i c i t a n d s o l e m n r e c o g n i -
t i o n w a s g i v e n t o t h e Ki n g d o m o f I t a l y u n d e r
t h e Mo n a r c h y o f t h e S a v o y D y n a s t y w i t h Ro m e
a s c a p i t a l o f t h e I t a l i a n S t a t e
. P e r m i s s i o n w a s
g i v e n a l s o t o p r a c t i c e f r e e l y o t h e r r e l i g i o n s w h i c h ,
t h e r e f o r e , c e a s e d
t o be s i m p l y
a
t o l l e r a t e d n .
Re l i g i o u s m a r r i a g e w a s r e c o g n i s e d
a s v a l i d i n
c i v i l l a w w h e r e - e v e r a n d by w h o m s o e v e r i t m a y
be c e l e br a t e d : C a t h o l i c s , P r o t e s t a n t s a n d Je w s
a l l e n j o y e q u a l r i g h t s .
Re l i g i o u s
l i be r t y w a s f u l l y s a n c t i o n e d by
Ar t
. 5 o f t h e l a w o n r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s i n w h i c h
i t i s s t a t e d t h a t c c d i s c u s s i o n o f r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s
i s f r e e .
T h e n a t u r e o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e S t a t e
s c h o o l s i n I t a l y h a s be e n t h e s u bj e c t o f c o n s i d e r -
a bl e d i s c u s s i o n
. E x p e r i e n c e h a s s h o w n t h a t h e r e ,
t o o , t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e S t a t e h a s r e m a i n e d
u n i m p a r e d . Mu s s o l i n i h a s k e p t h i s w o r d
w h i c h
h e g a v e t o t h e D e p u t i e s i n h i s s p e e c h r e c o m m e n d -
i n g t h e i r a p p r o v a l o f t h e L a t e r a n T r e a t i e s : No
p o w e r o f s u p e r v i s i o n
o v e r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n
i s p e r m i t t e d t o t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , n o t
e v e n t o a l i m i t e d d e g r e e . I t i s o n l y p r e s c r i be d
t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d h o l d a c e r t i f i c a t e o f c a p a c i t y
1 8
6
g i v e n by a bi s h o p a n d t h a t f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c -
t i o n t e x t bo o k s s h o u l d be u s e d w h i c h
a r e a p -
p r o v e d by t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . T h i s l i m i t e d
i n t e r v e n t i o n i s p e r f e c t l y r e a s o n a bl e a s o n l y t h e
e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a u t h o r i t y h a s t h e n e c c e s s a r y c o m p e t -
e n c y i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s t o j u d g e t h e c a p a c i t y
o f t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e t e x t bo o k s t o be u s e d i n
r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n o .
At t h e s a m e t i m e t h e l a s t r e s i d u e o f t h e f o r -
m e r P o p u l a r P a r t y d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e s t a t u t e s a n d
o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e Az i o n e C a t t o l i c a - p e r m i t t e d
by Ar t . 4 2 o f t h e C o n c o r d a t i n a s m u c h a s i t s
a c t i v i t i e s a r e ( ( o u t s i d e a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a n d
u n d e r t h e i m m e d i a t e c o n t r o l o f t h e h i e r a r c h y o f
t h e C h u r c h ) ) - w e r e r e f o r m e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s
a n d a c q u i r e d a m o r e d e f i n i t e l y r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c -
t e r , i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v o r c e d f r o m a l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v -
i t y p r o p e r l y s o - c a l l e d . I n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h i s
c h a r a c t e r t h e s p o r t s o r g a n i s a t i o n s w e r e a ba n d o n e d
a n d t h e s p o r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e Fa s c i s t Re g i m e
w e r e l e f t w i t h a n a bs o l u t e _ m o n o p o l y .
1
8 7
T HE I T AL I ANS ABROAD
On e t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f h i s t o r y - P o e t s a n d s a i n t s - T r a -
v e l l e r s a n d l e a d e r s - Ar t i s t s a n d r e f o r m e r s
-
I t a l i a n n o bl e -
m e n i n Ar g e n t i n e a n d Br a z i l - T h e e x i l e s o f t h e Ri s o r -
g i m e n t o - I t a l i a n w o r k m e n - Mu s s o l i n i ' s w a t c h w o r d -
T h e Fa s c i s t p a r t y a br o a d - A n a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e n a t i o n
-
T h e D u c e ' s c o m m a n d m e n t s - T h e l e g i o n s o f I t a l i a n s
f r o m a br o a d i n t h e I t a l o - E t h i o p i a n c a m p a i g n .
Fo r w e l l o v e r o n e t h o u s a n d y e a r s I t a l i a n s h a v e
be e n l e a v i n g t r a c e s o f t h e i r p a s s i n g a l l o v e r t h e
w o r l d . W a r r i o r s o n l a n d a n d o n s e a , c h u r c h m e n
a n d s t a t e s m e n , a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s
a g r e a t l y h o n o u r -
e d , bu t p e n n i l e s s n , e n n o bl e d m a n y a f o r e i g n l a n d
by t h e i r w o r k a n d by t h e i r bl o o d . T w o m e m be r s
o f t h e S t r o z z i f a m i l y w h o f o u g h t f o r Fr a n c e o n
l a n d a n d o n s e a , E m m a n u e l P h i l i be r t o f S a v o y ,
Al e x a n d e r Fa r n e s e , Am br o g i o S p i n o l a , t h e Ma r -
q u e s s o f Ma r i g n a n o , Al f o n s o a n d Ot t a v i o P i c c o -
l o m i n i , Ma r s i g l i , T r i v u l z i o t h e Gr e a t , E u g e n e o f
S a v o y , Mo n t e c u c c o l i , a n d i n m o r e r e c e n t t i m e s ,
Ga r i ba l d i a n d Fr a n c e s c o An z a n i p r o v e d t o t h e
w o r l d t h a t t h e a n c i e n t m i l i t a r y v i r t u e s o f t h e I t a -
l i a n s w e r e n e v e r s p e n t .
1 8 8
Al o n g s i d e o f g r e a t l e a d e r s w e r e n a m e l e s s w a r -
r i o r s . I t h a s r i g h t l y be e n s a i d t h a t n o p e o p l e e v e r
f o u g h t s o m u c h f o r o t h e r s a n d s o l i t t l e f o r t h e m -
s e l v e s a s t h e I t a l i a n s . W h o , i n t h i s c o n n e x i o n , h a s
n o t r e a d L e o p a r d i ' s f a m o u s l i n e s ?
W h e n , o w i n g t o a d v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , n a t i o n a l
g e n i u s w a s n o t a l l o w e d t o bl o s s o m f o r t h a t h o m e ,
i t e x p a n d e d o t u s i d e n a t i o n a l bo u n d a r i e s i n e v e r y
l a n d . T h e t h r e e f a t h e r s o f I t a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e , D a n t e ,
P e t r a r c h , a n d Bo c c a c c i o , g r e a t s a i n t s s u c h a s
S t . An s e l m , S t . T h o m a s , S t
. Bo n a v e n t u r e , t a u g h t
p o e t r y a n d p h i l o s o p h y w h e n o t h e r p e o p l e s w e r e
s t i l l i n t h e i r c h i l d h o o d , w h i l e I t a l i a n m e r c h a n t s ,
g e n e r a l l y k n o w n a s L o m ba r d s , c a r r i e d i n d u s t r y
a n d t r a d e i n t o e v e r y c o r n e r o f E u r o p e .
L a c k o f p o l i t i c a l u n i t y s e e m e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e
u n i v e r s a l s e n s e o f t h e g r e a t e r i t a l i a n s . Ma r c o P o l o ,
C o l u m bu s , Am e r i c u s V e s p u c i u s , C a bo t o , e x p l o r e d
t h e e a r t h , t h e C a s s i n i bo t h e r s t h e s k i e s , T e l e s i o
a n d C a m p a n e l l a t h e r e a l m o f t h e s p i r i t
. Ma z z a -
r i n o , a c o u n t r y p r i e s t f r o m t h e Abr u z z o r o s e t o
t h e a c m e o f p o w e r a n d s u bd u e d t h e w i l l o f r u l e r s
t o h i s o w n ; a m y r i a d o f a r t i s t s , f r o m C e l l i n i t o T i -
t i a n , f r o m P r i m a t i c c i o t o Gi o v a n n i d a Ud i n e , be -
c a m e t h e a p o s t l e s a n d c a r r i e r s o f be a u t y a l l o v e r
t h e c i v i l i s e d w o r l d .
T h e S i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w h i c h s a w E u r o p e
s h a k e n a n d d i s t u r be d by r e l i g i o u s r e v o l u t i o n s ,
1 8 g
l i k e w i s e s a w I t a l i a n s t r a v e l i n t o e v e r y c o u n t r y
c a r r y i n g w i t h t h e m a n o r i g i n a l f a i t h a n d a s p i r i t
o f s e l f - s a c r i f i c e w h i c h a r o u s e d a d m i r a t i o n f r o m
s u p p o r t e r s a n d e n e m i e s a l i k e . L e l i o a n d Fa u s t o
S o c i n o , t h e Ma r q u e s s C a r a c c i o l o a n d C u r i o n e , P a -
s c a l i a n d S t a n c a r o , Bl a n d r a t e , Oc h i n o , D i o d a t i
a n d V e r g e r i o ba l a n c e d c o l l e c t i v e i n s u f f i c i e n c y by
t h e i r p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a n d a bn e g a t i o n
.
T w o c e n t u r i e s e l a p s e d d u r i n g w h i c h I t a l i a n s
c a r r i e d i n t o E u r o p e t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e a r t s ,
o f
t h e n e w s c i e n c e , a n d t h e t e c h n i q u e o f e v e r y c r a f t .
I n t h e Ni n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c a u g h t u p by t h e
Na p o l e o n i c s t o r m , t h e I t a l i a n s p i r i t w a s r e v i v e d
a n d r o s e t o f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f i t s p a s t g r e a t n e s s .
Un i v e r s a l i t y be c a m e a p r e m i s e f o r n a t i o n a l f e e l -
i n g . A s i n g l e
c r y
a r o s e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e n i n s u l a
u r e l e a s e I t a l y f r o m f o r e i g n r u l e n . An d e v e r y -
w h e r e a br o a d , I t a l i a n m e t I t a l i a n w i t h t h e s a m e
c r y o n h i s l i p s : i n E u r o p e , i n Am e r i c a , i n Af r i c a
.
I n P a r i s , L o n d o n , L u g a n o , Al g i e r s , Ne w Y o r k ,
S a o P a o l o , Ri o d e Ja n e i r o , Bu e n o s Ai r e s , L i m a ,
I t a l i a n s w e r e a c t i v e l y m a k i n g a p l a c e f o r t h e m -
s e l v e s .
T h e i r a c t i v i t y w a s e n c o u r a g e d by m e m o -
r i e s bo t h a n c i e n t a n d r e c e n t . I t w a s i n t h e
n a m e o f t h e i n c a l c u l a bl e c o n t r i bu t i o n g i v e n by
I t a l i a n s t o c i v i l i s a t i o n , t h a t Ma z z i n i be g a n t h e a p o -
s t o l a t e w h i c h n o t e v e n d e a t h c o u l d s t e m . I t w a s
I g o
by i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e i d e a l s o f a l l t i m e s ,
a n d by f i g h t i n g f o r t h e l i be r t y o f Ur a g u a y a n d
Br a z i l , s i n c e t i m e s w e r e n o t y e t r i p e t o f i g h t f o r
I t a l y ' s f r e e d o m , t h a t Ga r i ba l d i f o u n d s u p p o r t a n d
s y m p a t h y i n f o r e i g n l a n d s .
Na t i o n a l u n i t y w a s p e r p e t u a t e d t h r o u g h a r t i s t i c
a n d l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s , w h i l e e x i l e s r e v i v e d t h e
i d e a l s o f D a n t e a n d Ma c c h i a v e l l i i n o r d e r t o s p i r -
i t u a l l y r e bu i l d t h e i d e a l Fa t h e r l a n d . I n d e e d i t w a s
n o t o n l y a n i d e a l f a t h e r l a n d u p o n w h i c h t h e i r
m i n d s d w e l t , s i n c e t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d m o r a l n e c e s -
s i t i e s o f t h e Ri s o r g i m e n t o w e r e e v i n c e d t h r o u g h
t h e h e r o i s m o f t h e s o l d i e r s o f L a m a r m o r a w h o
f e l l i n t h e C r i m e a f o r t h e E u r o p e a n c a u s e .
I f i t be t r u e t h a t t h e r e a l s p i r i t o f I t a l y w a s
k e p t a l i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d by m a n y i l l u s -
t r i o u s I t a l i a n s w h o w e r e t h e g a u g e o f n a t i o n a l v a -
l u e s , i t i s t r u e l i k e w i s e t h a t a m u l t i t u d e o f w o r -
k e r s , l a bo u r e r s a n d p e a s a n t s p r o v e d t o t h e w o r l d
h o w g r e a t w e r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l v i r t u e s o f t h e
I t a l i a n p e o p l e .
T o t h e w o r k a n d t h e t h r i f t o f h e r e m i g r a n t
c h i l d r e n t h e m o t h e r l a n d o w e d h e r e c o n o m i c ba l a n c e
f o r m a n y a l o n g y e a r ; t o t h e l o y a l t y o f c h i l d r e n
w h o r e t u r n e d f r o m a c r o s s t h e o c e a n s , I t a l y i n p a r t
o w e d t h e f r e e d o m o f h e r u n r e d e e m e d l a n d . No t
a l l h e r c h i l d r e n h o w e v e r w e r e a bl e t o c o m e ba c k
t o s e r v e u n d e r h e r c o l o u r s : m a n y o f t h e m , a n d
= 9 I
t h e y
w e r e l e g i o n , s t a y e d a w a y t o w o r k f o r a
f o r e i g n m a s t e r f a r a w a y
. Fa r a w a y , w h e r e o t h e r
I t a l i a n s be f o r e t h e m , i n n o t v e r y r e m o t e
t i m e s ,
h a d f o u g h t f o r l i be r t y i n t h e w a k e o f t h e Al be r t i ,
t h e C a s t e l l i , t h e Be l g r a n o , o r h a d f o u g h t i n t h e
p a m p a s w i t h t h e S e r r i , t h e Gr a s s i , t h e C h i a r l o n e
f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e Ar g e n t i n e r e p u bl i c . Be f o r e
t h e i r e y e s r o s e i m p o s i n g s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a r e t h e
p r i d e o f Bu e n o s Ay r e s , a n d t h e r e s t r e t c h e d
t h e
o p u l e n t f a r m l a n d s o f Me n d o z a a n d S t . Ju a n , t h e
p o r t o f Ba h i a Bl a n c a , w h i c h w e r e a c h i e v e m e n t s
o f I t a l i a n g e n i u s a n d l a bo u r .
T o s o m e o f t h e s e I t a l i a n s ,
l o s t i n t h e
Br a z i l i a n r a n c h e s , a c o m p a r i s o n be t w e e n p a s t a n d
p r e s e n t a p p e a r e d r e m a r k a bl y p a i n f u l . Go n e w e r e
t h e i l l u s t r i o u s n a m e s o f I t a l i a n d e s c e n t w h i c h h a d
g i v e n r i s e t o l o c a l f a m i l i e s o f g r e a t w e a l t h
a n d
p o w e r :
t h e C a v a l c a n t i , t h e Ac c i a i u o l i , t h e D o r i a ,
t h e Or i g l i o
; a n d g o n e t o o w e r e s u c h w o m e n a s
Ma r i a C r i s t i n a o f Na p l e s , t h e v i r t u o u s a n d l o v e l y
w i f e o f D o n P e d r o .
W h o h a d f o l l o w e d i n t h e f o o t s t e p s o f t h e C o u n t
S a n f e l i c e , w h o s e a c h i e v e m e n t s h a d be c o m e a l m o s t
l e g e n d a r y , o f T i t o L i v i o Za m be c c a r i , t h e f a i t h f u l
c o m p a n i o n o f C i r o Me n o t t i w h o h a d d e v o t e d
t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e c a u s e o f t h a t i n h o s p i t a bl e l a n d ?
W h e r e h a d t h e l e g i o n a r i e s g o n e w h o , i n t h e y e a r
1 8 4 8 , h a d f o l l o w e d Ga r i ba l d i , bu r n i n g t o r e p e a t
1 9 2
t h e e n t e r p r i s e o f Mo n t e v i d e o
a t
Mo r a z z o n e i n
I t a l y ? An d w h a t h a d be e n t h e l a s t w o r d u t t e r e d
by t h e I t a l i a n s w h o l a y bu r i e d i n t h e s o l i t u d e
o f Ri be r a a n d I n d i a Mu e r t a ? E v e r y t h i n g i n t h a t
d i s t a n t l a n d s p o k e t o t h e e m i g r a n t s o f t h e i r c o u n -
t r y a c r o s s t h e o c e a n . Ha d t h e I t a l i a n s o f V a l p a -
r a i s o n o t g i v e n Ga r i ba l d i t h e f l a g w h i c h t h e
u
T h o u s a n d n bo r e t o Ma r s a l a ? E v e r y t h i n g r e -
m i n d e d t h e m o f I t a l y , bu t I t a l y h e r s e l f a p p e a r e d
t o h a v e f o r g o t t e n t h e m . I n d e e d , h a d i t o n l y be e n
a n a p p e a r a n c e ! Al a s i t w a s a p a i n f u l r e a l i t y , f o r
I t a l y h a d c e a s e d t o t h i n k o f h e r c h i l d r e n w h o
c o n t i n u e d t o c a r r y h e r n a m e h i g h i n f o r e i g n
l a n d s . An i n c a l c u l a bl y g r e a t r e s e r v e o f m o r a l
s t r e n g t h w a s t h u s be i n g g r a d u a l l y d i s p e r s e d be -
c a u s e t h e g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h s u c c e e d e d o n e
a n o t h e r i n Ro m e f a i l e d t o r e m e m be r .
I t i s d u e t o Mu s s o l i n i a n d t o t h e Bl a c k s h i r t
Re v o l u t i o n i f I t a l i a n s s c a t t e r e d a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d
w e r e e n a bl e d t o f i n d a g a i n t h e i r n a t i o n a l p r i d e .
Up o n t h e m o r r o w o f h i s a d v e n t t o p o w e r ,
Mu s s o l i n i w i p e d o u t t h e w o r d ( ( e m i g r a n t ) ) f r o m
c o m m o n u s a g e . He d e c r e e d t h a t I t a l i a n s w h o h a d
g o n e a br o a d t o m a k e a l i v i n g s h o u l d h e n c e f o r t h
by s t y l e d I t a l i a n a br o a d . I n Ap r i l 1 9 2 , 3 , w h e n
h e v i s i t e d t h e C a r l o T e n c a s c h o o l i n Mi l a n , h e
m a d e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : u
I w i s h t o d e c l a r e
h e r e w i t h t h a t t h e Fa s c i s t Go v e r n m e n t i n t e n d s t o
1 9 3
0
;r v
s a f e g u a r d a n d p r o t e c t I t a l i a n e m i g r a n t s . T h e Go -
v e r n m e n t c a n n o t f o r s a k e t h o s e o f i t s s u bj e t s w h o
h a v e c r o s s e d o c e a n s a n d m o u n t a i n s t o f i n d a h o m e
a br o a d , be c a u s e t h e y a r e h u m a n be i n g s , w o r k e r s
a n d a bo v e a l l , I t a l i a n s
. W h e r e v e r a n I t a l i a n r e -
s i d e s t h e I t a l i a n f l a g i s t h e r e , a n d t h e r e t o o i s
t h e Fa t h e r l a n d , a n d Go v e r n m e n t p r o t e c t i o n f o r
t h e s e I t a l i a n s . u
Mu s s o l i n i i t w a s , w h o r e m e m be r e d t h a t a m o n g
I t a l i a n s f r o m f o r e i g n l a n d s t h e r e h a d be e n s i x t e e n
f a l l e n w h o h a d r e c e i v e d a Go l d Me d a l o n t h e
f i e l d f o r t h e i r v a l o u r i n t h e Gr e a t W a r , a n d Mu s -
s o l i n i i t w a s , w h o d a r e d u t t e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g
s t a t e m e n t , a s i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s w e r e be i n g
d i s c u s s e d i n P a r l i a m e n t : ( ( w h o m s o e v e r w a n t s
I t a l i a n l a bo u r s h a l l f i r s t h a v e t o d e s e r v e i t .
Gr a d u a l l y , Fa s c i s t I t a l y be c a m e t h e t r u e
Fa t h e r l a n d f o r t h e I t a l i a n s w h o r e s i d e a br o a d , t h e
c o u n t r y o f t h e i r d r e a m s a n d d e s i r e s , t h e Fa t h e r -
l a n d w h i c h d o e s n o t f o r g e t a n d i s e v e r p r e s e n t i n
t h e h o u r o f n e e d . I t a l i a n c o l o n i e s g a t h e r e d i n t h e i r
n u m be r s a r o u n d Fa s c i s t g r o u p s f o r m e d a br o a d
a n d i t be c a m e c l e a r t h a t Fa s c i s m a n d Fa t h e r -
l a n d w e r e h e n c e f o r t h s y n o n y m o u s . Y e t e v e n t h i s
w o u l d n o t h a v e s u f f i c e d h a d I t a l i a n s a br o a d n o t
f e l t t h a t , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h e i r Go v e r n m e n t w a s
a c t u a l l y i n t h e h a n d s o f a s o n o f t h e p e o p l e , w h o
h a d r i s e n f r o m l a bo u r , w h o w a s p r o u d o f h i s
1 9 4
p e a s a n t s t o c k , w h o h a d be e n a n e m i g r a n t h i m -
s e l f , a p o l i t i c a l e x i l e , a v e t e r a n w h o , i n t h e t r e n -
c h e s , h a d t a k e n a s i l e n t o a t h t o m a k e h i s c o u n t r y
g r e a t .
Ho w g r e a t h a s be e n t h e r e v i v a l o f n a t i o n a l
f e e l i n g t h r o u g h Fa s c i s t i n f l u e n c e a m o n g I t a l i a n s
a br o a d , i s a m p l y p r o v e n e v e r y w h e r e . S c o r e s o f
I t a l i a n s h a v e f a l l e n o n f o r e i g n s o i l i n d e f e n c e o f
t h e Fa s c i s t i d e a l . T h e y w e r e , i n d e e d , t h e p i o n e e r s
a n d m a r t y r s o f n a t i o n a l r e v i v a l be y o n d m o u n t a i n s
a n d s e a s .
T h i s r e v i v a l h a s bo r n e f r u i t : by , Ja n u a r y
1 9 3 6 n o l e s s t h a n 4 6 0 g r o u p s o f m e n Fa s c i s t h a d
be e n o r g a n i s e d a m o n g I t a l i a n s a br o a d , a n d 2 2 1
g r o u p s f o r w o m e n , 2 8 2 m i x e d s e c t i o n s , 4 1 0 g r o u p s
o f j u n i o r s , 1 5 0 D o p o l a v o r o c l u bs , 1 5 s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l s , 2 2 5
p r i m a r y s c h o o l s ,
3 5 0
n i g h t s c h o o l s ,
1 3 0 r e a d e r s h i p s a t u n i v e r s i t i e s , 1 2 I n s t i t u t e s o f
Hi g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 5 8 s p o r t s g r o u n d s . T h r e e h u n -
d r e d t h o u s a n d I t a l i a n s t u d e n t s h a v e a t t e n d e d
t h e s e s c h o o l s , w e r e t e x t bo o k s a r e u s e d w h i c h a r e
a m o d e l o f a r t , s c i e n c e a n d p e d a g o g y c o m bi n e d .
Ad m i r a bl e , t o o , i s w e l f a r e w o r k d o n e f o r I 1 Ja -
l i a n c o m m u n i t i e s a br o a d , f a r d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e
l i m i t e d p h i l a n t h r o p y p r o v i d e d f o r t h e m i n t h e
p a s t . W h e n S u m m e r c o m e s a r o u n d e a c h y e a r
1 5 . 0 0 0 I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n f r o m a l l l a n d s , c o m e ba c k
t o t h e Fa t h e r l a n d f o r a f r e e h o l i d a y a t m o u n t a i n
1 9 5
o r s e a s i d e c a m p s , f r o m w h i c h t h e y d e p a r t e n r i c h e d
by l a s t i n g m e m o r i e s .
T h i s f a r - r e a c h i n g o r g a n i s a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t by
a d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I t a l i a n Fo r e i g n Of f i c e k n o w n
a s D e p a r t m e n t f o r I t a l i a n s Abr o a d , t o w h i c h Mu s -
s o l i n i t u r n e d o v e r t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e f o r m e r C o m -
m i s s a r i a t o f E m i g r a t i o n n o w s u p p r e s s e d .
Un d e r
t h e a e g i s o f t h e L i c t o r ' s f a s c e s t h e e i g h t m i l l i o n
I t a l i a n s s c a t t e r e d a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d a r e n o w
a c t u a l l y a u n a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e n a t i o n a s Mu s s o -
l i n i w i s h e d t h e m t o be .
T h e c o m m a n d m e n t s d i c t a t e d f o r t h e m by I l
D u c e a r e t h e d a i l y g u i d e a n d r u l e o f Fa s c i s t s
a br o a d , a n d h a v i n g s u n k d e e p i n t o t h e i r h e a r t s ,
a r e t h e i d e a l t o w a r d s w h i c h t h e y a i m
i . Fa s c i s t s w h o r e s i d e a br o a d s h o u l d be
o be d i e n t t o t h e l a w s o f t h e c o u n t r y w h o s e g u e s t s
t h e y a r e . T h e y s h o u l d s e t a d a i l y e x a m p l e o f
t h e i r o be d i e n c e t o t h e i r f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m e n a n d t o
t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e n a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e .
2 . T h e y s h a l l n o t t a k e p a r t i n t h e h o m e p o -
l i t i c s o f t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h g i v e s t h e m h o s p i t a l i t y
.
3 . T h e y s h a l l n o t c r e a t e d i s c o r d w i t h i n t h e
I t a l i a n c o l o n i e s a n d , i f s u c h d i s c o r d e x i s t s , t h e y
s h a l l s e e k t o q u e l l i t , u n d e r t h e a e g i s o f t h e
L i c t o r ' s e m bl e m .
4
. T h e y s h a l l s e t a n e x a m p l e o f p u bl i c a n d
p r i v a t e p r o bi t y .
1 9 6
5 . T h e y s h a l l r e s p e c t o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
o f I t a l y a b r o a d , a n d o b e y t h e i r o r d e r s a n d i n -
s t r u c t i o n s .
6 . T h e y s h a l l u p h o l d a n d d e f e n d t h e i r c o u n -
t r y , r e g a r d i n g i t s p a s t a n d i t s p r e s e n t .
7 . T h e y s h a l l h e l p o n e a n o t h e r i n a l l c i r -
c u m s t a n c e s .
8 . T h e y s h a l l b e a s d i s c i p l i n e d a b r o a d a s I
d e c r e e t h a t a l l I t a l i a n s s h a l l b e a t h o m e .
T h e e f f i c a c i o u s n e s s o f t h e m e t h o d i c a l a c t i v i t y
c o n d u c t e d b y F a s c i s m a m o n g I t a l i a n s i n f o r e i g n
c o u n t r i e s w a s r e v e a l e d i n p r a c t i c e w h e n t h e I t a l o -
Et h i o p i a n c a m p a i g n a p p e a r e d i n e v i t a b l e o n t h e
h o r i z o n o f I t a l i a n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s
. I t i s d i f f i c u l t
t o c a l c u l a t e t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n g i v e n b y
I t a l i a n s a b r o a d t h r o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f g o l d a n d
o t h e r m e a n s , b u t i t i s f a r e a s i e r t o l i s t d a t a o n
t h e i r m a t e r i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c a m p a i g n .
T e n t h o u s a n d m e n v o l u n t e e r e d t o s e r v e w i t h
t h e c o l o u r s i n Ea s t A f r i c a , f i v e t h o u s a n d o f w h o m
w e r e e n r o l l e d . T w o l e g i o n s o f B l a c k s h i r t m i l i t i a -
m e n w e r e f o r m e d o n e o f w h i c h , 25 00 m e n s t r o n g ,
s a i l e d f r o m Na p l e s o n No v e m b e r 23r d ,
1 9 35
f o r
M o g a d i s h u a t t h e o r d e r s o f P i e r o P a r i n i , D i r e c t o r
G e n e r a l o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t f o r I t a l i a n s A b r o a d .
T h e m e n l a n d e d o n t h e c o a s t o f t h e I n d i a n
O c e a n o n D e c e m b e r l o t h a n d e n t e r e d a d i f f i c u l t
p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g a m o n g t h e s a n d y d u n e s w h i c h
1 9 7
p r e c e e d t h e So m a l i w o o d l a n d s . A n d t h e r e t h e y
s t a y e d f o u r m o n t h s . I n t h e m e a n w h i l e I t a l i a n s i n
No r t h A m e r i c a e n d o w e d t h e Le g i o n w i t h m o t o r i s e d
m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t , n a m e l y z o o l o r r i e s , t w o m o t o r
a m b u l a n c e s , a n d a f i e l d h o s p i t a l . A s e c o n d Le g i o n
w a s o r g a n i s e d w h i c h s a i l e d f o r M o g a d i s h u a
s h o r t w h i l e a f t e r , a t t h e o r d e r s o f C o n s u l G a n g e m i .
T h e f i r s t Le g i o n , w h e n t r a i n i n g h a d b e e n c a r r i -
e d t o c o m p l e t i o n a n d w h e n d e c i s i v e a c t i o n w a s
a b o u t t o b e g i n o n t h e So u t h e r n f r o n t , f u r n i s h e d
I 2o o m e n w h i c h jo i n e d t h e F r u s c i c o l u m a s s h o c k
t r o o p s a n d t o o k a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e o c c u p a -
t i o n o f B i r g o t , Ha m a n l e i , Sa s s a b a n e h , D a g a b u r ,
G i jji g a , Ha r a r a n d a t t h e l a s t , o c c u p i e d t h e c i t y
o f D i r e D a w a o n t h e Ji b u t i - A d d i s A b e b a r a i l w a y
l i n e , w h i c h t h e y g a r r i s o n e d a n d h e l d u n d e r m i -
l i t a r y a n d c i v i l c o n t r o l . P i e r o P a r i n i , c o m m a n d e r
o f t h e Le g i o n w a s t h e f i r s t g o v e r n o r o f t h e c i t y .
A f t e r h o l d i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f D i r e D a w a f o r
a s h o r t t i m e , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e Le g i o n e s t a b l i s h e d
h o s p i t a l s , s c h o o l s , s h o p s a n d e v e n i s s u e d a n e w s -
p a p e r , c c I l C o r r i e r e Su d Et i o p i c o a w h i c h i s f a s t
b e c o m i n g t h e p o p u l a r o r g a n f o r t h e I s l a m p o p u -
l a t i o n o f Et h i o p i a , t h e Le g i o n w a s c a l l e d t o A d d i s
A b e b a w h e r e i t s m e n w e r e e n t r u s t e d w i t h p o l i c e
d u t i e s i n t h e c a p i t a l , a n d w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f
m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t r e b e l s a n d r a i d e r s .
T h e s e c o n d Le g i o n w a s l i k e w i s e a f f o r d e d t h e
1 9 8
h o n o u r o f t a k i n g p a r t a c t i v e l y i n b a t t l e . Le a v i n g
M o g a d i s h u s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e e n d o f t h e c a m p a i g n
o n t h e So u t h e r n f r o n t , t h e y m a d e h e a d w a y d i -
r e c t l y f o r D i r e D a w a a n d t h e n c e t o A d d i s A b e b a
w h e r e t h e i r c h i e f t a s k w a s m o p p i n g u p t h e t e r r i -
t o r y a r o u n d t h e r a i l w a y . P r e v i o u s l y a d e t a c h m e n t
o f t h e Le g i o n h a d t a k e n p a r t i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n
o f M o y a l e n e a r t h e Ke n y a b o r d e r .
T h u s I t a l i a n s s c a t t e r e d o n a l l c o n t i n e n t s jo i n e d
t h e i r f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n f r o m t h e p e n i n s u l a a n d
s e r v e d w i t h t h e c o l o u r s t o f o u n d I t a l y ' s F a s c i s t
Em p i r e : I m p e r i u m s i n e f i n e d e d i .
' 9 9
M USSO LI NI ' S F O REI G N P O LI C Y
Ne i t h e r a d v e n t u r e s n o r r e n u n c i a t i o n s - Re l a t i o n s w i t h
Yu g o s l a v i a - A l b a n i a a n d G r e e c e . - T h e w a t c h o n t h e
B r e n n e r P a s s - A g a i n s t t h e A n s c h l u s s -
T h e T r e a t y o f
Lo n d o n a n d f a i l u r e t o r e c e i v e c o l o n i a l c o m p e n s a t i o n -
En g l a n d a n d F r a n c e -
T h e d i s a r m a m e n t qu e s t i o n
-
Na v a l
p a r i t y
-
T h e p r e ju d i c i a l p o l i c y o f r e d u c t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s
-
Wa r D e b t s - T h e s t r o k e o f t h e s p o n g e
- Eu r o p e a n u n i t y .
O n e m o n t h a f t e r t h e M a r c h o n Ro m e a n d
h i s a d v e n t t b p o w e r , M u s s o l i n i d e c l a r e d t o t h e
Se n a t e t h a t : c c I i n t e n d t o c a r r y o u t a f o r e i g n
p o l i c y w h i c h t h o u g h n o t r a s h w i l l n e v e r b e o n e
o f r e n u n c i a t i o n . I b e l i e v e t h a t a l r e a d y I h a v e
a c c o m p l i s h e d s o m e t h i n g , t h a t i s t o m a k e t h e e x -
a l l i e s , a n d p e r h a p s t h e r e s t o f Eu r o p e , u n d e r s t a n d
w h a t i s t h i s v i s i o n o f I t a l y t h a t I s e e c o m i n g i n t o
b e i n g b e f o r e m y e y e s
:
a n I t a l y r e d u n d a n t w i t h
l i f e , w h i c h i s p r e p a r i n g f o r h e r s e l f a s t y l e o f l i f e
t h a t i s f u l l o f b e a u t y a n d s e r e n i t y , a n I t a l y w h i c h
d o e s n o t l i v e l i k e a p a r a s i t e o n h e r p a s t , b u t i n -
t e n d s t o b u i l d u p w i t h h e r o w n s t r e n g t h , h e r o w n
l a b o u r , h e r o w n s a c r i f i c e a n d h e r o w n p a s s i o n ,
h e r f u t u r e p o w e r ) ) .
200
T h e f i r s t p e r i o d o f M u s s o l i n i ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y
h a d a w a i t i n g c h a r a c t e r t h o u g h a t t h e s a m e t i m e ,
v i g i l a n t , a c t i v e a n d s k i l l f u l .
O n e o f t h e f i r s t qu e s t i o n s s o l v e d b y M u s s o l i n i
w a s t h e r e l a t i o n s w i t h Yu g o s l a v i a , a c c e p t i n g , w i t h
t h e P a c t o f Ro m e o f
27
Ja n u a r y ,
1 9 24,
c o n s i d e r -
a b l e e c o n o m i c s a c r i f i c e s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h
n e i g h b o u r l y r e l a t i o n s a n d p e r h a p s e v e n c o r d i a l
f r i e n d s h i p .
A f t e r t h e e v a c u a t i o n f o Va l o n a , Eu r o p e h a d
r e c o g n i s e d I t a l y ' s r i g h t t o c o n t r o l A l b a n i a . Wi t h
t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f P a r i s o f
7
No v e m b e r , 1 9 21 ,
t h e
f o u r e x - a l l i e d p o w e r s F r a n c e , En g l a n d , Ja p a n
a n d I t a l y , e n g a g e d t o u p h o l d i n t h e Le a g u e o f
Na t i o n s , i f n e c e s s a r y , t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t
a
t h e r e -
s t o r a t i o n o f t h e A l b a n i a n f r o n t i e r s s h o u l d b e
c o n f i d e d t o I t a l y a n d t h a t
a a n y m o d i f i c a t i o n
o f t h e f r o n t i e r s o f A l b a n i a c o n s t i t u t e s a d a n g e r
f o r t h e s t r a t e g i c s e c u r i t y o f I t a l y n .
D e t e r m i n e d t o r e s p e c t s c r u p u l o u s l y t h e i n d e -
p e n d e n c e o f A l b a n i a a n d c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t w a s
f o r I t a l y a n i n t e r e s t o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , M u s s o -
l i n i h e l d o u t t h e h a n d o f f r i e n d s h i p t o A l b a n i a
t o a s s i s t h e r t o f r e e h e r s e l f f r o m t h e c o n d i t i o n s
o f a n a r c h y a n d b a r b a r o u s e c o n o m i c s t o w h i c h
s h e h a d b e e n c o n d e m n e d t h r o u g h c e n t u r i e s o f n e g -
l e c t a n d t o g i v e h e r t h e m e a n s t o p r o v i d e , w i t h
h e r o w n f o r c e s a l o n e , f o r t h e d e f e n s e o f h e r i n -
201
d e p e n d e n c e . He n c e t h e f i n a n c i a l a i d a n d a s -
s i s t a n c e f r o m e x p e r t s i n t h e v a r i o u s b r a n c h e s o f
t h e e c o n o m i c , t e c h n i c a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v -
i t i e s o f t h e St a t e .
M i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s l a s t i n g m o r e t h a n t e n y e a r s
h a d w o n f o r I t a l y t h e p e r s i s t a n t h o s t i l i t y o f
G r e e c e , b u t , i n s p i t e o f t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e D o -
d e c a n e s e a n d t h e C o r f u i n c i d e n t , t h e l o n g - f o r -
g o t t e n c o r d i a l i t y b e t w e n t h e t w o n a t i o n s i n t h e
M e d i t e r r a n e a n w i t h t h e m o s t a n c i e n t c i v i l i s a t i o n s ,
w a s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d a n d r e c o g n i s e d b y a T r e a t y o f
F r i e n d s h i p o f 23 Se p t e m b e r , 1 9 28 .
F r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f h i s g o v e r n m e n t
M u s s o l i n i h a d s p o k e n v e r y p l a i n l y r e s p e c t i n g t h e
a t t e m p t b y G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a t o b r i n g u p
t h e qu e s t i o n o f t h e B r e n n e r f r o n t i e r , b u t h e c a m e
t o p o w e r ju s t a t t h e t i m e w h e n a s e r i o u s c r i s i s
n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f Eu r o p e f o r t h e
a s s i s t a n c e o f A u s t r i a ( o n 4 O c t o b e r , 1 9 22 t h e p r o -
t o c a l w a s s i g n e d b y w h i c h t h e e c o n o m y o f A u s t r i a
w a s p u t u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e Le a g u e o f Na -
t i o n s ) a n d w i s h i n g t o p r o v e t o A u s t r i a h i s s i n -
c e r i t y i n a d e s i r e f o r f r i e n d s h i p , h e i m m e d i a t e l y
a g r e e d t o t h e p r o p o s a l s f o r r e l i e v i n g t h e s o c i a l
a n d e c o n o m i c c r i s i s .
T h e a t t i t u d e t o G e r m a n y w a s n o l e s s c o m -
p r e h e n s i v e . a T h e c o m m o n s e n s e a n d r e a l i s m o f
t h e I t a l i a n s p i r i t
- -
d e c l a r e d t h e M i n i s t e r f o r
202
F o r e i g n A f f a i r s w h e n s p e a k i n g o n t h i s m a t t e r o n
9 M a y , 1 9 30 - r e p u d i a t e s t h e c r i t e r i o n b y w h i c h ,
i n v o k i n g t h e r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t r e a t i e s , t h e r e i s
s t i l l a n a t t e m p t t o m a i n t a i n a d i s t i n c t a n d u n ju s t
d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e v i c t o r i o u s St a t e s a n d t h e c o n -
qu e r e d . No o n e i s t h e c u s t o d i a n , e i t h e r f o r h i m s e l f
o r f o r o t h e r s , o f t h e t a b l e s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l
l a w .
T o b r e a k d o w n t h e b a r r i e r s b e t w e e n v i c t o r s
a n d v a n qu i s h e d , t o r e - e s t a b l i s h i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n -
f i d e n c e : t h e s e w e r e t h e p r i m a r y o b je c t i v e s o f
M u s s o l i n i ' s p o l i c y , a n d , s o t h a t n o u n t o w a r d a c t
s h o u l d d i s t u r b t h e s l o w a n d g r a d u a l g e n e r a l r e -
c o n c i l i a t i o n , M u s s o l i n i e x p r e s s e d h i s c o m p l e t e d i s -
a p p r o v a l o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e a A n s c h l u s s , w i t h o u t
t h e a g r e e m e n t o f t h e o t h e r P o w e r s , b y a c c c o u p
d e m a i n n p r e p a r e d b y t h e l e g i s l a t i v e u n i f i c a t i o n
o f G e r m a n y a n d A u s t r i a ( p l a n n e d a s f a r b a c k a s
1 9 27 ) a n d a g r e e d u p o n i n t h e c u s t o m s u n i o n w i t h
o u t t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e P o w e r s i n
1 9 31 .
I n e v e r y o t h e r w a y a l s o t h e F a s c i s t G o v e r n -
m e n t h a s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g g i v e n t h e c l e a r e s t
p r o o f s o f i t s w i l l t o p e a c e .
F o u r y e a r s b e f o r e t h e Ke l l o g g P a c t t h e D u c e
p l a c e d a n o t h e r b a n o n w a r w i t h h i s p a c t o f a r -
b i t r a t i o n a n d f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Sw i t z e r l a n d ( 2o Se p -
t e m b e r ,
1 9 24) . T h e o l d t r e a t i e s o f a r b i t r a t i o n d i d
n o t i n c l u d e t h e o b l i g a t i o n f o r p a c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n
203
o f t h e s o - c a l l e d qu e s t i o n o f h o n o u r a n d i n d e p e n -
d e n c e , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t a r b i t r a t i o n w a s p r e v e n t -
e d o n t h e qu e s t i o n s m o s t l i a b l e t o p r o v o k e w a r .
I n t h e t r e a t y w i t h Sw i t z e r l a n d , h o w e v e r , I t a l y
a s s u m e d t h e o b l i g a t i o n f o r p a c i f i c s o l u t i o n o f a l l
d i s a g r e e m e n t s w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t h u s g i v i n g a n
e x a m p l e w h i c h w a s p e r h a p s n e w a m o n g t h e G r e a t
P o w e r s .
A n o t h e r qu e s t i o n t o w h i c h M u s s o l i n i a t o n c e
t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n w a s t h e r e n e w i n g o f f r i e n d l y
r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n I t a l y a n d En g l a n d , s o m e w h a t
d i s t u r b e d b y t h e d i p l o m a t i c m a n o e u v r e s o f t h e
P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e
. T h i s w a s n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t
a s e t t l e m e n t , o n c e a n d f o r a l l , o f t h e w a r - t i m e
d e b i t a n d c r e d i t a c c o u n t .
En g l a n d , w h i c h u p t o t h a t t i m e h a d s h u f f l e d
r o u n d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f A r t i c l e 1 3 o f t h e P a c t o f
Lo n d o n o f 26 A p r i l , 1 9 1 5 , f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o c e d e
T r a n s - Ju b a l a n d t o I t a l y o n t h e b a s i s o f c o l o n i a l
c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d t o a r r i v e a t a s o l u t i o n o f t h e
t h o r n y qu e s t i o n o f t h e Ly b i a - Eg y p t i a n f r o n t i e r
w i t h t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f I t a l i a n s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r
t h e c o n t e s t e d o a s i s o f Ja r a b u b b y t h e C a i r o
a g r e e m e n t o f 6 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 25 .
T h e c e s s i o n o f T r a n s - Ju b a l a n d p e r m i t t e d I t a l y
t o i m p r o v e t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n h e r o l d Ea s t - A f r i c a n
c c l o n y , w h i l e t h e d e m a r c a t i o n o f t h e Ea s t e r n f r o n -
t i e r o f Ly b i a a n d t h e r e c o g n i t i o n , b y Eg y p t , o f
2
04
I t a l i a n
s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e w h o l e o f Se n u s s i a
a l l o w e d
h e r t o c a r r y o u t , a n e f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n
o f t h e h i n t e r l a n d o f C y r e n a i c a , , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r e -
v i o u s l y u n t o u c h e d o a s i s o f Ku f r a
.
I n r e s p e c t o f F r a n c e , u I b e l i e v e - s a i d t h e
D u c e o n 1 5 D e c e m b e r , 1 9 27 , i n h i s r e p o r t t o
t h e C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s - t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e ,
u s e f u l a n d I m a y s a y n e c e s s a r y , t o e s t a b l i s h a
w i d e , c o r d i a l a n d l a s t i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n
F r a n c e a n d I t a l y . Ye t t h i s a g r e e m e n t , t o b e l a s t -
i n g , c a n n o t b e b a s e d o n e x c l u s i v e l y r h e t o r i c a l o r
p u r e l y s e n t i m e n t a l m o t i v e s b u t r a t h e r o n t h e e l i -
m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e qu e s t i o n s w h i c h m a y c o n s t i t u t e
p o i n t s o f f r i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s . T h e s e
p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e n e i t h e r s e r i o u s n o r i n s o l u b l e ,
b u t o n l y d e l i c a t e l i k e a l l o t h e r p r o b l e m s o f l i f e
a n d r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p e o p l e s , w i l l b e b r o a c h e d
i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e t h r o u g h t h e o r d i n a r y d i p l o -
m a t i c c h a n n e l s .
T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , a s i n t h e c a s e o f
En g l a n d , w a s r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n s r e -
f e r e d t o i n A r t i c l e 1 3 o f t h e P a c t o f Lo n d o n . A n y
p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o m p e n s a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g i v e n
b y En g l a n d i n t h e c e s s i o n o f T r a n s - Ju b a l a n d
b e i n g e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e d i s c u s -
s i o n s w e r e r e d u c e d t o t h e p u r e a n d s i m p l e qu e s -
t i o n o f t h e f r o n t i e r t o t h e We s t a n d So u t h o f
Ly b i a .
205
T h i s f r o n t i e r h a d b e e n t h e s u b je c t o f d i s -
a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n F r a n c e a n d T u r k e y f o r t w e n t y
y e a r s w h e n I t a l y c o n qu e r e d Ly b i a . T h e o n l y d e -
f i n i t e t r e a t y e x i s t i n g w a s t h a t w h i c h d i v i d e d T u n i s
f r o m T r i p o l i t a n i a f r o m t h e s e a u p t o 1 5 k i l o m e t r e s
So u t h o f G a d a m e s . F o r t h e r e s t , w h i l e T u r k e y
c l a i m e d a l l t h e d e s e r t t e r r i t o r y u p t o a n d e v e n
b e y o n d La k e C h a d , F r a n c e c l a i m e d
t h e w h o l e
o f t h e t e r r i t o r y t o t h e No r t h o f La k e C h a d w h i c h
t h e a g r e e m e n t o f
21 M a y , 1 8 9 9 , w i t h En g l a n d h a d
l e f t , a l m o s t r e s n u l l i u s , u n d e r h e r s p h e r e o f i n -
f l u e n c e . T h i s d i f f i c u t y s h o u l d h a v e b e e n o v e r c o m e
a b o v e a l l b y A r t i c l e 1 3 o f t h e P a c t o f Lo n d o n .
Wh e n t h e w a r c a m e t o a n e n d I t a l y a s k e d
t h a t t h e Ly b i a n f r o n t i e r t o w a r d s T u n i s a n d t h e
Su d a n s h o u l d n o w b e e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e r e c o g -
n i t i o n o f h e r s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e c a r a v a n r o u t e s
o f G a d a m e s a n d G h a t t o t h e We s t a n d T i b e s t i ,
En n e d i a n d B o r k u t o t h e So u t h , a l l r e g i o n s w h i c h
c o n s t i t u t e d s o l e l y a p a r t o f t h e h i n t e r l a n d a l r e a d y
c l a i m e d b y T u r k e y a n d w h i c h F r a n c e h a d g a r -
r i s o n e d , p r o f i t i n g b y t h e s t a t e o f a n a r c h y f o l l o w -
i n g t h e f i r s t I t a l i a n o c c u p a t i o n o f Ly b i a . F r a n c e
a t o n c e c e d e d t h e O a s e s o f e l - B a r k a t a n d F e h n y
a n d t h e r o u t e f r o m G h a t t o T u m m o ( a g r e e m e n t
o f
1 2 Se p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 9 ) t h u s b r i n g i n g t h e w e s t e r n
f r o n t i e r t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e T u m m o m o u n t a i n s ,
a n d a p p e a r e d t o b e d i s p o s e d t o a l s o c e d e , o r t o
206
b e e x a c t , t o g i v e b a c k , T i b e s t i a n d B o r k u , b u t
o w i n g t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n f r o m c o l o n i a l c i r c l e s , t h i s
w a s a f t e r w a r d s r e f u s e d .
A n o t h e r v e r y s e r i o u s qu e s t i o n w a s t h e s t a t u t e o f
T u n i s , t h a t i s , t h e t r e a t m e n t o f I t a l i a n s u b je c t s
r e s i d e n t i n T u n i s i a , g u a r a n t e e d b y o n e o f t h e c o n -
v e n t i o n s w h i c h , i n 1 8 9 6 , w a s i n t e n d e d t o h e a l w h a t
I t a l y c o n s i d e r e d a w o u n d i n f l i c t e d 1 5 y e a r s b e f o r e
b y t h e c o u p - d e - m a i n o n t h a t r e g i o n w h i c h , a s C a r -
t h a g i n i a , h a d f o r s o l o n g m e n a c e d , t h r o u g h Si c i l y ,
t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e p e n i n s u l a
. T h e s e p r o b l e m s
a w a i t e d s o l u t i o n , b u t t h i s s o l u t i o n w a s c o n d i t i o n a l
o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a u n i t e d a l l i e d f r o n t i n Eu r o p e .
La t e r o n t h e r e w a s n o t a s i n g l e i n i t i a t i v e i n
f a v o u r o f p e a c e f r o m t h e Lo c a r n o T r e a t y t o t h e
Ke l l o g g P a c t t o w h i c h M u s s o l i n i d i d n o t g i v e h i s
f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n . F o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n s , h e i m -
m e d i a t e l y a g r e e d w i t h o u t r e s e r v e t o t h e i d e a o f a
g e n e r a l d i s a r m a m e n t t o w h i c h , f o r t h a t m a t t e r ,
t h e a l l i e d P o w e r s w e r e c o m m i t t e d b y t h e Ve r -
s a i l l e s T r e a t y . T h e p r e m i s e s r e l a t i v e t o t h i s qu e s -
t i o n w e r e p u t b e f o r e t h e Se n a t e b y M u s s o l i n i o n
5 Ju n e , 1 9 28 a n d w e r e : ( i ) t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e
o f e v e r y k i n d o f a r m a m e n t ; ( 2) t h e p r o p o r t i o n
o f a r m a m e n t s s h o u l d n o t b e b a s e d o n t h e s t a t u s
qu o
; ( 3) l i m i t a t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s b y I t a l y c o u l d
n o t h a v e a n a b s o l u t e c h a r a c t e r a n d s h o u l d b e
i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l a r m a m e n t s o f o t h e r St a t e s
207
( p a r i t y w i t h t h e m o s t h i g h l y a r m e d Eu r o p e a n
c o n t i n e n t a l n a t i o n ) ; ( 4) t h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t
d e c l a r e d i t s e l f , a p r i o r i , r e a d y t o a c c e p t a s t h e
l i m i t o f i t s a r m a m e n t s a n y f i g u r e , h o w e v e r l o w ,
p r o v i d e d t h a t t h a t f i g u r e w a s n o t e x c e e d e d b y
a n y o t h e r Eu r o p e a n c o n t i n e n t a l P o w e r ; ( g ) t h e
m e t h o d s f o r o b t a i n i n g l i m i t a t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s
s h o u l d b e o f t h e s i m p l e s t a n d s h o u l d n o t e n t a i l
t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r f o r e i g n c o n t r o l .
T h i s p r o g r a m m e m e t w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e s i s t e n c e
o n t h e p a r t o f F r a n c e w h i c h w a s d e t e r m i n e d ,
i n t e r a l i a , t o d e n y t o I t a l y t h a t n a v a l p a r i t y w h i c h
h a d b e e n , i n g e n e r a l , d e c i d e d a t t h e Na v a l C o n -
f e r e n c e o f Wa s h i n g t o n i n 1 9 21 . T h e a t t i t u d e a s -
s u m e d b y F r a n c e m a d e i t i m p o s s i b l e t o c o m e t o
a n y a g r e e m e n t o n t h e qu e s t i o n o f d i s a r m a m e n t ,
w h i l e t h e t r u c e p r o p o s e d b y I t a l y a t t h e Se p t e m -
b e r s e s s i o n o f t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s ,
1 9 31 ,
w a s
f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d b y a l l . T h i s i n i t i a t i v e o n t h e p a r t
o f I t a l y h a s b e e n , u p t o n o w , t h e o n l y c o n c r e t e
r e s u l t - t h o u g h l i m i t e d i n t i m e - o f a l l d i s -
a r m a m e n t d i s c u s s i o n s .
I n t h e m e a n t i m e a n d i n t h e h o p e o f o v e r c o m -
i n g t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r d i s s e n s i o n s , I t a l y a t t e m p t e d
t o b r i n g a n e v e n m o r e e f f e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o
a g e n e r a l s o l u t i o n a n d p r o p o s e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o
qu a n t i t a t i v e l i m i t a t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s , a qu a l i t a -
t i v e l i m i t a t i o n o n w h i c h a g r e e m e n t s h o u l d h a v e
208
o f p r o p o r t i o n s o r t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t a t u s o f o n e o r
o t h e r P o w e r .
T h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t f o u n d a p r e c e d e n t
o f s o m e v a l u e i n t h e p e a c e t r e a t i e s o f 1 g 1 g i n
w h i c h i t w a s p r o p o s e d t o d e p r i v e G e r m a n y a n d
h e r a l l i e s o f a l l i n s t r u m e n t s o f w a r o f a n a g -
g r e s s i v e n a t u r e , a n d i t w a s o n t h e s e l i n e s t h a t
I t a l y s o u g h t a b a s i s f o r d i s a r m a m e n t d i s c u s s i o n s
.
A l r e a d y a t t h e Na v a l C o n f e r e n c e i n Lo n d o n
i n 1 9 30, t h e F a s c i s t G o v e r n m e n t h a d d e c l a r e d
i t s e l f a r e a d y t o a c c e p t t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s a b o l i t i o n
o f t w o o f t h e m o s t d e s t r u c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t s o f
n a v a l w a r f a r e
: b a t t l e s h i p s a n d s u b m a r i n e s . A n
e v e n g r e a t e r s t e p f o r w a r d w a s m a d e i n t h e s p e e c h
b y G r a n d i o n 1 o F e b r u a r y , 1 9 32, a t t h e G e n e v a
C o n f e r e n c e w h e r e b y a g e n e r a l p l a n f o r qu a l i -
t a t i v e d i s a r m a m e n t w a s p u t b e f o r e t h e P o w e r s
w h i c h i n r e s p e c t o f t h e n a v y i n c l u d e d t h e s i -
m u l t a n e o u s a b o l i t i o n o f l
: a t t l e s h i p s s u b m a r i n e s a n d
a e r o p l a n e c a r r i e r s
; i n r e s p e c t o f t h e a r m y t h e
a b o l i t i o n o f h e a v y a r t i l l e r y a n d a r m o u r e d c a r s
o f e v e r y d e s c r i p t i o n a n d i n r e s p e c t o f t h e a i r
f o r c e t h e a b o l i t i o n o f b o m b i n g m a c h i n e s
. A l s o t h e
t o t a l a b o l i t i o n o f c h e m i c a l
a n d b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l
m e a n s o f w a r f a r e a n d t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e l a w s
o f w a r w i t h a v i e w t o a s s u r i n g g r e a t e r a n d
m o r e c o m p l e t e p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e c i v i l p o p u l a t i o n
.
209
1 4 i n g .
Ho w m a n y c o n f e r e n c e s w e r e h e l d f r o m
1 9 25
t o 1 9 30 t o s o l v e t h e e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m o f t h i s
o r t h a t St a t e u n d e r c o n t r o l o r e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s
i n g e n e r a l ? << Ye t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , - s a i d
M u s s o l i n i i n t h e Se n a t e o n 1 8 D e c e m b e r ,
1 9 30 -
n o n e o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e s e i t h e r p a r t i a l o r g e n e r a l
t h a t h a v e t a k e n p l a c e u p t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e ,
h a v e g i v e n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s
. I t i s n o t a p r o b l e m
t h a t c a n b e s o l v e d b y t e c h n i c i a n s ; e i t h e r i t m u s t
b e s o l v e d o n p o l i t i c a l l i n e s o r n o t a t a l l u
. T h e
p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n , t h e o n l y o n e p o s s i b l e , w h e n a l l
t h e e c o n o m i c l a w s a p p e a r e d t o b e s u s p e n d e d , w a s
t h a t p r o p o s e d b y h i m i n D e c e m b e r , 1 9 22, t h a t
i s w i t h a u s t r o k e o f t h e s p o n g e u t o w i p e o u t
t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e b t s a n d c r e d i t s , a n d t o l i b e -
r a t e c e r t a i n p e o p l e s f r o m t h e d r e a d o f h a v i n g t o
w o r k e t e r n a l l y f o r t h e p a y m e n t o f d e b t s .
P r e s i d e n t Ho o v e r ' s p r o p o s a l w a s a s t e p i n
t h i s d i r e c t i o n , b u t a y e a r ' s h o l i d a y f r o m d e b t
p a y m e n t s w a s b a r e l y a m a t e r i a l r e l i e f w h i l e w h a t
t h e p e o p l e s w a n t e d w a s a m o r a l r e l i e f , t o b e f r e e
f r o m a p e r e n i a l a n d u n m e a s u r e d l o a d , t h e c e r -
t a i n t y o f o n e d a y b e i n g a b l e , w i t h s m a l l b u t
s u r e m e a n s , t o b u i l d u p t h e i r o w n f u t u r e
.
I n a s p e e c h m a d e a t Na p l e s o n 25 O c t o b e r ,
1 9 31 , M u s s o l i n i l a u n c h e d a n o t h e r e n e r g e t i c a p p e a l
t o c o m m o n s e n s e a n d t o t h e c o n s c i e n c e o f g o v e r -
n o r s a n d g o v e r n e d : u
Wh i c h a r e t h e o b je c t i v e s i n
21 0
r e l a t i o n t o w o r l d p o l i c y t o d a y o f t h e F a s c i s t Re g i -
m e o n t h e t h r e s h o l d o f i t s X t h y e a r ? T h e y a r e p r e -
c i s e a n d i m m u t a b l e
. T h e y a r e n o t f e w i n t h e w o r l d
t o d a y w h o c o n f r o n t t h e p r o b l e m s o f Eu r o p e a n
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f r o m o u r p o i n t o f v i e w . Ni n e y e a r s
h a v e p a s s e d s i n c e F a s c i s t I t a l y , a t Lo n d o n ,
b r o u g h t f o r w a r d t h e p r o b l e m o f d e b t s a n d r e -
p a r a t i o n s i n t e r m s w h i c h a r e n o w t h e o r d e r o f
t h e d a y . B u t a s k o u r s e l v e s : m u s t w e r e a l l y p a s s
s i x t y l o n g y e a r s b e f o r e w e c a n w r i t e f i n s
t o t h e
t r a g i c d e b i t a n d c r e d i t a c c o u n t w h i c h h a d i t s
o r i g i n i n t h e b l o o d o f t e n m i l l i o n y o u n g m e n w h o
n e v e r a g a i n w i l l s e e t h e l i g h t o f d a y ? A n d c a n
i t b e s a i d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a ju r i d i c a l e qu a l i t y
b e t w e e n n a t i o n s w h i l e o n t h e o n e h a n d t h e r e a r e
t h e n a t i o n s a r m e d t o t h e t e e t h a n d o n t h e o t h e r
t h e St a t e s c o n d e m n e d t o b e w e a p o n l e s s ? A n d
h o w c a n o n e s p e a k o f Eu r o p e a n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
u n l e s s c e r t a i n c l a u s e s i n c e r t a i n p e a c e t r e a t i e s a r e
m o d i f i e d w h i c h h a v e p u s h e d e n t i r e p e o p l e s t o t h e
e d g e o f m a t e r i a l h e l l a n d m o r a l d e s p e r a t i o n ? A n d
h o w m u c h m o r e t i m e m u s t p a s s b e f o r e w e a r e
c o n v i n c e d t h a t i n t h e e c o n o m i c a p p a r a t u s o f t h e
w o r l d t o d a y s o m e t h i n g h a s c e a s e d t o f u n c t i o n a n d
i s p e r h a p s b r o k e n ? T h e s e a r e t h e p r e c i s e t e r m s o n
w h i c h m a y b e b a s e d a r e a l p e a c e w h i c h c a n n o t b e
d i v o r c e d f r o m ju s t i c e l e s t i t b e c o m e a p r o t o c o l
d i c t a t e d b y r e v e n g e , h a t e a n d f e a r
.
21 1
EURO P EA N O R 1 6 I N S
O F T HE F O UR P O WER P A C T
F r a n c e a t t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e - RSe c u r i t y s a c c o r d i n g
t o C l e m e n c e a u , Ll o y d G e o r g e a n d Wi l s o n - T h e s y s t e m
o f Eu r o p e a n a l l i a n c e s - T h e n o n - a g g r e s s i o n p a c t s - T h e
F o u r P o w e r P a c t a g a i n s t t h e o p p o s i n g b l o c k s - T h e Eu r o p -
e a n a c c o r d - T h e M u s s o l i n i P a c t a n d t h e Ke l l o g g P a c t
- Li m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s - Ne c e s s i t y f o r a
r e f o r m - T h e a d h e r e n c e o f En g l a n d , F r a n c e a n d G e r -
m a n y - T h e r e s e r v e s o f t h e Li t t l e En t e n t e - E . r a m i n a t i o n
o f t h e C l a u s e s .
I f M u s s o l i n i ' s w a r n i n g w a s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h
t h e g e n e r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t o f t h e p o s t -
w a r f i n a n c i a l d i s o r d e r , h i s F o u r P o w e r P a c t w a s
a s o l u t i o n t o t h e n o l e s s s e r i o u s d i p l o m a t i c p r o -
b l e m s
.
A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p l a n s o f t h e t r i a d
- C l e m e n -
c e a u , Ll o y d G e o r g e a n d Wi l s o n - w h o d o m i n a t e d
t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e a t P a r i s f o l l o w i n g t h e w o r l d
w a r , t h e f u t u r e Eu r o p e a n p o l i c y s h o u l d b e b a s e d
p r i m a r i l y o n a F r a n c o - A n g l o - A m e r i c a n a g r e e m e n t .
I n f o r m t h i s a p p l i e d s o l e l y i n c a s e o f a n a t t a c k
o n F r a n c e b y G e r m a n y w h e n t h e t w o A n g l o - Sa x o n
21 2
p o w e r s s h o u l d c o m e t o h e r a i d , b u t , o n t h e d a y
o n w h i c h t h i s e n g a g e m e n t b e c a m e a c o n c r e t e f a c t ,
t h e r e w o u l d a r i s e , i n r e a l i t y , a n a l l i a n c e w h i c h ,
w h i l e g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e Eu r o p e a n s y s t e m i z a t i o n
e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e p a c t s a g a i n s t t h e p r i n c i p a l P o w -
e r a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s t u r b t h e
s t a t u s
qu o ,
w o u l d
t e n d t o b e c o m e t h e c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e i n c o n -
t i n e n t a l Eu r o p e a n p o l i c y , t h o u g h t w o o f t h e p a r -
t i e s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h i s a l l i a n c e w o u l d b e o u t s i d e
c o n t i n e n t a l Eu r o p e .
Ho w Wi l s o n c o u l d e v e r h a v e d e l u d e d h i m -
s e l f i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t A m e r i c a n p u b l i c o p i n i o n
w o u l d a c c e p t w i t h o u t qu e s t i o n t h i s r o l e o f g u a -
r a n t o r a n d r e g u l a t o r o f Eu r o p e a n p o l i c y i s n o t
w o r t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n En g l a n d a l s o t h i n g s
d i d
n o t g o t o o s m o o t h l y
. T h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s , n a -
t u r a l l y , r e p u d i a t e d e n e r g e t i c a l l y t h e o b l i g a t i o n s
p r o p o s e d b y Wi l s o n a n d En g l a n d f o u n d , i n t h e r e -
f u s a l o f t h e Un i t e d St a t e s , s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l ju s t i -
f i c a t i o n a n d p o l i t i c a l g r o u n d s t o w i t h d r a w a l s o
f r o m t h e e n g a g e m e n t .
F r a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , s u b s t i t u t e d t h e s y s t e m o f a n
o v e r - s e a s A n g l o - Sa x o n a l l i a n c e w i t h a c o n t i n e n t a l
a l l i a n c e w i t h B e l g i u m , P o l a n d , C z e c h o s l o v a k i a ,
Ru m a n i a a n d Yu g o s l a v i a , w h i c h t h i s t i m e w a s c o n -
f i n e d s o l e l y t o Eu r o p e
. B u t Eu r o p e w a s n o w s p l i t
i n t o f o u r p a r t s o r f o u r p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s : F r a n c e
w i t h B e l g i u m , P o l a n d a n d t h e Li t t l e En t e n t e ( t h e
21 3
l a t t e r d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t Hu n g a r y )
; G e r m a n y w h i c h
c o u l d c o u n t w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s o n t h e G e r m a n
s e n t i m e n t i n A u s t r i a ; I t a l y w h i c h n o w e n t e r e d i n t o
p a r t i c u l a r l y c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h Hu n g a r y a n d
B u l g a r i a , a n d , f i n a l l y , Ru s s i a
.
T h e a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n F r a n c e a n d P o l a n d w a s
a n t i - Ru s s i a n a s w e l l a s a n t i - G e r m a n ;
b e t w e e n
F r a n c e a n d Ru m a n i a e x c l u s i v e l y a n t i - Ru s s i a n ( i f
o n l y b y t h e u s u a l c l a u s e s o f a d e f e n s i v e n a t u r e a l -
r e a d y c o m m o n t o p r e - w a r a l l i a n c e s )
. I t i s u n d e r -
s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n m i g h t h a v e g i v e n r i s e
t o a Ru s s o - G e r m a n r a p p r o c h e m e n t , b u t i n s p i t e o f
t h e f e a r s a n d c o n je c t u r e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e Ru s s o -
G e r m a n a l l i a n c e d i d n o t m a t e r i a l i s e e i t h e r w i t h
t h e Ra p a l l o T r e a t y i n 1 9 22 o r w i t h t h e t r e a t y o f
B e r l i n i n 1 9 26 w h i c h w e r e c o n f i n e d t o a g r e e m e n t s
o f f r i e n d s h i p a n d n o n - a g g r e s s i o n .
G e r m a n y , d i s a r m e d a n d o c c u p i e d b y f o r e i g n
t r o o p s , c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o t a k e u p a n a n t a g o n i s t i c
a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e w e s t e r n P o w e r s a n d Ru s s i a ,
o w i n g t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r e n d o f h e r p o l i c y
d i d
n o t a d m i t b i n d i n g a n d e x c l u s i v e a g r e e m e n t s
.
I t a l y h e l d h e r s e l f e v e n m o r e a l o o f f r o m e n -
g a g e m e n t s i n r e s p e c t o f G e r m a n y i n s p i t e o f t h e
g e n e r a l g o o d r e l a t i o n s a n d c o m m o n o u t l o o k
o n
p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r m o m e n t s
.
F r a n c e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a d n e v e r a b a n d o n -
e d t h e a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n f r o m En g l a n d a d e f i n i t e
21 4
p r o m i s e o f a s s i s t a n c e i n e v e n t o f a G e r m a n a t t a c k ,
a n d En g l a n d h a d n e v e r g i v e n a d e f i n i t e r e f u s a l .
C h a m b e r l a i n a n d Ll o y d G e o r g e h a d b o t h r e c o g n i s -
e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f F r a n c e ' s c l a i m t o a g u a r a n t e e
o f s e c u r i t y f r o m En g l a n d . I n t h e St r e s e m a n n n o t e s
i t i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d , a s t h e p r i n c i p a l m o t i v e f o r
p u r s u a d i n g G e r m a n y t o g i v e F r a n c e a g u a r a n t e e
o f s e c u r i t y , t h a t t h e s e c u r i t y p a c t w o u l d b e s i g n e d
i n a n y e v e n t a n d , i f n o t w i t h , a g a i n s t G e r m a n y
.
T h e Lo c a r n o T r e a t y w a s a n e x t r e m e l y l a u d a b l e
a t t e m p t t o e m e r g e f r o m t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f o p p o s -
i n g a l l i a n c e s ( a l r e a d y f o r m e d , i n p r o c e s s o f f o r -
m a t i o n o r l i k e l y t o b e f o r m e d i n t h e f u t u r e ) t o
b e s u b s t i t u t e d b y a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n a n t a g o n i s t i c
p a r t i e s
. St r e s e m a n n i n s i s t e d r e p e a t e d l y t h a t Lo -
c a r n o , t o b e r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e , s h o u l d b e m u c h m o r e
t h a n a s e r i e s o f n e w ju r i d i c a l p a r a g r a p h s
; i t s h o u l d
i n i t i a t e a n e w s p i r i t o f l o y a l a n d d e c i s i v e c o l l a -
b o r a t i o n . T h i s v i e w , s h a r e d b y B r i a n d , n e v e r h a d
a n y r e a l p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , a n d i t m u s t b e s a i d
t h a t t h i s T r e a t y w a s v e r y l i m i t e d i n s c o p e a s ,
w h i l e g u a r a n t e e i n g p e a c e a n d a s s i s t a n c e i n e v e n t
o f a t t a c k , i t c o n t a i n e d n o p o s i t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r
a p e r m a n e n t m u t u a l c o - o p e r a t i o n
.
T h u s , a f t e r Lo c a r n o , n o t o n l y d i d t h e e x i s t i n g
a l l i a n c e s r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d , b u t o t h e r s w e r e f o r m -
e d a n d s t i l l m o r e a p p e a r e d a s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T o
m e n t i o n o n l y t h e l a s t p h a s e o f t h i s f r a c t i o n i n g
21 5
p o l i c y t h e r e w e r e : t h e n o n - a g g r e s s i o n
p a c t s
b e -
t w e e n F r a n c e , P o l a n d a n d Ru s s i a w h i c h s e e m e d
t o i n c r e a s e t h e i s o l a t i o n o f G e r m a n y , a g g r a v a t e d
b y c e r t a i n e p i s o d e s w h i c h b r o u g h t a b o u t a c o l d n e s s
b e t w e e n Ru s s i a a n d G e r m a n y a n d a r a p p r o c h e -
m e n t b e t w e e n Ru s s i a a n d F r a n c e .
M u s s o l i n i ' s F o u r P o w e r P a c t s h o u l d b e c o n -
s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e e v e n t s i n o r d e r
t o
a p p r e c i a t e i t s f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d p o t e n t i a l i t i e s .
I t w i l l a p p e a r t h a n a s a v i g o r o u s t u r n o f t h e t i l l e r
a w a y f r o m t h e d a n g e r o u s a d v e n t u r e s o f p a r t i c u l a r
a l l i a n c e s a n d t o w a r d s t h e f a i r w a y o f a c o m m o n
a g r e e m e n t . F r a n c e , c e r t a i n l y
d i d n o t i n t e n d t o
r e n o u n c e h e r p a r t i c u l a r a l l i a n c e s a n d t h e r e f o r e
w i s h e d t o r e a s s u r e h e r a l l i e s
. No r d i d t h e F a -
s c i s t G o v e r n m e n t w i s h t o s e e a d i m i n u t i o n i n t h e
e s p e c i a l l y c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h A u s t r i a ,
Hu n g a r y
a n d B u l g a r i a .
B u t t h e F o u r P o w e r P a c t i m p l i e d t h a t t h e s e
s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s , o u t s i d e t h e qu a d r i l a t e r a l a g r e e -
m e n t , o f t h e c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s s h o l d b e s u b o r d i n -
a t e d , i n t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s , t o a n a c c o r d
b e t w e e n t h e s i g n a t o r i e s o f t h e P a c t . I t w a s n o t a t
a l l t h e s a m e t h i n g t h a t F r a n c e , w h i l e f o r m i n g a
c l o s e d s y s t e m w i t h a s e r i e s o f m i n o r Eu r o p e a n
St a t e s , o r m a i n t a i n i n g p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s w i t h
t h e s e St a t e s , s h o u l d a g r e e t o a s y s t e m a t i c d i s c u s -
s i o n a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e g r e a t Eu r o p e a n
21 6
p o w e r s
.
T h e f u n d a m e n t a l b a s i s o f t h e M u s s o l i n i
P a c t w a s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f o p p o s i n g Eu r o p e a n
b l o c k s b y a n u c l e u s f o r a Eu r o p e a n a c c o r d a n d
i t i s i n t h i s l i g h t t h a t t h e P a c t a n d i t s f u t u r e
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s s h o u l d b e ju g e d .
A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e M u s s o l i n i P a c t a n d
t h e Ke l l o g g P a c t - w h i c h t r a n s f e r s t h e p r o b l e m
f r o m a Eu r o p e a n t o a w o r l d b a s i s
- m a y l e a d t o
r a t h e r s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s . T h e Ke l l o g P a c t , l i k e
t h e Lo c a r n o T r e a t y , i s n e g a t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r .
I t c o n t a i n s t h e o b l i g a t i o n n o t t o h a v e r e c o u r s e t o
w a r , b u t d o e s n o t m a k e a n y p r o v i s i o n f o r a r r i v -
i n g a t a p o s i t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e St a t e s .
C e r t a i n l y , t h e e n g a g e m e n t n o t t o r e s o r t t o f o r c e ,
i n s o f a r a s i t i s m a i n t a i n e d , c o n s t i t u t e s a n o t a b l e
b e n e f i t t o h u m a n i t y , b u t , t h e qu e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r
i t c a n b e m a i n t a i n e d a l w a y s a n d e v e r y w h e r e ( a s
s h o w n b y t h e d i s p u t e s i n t h e F a r Ea s t a n d So u t h
A m e r i c a ) a n d t h i s i s d o u b t f u l u n l e s s a c o m p l e x o r -
g a n i s a t i o n i s i n s t i t u t e d a n d m a d e t o f u n c t i o n
w h i c h w i l l s o l v e p a c i f i c a l l y a n d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f o r
a l l p a r t i e s t h e qu e s t i o n s t h a t c a n n o t b e e l i m i n a -
t e d b y t h e P a c t i t s e l f .
C e r t a i n l y t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s w a s i n t e n d e d
t o b e , a n d t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t i s , a n o r g a n i s a t i o n o f
t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , b u t , i n t h i s r e s p e c t a l s o , e x p e -
r i e n c e h a s p r o v e d t h a t i t i s f a r f r o m f u l f i l l i n g i t s
f u n c t i o n s a d e qu a t e l y . T h i s i s n o t a r e a s o n , h o w -
21 7
e v e r , f o r a b a n d o n i n g o r i g n o r i n g t h e Le a g u e a n d ,
i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a d m o n i t i o n i m p l i e d b y
t h e s p e e c h o f M u s s o l i n i a t T u r i n i n O c t o b e r ,
1
9 3
2
w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n i n g t h e g e r m s o f h i s f u t u r e Eu -
r o p e a n p r o p o s a l s , i t i s ju s t b e c a u s e t h e Le a g u e i s
s i c k t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e m a i n a t i t s b e d s i d e .
T h e t e x t o f t h e F o u r P o w e r P a c t c o r r e s p o n d e d t o
t h i s n e e d i n t h a t c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e i s m a d e t o t h e
Le a g u e w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f w h i c h i t w a s
p r o p o s e d t o i n c l u d e t h e n e w P a c t .
M u s s o l i n i ' s o p i n i o n w a s t h a t t h e Le a g u e o f Na -
t i o n s i s t o o v a s t a n d a s y e t t o o w e a k a n o r g a n i s a -
t i o n t o s o l v e t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s i n a l l
t h e i r m u l t i p l e a s p e c t s . T h e C o v e n a n t o f t h e
Le a g u e h a d e s t a b l i s h e d a p e r m a n e n t C o u n c i l o f
w h i c h t h e f o u r g r e a t w e s t e r n P o w e r s w e r e p e r m a n -
e n t m e m b e r s
. T o u s e a n A m e r i c a n e x p r e s s i o n
w h i c h w a s a d o p t e d f o r t h e Ke l l o g g P a c t , i t w a s
n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p l y t h e C o u n c i l
a
w i t h t e e t h
a n d g i v e i t t h e m e a n s t o b e a p e r m a n e n t a n d
e f f i c a c i o u s i n f l u e n c e f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d p e a c e .
T h i s h o w e v e r w a s n o t f o r t h e m o m e n t p r a c t i -
c a l l y p o s s i b l e , e x c e p t t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t i n r e s -
p e c t o f Eu r o p e a n p o l i c y a n d , m o r e p r e c i s e l y , t h e
p e a c e t r e a t i e s a n d t h e n e w s i t u a t i o n s c r e a t e d b y
a n d p r o b l e m s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e m . T h e i d e a o f a
p a r t i c u l a r P a c t w a s a n a t u r a l c o n s e qu e n c e o f
t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , b e t w e e n t h e f o u r w e s t e r n P o -
2
1
8
w e r s , p r o t a g o n i s t s i n p e a c e a n d w a r i n s o f a r a s
Eu r o p e i s c o n c e r n e d .
Ru s s i a , o w i n g t o h e r p a r t i c u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t
a n d i s o l a t i o n f r o m 1 9 1 7 o n w a r d s , r e m a i n e d o u t -
s i d e t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a s s h e
h a d r e m a i n e d o u t s i d e Lo c a r n o . B u t w h o w o u l d
h a v e p r e v e n t e d h e r a d h e r e n c e a t a l a t e r d a t e ? A
p a c i f i c a n d w e l l b a l a n c e d Eu r o p e , t h a n k s t o a n
i n t i m a t e a n d c o n s t a n t c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e
P o w e r s , w o u l d h a v e b e e n a n e n o r m o u s c o n t r i b u -
t i o n t o w a r d s t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e Ke l l o g g P a c t
f o r c c o u t l a w i n g w a r i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e
a r e c e r t a i n Eu r o p e a n s i t u a t i o n s a n d , m o r e p a r -
t i c u l a r l y , t h o s e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e w a r a n d p e a c e
t r e a t i e s , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e a g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i s e d
d a n g e r o f , n e w c o n f l a g r a t i o n s .
I t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s a i d t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l
i d e a s o f t h e P a c t w e r e p u t f o r w a r d i n t h e s p e e c h
a t T u r i n o n 23 O c t o b e r , 1 9 32 . T h e f i r s t p l a n i s
d a t e d
: Ro c c a d e l l e C a m i n a t e , 4 M a r c h X I . O n 1 8
M a r c h 1 9 33 t h e B r i t i s h P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c D o -
n a l d a n d t h e En g l i s h Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e f o r F o -
r e i g n A f f a i r s Si m o n , a r r i v e d i n Ro m e . M u s s o l i n i ' s
p l a n , w h i c h h a d a l r e a d y b e e n c o m u n i c a t e d t o t h e
En g l i s h , F r e n c h a n d G e r m a n a m b a s s a d o r o n t h e
m o r n i n g o f t h e 1 8 t h , w a s c o m m u n i c a t e d t o a n d
d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e m o n t h a t d a y a n d t h e f o l l o w i n g
d a y .
21 9
T h e En g l i s h m i n i s t e r s , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y Si m o n ,
m a d e c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d o n i 9 M a r c h a s e -
c o n d t e x t w a s d r a w n u p i n En g l i s h . O n
21
M a r c h
t h i s w a s d i s c u s s e d a t P a r i s b y M a c D o n a l d , Si m o n
a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e F r e n c h C o u n c i l , D a -
l a d i e r a n d t h e M i n i s t e r f o r F o r e i g n a f f a i r s , P a u l -
B o n c o u r . O n 23 M a r c h M a c D o n a l d s p o k e i n t h e
Ho u s e o f C o m m o n s i n f a v o u r o f t h e P a c t a n d , o n
t h e s a m e d a y , Hi t l e r i n a s p e e c h i n t h e Re i c h s t a g ,
m a d e p u b l i c h i s a d h e r e n c e o n g e n e r a l l i n e s . O n
t h e s a m e d a y t h e F r e n c h a m b a s s a d o r i n Ro m e
m a d e a s i m i l a r d i p l o m a t i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e
Li t t l e En t e n t e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m a d e a d e c l a -
r a t i o n t o t h e c o n t r a r y a t G e n e v a o n 25 M a r c h .
O n
24 M a r c h t h e En g l i s h G o v e r n m e n t p r e s e n t -
e d t h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t w i t h a t e x t , c o n t a i n i n g
m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e o f z 9 M a r c h
.
O n i i A p r i l a F r e n c h p r o je c t ( d a t e d i o A p r i l )
c o n t a i n i n g a w i d e r s y s t e m i z a t i o n , w a s r e c e i v e d
i n Ro m e , a c c o m p a n i e d b y a M e m o r a n d u m . F i -
n a l l y , o n
21 A p r i l , t h e G e r m a n G o v e r n m e n t a l s o
p r e s e n t e d a t e x t .
O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n
w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i e s h a d e x p r e s s e d t h e i r
v i e w s , a d i s c r e t e b u t i n t e n s e d i p l o m a t i c a c t i v i t y
t o o k p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t A p r i l a n d M a y w h i c h t o o k
f o r m i n 4
s u c c e s s i v e t e x t s ( i M a y , 1 3 M a y , 20
M a y , 30 M a y ) p r e c e d i n g t h e f i n a l t e x t .
220
T h e r e w e r e t w o m a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s : t o f i n d f o r -
m u l a e f o r t h e m u t u a l a c t i o n i m p o s e d b y t h e F o u r
P o w e r P a c t s u c h a s w o u l d s a t i s f y t h e p r e o c c u p -
a t i o n s a n d s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s o f t h i r d p a r t i e s , n a m e l y
t h e Li t t l e En t e n t e a n d P o l a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s -
p e c t o f A r t i c l e z g ( r e v i s i o n o f t r e a t i e s ) ; t o m o d e -
r a t e t h e o p p o s i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f F r a n c e a n d G e r -
m a n y i n r e s p e c t o f A r t i c l e 3 ( d i s a r m a m e n t ) .
T h e f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y w a s s o l v e d m o r e e a s i l y a n d
qu i c k l y t h a n t h e s e c o n d , i n a s m u c h a s t h e F r e n c h
t e x t w a s c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m a n d
i t w a s o n t h i s t e x t t h a t f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n t o o k
p l a c e a s e x p r e s s l y p o i n t e d o u t b y M u s s o l i n i i n
a
s p e e c h t o t h e Se n a t e . F r a n c e t h e n g a v e h e r a i d
i n r e m o v i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e Li t t l e En t e n t e b y
a d e c l a r a t i o n a t P a r i s b y t h e F r e n c h M i n i s t e r o f
F o r e i g n A f f a i r s t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Li t t l e
En t e n t e i n w h i c h F r a n c e d e c l a r e d t o g i v e h e r s u p -
p o r t , i n r e s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e d u r e i n a p p l y i n g t h e
r e v i s i o n i s t A r t i c l e i g , i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e n e e d f o r
u n a n i m i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e p a r t i e s i n
qu e s t i o n . A
d e f i n i t e p r o o f o f t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y
w a s a n e w d e c l a r a t i o n b y t h e Li t t l e En t e n t e o n
30 M a y
.
A r t i c l e 5 , c o n c e r n i n g d i s a r m a m e n t , h o w e v e r ,
p r o v e d t o b e a h a r d n u t t o c r a c k u p t o t h e v e r y
l a s t m o m e n t . A g r e e m e n t t o t h e f i n a l t e x t w a s o n l y
r e c e i v e d f r o m F r a n c e o n 5 - 6 Ju n e , f r o m G e r m a n y
22
1
o n 7 Ju n e , b a r e l y h a l f a n h o u r b e f o r e M u s s o l i n i
m a d e h i s s p e e c h t o t h e Se n a t e
. T h e F r e n c h C h a m -
b e r o f D e p u t i e s , w h i c h a l r e a d y o n 1 6 A p r i l h a d
g i v e n a v o t e o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e G o v e r n e m e n t
f o r n e g o t i a t i n g t h e P a c t , a u t h o r i s e d , o n 9 Ju n e ,
t h e s i g n a t u r e o f t h e P a c t w i t h 4o 6 v o t e s f o r a n d
1 8 5 a g a i n s t .
A r t i c l e i , w h i c h s a n c t i o n s t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e
o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e Hi g h C o n t r a c t i n g P a r -
t i e s a n d t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n t o c a r r y o u t , w i t h i n t h e
f r a m e w o r k o f t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s , a p o l i c y o f
e f f e c t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n a l l t h e P o w e r s d i r -
e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e m a i n t a i n a n c e o f p e a c e , d i f f e r s
f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l t e x t c h i e f l y i n t h a t i t m a k e s i t
d e f i n i t e l y c l e a r t h a t s u c h a n a g r e e m e n t w i l l a p p l y
t o qu e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e Hi g h C o n t r a c t i n g P a r -
t i e s a n d o m i t s a n y m e n t i o n o f t h i r d p a r t i e s . T h i s
p o i n t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e f e r e d t o i n M u s s o l i n i ' s
s p e e c h t o t h e Se n a t e i n w h i c h h e s a i d t h a t a t h e
o r i g i n a l p l a n r e g i s t e r e d a p o l i t i c a l i d e a i n a n e s -
s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l f o r m w h i l e t h e P a c t i s d e f i n e d
a s t h e l e g a l t e x t o f a n a g r e e m e n t .
I n p r a c t i c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s n o t Eu -
r o p e a n qu e s t i o n o f a n y i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h d o e s
n o t i n t e r e s t , i n o n e w a y o r a n o t h e r , t h e f o u r g r e a t
w e s t e r n P o w e r s a n d o n w h i c h a n e v e n t u a l a g r e e -
m e n t b e t w e e n t h e m w o u l d n o t h a v e a p r e p o n d e r -
a t i n g i n f l u e n c e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t
222
t o a d m i t -
g i v e n t h a t i t i s a qu e s t i o n o f a n a c -
c o r d b e t w e e n Hi g h C o n t r a c t i n g P a r t i e s r e p r e s e n t -
i n g t h e g r e a t e s t d i v e r s i t y o f s t a n d p o i n t s a n d
i n -
t e r e s t s i n Eu r o p e a n p o l i c y -
t h a t s u c h a n a c c o r d
o n c e e f f e c t i v e , c o u l d h a v e a p a r t i s a n a n d u n e qu i -
t a b l e c h a r a c t e r .
A r t i c l e 2, p r i m a r i l y r e l a t i v e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f
r e v i s i o n , u n i t e d ,
. i n t h e f i n a l t e x t , t h e p r o v i s i o n s
c o n t a i n e d i n A r t i c l e s z o a n d 1 6 ( r e g a r d i n g t h e s a f e -
g u a r d i n g o f t h e s t a t u qu o
a g a i n s t a r m e d a t t a c k )
a n d t h o s e o f t h e r e v i s i o n i s t A r t i c l e r 9 a n d m a k e s
i t c l e a r t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o n t h i s qu e s t i o n b e -
t w e e n t h e Hi g h C o n t r a c t i n g P a r t i e s w i l l r e f e r t o
m e t h o d s a n d p r o c e d u r e .
T h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s ,
w h i c h a r e c e r t a i n l y o f s o m e i m p o r t a n c e , h a d t h e
a d v a n t a g e o f o v e r c o m i n g o p p o s i t i o n a n d e l i m i n a t -
i n g t h e d i f f i d e n c e o f a w h o l e s e r i e s o f Eu r o p e a n
St a t e s .
A r t i c l e 3 ( d i s a r m a m e n t ) -
a p a r t f r o m t h e
l o g i c a l o m i s s i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s m e n t i o n o f A u -
s t r i a , Hu n g a r y a n d B u l g a r i a f r o m t h e t i m e i t w a s
d e c i d e d n o t t o m e n t i o n t h i r d p a r t i e s - i s m o r e
g e n e r i c t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l .
T h e r e i s n o
l o n g e r a n y m e n t i o n o f t h e G e r m a n r i g h t t o p a r i t y
n o r i t s g r a d u a l a c t u a t i o n t h r o u g h a g r e e m e n t s
b e t w e e n t h e f o u r p a r t i e s .
T h i s b e c a m e n e c e s s a r y t o a v o i d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s
r a i s e d b y t h e o p p o s i n g p a r t i e s , F r a n c e a n d G e r -
223
m a n y , b u t t h e o b l i g a t i o n r e m a i n e d f o r t h e f o u r
P o w e r s t o r e - e x a m i n e qu e s t i o n s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y
w o u l d r e m a i n u n s o l v e d a t t h e D i s a r m a m e n t C o n -
f e r e n c e , t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e d a n -
g e r t h a t m i g h t h a v e a r i s e n f r o m t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e
C o n f e r e n c e . T h i s c o n c l u d e s t h e p o l i t i c a l A r t i c l e s
o f t h e P a c t .
A r t i c l e 4 e s t a b l i s h e d a n a c c o r d o f t h e Eu r o -
p e a n e c o n o m i c qu e s t i o n s ; A r t i c l e 5 , t h e d u r a t i o n o f
t h e P a c t f o r i o y e a r s w i t h i n d e f i n i t e r e n e w a l p r o -
v i d e d i t w a s n o t d e n o u n c e d b e f o r e t h e e n d o f t h e
e i g h t h y e a r a n d a p a r t f r o m t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o
b r i n g i t t o a n e n d f o l l o w i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n t w o y e a r s
p r e v i o u s l y . A r t i c l e 6 c o n t a i n e d t h e m o d e l p r o t o c o l s
o f t h e f o u r t e x t s ; t h e F r e n c h t e x t b e i n g d e c i s i v e
i n c a s e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t . T h e P a c t , a c t u a l l y s i g n e d
o n 1 5 Ju l y , b e a r s t h e d a t e 7 Ju l y o n t h e s e a l
.
224
A UST RI A , G ERM A NY
A ND F RA NC E
T h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f A u s t r i a a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e
o f I t a l i a n P o l i c y - T h e f r i e n d l y p a c t w i t h Ru s s i a -
D i s a r m a m e n t a g a i n - T h e p r o t o c o l s o f Ro m e - T h e m e e t -
i n g b e t w e e n M u s s o l i n i a n d Hi t l e r i n Ve n i c e - T h e m u r d e r
o f D o l l f u s s - En e r g e t i c a c t i o n b y M u s s o l i n i - T h e I t a l o -
F r e n c h a c c o r d s - T u n i s - Ly b i a a n d Er i t r e a - C o l o n i a l
i n t e r e s t s
- C e n t r a l D a n u b i a n Eu r o p e -
A r m a m e n t s -
T h e
t r e a t y o f f r i e n d s h i p - T h e St r e s a C o n f e r e n c e .
T h e h o p e o f a Eu r o p e a n s t a b i l i s a t i o n t o w h i c h
t h e F o u r P o w e r P a c t h a d g i v e n b i r t h w a s s o o n
e x t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e d r a m a t i c e v e n t s i n i n t e r n a -
t i o n a l p o l i c y i n t h e f a l l o f t h e y e a r 1 9 33 . A f t e r
h a v i n g a d h e r e d t o t h e F o u r P o w e r P a c t w i t h i n t h e
f r a m e w o r k o f t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s , G e r m a n y ,
o n 1 4 O c t o b e r , 1 9 33, r e s i g n e d f r o m t h e d i s a r m -
a m e n t C o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s .
T h e Le a g u e s u f f e r e d a n o t h e r h e a v y b l o w w i t h
t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f Ja p a n w h i c h , d e t e r m i n e d t o
s e t t l e h e r d i s p u t e s w i t h C h i n a b y f o r c e o f a r m s ,
c o u l d n o t r e m a i n i n a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n
w h i c h , a l t h o u g h s o m e w h a t c a u t i o u s l y , h a d c o n -
d e m n e d h e r .
225
1 5 i n g .
T h e c o m i n g
t o
p o w e r
o f
Hi t l e r i n G e r m a n y
h a d g i v e n r i s e t o n e w u n e a s i n e s s i n F r a n c e a n d t o
a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i n En g l a n d , a n d h a d i n d i r e c t l y
i n f l u e n c e d t h e i n t e r n a l s y s t e m i n A u s t r i a . T h e l a t -
t e r w i s h e d t o a b a n d o n t h e s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c s y s -
t e m , a n d t o s e c u r e a u t o n o m y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e
f r o m h e r g r e a t n e i g h b o u r i n g P o w e r
. T h e i n t e r n a t -
i o n a l a c t i v i t y o f t h e A u s t r i a n C h a n c e l l o r , D o l l f u s s ,
w h o h a d a l r e a d y b e e n i n Ro m e i n A p r i l ,
1 9 33
a n d
w h o h a d s o u g h t a r e a s o n a b l e s u p p o r t f r o m t h e
g r e a t P o w e r s t u r n e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o w a r d s Ro m e
w h i c h w a s t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y i n t h e t e n s i o n b e -
t w e e n Vi e n n a a n d B e r l i n .
T h e Vi c e - C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e Re i c h , v o n P a p e n ,
h a d l e a r n t i n Ro m e t h e e x a c t o p i n i o n o f I t a l y o n
t h e n e e d f o r A u s t r i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d D o l l f u s s ,
a t Ri c c i o n e ( 2o A u g u s t ) , i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h
M u s s o l i n i , h a d c o n f i r m e d t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f I t a l y ' s
i n t e r e s t i n t h e w h o l e o f t h e A u s t r i a n p r o b l e m i n
i t s e l f a n d a l s o a s p a r t o f t h e p r i m a r i l y e c o n o m i c
p r o b l e m o f t h e D a n u b e . G o m b o s , t h e He a d o f t h e
Hu n g a r i a n G o v e r n m e n t a l s o c a m e t o Ro m e a n d
h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l a i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r
n e e d s o f Hu n g a r y .
A f t e r Ri c c i o n e , d i r e c t c o m m e r c i a l a g r e e m e n t s
b e t w e e n I t a l y a n d A u s t r i a a n d I t a l y a n d Hu n g a r y
p r o v e d t h e a c t i v e i n t e r e s t o f I t a l y i n t h e e c o n o m i c
r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t h o s e t w o c o u n t r i e s , c o n s i d e r -
226
e d a s e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e w h o l e o f t h e D a n u -
b i a n c o m p l e x . T h e D u c e ' s o p i n i o n , i n h i s p r a c t i c a l
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w h o l e n e a r e a s t e r n Eu r o p e a n
p r o b l e m , t h e n b e c a m e m a n i f e s t i n t h e p r o je c t ,
f o r t h e e c o n o m i c r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e D a n u b i a n
c o u n t r i e s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Le a g u e d u r i n g t h e o r -
d i n a r y s e s s i o n o f t h e A s s e m b l y o n 29 Se p t e m b e r ,
1 9 33 a n d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s a c c e p t e d b y F r a n c e .
I n t h e m e a n t i m e a
a
P a c t o f f r i e n d s h i p , n o n -
a g g r e s s i o n a n d n e u t r a l i t y w i t h t h e U . R . S . S . w a s
s i g n e d i n Ro m e o n 2 Se p t e m b e r w h i c h w a s t h e
f i r s t t r e a t y o f n o n - a g g r e s s i o n a n d n e u t r a l i t y s i g n e d
b y t h e n e w Ru s s i a w i t h a w e s t e r n P o w e r .
T h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f I t a l y w a s e x t r e m e l y a c -
t i v e a l l t h r o u g h
1 9 34 .
O n e o f t h e c h i e f qu e s t i o n s
w h i c h o c c u p i e d t h e D u c e t h a t y e a r w a s d i s a r m a -
m e n t . Wh e n a n n o u n c i n g t h e d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t
b y t h e Le a g u e o n 22 No v e m b e r ,
1 9 33
t o p o s t p o n e
t h e g e n e r a l d i s a r m a m e n t C o m m i s s i o n u n t i l Ja n -
u a r y , t h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t r e c a l l e d h o w , f r o m
t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r s t a n n o u n c e m e n t b y G e r m a n y
o f h e r i n t e n t i o n t o a b a n d o n t h e C o n f e r e n c e , i t s
o w n p o i n t o f v i e w h a d b e e n c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d
. T h i s
m a y b e s u m m e d u p i n t h r e e p o i n t s : ( a ) t h e i n u t -
i l i t y a n d p e r h a p s h a r m f u l n e s s o f c o n t i n u i n g t h e
w o r k o f G e n e v a i n t h e a b s e n c e o f G e r m a n y ; ( b )
d i s p a s s i o n a t e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e n e w s t a t e o f a f -
f a i r s i n o r d e r t o f i n d a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n ,
p e r -
227
h a p s t h r o u g h a g e n e r a l r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e
w h o l e p r o b l e m ; ( c ) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n a c c o r d ,
t h r o u g h d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n s , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t
t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l p a r t i e s a n d g i v i n g t h e m t h e
m e a n s o f s t a t i n g t h e i r c l a i m s
.
a
I t a l y - c o n c l u d -
e d t h e d e c l a r a t i o n -
c o n t i n u i n g o n t h e l i n e s s h e
h a s c o n s t a n t l y f o l l o w e d , i s r e a d y ,
n o w a n d a l -
w a y s , t o g i v e a l l h e r s u p p o r t t o w a r d s a r r i v i n g a t
a n a g r e e m e n t w h i c h w o u l d b e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f
a p o l i c y o f e f f e c t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n a l l t h e
St a t e s .
O n 2
Ja n u a r y , t h e B r i t i s h F o r e i g n Se c r e t a r y ,
Si r Jo h n Si m o n a r r i v e d i n Ro m e t o d i s c u s s t h e
p r o b l e m s r e l a t i v e t o a t h e r e d u c t i o n i n a r m a m e n t s
a n d t h e r e f o r m o f t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s u . He
h a d t w o c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t h e D u c e , o n
2 a n d
4 Ja n u a r y , t h e s u b s t a n c e o f w h i c h w a s p u b l i s h e d
i n a c o m m u n i c a t i o n o n i F e b r u a r y w h i c h d e f i n e d
t h e I t a l i a n p o i n t o f v i e w .
T h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t t o o k t h r e e p r i n c i p a l
p o i n t s a s a b a s i s : ( r ) c o n d i t i o n d e f a c t o , t h a t i s ,
t h e d a n g e r t h a t t h e qu e s t i o n o f p a r i t y , h a v i n g
f o u n d n o w r i t t e n s e t t l e m e n t , a
w o u l d b e s o l v e d
a u t o m a t i c a l l y , o u t s i d e t h e f r a m e w o r k o f a n a c c o r d
g r a n t i n g e qu a l i t y a n d p r o v i d i n g a f o r m u l a f o r
i t , a n d t h e r e f o r e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y a o f i n i t i a t i v e s
t a k i n g s h a p e o u t s i d e t h e t r e a t i e s a
; ( 2) c o n d i t i o n
d e ju r e : a i t i s u n d e n i a b l e t h a t s o l e m n r e c o g n i -
228
t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n
t o
G e r m a n y ' s
e qu a l i t y o f
r i g h t s n ; ( 3) c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p r o b a b i l i t y : t h e
Ro y a l I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t m a i n t a i n s t h a t i t i s
u n a b l e n o t o t a k e i n t o t h e g r e a t e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n
t h e p a c i f i c d e c l a r a t i o n s > > o f G e r m a n y .
T h e d o c u m e n t s t a t e d , f i n a l l y , t h a t F r a n c e c o u l d
f i n d c u a n i m m e d i a t e a n d e f f e c t i v e c o u n t e r - p a r i t y i n
t h e m a i n t a i n a n c e o f h e r a r m a m e n t s > a n d t h a t
( ( a n e w c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s e c u r i t y ) ) w o u l d b e g i v e n
b y ( ( t h e p l e d g e b y G e r m a n y t o r e t u r n t o G e n e v a ,
n o t o n l y t o s i g n t h e g e n e r a l d i s a r m a m e n t c o n -
v e n t i o n , b u t a l s o t o r e s u m e h e r p l a c e i n t h e Le a -
g u e o f Na t i o n s
) ) .
A t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l h o r i z o n
w a s d a r k e n e d s t i l l f u r t h e r b y d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d
f o r A u s t r i a b y n a t i o n a l - s o c i a l i s t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n
a n d w i t h o u t h e r f r o n t i e r s . A St e f a n i n o t e o f 1 7
F e b r u a r y ,
1 9 34,
s t a t e d t h a t t h e A u s t r i a n G o v e r n -
m e n t h a d a p p l i e d t o P a r i s , Lo n d o n a n d Ro m e
f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n o n t h e G e r m a n i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e
i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f t h e Re p u b l i c . T h e n o t e a d d s t h a t
t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e G o v e r n m e n t s
i n t e r e s t e d s h o w e d t h e i r c o m m u n i t y o f o u t l o o k
i n r e s p e c t o f t h e n e e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i n d e p e n -
d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y o f A u s t r i a , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h
t h e t r e a t i e s i n f o r c e n .
A s p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e P r o t o c o l s s i g n e d i n
Ro m e o n 1 7 M a r c h , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f I t a l y ,
229
A u s t r i a a n d Hu n g a r y m e t i n Ro m e o n 5 A p r i l t o
c o m p l e t e t h e c o m m e r c i a l a g r e e m e n t s d r a f t e d o u t
i n t h e P r o t o c o l s . T w o y e a r l a t e r , o n 1 8 M a r c h ,
1 9 36 , t h e s e a g r e e m e n t s w e r e i m p r o v e d u p o n a n d
c o n s o l i d a t e d i n a n e w c o n v e n t i o n i n Ro m e b e t w e e n
M u s s o l i n i , t h e C h a n c e l l o r Sc h u s s c h n i g g a n d t h e
P r e s i d e n t G o m b o s . I t a l y , A u s t r i a a n d Hu n g a r y
e n g a g e d t o c o n s u l t e a c h o t h e r o n a l l qu e s t i o n s i n -
t e r e s t i n g t h e t h r e e n a t i o n s . T h e Ro m a n P r o t o c o l s
r e m a i n e d o p e n t o t h e o t h e r D a n u b i a n St a t e s ,
b u t u t i s i n g u l i , n o t a s g r o u p s . O n t h i s o c c a s i o n
t h e r e w a s t a l k o f a r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e T r i p l e A l -
l i a n c e . T h e h a p p y r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o n s t a n t a n d
c o h e r e n t d i p l o m a t i c a c t i o n t o o k s h a p e o n i i Ju l y ,
1 9 36 w h e n t h e n e w s w a s r e c e i v e d o f a n a g r e e m e n t
b e t w e e n A u s t r i a a n d G e r m a n y , b y v i r t u e o f w h i c h
G e r m a n y e n g a g e d s o l e m n l y t o r e c o g n i s e t h e ( ( f u l l
s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e A u s t r i a n F e d e r a l St a t e . T h i s
a g r e e m e n t w a s c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e D u c e b y t h e
C h a n c e l l o r Sc h u s s c h n i g g , w h o r e c a l l e d w i t h
p l e a -
s u r e t h e a e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y v a l u a b l e c o n v e r s a t i o n s
w i t h h i m o n 5 Ju n e a t Ro c c a d e l l e C a m i n a t e
w h i c h g a v e t h e d i r e c t i o n t o a p o l i c y d e s t i n e d t o
r e n d e r i n e s t i m a b l e s e r v i c e t o t h e c a u s e o f p e a c e ) .
I n t h e a f t e r n o o n o f 1 4 Ju n e i n t h e Vi l l a Re a l e
a t St r a , n e a r Ve n i c e , a m e e t i n g t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n
t h e He a d o f t h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e
C h a n c e l l o r Hi t l e r w h i c h a r o u s e d t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e
230
w h o l e w o r l d . T h i s f i r s t c o n v e r s a t i o n l a s t e d m o r e
t h a n t w o h o u r s a n d w a s f o l l o w e d b y a n o t h e r o n
t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y c o n c l u d e d i n a s p i r i t o f c o r -
d i a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n
. T h e c o m m u n i qu e s t a t e d t h a t
t h e s u b je c t o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s a s a n
a
e x a m i n -
a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s o f g e n e r a l p o l i c y a n d t h o s e
m o s t d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n i n g t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s u .
T h i s n e c e s s a r i l y g e n e r a l a n n o u n c e m e n t w a s
f o l l o w e d b y d e c l a r a t i o n s m a d e t o t h e c r o w d a s -
s e m b l e d i n St M a r k ' s Squ a r e b y t h e He a d o f t h e
I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t a f t e r a g r e a t r e v i e w o f t h e
F a s c i s t f o r c e s . ( c I s a y t o y o u , I t a l i a n s , a n d t o a l l
o u t s i d e o u r f r o n t i e r s , t h a t Hi t l e r a n d I h a v e m e t
h e r e n o t t o r e - m a k e o r e v e n m o d i f y t h e p o l i t i c a l
m a p o f Eu r o p e a n d t h e w o r l d o r t o a d d t o t h e
m o t i v e s f o r u n e a s i n e s s w h i c h d i s t u r b a l l c o u n t r i e s
f r o m t h e F a r Ea s t t o t h e F a r We s t . We h a v e m e t
t o t r y t o d i s p e l l t h e c l o u d s w h i c h d a r k e n Eu r o p e a n
p o l i c y . Le t i t b e s a i d , o n c e a g a i n , t h a t a t e r r i b l e
a l t e r n a t i v e l i e s b e f o r e t h e c o n s c i e n c e o f a l l t h e
p e o p l e s o f Eu r o p e . Ei t h e r t h e y m u s t f i n d a m i n -
i m u m o f p o l i t i c a l u n i t y , e c o n o m i c c o l l a b o r a t i o n
a n d m o r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r t h e f a t e o f Eu r o p e
i s i r r e v o c a b l y s e a l e d .
O n h i s p a r t , t h e C h a n c e l l o r Hi t l e r , i n a s p e e c h
a t G e r a i n T h u r i n g i a o n 1 7 Ju n e , p u t f o r w a r d s u b -
s t a n t i a l l y p a c i f i c p r o p o s a l s , s a y i n g t h a t G e r m a n y
r e s p e c t e d t h e r i g h t o f o t h e r s a s s h e w o u l d h a v e
23 1
h e r o w n r e s p e c t e d
. F r o m t h e s p e e c h e s o f t h e t w o
s t a t e s m e n i t m a y b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e I t a l o -
G e r m a n a c t i o n w a s n o t d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t a n y o n e
a n d i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , a b l o c k i n t e n d e d t o s e t o n e
g r o u p o f P o w e r s a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . T h e i m p r e s s i o n
w a s u n i v e r s a l t h a t o n e o f t h e p o i n t s a g r e e d u p o n
w a s a n a b s o l u t e r e s p e c t f o r A u s t r i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e
.
O n l y a f e w w e e k s h a d p a s s e d a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g
a t St r a w h e n t h e w o r l d r e c e i v e d , w i t h a s t o n i s h -
m e n t , g r i e f a n d i n d i g n a t i o n , t h e n e w s o f t h e t r a g i c
e n d o f t h e A u s t r i a n C h a n c e l l o r , D o l l f u s s w h o w a s
a s s a s s i n a t e d i n h i s o f f i c e o n t h e e v e o f h i s d e p a r -
t u r e f o r I t a l y w h e r e h e w a s t o h a v e m e t t h e He a d
o f t h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t .
T h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t a c t e d w i t h l i g h t n i n g
r a p i d i t y
. A t 4 o ' c l o c k i n t h e a f t e r n o o n o f 25 Ju l y
t h e He a d o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o r d e r e d t h e a
m o -
v e m e n t o f t h e a r m e d f o r c e s o f l a n d a n d a i r t o t h e
B r e n n e r a n d C a r i n t h i a f r o n t i e r s n
t o
a
c o n f r o n t
a n y e v e n t u a l i t y
. T h i s w a s a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n
o f t h a t w h i c h M u s s o l i n i h a d e x p r e s s e d i n a t e l e -
g r a m m e o f c o n d o l e n c e t o t h e A u s t r i a n v i c e - C h a n -
c e l l o r , n a m e l y t h a t t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f A u s t r i a ,
f o r w h i c h D o l l f u s s h a d g i v e n h i s l i f e , w a s a p r i n -
c i p l e w h i c h w o u l d b e d e f e n d e d b y I t a l y e v e r
m o r e s t r e n u o u s l y
. T h i s m i l i t a r y a c t i o n , t h o u g h
r e t a i n e d w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s o f p r u d e n c e w a s o f
s u c h a n a t u r e a s t o l e a v e n o d o u b t s o n t h e I t a l i a n
23 2
i n t e n t i o n s i n c a s e o f f u r t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e c o m -
p l i c a t i o n s .
T h e v i r i l e a t t i t u d e o f I t a l y , w i t h w h i c h F r a n c e
a n d En g l a n d w e r e i n c o m p l e t e a g r e e m e n t , b e t t e r
t h a n a n y d i p l o m a t i c s t e p , m a d e i t c l e a r t h a t a n y
a t t e m p t t o m a k e A u s t r i a t h e a e i g h t h p r o v i n c e
o f t h e G e r m a n Re i c h w o u l d b e c h e c k e d , i f n e -
c e s s a r y b y f o r c e .
O n t h e m o r n i n g o f
21
A u g u s t t h e A u s t r i a n
C h a n c e l l o r Sc h u s s c h n i g g a r r i v e d i n F l o r e n c e a n d
w a s m e t a t t h e s t a t i o n b y t h e He a d o f t h e I t a l i a n
G o v e r n m e n t . T w o c o n v e r s a t i o n s f o l l o w e d , a t t h e
Vi l l a D e M a r i n i s , l a s t i n g t h r e e h o u r s
.
I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e c o n v e r s a t i o n s , s t a t e d t h e
c o m u n i qu e , t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d c u l t u r a l
qu e s t i o n s i n t e r e s t i n g t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s w e r e e x a -
m i n e d m i n u t e l y , r e s u l t i n g i n a n e f f e c t i v e c o m -
m u n i t y o f v i e w s a n d m e t h o d s r e l a t i v e t o t h e
i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y o f t h e A u s t r i a n St a t e ,
a n i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y o n w h i c h d e p e n d
t h e i n t e r n a l a u t o n o m y t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a c o n c r e t e
Eu r o p e a n i n t e r e s t a n d a n e l e m e n t f a v o u r a b l e t o
t h e m a i n t a i n a n c e o f t r a n qu i l l i t y i n t h e D a n u b i a n
s e c t o r . I t w a s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e t w o s t a t e s m e n
h a d c o n f i r m e d t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e P r o t o c o l s o f Ro m e
t h e r a d i u s o f a c t i o n o f w h i c h m i g h t b e
a
i n t e n s i f i e d
a n d e n l a r g e d .
B u t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d i p l o m a t i c e v e n t s t o o k
23 3
p l a c e i n Ro m e a t t h e e n d o f 1 9 34 . F o l l o w i n g a
c o r d i a l a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n M u s s o l i n i a n d t h e A m -
b a s s a d o r Ex t r a o r d i n a r y o f t h e F r e n c h Re p u b l i c ,
t h e a b l e a n d s a g a c i o u s D e Jo u v e n e l , s p e c i a l c o n -
v e n t i o n s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n F r a n c e a n d
I t a l y , i n t e n d e d t o s e t t l e t h e t h o r n y qu e s t i o n s w h i c h
h a d f o r s o l o n g o b s c u r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n
t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s . T h e s e c o n v e n t i o n s , w h i c h w e r e
a l r e a d y f u l l y s t u d i e d i n D e c e m b e r ,
1 9 34, w e r e
o f f i c i a l l y c o n c l u d e d o n 7 Ja n u a r y 1 9 35 , o n t h e
o c c a s i o n o f t h e v i s i t o f t h e F r e n c h M i n i s t e r f o r
F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , La v a l , t o Ro m e .
T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e o u t s t a n d i n g p o i n t s o f
t h e a g r e e m e n t w h i c h o p e n e d f o r I t a l y t h e w a y
t o Ea s t A f r i c a
T u n i s . - T h e T u n i s i a n qu e s t i o n o r i g i n a t e d i n
t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n b y F r a n c e o n 9 Se p t e m b e r , 1 9 1 8 ,
o f t h e t w o C o n v e n t i o n s ( o n e r e l a t i v e t o c o m -
m e r c e a n d n a v i g a t i o n a n d t h e o t h e r r e l a t i v e t o
t h e c o n s u l a r s e r v i c e a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I t a l i a n
s u b je c t s w h i c h h a d b e e n s i g n e d i n 1 8 9 5 )
.
T h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t t o o k n o t i c e o f t h e d e -
n u n c i a t i o n a n d a c c e p t e d t h e p r o p o s a l f o r a t a c i t
r e n e w a l a n d m a t t e r s w e r e l e f t t h u s , p e n d i n g a
d e f i n i t e r e g u l a t i o n .
B y t h e p a c t s o f 7 D e c e m b e r 1 9 34, t h e C o n -
v e n t i o n s w e r e e x t e n d e d u n t i l 1 9 45 a f t e r w h i c h
234
d a t e t h e r e w o u l d b e a p r o g r e s s i v e r e t u r n t o t h e
o r d i n a r y l e g a l c o n d i t i o n s .
I n r e s p e c t o f t h e m a i n t a i n a n c e o f I t a l i a n c i t i -
z e n s h i p b y I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n b o r n i n T u n i s , t h i s
r e m a i n e d i n f u l l f o r c e u n t i l
1 9 45
a n d , i n f a c t ,
u n t i l 1 9 6 5 , w h e n t h e c h i l d r e n o f I t a l i a n s w h o w e r e
b o r n i n T u n i s d u r i n g t h o s e
20
y e a r s , w o u l d h a v e
t h e r i g h t t o c h o o s e t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p u p o n c o m i n g
o f a g e .
T h a t w h i c h t h e F r e n c h c a l l
a
t h e I t a l i a n m o r t -
g a g e w a s t h u s e x t e n d e d f o r
30
y e a r s a f t e r w h i c h
p e r i o d t h e ju s l o c i w o u l d c o m e i n t o f o r c e , b a s e d
o n t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t e v e r y o n e h a s t h e n a t i o n a l i t y
o f h i s b i r t h p l a c e .
A s t o t h e I t a l i a n s c h o o l s i n T u n i s , t h e s e w o u l d
b e m a i n t i n e d u n t i l 28 M a r c h ,
1 9 5 5
a f t e r w h i c h
t h e y w o u l d b e c o m e I t a l i a n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s s u b -
je c t t o F r e n c h s c h o l a s t i c l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e P r o -
t e c t o r a t .
I n d e p e n d e n t l y f r o m t h e C o n v e n t i o n , w h i c h
f i x e d t h e g r a d u a l r e t u r n t o t h e o r d i n a r y l e g a l c o n -
d i t i o n s , i t w a s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e I t a l i a n s w h o
h a d b e e n a d m i t t e d , p r e v i o u s l y t o 1 9 45 , t o t h e
l i b e r a l p r o f e s s i o n s , w o u l d r e t a i n t h a t r i g h t d u r i n g
t h e i r l i f e t i m e .
T h e s e p r o v i s i o n s a l s o a d m i t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n
d u e t o t h e I t a l i a n s w h o h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d f o r s o
l o n g t o w a r d s t h e p r o g r e s s o f T u n i s a n d e f f e c t s o f
-
235
w h i c h a r e . r e c o g n i s e d b y t h e l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f
p r e s c r i p t i o n r i g h t w h i c h a l s o h a s w e i g h t i n
p u -
b l i c l a w .
Ly b i a a n d
Er i t r e a . -
B y A r t i c l e 1 3 o f t h e
P a c t o f Lo n d o n , 1 9 1 5 , i t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t ,
f o l l o w i n g I t a l y ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e w a r , i n e v e n t
o f F r a n c e a n d En g l a n d , a t t h e e n d o f h o s t i l i t i e s ,
h a v i n g i n c r e a s e d t h e i r c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s i n A f r i -
c a a t t h e e x p e n s e o f G e r m a n y , I t a l y a l s o w o u l d
r e c e i v e a d e qu a t e t e r r i t o r i a l c o m p e n s a t i o n i n A f r i c a .
F r a n c e a n d En g l a n d h a v i n g , i n f a c t , o b t a i n e d ,
g e n e r a l l y i n t h e f o r m o f a m a n d a t e , m a n y o f t h e
f o r m e r G e r m a n A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s , En g l a n d c e d e d
t o I t a l y t h e t e r r i t o r y o f T r a n s - Ju b a l a n d i n c l u d i n g
t h e p o r t o f Ki s m a y u o n t h e I n d i a n O c e a n a n d h a d
u s e d h e r i n f l u e n c e i n Eg y p t t o a t t r i b u t e t o I t a l y
t h e G i a r a b u b z o n e w i t h t h e o a s i s o f t h e s a m e
n a m e , o v e r w h i c h Eg y p t c l a i m e d r i g h t s . I n t h i s
w a y t h e d i s p u t e b e t w e e n En g l a n d a n d I t a l y o v e r
t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f A r t i c l e 1 3 o f t h e P a c t o f Lo n d o n
w a s c l o s e d .
A s t o F r a n c e , w i t h t h e t r e a t y o f B o n i n - P i c h o n ,
s h e h a d r e c o g n i s e d a s p a r t o f Ly b i a
t h e t w o
s a l i e n t s b e t w e e n G h a d a m e s a n d G h a t a n d b e t w e e n
G h a t a n d T u m m o , b u t t h e t r e a t y i t s e l f r e c o g n i s e d
t h a t I t a l y h a d t h e r i g h t t o o t h e r c o m p e n s a t i o n s .
T h e s e s h e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f
t h e Ly b i a n f r o n t i e r w h e r e b y t h a t c o l o n y w a s i n -
23 6
c r e a s e d b y a b o u t 1 1 4 t h o u s a n d s qu a r e k i l o m e t r e s ,
a n d b y a n o t h e r r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e So m a l i a f r o n t i e r
b e y o n d t h e i s l a n d o f D o u m e r r a h .
I n t h i s w a y t h e I t a l i a n c o m p e n s a t i o n p r o v i d e d
f o r g e n e r a l l y i n A r t i c l e 1 3 o f t h e P a c t o f Lo n d o n
w a s d e f i n i t e l y s e t t l e d .
C o l o n i a l e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s . - I t a l y a n d
F r a n c e h a v i n g r e c o g n i s e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f d e v -
e l o p i n g t h e e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s o f t h e i r m e t r o p o -
l i t a n t e r r i t o r i e s w i t h t h e i r A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s , i n i t i a t e d
t h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f I t a l y
i n t h e G i b u t i - A d d i s A b e b a r a i l w a y , t h e i m p o r t a n c e
o f w h i c h i s c l e a r .
A u s t r i a a n d C e n t r a l - D a n u b i a n Eu r o p e . - T w o
p r o t o c o l s w e r e s i g n e d . B y t h e f i r s t I t a l y a n d
F r a n c e i n i t i a t e d a P a c t b y w h i c h t h e y a n d t h e
St a t e s , h e i r s a n d s u c c e s s o r s o f t h e A u s t r o - Hu n g a -
r i a n Em p i r e , r e c o g n i s e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t e r r i t o r i a l
i n t e g r i t y a n d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s o c i a l r e g i m e s a n d
a g r e e d n o t t o d i s t u r b w i t h f o r c e n e i t h e r o n e n o r
t h e o t h e r . Wi t h t h e s e c o n d , I t a l y a n d F r a n c e
e s t a b l i s h e d a
u
c o n s u l t i v e p a c t o n t h e m e a s u r e s
t o b e t a k e n i n c a s e t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y
o f A u s t r i a w e r e m e n a c e d .
T h u s , i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e s a i d P a c t , i f a c t i o n
w a s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e r v e t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d
i n t e g r i t y o f A u s t r i a I t a l y w a s n o l o n g e r o b l i g e d
237
t o s h o u l d e r t h e b u r d e n a l o n e ; F r a n c e w a s e n g a g e d
t o a c t i n c o n c e r t .
A r m a m e n t s . - T h e d e c l a r a t i o n o n
a
l e g a l p a -
r i t y b e i n g c o n f i r m e d , i t w a s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t
a
n o
P o w e r c o u l d m o d i f y b y u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n i t s o b l i -
g a t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o t h e qu e s t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s
a n d t h a t i n t h e c a s e i n w h i c h t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y
m a t e r i a l i s e d F r a n c e a n d I t a l y w o u l d c o n s u l t e a c h
o t h e r n .
T h e s e c r e t a r m i n g o f G e r m a n y w a s t h u s c o n -
d e m n e d , b u t , i n t h e m e a n t i m e , s h e w a s r e m a i n d e d
o f t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f l e g a l p a r i t y a n d d i s c r e e t l y
i n v i t e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e f o r t h e l i m i -
t a t i o n a n d r e d u c t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s , w h e r e h e r
r i g h t s a n d d u t i e s w o u l d b e e qu a l t o t h o s e o f t h e
o t h e r n a t i o n s .
P a c t o f f r i e n d s h i p
. -
A l l t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d
P r o t o c o l s . a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h a t o b je c t i v e
w h e r e b y I t a l y a n d F r a n c e , d e c l a r i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l
qu e s t i o n s o u t s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s
a s s e t t l e d , c o n f i r m t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p a n d a g r e e t o
c o l l a b o r a t e i n a s p i r i t o f m u t u a l c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e
w o r k o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d t o c o n s u l t e a c h o t h e r
w h e n e v e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e qu i r e s u c h a n e x c h a n g e
o f v i e w s .
T h i s s o l e m n d e c l a r a t i o n w a s a w o r t h y c r o w n
t o t h e e f f o r t s f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d w a s t h e b e -
238
g i n n i n g o f f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s f o r t h e g o o d o f
t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s a n d f o r Eu r o p e a n p e a c e .
T h e b i l a t e r a l F r a n c o - I t a l i a n a g r e e m e n t s o f Ja -
n u a r y ,
1 9 35 ,
w e r e f o l l o w e d b y t h e m e m o r a b l e
St r e s a C o n f e r e n c e a t w h i c h I t a l y , F r a n c e a n d
En g l a n d c o n s t i t u t e d a u n i t e d f r o n t f o r s a f e g u a r d -
i n g a n d g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e p e a c e o f Eu r o p e .
T h e C o n f e r e n c e , w h i c h c l o s e d o n 1 5 A p r i l , d e -
c i d e d , f i r s t o f a l l , t h e l i n e o f m u t u a l c o n d u c t t o
b , ~ f o l l o w e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o n t h e p r o t e s t a g a i n s t
G e r m a n r e - a r m a m e n t p r e s e n t e d b y t h e F r e n c h G o -
v e r n m e n t t o t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s ; i t a f f i r m e d t h e
o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s i n i -
t i a t e d f o r t h e g r e a t l y d e s i r e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f
s e c u r i t y i n e a s t e r n Eu r o p e n ;
i t r e - e x a m i n e d t h e
A u s t r i a n s i t u a t i o n . T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e
t h r e e g o v e r n m e n t s - i t i s s t a t e d i n t h e f i n a l
d e c l a r a t i o n - c o n f i r m t h e A n g l o - F r a n c o - I t a l i a n
d e c l a r a t i o n s o f 1 7 F e b r u a r y a n d 27 Se p t e m b e r ,
1
9 34, b y w h i c h t h e t h r e e G o v e r n m e n t s h a v e r e -
c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e n e e d f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i n d e -
p e n d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y o f A u s t r i a w i l l c o n t i n u e t o
i n s p i r e t h e i r m u t u a l p o l i c y . Re f e r i n g t o t h e I t a l o -
F r e n c h P r o t o c o l o f 7 Ja n u a r y ,
1 9 35
a n d t h e
F r a n c o - En g l i s h d e c l a r a t i o n o f 3 F e b r u a r y ,
1 9 35
,
b y w h i c h i s r e - a f f i r m e d t h e d e c i s i o n f o r m u t u a l
c o n s u l t a t i o n o n t h e m e a s u r e s t o b e t a k e n i n t h e
e v e n t t h a t t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n t e g r i t y o f A u s -
239
t r i a a r e m e n a c e d , t h e y h a v e a g r e e d t o
r e c o m -
m e n d a m e e t i n g , a t a n e a r l y d a t e , o f t h e r e p r e s -
e n t a t i v e s o f a l l t h e G o v e r n m e n t s
m e n t i o n e d i n
t h e P r o t o c o l o f Ro m e w i t h a v i e w t o c o n c l u d i n g
o t h e r a g r e e m e n t s r e l a t i v e t o C e n t r a l Eu r o p e
.
Re g a r d i n g t h e A i r C o n v e n t i o n
p r o p o s e d f o r
w e s t e r n Eu r o p e , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e
t h r e e
G o v e r n m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d
p r o -
c e d u r e t o b e f o l l o w e d w h i c h w e r e c o n t e m p l a t e d
i n t h e c o m m u n i qu e o f Lo n d o n o f 3 F e b r u a r y a n d
a g r e e d t o c a r r y o u t a n a c t i v e s t u d y o f t h e qu e -
s t i o n .
I n r e s p e c t o f t h e p r o b l e m o f a r m a m e n t s , t h e
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t h r e e G o v e r n m e n t s , w h i l e
r e c o r d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o m m u n i qu e o f Lo n d o n
c o n t e m p l a t e d a n a g r e e m e n t
( t o b e f r e e l y n e g o -
t i a t e d w i t h G e r m a n y ) i n t e n d e d t o s u b s t i t u t e t h e
c o r r e s p o n d i n g c l a u s e o f P a r t V o f t h e Ve r s a i l l e s
T r e a t y , n o t e d w i t h r e g r e t t h a t t h e u n i l a t e r a l
r e p u d i a t i o n b y t h e G e r m a n G o v e r n m e n t a t t h e
m o m e n t w h e n n e g o t i a t i o n s w e r e i n p r o g r e s s
f o r
a r r i v i n g a t a n a g r e e m e n t , f r e e l y n e g o t i a t e d , o n t h e
qu e s t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s , h a d s h a k e n t h e c o n f i d e n c e
o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e s e c u r i t y o f a p a c i f i c
r e g u -
l a t i o n n .
I n s p i t e o f t h i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t h r e e
G o v e r n m e n t s a f f i r m e d
t h e i r s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o
m a i n t a i n p e a c e b y c r e a t i n g a f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y ,
240
a n d d e c l a r e d o n t h e i r p a r t , t h a t t h e y s t i l l d e s i r e d
t o c o - o p e r a t e i n a n y a t t e m p t o f a p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e
l i k e l y t o b r i n g a b o u t a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g r e e m e n t
f o r t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f a r m a m e n t s
.
I n r e s p e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y , o f t h e d e s i r e o f t h e
c o u n t r i e s , w h o s e m i l i t a r y s t a t u s i s d e f i n e d i n t h e
t r e a t i e s o f Sa i n t - G e r m a i n , t h e T r i a n o n a n d Ne u i l l y ,
t o o b t a i n a r e v i s i o n o f t h i s s t a t u s , t h e y d e c i d e d t o
k e e p t h e o t h e r St a t e s i n f o r m e d t h r o u g h d i p l o m a t i c
c h a n n e l s . T h e y w e r e , h o w e v e r , i n a g r e e m e n t i n
r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e o t h e r St a t e s i n t e r e s t e d t o e x a -
m i n e t h i s qu e s t i o n
a
w i t h a v i e w t o s e t t l i n g i t b y
m e a n s o f a c o n v e n t i o n w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f
t h e g e n e r a l a n d r e g i o n a l g u a r a n t e e s o f s e c u r i t y .
I n r e s p e c t o f t h e Lo c a r n o T r e a t y , t h e r e p r e s e n -
t a t i v e s o f I t a l y a n d t h e Un i t e d Ki n g d o m m a d e
t h e f o l l o w i n g m u t u a l d e c l a r a t i o n : T h e r e p r e s e n -
t a t i v e s o f I t a l y a n d t h e Un i t e d Ki n g d o m , s i g n a -
t o r y
P o w e r s t o t h e Lo c a r n o T r e a t y o n l y i n s o
f a r a s g u a r a n t o r s , f o r m a l l y r e - a f f i r m a l l t h e o b l i -
g a t i o n s , w h i c h o n t h e b a s i s o f t h a t T r e a t y , a r e
d u e f r o m t h e s e P o w e r s a n d d e c l a r e t h a t t h e y
i n t e n d t o f u l f i l l t h e m f a i t h f u l l y n .
A t t h e e n d t h e t w o P o w e r s s t a t e c c t h e i r c o m -
p l e t e a g r e e m e n t t o o p p o s e , b y a l l s u i t a b l e m e a n s ,
a n y u n i l a t e r a l r e p u d i a t i o n o f t r e a t i e s l i a b l e t o e n -
d a n g e r t h e p e a c e o f Eu r o p e
n
.
241
1 6 i n g .
T HE RE- C O NQUEST O F LYB I A .
A ND ET HI O P I A N T REA C HERY
T r i p o l i t a n i a - C y r e n a i c a
- T h e o a s i s o f Ku f r a - Er i t r e a
- T h e f r o n t i e r b e t w e e n So m a l i l a n d a n d Ke n y a
- T h e Ua l
Ua l i n c i d e n t -
T h e a r b i t r a l s e n t e n c e c o n f i r m s A b y s -
s i n i a n a g g r e s s i o n - I t a l y ' s a c c u s a t i o n a g a i n s t A b y s s i n i a
Va i n a t t e m p t s a t p a c i f i c a t i o n b y t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s
.
I t m a y e a s i l y b e u n d e r s t o o d n o w t h e F a s c i s t
G o v e r n m e n t , a n x i o u s t o i n c r e a s e I t a l y ' s e f f i c i e n c y
a n d p r e s t i g e , s o u g h t t o p l a c e i t s o w n i m p r i n t a l s o
o n h e r c o l o n i e s i n w h i c h c o n f u s i o n a n d i n s e c u r i t y
s t i l l r e i g n e d .
I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e T r i p o l i t a n i a . A f t e r t h e w e a k - s
n e s s e s a n d i n d e c i s i o n s w h i c h c a u s e d s o m a n y r e -
g r e t t a b l e i n c i d e n t s a t I t a l y ' s e x p e n s e , t h e r e - e s t a -
b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s A f r i c a n c o l o n y b e g a n w h e n
C o u n t Vo l p i w a s a p p o i n t e d G o v e r n o r o f Ly b i a
.
I t w a s t h u s t h a t t h e r e c o v e r y o f M i s u r a t a M a -
r i n a w a s d e c i d e d u p o n .
T h i s o c c u p a t i o n w a s f o l l o w e d b y m a n y i m p o r -
t a n t m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s , u p t o t h e r e t a k i n g o f
24 2
t h e G e b e l , t h e G i a d o a n d C a b a o z o n e s , Je f r e n
a n d G a r i a n . T h e y e a r 1 9 28 o p e n e d u n d e r g o o d
a u s p i c e s . Wh i l e
t h e d e m o r a l i s a t i o n a n d p a n i c o f
t h e r e b e l s i n c r e a s e d , t h e I t a l i a n t r o o p s o c c u p i e d
M s e l l a t a , T a r h u n a , Sl i t e n , M i s u r a t a a n d B e n i -
Ul i d . I n F e b r u a r y 1 9 24 i n o r d e r t o d r i v e t h e r e -
b e l s w h o h a d s o u g h t r e f u g e i n t h e s o u t h - w e s t e r n
r e g i o n f r o m t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , r e n d e r i n g f u r t h e r r e -
s i s t a n c e u s e l e s s , a n d t o r e n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f
t h e T u n i s i a n a n d A l g e r i n e f r o n t i e r , m o r e e f f i c a c -
i o u s , Si n a u e n , D e r g , G a d a m e s , w e r e o c c u p i e d .
T h e n t h e n e c e s s i t y a r o s e t o p u s h t h e a c t i o n i n t o
t h e v e r y h e a r t o f t h e G h i b l a , a n d M i z d a w a s o c -
c u p i e d o n t h e 1 3t h o f Ju n e , 1 9 24 . O n t h e s u c c e d -
i n g 23r d o f No v e m b e r t h e I t a l i a n t r o o p s o c c u p i e d
Si r t e .
I n Ju n e 1 9 35 G e n e r a l Em i l i o D e B o n o w a s
a p p o i n t e d G o v e r n o r o f t h e C o l o n y . I n t h e y e a r s
1 9 25 - 26 - 27 t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s c h i e f l y o c c u p i e d
w i t h t h e c i v i l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e c o n qu e r e d t e r -
r i t o r y .
I n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1 9 28 , a f t e r c a r e f u l p r e p a -
r a t i o n a r m s w e r e a g a i n t a k e n u p t o e f f e c t t h e r e -
u n i o n o f T r i p o l i t a n i a w i t h C y r e n a i c a , a n d t h u s t h e
w h o l e o f t h e Sy r t i s , t h e o a s e s o f So c n a , Ho n ,
Hu d d a n a n d Ze l l a w e r e r e o c c u p i e d u p t o
Ju l y
1 9 28 w h e n t h e I t a l i a n o c c u p a t i o n w a s c a r r i e d t o
t h e s o u t h o f M i z d a a s f a r a s G h e r i a t - Sc e r g h i a
.
243
T h e Qu a d r u m v i r D e B o n o w a s s u c c e e d e d ,
i n
Ja n u a r y 1 9 29 , b y M a r s h a l B a d o g l i o , w h o i m m e -
d i a t e l y i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n b a s e d o n t h e s p i r i t
o f p e a c e a n d c l e m e n c y . B u t t h e r e b e l b a n d s f a i l -
e d t o g r a s p t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r d o n , s o t h a t
i t w a s a g a i n n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e r e c o u r s e t o
a p u -
n i t i v e a c t i o n t o l i b e r a t e t h e F e z z a n
w h i c h h a d
b e e n i n v a d e d b y t h e e n e m y o r g a n i s a t i o n s
. I n l e s s
t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s t h e I t a l i a n t r o o p s r e o c c u p i e d
t h e w h o l e t e r r i t o r y .
I t w o u l d b e s u p e r f l u o u s t o r e c a l l t h e
n e g l i -
g e n c e o f p r e c e d i n g
g o v e r n m e n t s i n r e g a r d t o
C y r e n a i c a . I n Ja n u a r y 1 9 23 t h e r e a r r i v e d a t B e n -
g a s i t h e f i r s t G o v e r n o r a p p o i n t e d b y M u s s o l i n i ,
G e n e r a l B o n g i o v a n n i
. T h e l a t t e r f o l l o w e d t h e
r o u t e m a p p e d o u t b y t h e D u c e
. A f t e r a c t i v e b u t
u s e l e s s a t t e m p t s t o h o l d t h e Se n u s s i t o t h e p a c t s
a g r e e d u p o n , t h e n e w G o v e r n o r c o m m e n c e d a
f i r s t s e r i e s o f o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h l e d t o t h e o c c u p a -
t i o n o f A g e d a b i a , t h e s t r o n g h o l d o f t h e Se n u s s i .
A m i l i t a r y a c t i o n o f t h e g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e , a n d
w h i c h h a d a w i d e r e p e r c u s s i o n
i n t h e I s l a m i c
w o r l d , w a s t h e c o n qu e s t o f Ku f r a . I t i s t h e c r o w n -
i n g e p i s o d e o f t h e
b l o o d y Se n u s s i t e r e b e l l i o n ,
w h i c h w a s qu e l l e d a f t e r t e w e n t y o n e m o n t h s o f
h a r d f i g h t i n g .
B u t i t w a s i n t h e f i e l d o f c o l o n i a l p o l i t i c s t h a t
F a s c i s t I t a l y w a s t o t a k e d e c i s i o n s a n d c a r r y o u t
24 4
e n t e r p r i s e s s t i l l
i n p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t ,
a n d
t h e c o n s e qu e n c e s o f w h i c h h a v e s u r p a s s e d a l l a n -
t i c i p a t i o n s .
T h e i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e Ea s t
A f r i c a n C o l o n i e s h a d r e m a i n e d c o m p a r a t i v e l y
qu i e t u n t i l t h e e n d o f
1 9 33 .
I n Er i t r e a t h e t r a -
d i t i o n a l l y c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g
A n g l o - Eg y p t i a n So u d a n h a d f a c i l i t a t e d t h e f r i e n d -
l y s e t t l e m e n t o f s o m e t r i f l i n g l o c a l i n c i d e n t s .
I n n o r t h e r n So m a l i l a n d c e r t a i n i n c i d e n t s d u e t o
t h e i n c u r s i o n s o f f r o n t i e r t r i b e s h a d b e e n p r o m p t -
l y s e t t l e d b y t h e r a p i d a n d e n e r g e t i c i n t e r v e n -
t i o n o f t h e I t a l i a n f r o n t i e r g u a r d s a n d w e r e
l a t e r e x a m i n e d i n a f r i e n d l y
s p i r i t w i t h t h e
a u t h o r i t i e s o f B r i t i s h So m a l i l a n d
.
I n A p r i l 1 9 34, a s a r e s u l t o f a n e x c h a n g e o f
n o t e s b e t w e e n Si r Jo h n Si m o n a n d t h e I t a l i a n
A m b a s s a d o r G r a n d i , , t h e F l o r e n c e a g r e e m e n t o f
1 9 27 c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e m a r c a t i o n o f t h e f r o n t i e r
b e t w e e n I t a l i a n So m a l i l a n d a n d Ke n y a w a s r a t i -
f i e d , a n d c e r t a i n qu e s t i o n s o f d e t a i l w e r e a r -
r a n g e d w h i c h h a d r e m a i n e d i n s u s p e n s e
.
D e s p i t e t h e b r i e f g u e r i l l a w a r f a r e w h i c h b r o k e
o u t b e t w e e n Su a d i t e , A r a b i a a n d
t h e Ye m e n ,
f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h I t a l y a n d a c t i v e c o m -
m e r c i a l e x c h a n g e s b e t w e e n Er i t r e a a n d t h e t w o
A r a b St a t e s h a d r e m a i n e d u n a l t e r e d
. B u t i n
1 9 34 ,
ju s t a s I t a l y w a s a t t e m p t i n g t o p u s h o n a s m u c h
24 5
a s p o s s i b l e t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f h e r Ea s t A f r i c a n
C o l o n i e s , t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g A b y s s i n i a n
G o v e r n -
m e n t w a s g u i l t y o f i n c r e a s i n g t r e a c h e r y a n d a g -
g r e s s i o n , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e I t a l o - Et h i o p i a n
T r e a t y o f f r i e n d s h i p a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n s i g n e d
i n 1 9 28 .
Si n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f
1 9 34
t h e r e w a s a n i n -
t e n s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e m o v e m e n t o f Et h i o p i a n a r m e d
b a n d s i n t h e O g a d e n ; a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e
p r e s e n c e h a d b e e n r e p o r t e d o f a n Er i t r e a n o u t l a w ,
O m a r Sa m a n t a r , g u i l t y o f t h e m u r d e r o f a n
I t a l i e n o f f i c e r , w h o w a s a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t i n g m e n
f o r t h e Et h i o p i a n G o v e r n m e n t . Qu i t e u n e x p e c -
t e d l y , a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d ,
g i v i n g a n e x a c t m e a s u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n .
O n t h e 28 t h o f No v e m b e r 1 9 34, t h e r e a r r i v e d
a t t h e I t a l i a n f r o n t i e r - p o s t o f Ua l - Ua l t h e jo i n t
A n g l o - Et h i o p i a n m i s s i o n , c h a r g e d w i t h t h e d e m a r -
c a t i o n o f t h e f r o n t i e r s , b e t w e e n So m a l i l a n d a n d
t h e O g a d e n . T h e I t a l i a n o f f i c e r i n c o m m a n d w a s
qu i t e r e a d y t o a l l o w t h e m i s s i o n t o p a s s , b u t n o t
t h e a c c o m p a n y n g e s c o r t . T h e M i s s i o n t h e n w i t h -
d r e w t o A d o , w h e n c e i t s e n t a l e t t e r o f p r o t e s t
t o t h e I t a l i a n c o m m a n d a n t f o r h a v i n g o p p p o s e d
i t s f r e e c i r c u l a t i o n , Ua l - Ua l b e i n g
i n Et h i o p i a n
t e r r i t o r y . T h e p r o t e s t w a s a l s o s i g n e d b y C o l o n e l
C l i f f o r d , m e m b e r o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n .
O n t h e 5 t h o f D e c e m b e r t h e A b y s s i n i a n s a t -
246
t a c k e d t h e I t a l i a n p o s t , i n f o r c e , b u t w e r e r e p u l -
s e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e l o s s e s . T h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n -
m e n t p r o t e s t e d , , d e m a n d i n g a p o l o g i e s a n d r e p a -
r a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a l c u s t o m s : t h e A b y s s i -
n i a n G o v e r n m e n t p r o p o s e d t o s u b m i t t h e qu e s t i o n
t o a r b i t r a t i o n . A s a r e s u l t o f a r e qu e s t f o r f u r t h e r
d e t a i l s , t h e A b y s s i n i a n G o v e r n m e n t a p p e a l e d t o
t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s , a s s e r t i n g t h a t a t Ua l - Ua l
I t a l y , a n d n o t A b y s s i n i a , w a s t h e a g g r e s s o r .
T h e A b i s s i n i a n s a t f i r s t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e
I t a l i a n s h a d s t a r t e d h o s t i l i t i e s ; t h e n t h e y a t t e m p t -
e d t o w i d e n t h e t e r m s o f d i s c u s s i o n , d e m a n d i n g
t h a t i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i t s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d t o
w h o m Ua l - Ua l b e l o n g e d b y r i g h t . I t a l y r e p l i e d
t h a t t h e A b y s s i n i a n s h a d s t a r t e d t h e a t t a c k , a n d
d i d n o t i n t e n d t o e n t e r i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o n f r o n -
t i e r qu e s t i o n s , w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f A d d i s
A b a b a h a d a l w a y s r e f u s e d t o d i s c u s s , a l t h o u g h
i t h a d s o l e m n l y b o u n d i t s e l f t o t h i s e f f e c t b y a g r e e -
m e n t s s i g n e d i n 1 8 9 7 a n d i n 1 9 o 8 . ( I t s h o u l d b e
n o t e d t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o a n h y p o t h e t i c a l s t r a i g h t
l i n e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 8 9 7 , Ua l - Ua l m i g h t h a v e b e -
l o n g e d t o Et h i o p i a ; b u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e c o n d
f r o n t i e r l i n e p r o p o s e d , o n g e n e r a l l i n e s , i n 1 9 08 ,
a n d w h i c h c o m p r i s e d s a l i e n t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f
d i s t r i b u t i n g e qu a l l y t h e u s e o f t h e w e l l s a m o n g
t h e v a r i o u s t r i b e s , Ua l - Ua l w a s c o m p r i s e d i n I t a -
l i a n t e r r i t o r y .
247
I n a n y c a s e t h e I t a l i a n s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e y
h a d o c c u p i e d p e a c e f u l l y Ua l - Ua l s i n c e 1 9 27 .
Et h i o p i a m i g h t h a v e p r o t e s t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f
t h e 1 9 28 T r e a t y , w h i c h p r o v i d e d f o r t h e n e c e s -
s a r y p r o c e d u r e f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n t r o v e r s i e s , p a s s -
i n g t h r o u g h t h r e e s t a g e s : d i p l o m a t i c n e g o t i a -
t i o n s , c o n c i l i a t i o n , a r b i t r a t i o n . B e f o r e s u b m i t t i n g
t h e qu e s t i o n t o t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s , i t w a s
n e c e s s a r y t o g o t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e p r o c e d u r e
e s t a b l i s h e d b y t r e a t i e s e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n t h e t w o
i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s .
F r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g , I t a l y m a d e i t qu i t e
c l e a r t h a t t h e Ua l - Ua l i n c i d e n t w a s n o t h i n g b u t
a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w h i c h h a d
e x i s t e d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e a n d h a d n o w
c o m e t o a h e a d . T h e i m p o r t a n t qu e s t i o n , t h e r e -
f o i w a s n o t s o m u c h t h a t o f s e t t l i n g p a c i f i c a l l y
t h e Ua l - Ua l i n c i d e n t , b u t o f s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m ,
n o w b e c o m e p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e , o f s y m b i o s i s
w i t h a n e i g h b o u r w h o s e h o s t i l e i n t e n t i o n s t o w a r d s
I t a l y w e r e n o l o n g e r h i d d e n f r o m a n y o n e .
I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e I t a l o - Et h i o p i a n T r e a t y
o f 1 9 28 , a n C o m m i s s i o n o f a r b i t r a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g
o f f o u r m e m b e r s w a s a p p o i n t e d
. T h e C o m m i s s i o n ,
a f t e r s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s h e l d a t M i l a n ( 6 - 7 Ju n e )
a n d a t Sc h e v e n i n g e n ( 25 Ju n e ) , f a i l e d t o a r r i v e
a t a n y p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t , a s t h e Et h i o p i a n r e p r e -
s e n t a t i v e s i n s i s t e d o n d e a l i n g w i t h f r o n t i e r qu e s -
248
t i o n s w h i l e t h e I t a l i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e p l i e d t h a t
s i m i l a r i n qu i r i e s w e r e e x c l u d e d b y t h e a g r e e m e n t
b e t w e e n t h e t w o G o v e r n m e n t s s i g n e d o n t h e 1 5 t h
a n d i 6 t h o f M a y .
I t w a s t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o a p p o i n t a f i f t h a r -
b i t r a t o r i n t h e p e r s o n o f M . Ni c h o l a s P o l i t i s ,
G r e e k M i n i s t e r i n P a r i s . He s t a t e d t h a t : No
b l a m e o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e Ua l - Ua l i n c i d e n t
c a n b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t o r
t o i t s a g e n t s o n t h e s p o t ; t h e a c c u s a t i o n s l e v e l l e d
b y t h e Et h i o p i a n G o v e r n m e n t a g a i n s t t h e I t a l i a n
a u t h o r i t i e s a r e r e f u t e d b y t h e m a n y p r e c a u t i o n s
t a k e n b y t h e l a t t e r t o g u a r d a g a i n s t i n c i d e n t s
o n t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e m a s s i n g o f Et h i o p i a n
r e g u l a r a n d i r r e g u l a r t r o o p s , a s a l s o b y t h e l a c k
o f a n y i n t e r e s t , o n t h e p a r t o f t h e I t a l i a n s i n
p r o v o k i n g t h e c o n f l i c t o f 5 t h D e c e m b e r . M . P o -
l i t i s a d d e d t h a t i f t h e Et h i o p i a n G o v e r n m e n t h a d
l i k e w i s e n o i n t e r e s t i n c a u s i n g t h e c o n f l i c t , n e v e r -
t h e l e s s t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a
b y t h e i r a t t i t u d e a n d
e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d m a i n t a i n a n c e ,
e v e n a f t e r t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e A n g l o - Et h i o p i a n
C o m m i s s i o n , o f n u m e r o u s t r o o p s i n
p r o x i m i t y
t o t h e I t a l i a n b o r d e r - l i n e o f Ua l - Ua l , c r e a t e d
t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y h a d a g g r e s s i v e i n t e n -
t i o n s ; w h i c h f a c t s a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a p p e a r t o
r e n d e r t h e I t a l i a n v e r s i o n p l a u s i b l e
n .
I t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t b e f o r e , d u r i n g
249
. a n d a f t e r t h e C o m m i s s i o n o f A r b i t r a t i o n , En g l a n d
. a n d F r a n c e _ o f f e r e d t h e i r m e d i a t i o n w i t h a v i e w
t o a p a c i f i c s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e I t a l o - Et h i o p i a n
d i s p u t e . O n t h e 1 1 t h o f Ju l y t h e B r i t i s h F o r e i g n
M i n i s t e r , Si r Sa m u e l Ho a r e , p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e
Ho u s e o f C o m m o n s a s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e
f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f t h e Un i t e d Ki n g d o m , b o t h i n
r e s p e c t o f Eu r o p e a n qu e s t i o n s a n d o f t h e I t a l o -
Et h i o p i a n d i s p u t e . O n t h i s o c c a s i o n h e r e c o g n i s e d
I t a l y ' s n e e d f o r e x p a n s i o n a n d e x p l i c i t l y a f f i r m e d
t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e n t i o n s t o c o n t i n u e
t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h a v i e w t o a s o l u t i o n i n
c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e o f t h e Le a g u e o f
Na t i o n s a n d t h e I t a l o - F r a n c o - B r i t i s h
a g r e e m e n t s
o f 1 g o 6 a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f
t h e t w o p a r t i e s d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d .
F o l l o w i n g t h i s s u g g e s t i o n , a C o n f e r e n c e o f
T h r e e , n a m e l y o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f I t a l y ,
F r a n c e a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n , m e t i n P a r i s o n t h e
1 6 t h o f A u g u s t , w i t h o u t , h o w e v e r , a r r i v i n g a t
a n y d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n . A F r a n c o - B r i t i s h p r o je c t ,
w i t h a v i e w t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e Et h i o p i a n
p r o b l e m b y m e a n s o f c e r t a i n f r o n t i e r a l t e r a t i o n s ,
a n d t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n i n Et h i o p i a o f a s p e c i a l ju r i d i c a l
r e g i m e d e p e n d i n g f r o m t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s , c a l -
c u l a t e d t o s a t i s f y i n a c e r t a i n m e a s u r e I t a l y ' s
n e e d f o r e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n , w a s r e f u s e d b y t h e
I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t . T h e
a
s t u d y o f t h e s i t u a -
25 0
t i o n w a s t h e n r e f e r e d t o a
d i p l o m a t i c c h a n n e l s
n .
O n t h e 4t h o f Se p t e m b e r B a r o n A l o i s i , I t a -
l i a n D e l e g a t e t o t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s , s u b m i t t e d
t o t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e C o u n c i l , w h o h a d m e t f o r
t h e 8 8 t h o r d i n a r y s e s s i o n , a M e m o r a n d u m i n
w h i c h w e r e e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l t h e r e a s o n s w h y
I t a l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e Et h i o p i a n G o v e r n m e n t h a d
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v i o l a t e d a l l t h e a g r e e m e n t s a s s u m e d
t o w a r d s I t a l y a n d t o w a r d s t h e Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s .
A f t e r a n i m a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s t h e C o u n c i l , o n
=6 t h Se p t e m b e r , a p p o i n t e d a C o m m i t t e e o f f i v e
- m e m b e r s t o e x a m i n e t h e I t a l i a n M e m o r a n d u m a n d
t o a r r i v e a t a p a c i f i c s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e I t a l o -
Et h i o p i a n d i s p u t e
. A f t e r t w e l v e d a y s t h e C o m -
m i t t e e p r e s e n t e d i t s c o n c l u s i o n s a n d p r o p o s a l s
t o t h e p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d
. T h e y i n c l u d e d a s c h e m e
o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d a s s i s t a n c e o n a n i n t e r n a -
t i o n a l b a s i s ( c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e Le a g u e
o f Na t i o n s ) , w h i c h s h o u l d p l a c e t h e Et h i o p i a n
G o v e r n m e n t i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o m m e n c e t h e c o n -
s t r u c t i v e w o r k n e c e s s a r y t o i m p r o v e t h e c o n d i t i o n
o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t o d e v e l o p i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s
a n d t o e n s u r e p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s w i t h n e i g h b o u r -
i n g p e o p l e s .
A s r e g a r d s I t a l i a n c o n c e r n s a n d i n t e r e s t s , t h e
p l a n o f t h e F i v e w a s l i m i t e d t o a s t a t e m e n t t h a t
F r a n c e a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n w e r e d i s p o s e d t o e n -
,c o u r a g e a t e r r i t o r i a l s e t t l e m e n t b e t w e e n I t a l y a n d
25 1
Et h i o p i a , m a k i n g ,
o n
t h e i r p a r t , c e r t a i n g r a n t s
o n t h e So m a l i l a n d c o a s t i n Et h i o p i a ' s f a v o u r .
M o r e o v e r t h e F r e n c h a n d B r i t i s h d e l e g a t e s h a d
i n f o r m e d t h e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e F i v e t h a t t h e i r
r e s p e c t i v e G o v e r n m e n t s , w i t h o u t d e r o g a t i n g f r o m
t h e s y s t e m i n f o r c e w i t h r e g a r d t o f o e i g n t r a d e
a n d t o t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s t r a n g e r s , w e r e d i s p o s e d
t o r e c o g n i s e I t a l y ' s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e e c o n o m i c
d e v e l o p m e n t o f Et h i o p i a . T h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n -
m e n t d e c l a r e d t h e s e p r o p o s a l s t o b e i n a c c e p t a b l e .
O n t h e 26 t h o f Se p t e m b e r t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e
Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s m e t a g a i n t o e x a m i n e t h e
r e p o r t o f t h e ( ( C o m m i t t e e o f F i v e ) ) a n d t o
i n i t i a t e t h e p r o c e d u r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a r t
. 1 5 ,
p a r a g r a p h 4, o f t h e P a c t o f t h e Le a g u e o f Na -
t i o n s . T o t h i s e n d t h e C o u n c i l f o r m e d i t s e l f i n t o a
C o m m i t t e o f T h i r t e e n , n a m e l y , a s m a n y a s t h e r e
w e r e t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e C o u n c i l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n
o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f Ja p a n a n d G e r m a n y w h i c h
h a d r e s i g n e d , a n d I t a l y w h i c h w a s a b s e n t .
25 2
T HE
C O NQUEST O F EM P I RE
T h e r a l l y o f t h e F a s c i s t p e o p l e - M u s s o l i n i a d d r e s s e s t h e
I t a l i a n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d - G e n e r a l m o b i l i z a t i o n i n
A b y s s i n i a - A d o w a a v e n g e d - Sa n c t i o n s a s I t a l y s u p -
p r e s s e s s l a v e r y i n t h e c o n qu e r e d l a n d s - B a d o g l i o i n
c o m m a n d o f t h e f o r c e s - T h e B r i t i s h f l e e t i n t h e M e d i -
t e r r a n e a n -
T h e La v a l - Ho a r e p l a n - e We d d i n g r i n g n d a y
-
Su m m a r y o f o p e r a t i o n s i n Ea s t A f r i c a - I t a l i a n t r o o p s
e n t e r A d d i s A b a b a - T h e r a l l y o f M a y 5 t h - M u s s o l i n i
a n n o u n c e s t h e e n d o f t h e w a r a n d t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f
Et h i o p i a - T h e r a l l y o f M a y 9 t h - M u s s o l i n i t e l l s t h e w o r l d
t h a t I t a l y h a s a n Em p i r e - T h e Ki n g b e c o m e s Em -
p e r o r o f Et h i o p i a - T h e Ki n g a n d t h e D u c e .
O n O c t o b e r 2n d M u s s o l i n i o r d e r e d a g e n e r a l
r a l l y o f t h e p e o p l e a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y . F r o m h i s
b a l c o n y o n t h e P i a z z a Ve n e z i a h e p r o c l a i m e d t h a t
I t a l y w o u l d o p p o s e s a n c t i o n s w i t h h e r d i s c i p l i n e ,
h e r s o b r i e t y ,
h e r s p i r i t o f s a c r i f i c e . a M i l i t a r y
s a n c t i o n s , h e s a i d , w i l l b e a n s w e r e d b y m i l i t a r y
m e a s u r e s
. T o a c t s o f w a r w i t h s h a l l r e s p o n d b y
a c t s o f w a r . ) )
O n Se p t e m b e r 28 t h , t h e Ne g u s h a d i n f o r m e d
t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e Le a g u e
o f
Na t i o n s t h a t t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n c o m p e l l e d
25 3
h i m t o c a l l a g e n e r a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f h i s a r m e d f o r -
c e s . O w i n g t o t h i s a n n o u n c e m e n t , o n O c t o b e r 3r d
t h e F a s c i s t G o v e r n m e n t i s s u e d a c o m m u n i qu e d e -
c l a r i n g t h a t I t a l i a n M i l i t a r y He a d qu a t e r s i n Er i -
t r e a h a d r e c e i v e d o r d e r s t o a c t i n c o n s e qu e n c e
o f i t .
O n O c t o b e r 5 t h t h e I t a l i a n t r o o p s o c c u p i e d
A d i g r a t , o n t h e 6 t h t h e y c a p t u r e d A d o w a a n d
t h e r e b y a v e n g e d t h e t r a g i c d a y o f M a r c h 1 s t 1 8 9 6 .
Si m u l t a n e o u s l y G e n e v a , w a s a c t i n g w i t h v i -
g o u r . O n O c t o b e r 5 t h t h e C o u n c i l o f t h e Le a g u e o f
Na t i o n a l a p p o i n t e d a C o m m i t t e e o f Si x
m e m b e r s .
t o
s t u d y t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d d r a w u p a r e p o r t w h i c h
w a s e v e n t u a l l y s u b m i t t e d t o t h e C o u n c i l l o n O c t o -
b e r 7 t h . T h e r e p o r t s t a t i n g t h a t , b y r e s o r t i n g t o
w a r f a r e I t a l y h a d v i o l a t e d C l a u s e 1 2 o f t h e C o -
v e n a n t , w a s u n a n i m o u s l y a p p r o v e d b y
t h e
C o u n c i l .
O n t h e 9 t h t h e A s s e m b l y r e s u m e d m e e t i n g s a n d
d e c l a r e d i t s e l f f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f
s a n c t i o n s o n I t a l y , a s p r o v i d e d f o r i n C l a u s e 1 6 -
o f t h e C o v e n a n t
. T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f A u s t r i a
a n d Hu n g a r y r e f u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h i s d e c i s i o n .
O n t h e l o t h a c o m m i t t e e f o r C o - o r d i n a t i o n
o f s a n c t i o n s , c o m p r i s i n g a l l t h e d e l e g a t e s t o t h e
A s s e m b l y e x c l u d i n g t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g A u s t r i a
a n d Hu n g a r y w a s a p p o i n t e d t o e n f o r c e m e a s u r e s
.
a g a i n s t I t a l y .
25 4
O n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , O c t o b e r i i t h , t h e C o m -
m i t t e e o f C o - o r d i n a t i o n h e l d t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g , a
s u b - c o m m i t t e e o f 1 7 m e m b e r s ( e v e n t u a l l y c h a n g -
e d t o a c o m m i t t e e o f Ei g h t e e n t h r o u g h t h e i n -
c l u s i o n o f t h e M e x i c a n d e l e g a t e ) p r o p o s i n g a n
e m b a r g o o n a r m s f o r I t a l y a n d t h e r a i s i n g o f a
s i m i l a r e m b a r g o f o r Et h i o p i a .
O n O c t . 1 9 t h t h e C o m m i t t e e o f Ei g h t e e n m e t t o
a p p r o v e o t h e r r e s t r i c t i v e m e a s u r e s : t h e e x c l u s i o n
o f I t a l i a n i m p o r t s f r o m s a n c t i o n i s t c o u n t r i e s ; p r o h i -
b i t i o n t o e x p o r t c e r t a i n r a w m a t e r i a l s t o I t a l y ;
m u t u a l e c o n o m i c s u p p o r t a m o n g s a n c t i o n i s t
c o u n t r i e s .
O n O c t . l o t h t h e I t a l i a n Hi g h C o m m i s s i o n e r
f o r Ea s t A f r i c a , G e n e r a l D e B o n o , i s s u e d a p r o c l a -
m a t i o n a n n o u n c i n g t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f s l a v e r y
t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e r r i t o r i e s u n d e r I t a l i a n o c c u p a t i o n .
O n No v e m b e r 2n d t h e C o m m i t t e e o f Ei g h t e e n
s e t t h e d a t e o f No v e m b e r r 8 f o r t h e a c t u a l e n -
f o r c e m e n t o f s a n c t i o n s
. T h e l i s t o f s a n c t i o n i s t
c o u n t r i e s w a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : 5 1 c o u n t r i e s e n f o r c e d
t h e e m b a r g o o n a r m s , 5 1 jo i n e d f i n a n c i a l m e a -
s u r e s , 49 t h e s e v e r i n g o f t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h I t a l y ,
41 p l e d g e d t h e m s e l v e s t o m u t u a l a s s i s t a n c e , A l b a -
n i a , A u s t r i a a n d Hu n g a r y o p p o s i n g a l l s u c h m e a -
s u r e s . Sw i t z e r l a n d o n l y jo i n e d s u c h e c o n o m i c m e a -
s u r e s a s w e r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h e r p a r t i c u l a r f o r m
25 5
o f
n e u t r a l i t y r a t i f i e d b y t h e A s s e m b l y
o f t h e
Le a g u e o f Na t i o n s i n t h e y e a r 1 9 21 .
O n No v e m b e r 1 6 t h G e n e r a l D e B o n o w a s
p r o m o t e d t o t h e r a n l c o f F i e l d M a r s h a l c c
i n r e -
c o g n i t i o n o f h i s r e c o n qu e s t a n d p a c i f i c a t i o n o f
t h e T i g r a i , F i e l d M a r s h a l P i e t r o B a d o g l i o b e i n g
a p p o i n t e d Hi g h C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r I t a l i a n Ea s t
A f r i c a i n h i s s t e a d
.
A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f D e c e m b e r , t h e B r i t i s h G o -
v e r n m e n t w h i c h , f r o m a s f a r b a c k
a s A u g u s t , h a d
c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e Ho m e F l e e t i n M e d i t e r r a n e a n ,
w a t e r s i n r e s p o n s e , i t w a s a l l e g e d , t o a n t i - B r i t i s h
a t t a c k s i n t h e I t a l i a n p r e s s a n d t o t h e s e n d i n g o f
t w o I t a l i a n d i v i s i o n s t o C i r e n a i c a , t o o k d i p l o m a t i c
s t e p s t o s e c u r e s u p p o r t f r o m M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o u n -
t r i e s ( T u r k e y , G r e e c e , Sp a i n , a n d Yu g o s l a v i a ) ,
i n t h e e v e n t , i t w a s s t a t e d , o f t h e B r i t i s h F l e e t
b e i n g a t t a c k e d i n c o n s e qu e n c e o f t h e e n f o r c e m e n t
o f s a n c t i o n s .
Su c h a s t e p w a s t a k e n w i t h F r a n c e o n Se p -
t e m b e r 26 t h , t h e P a r i s G o v e r n m e n t r e p l y i n g i n
t h e a f f i r m a t i v e o n O c t o b e r t h e 4t h
. F r a n c e , r e -
m a r k e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t p r e v e n t i v e e n f o r c e m e n t o f
m u t u a l a i d c o n t e m p l a t e d i n C l a u s e 1 6 p a r a g r a p h
3 o f t h e C o v e n a n t , w a s l e g a l o n l y i f a n a g r e e m e n t
o f t h i s n a t u r e h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y s t i p u l a t e d b y
t h e p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . T h i s h a d n o t b e e n t h e c a s e
w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e Ho m e F l e e t
25 6
i n M e d i t e r r a n e a n w a t e r s
. T h e F r e n c h G o v e r n m e n t ,
m o r e o v e r , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h e l e g a l i t y o f m u t u a l
a i d i n t h e m a jo r i t y o f c a s e s , d e c l a r e d t h a t s u c h
m e a s u r e s s h o u l d a l s o a p p l y i n t h e e v e n t o f a g -
g r e s s i o n o n l a n d a n d f r o m t h e a i r , a s w e l l a s o n
s e a , a n d e v e n i f t h e a g g r e s s o r w e r e a p o w e r o u t -
s i d e t h e Le a g u e , t h e r e b y a l l u d i n g t o G e r m a n y .
F r a n c o - B r i t i s h c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n t e n d e d
t o p r o -
v i d e a s e t t l e m e n t f o r t h e d i s p u t e w e r e u n d e r w a y
a t t h e s a m e t i m e . I n f a c t , o n D e c e m b e r 7 t h , t h e
F r e n c h P r i m e M i n i s t e r , M . La v a l , a n d t h e B r i t i s h
F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , Si r Sa m u e l Ho a r e , m e t i n P a r i s
t o d r a w u p a p l a n b y w h i c h t o e n d t h e c o n f l i c t .
T h e i r t a l k s f i n i s h e d o n t h e 8 t h w i t h t h e d r a w i n g
u p o f a s c h e m e w h i c h r e c e i v e d t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e
B r i t i s h C a b i n e t o n t h e l o t h . O n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y
t h e La v a l - Ho a r e p r o p o s a l s w e r e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e
I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t , t o A d d i s A b a b a a n d t o
G e n e v a .
T h e t e x t o f t h e p r o p o s a l s w a s m a d e p u b l i c
o n t h e 1 3t h . T h e y p r o v i d e d f o r a t e r r i t o r i a l
e x c h a n g e b y w h i c h I t a l y w a s t o e x t e n d h e r s o -
v e r e i g n t y o v e r p a r t o f t h e T i g r a i ( e x c l u d i n g
A x u m ) , p a r t o f D a n k a l i a a n d p a r t o f t h e
O g a d e n , w h i l e Et h i o p i a w a s t o r e c e i v e a n o u t l e t
o n t h e s e a ( t h e p o r t o f A s s a b , f o r i n s t a n c e )
;
s e c o n d l y I t a l y w a s t o b e a l l o w e d e c o n o m i c e x -
p l o i t a t i o n o f a n a r e a l i m i t e d b y t h e 8 p a r a l l e l
25 7
1 . 7 i n g .
a n d t h e 35 0 m e r i d i a n ( t h e Ka f f a r e g i o n )
o v e r
w h i c h , h o w e v e r , Et h i o p i a r e t a i n e d s o v e r e i g n
r i g h t s .
T h e p r o p o s a l s w e r e r e je c t e d b y t h e Ne g u s o n
D e c e m b e r 1 6 t h . T w o d a y s l a t e r t h e B r i t i s h F o r -
e i g n M i n i s t e r r e s i g n e d o w i n g t o t h e h o s t i l i t y o f
B r i t i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o w a r d s t h i s s e t t l e m e n t .
O n t h e 1 9 t h t h e Ne g u s o f f i c i a l l y c o n f i r m e d h i s
r e je c t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s a l s t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f
F r a n c e a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d u p o n t h a t d a y
M r . B a l d w i n a n d Si r Sa m u e l Ho a r e s o u g h t t o
ju s t i f y t h e i r c o n c i l i a t o r y e f f o r t s b e f o r e P a r l i a -
m e n t w h i l e a n n o u n c i n g t h a t t h e La v a l - Ho a r e
p l a n h a d c o l l a p s e d .
O n D e c e m b e r l o t h t h e G r a n d C o u n c i l o f
F a s c i s m m e t i n Ro m e a n d , h a v i n g p l a c e d o n
r e c o r d t h e r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e La v a l - Ho a r e p l a n
b y G r e a t B r i t a i n w h i l e t h e I t a l i a n G o v e r n m e n t
s t i l l h a d t h e s c h e m e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o n -
f i r m e d I t a l y ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o p u r s u e t h e e n d s
c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h b y t h e He a d o f t h e I t a l i a n G o -
v e r n m e n t i n p r e v i o u s p r o n o u n c e m e n t s o n t h e
qu e s t i o n .
I t a l y h a d n o c h o i c e o t h e r t h a n t o c o n t i n u e h e r
r e s i s t a n c e t o s a n c t i o n s a n d h e r c a m p a i g n i n
Et h i o p i a . Sa n c t i o n s w e r e f a c e d b y r e s t r i c t i o n s
o n c o n s u m p t i o n , b y t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f g o l d o f f e r -
i n g s w h i c h r o s e t o a n a c m e o f g e n e r o s i t y o n
25 8
u
We d d i n g Ri n g D a y o p e n e d b y t h e Qu e e n o n
D e c e m b e r 1 8 t h . A t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Un i v e r s i t y
C i t y i n Ro m e , t h e Ki n g h a d u r g e d t h e p e o p l e
t o r e s i s t , a n d h a d e x p l a i n e d t h e c i v i l i s i n g a n d
p e a c e f u l e n d s w h i c h I t a l y h a d i n v i e w
.
T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a s u m m a r i z e d a c c o u n t o f
t h e I t a l o - Et h i o p i a n c a m p a i g n
O n O c t o b e r 3r d ,
1 9 35 ,
G e n e r a l D e B o n o
o r d e r e d t h e I t a l i a n t r o o p s t o c r o s s t h e M a r e b
r i v e r , w h i c h d e m a r c a t e d t h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n
Er i t r e a a n d Et h i o p i a .
I t a l i a n f o r c e s d r a w n i n t o a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e
f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e c a m p a i g n , w h i c h l a s t e d u n t i l
t h e m i d d l e o f F e b r u a r y , c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r
d i v i -
s i o n s . A f t e r t h e I t a l i a n o c c u p a t i o n o f A d i g r a t
( O c t o b e r 5 t h ) , A d o w a ( O c t o b e r 6 t h ) a n d A x o u m
( O c t o b e r 1 5 t h ) t h e A b y s s i n i a n s w e r e f o r c e d o u t
o f t h e En t i c h o v a l l e y a n d t h e I t a l i a n s e n t e r e d
M a k a l l e ( No v e m b e r 7 t h )
.
F r o m t h e m i d d l e o f No v e m b e r t o t h e m i d d l e
o f Ja n u a r y o p e r a t i o n s w e r e c e n t r e d i n t h e No r t h
Ea s t e r n T i g r a i . A b y s s i n i a n f o r c e s
a d v a n c i n g t o -
w a r d s t h e I t a l i a n l i n e c o m p r i s e d 40
. 000 m e n
a t t h e o r d e r s o f Ra s Se y o u m a n d Ra s Ka s s a ,
w h o s e p l a n i t w a s t o m a k e h e a d w a y i n t o t h e
T e m b i e n , s e v e r c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n A d o w a a n d
M a k a l l e , a n d e v e n t u a l l y r e c o n qu e r l o s t t e r r i t o r y .
25 9
1 7

i n g .
T h e Et h i o p i a n m e n a c e i n t h e T e m b i e n , a n a -
t u r a l s t r o n g h o l d u n i v e r s a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i m p r e g n a -
b l e , w a s s u p p l e m e n t e d b y t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n
o n
t h e A m b a A r a d a m f a c i n g M a k a l l e , o f 8 0 . o o o
m e n c o m m a n d e d
b y Ra s M u l u g h e t a , a n d o f
a n o t h e r 40
. 000 i n t h e Sh i r e c o m m a n d e d b y Ra s
I m m e r o u .
T h e l a t t e r w e r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s
A x o u m , t h e Ho l y C i t y o f t h e Em p i r e
. T h e Em -
p e r o r ' s o w n a r m y , t r a i n e d a n d e qu i p p e d i n Eu -
r o p e a n f a s h i o n , w a s b r o u g h t i n t o l i n e a t D e s s y e ,
b y t h e Ne g u s h i m s e l f .
I n So m a l i l a n d , G e n e r a l G r a z i a n i ,
a f t e r l e a d -
i n g h i s v a n g u a r d s i n t o a c t i o n a l o n g t h e We b b i
Sh e b e l i a n d o c c u p y i n g G a b r e d a r r e a n d G o r r a h e i ,
m e t t h e f o r c e s o f Ra s D e s t a n e a r D o l o a n d
Lu g h , m a r c h i n g t o w a r d s
So m a l i l a n d a l o n g t h e
c o u r s e o f t h e Ju b a .
A t t h e o u t s e t o f Ja n u a r y
1 9 36 , t h e s i t u a t i o n
o f t h e I t a l i a n a r m y i n Ea s t A f r i c a w a s b y
n o
m e a n s a n e a s y o n e
. Ho w e v e r , b e t w e e n Ja n u a r y
9 t h a n d 24t h , G e n e r a l G r a z i a n i i n c o m m a n d o f
20. 000 m e n a t t a c k e d , n e a r D o l o , a n d d e s t r o y e d
t h e a r m y o f Ra s D e s t a w h i c h h a d b e e n r e d u c e d t o
1 5 . 000
m e n d u r i n g t h e i r f o r c e d m a r c h . G e n e r a l
G r a z i a n i c o m p l e t e d h i s v i c t o r y b y a d v a n c i n g 400
k i l o m e t r e s i n t o Et h i o p i a n t e r r i t o r y ( B o r a n a r e g i o n )
a n d o c c u p y n g Ne g h e l l i
. A t t h a t t i m e h e m i g h t
e a s i l y h a v e p u s h e d h i s m o t o r i s e d c o l u m n s a s f a r a s
26 0
t h e A l l a t a p a s s , a n d i n t o t h e Si d a m o r e g i o n ,
t h e n c e p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e c a p i t a l a l o n g t h e r o a d
f r o m Ke n y a t o A d d i s A b a b a
. B u t s h o r t a g e
o f
m e n a n d i n a d e qu a t e t r a n s p o r t , a s w e l l a s t h e
e x c e l l e n t e qu i p m e n t o f Ra s Na s i b o u ' s a r m y i n
t h e Ha r a r a n d O g a d e n p r o v i n c e s , o r g a n i s e d b y
We h i b P a c h a , d i s s u a d e d h i m f r o m c a r r y i n g o u t
t h i s s c h e m e . T h e A b y s s i n i a n f o r c e s i n t h e So u t h
w e r e i o o . o o o s t r o n g .
T o w a r d s t h e m i d d l e o f F e b r u a r y M a r s h a l B a -
d o g l i o t o o k c o m a n d o f t h e I t a l i a n f o r c e s i n Ea s t
A f r i c a , w h i l e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a t t a c k o n t h e No r -
t h e r n f r o n t w e r e s t i l l i n t e n s e . T h a n k s t o r e i n -
f o r c e m e n t s r e a c h i n g
h i s
e x p e d i t i o n a r y c o r p s ,
w h i c h n o w c o m p r i s e d f i v e a r m y c o r p s ( i n c l u d -
i n g n a t i o n a l s a n d n a t i v e s ) p l u s o n e d i v i s i o n i n
t h e We s t e r n A m h a r a a n d o t h e r t r o o p s d u e t o
m a r c h i n t o t h e A u s s a p r o v i n c e f r o m A s s a b b y
t h e m i d d l e o f A p r i l , h e w a s a b l e t o d r a w u p a
s t r a t e g i c a l p l a n . T h i s i n c l u d e d s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f
G e n e r a l G r a z i a n i ' s f r o n t i n t h e So u t h w i t h a n
A r a b d i v i s i o n f r o m Li b y a ,
w h i l e i n t h e No r t h
t h e A b y s s i n i a n a r m i e s , n o w p r e s s i n g o n a l l s i d e s
e x c e p t t h e Ea s t , w e r e t o b e a t t a c k e d s i m u l t a -
n e o u s l y a n d a t o n c e . T h e A i r F o r c e ( 5 00
m a c h i -
n e s ) w a s i n s t r u c t e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e
e n e m y f o r c e s a l o n g t h e No r t h e r n f r o n t . T h e
b a t t l e o f En d e r t a w a s f o u g h t . T h e r e w a s a n
z 6 r
a t t a c k o n t h e T e m b i e n f r o m t h e
No r t h , w h i l e
t h e a d v a n c e o n a n d
t a k i n g o f A m b a A r a -
d a m , a n n i h i l a t e d t h e a r m y o f Ra s l Yl u l u g h e -
t a . T h e s e c o n d b a t t l e i n t h e T e m b i e n
p r o v e d
d e c i s i v e , a s i m u l t a n e o u s a n d v i c t o r i o u s o f f e n s i v e
No r t h a n d So u t h f o r c i n g Ra s Ka s s a a n d Ra s
Se y o u m t o w i t h d r a w w i t h t h e i r t r o o p s i n t o t h e
T a k a z z e v a l l e y .
A b a t t l e i n t h e Sh i r e f o l l o w e d a l m o s t a t
o n c e , w h i c h c o m p e l l e d Ra s
I m m e r o u t o o r d e r
a r e t r e a t w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y c h a n g e d i n t o a r o u t
o f t h e t h r e e a r m i e s , u n d e r t h e u n r e l e n t i n g
p r e s s u r e o f t h e I t a l i a n A i r F o r c e .
A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A p r i l , t h e I t a l i a n f o r c e s
h e l d a p r a c t i c a l l y u n b r o k e n f r o n t f r o m t h e So u -
d a n b o r d e r t o t h e D a n a k i l d e s e r t .
D i v i s i o n s o p e r a t i n g
i n We s t e r n
A m h a r a
r e a c h e d G o n d a r a n d La k e T a n a w h i l e t h e f i v e
I t a l i a n a r m y c o r p s m o v e d s w i f t l y i n t o t h e h e a r t
o f A b y s s i n i a t o g e t h e r . T h e l e f t w i n g p r e s s e d
t o w a r d s t h e A m b a A l a ji , t h e c e n t r e m a r c h e d
o n So c o t a , p r o c e e d i n g i n t o t h e La s t a r e g i o n ,
t h e r i g h t w i n g e n c i r c l e d a n d c l i m b e d t h e Se m i e n
p l a t e a u ( 1 3 . 9 20 f t . h i g h ) d e s c e n d i n g o n t h e e a s t e r n
s h o r e s o f La k e T a n a , D e b r a T a b o r a n d t h e
B e g h e m e d e r , t h e c o r e o f t h e Em p i r e .
A n a d v a n c e d c o l u m n o p e r a t i n g n e a r t h e So u -
d a n b o r d e r , o c c u p i e d G a l l a b a t , a n i m p o r t a n t c e n
26 2
t r e I w h e r e a l l r o a d s jo i n t h a t l e a d f r o m t h e So u d a n
t o Et h i o p i a . T h e r e t r e a t i n g a r m i e s o f t h e A b y s -
s i n i a n Ra s e s s u d d e n l y b e g a n t o d i s i n t e g r a t e .
P r a c t i c a l l y w i t h o u t r e s i s t e n c e , t h e I t a l i a n f o r c e s
c o n qu e r e d t h e A l a ji p a s s w h i c h o p e n e d t h e w a y
i n t o t h e c e n t r a l p r o v i n c e s . Wh e n s t i l l t h i r t y k i -
l o m e t r e s a w a y f r o m La k e A s h a n g h i , M a r s h a l B a -
d o g l i o b e c a m e a w a r e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t r i b e s
o f t h e No r t h e r n G a l l a h a d t u r n e d a g a i n s t t h e
Ne g u s , a n d h a d d e a l t a d e a t h b l o w t o t h e
r e t r e a t i n g a r m i e s , w h i l e Ha i l e Se l l a s s i e w a s a t -
t e m p t i n g t o s t o p t h e I t a l i a n a d v a n c e o n D e s s y e ,
a n d b a r t h e w a y t o La k e A s h a n g h i .
T h e a r m y o f t h Q Ne g u s a t t a c k e d o n A p r i l i o t h .
o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e I t a l i a n n a t i v e d i v i s i o n
h o l d i n g t h e s e c t o r w o u l d b e s h o r t o f a r t i l l e r y
a n d a m m u n i t i o n o w i n g t o l a c k o f r o a d s , a n d
t h a t b y t e m p o r i z i n g a w e e k o r t w o t h e h e a v y
r a i n s , w h i c h h a d s t a r t e d e a r l i e r t h a n u s u a l ,
w o u l d b r i n g a c t i o n o n t h e n o r t h e r n f r o n t t o a
s t a n d s t i l l . T h e s c h e m e f a i l e d , h o w e v e r , f o r t h e
I t a l i a n f o r c e s r e s i s t e d a n d c o u n t e r - a t t a c k e d , w h i l e
t h e r e b e l G a l l a t r i b e s d e c i m a t e d t h e Ne g u s ' m e n .
A t t h i s s t a g e t h e c a m p a i g n b e c a m e m e r e l y
a qu e s t i o n o f k e e p i n g t h e t r o o p s s u f f i c i e n t l y s u p -
p l i e d w i t h f o o d a n d a m m u n i t i o n t o e n a b l e p a r t
o f t h e m , i f n o t t h e w h o l e a r m y c o r p s , t o r e a c h
D e s s y e a n d A d d i s A b a b a i n t h e s h o r t e s t p o s s i -
26 3
b l e t i m e ,
a n d s e c u r e p o s s e s i o n o f t h e Sh o a a n d
t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n o f t h e Em p i r e
.
I n t h e So u t h Ra s Na s i b o u
m a d e a v a i n
a t t e m p t a t r e s i s t e n c e a r o u n d
Sa s s a b a n e h , w h i l e
I t a l i a n d i v i s i o n s c o m m a n d e d b y G e n e r a l G r a z i a n i
b e g a n a t r i p l e o f f e n s i v e .
I t w a s i n t h i s s e c t o r
t h a t t h e o u t s t a n d i n g e x a m p l e o f A b y s s i n i a n r e s i -
s t a n c e w a s s e e n b u t e v e n h e r e , t h e y w e r e f o r c e d
i n t o i t b y t h e s t r a t e g i c a l p l a n w h i c h t h e y
w e r e
p u t t i n g i n t o o p e r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n b y a d e s i r e t o
f i g h t .
O n M a y 3r d M a r s h a l B a d o g l i o ' s f o r c e s w e r e
o n l y 7 o k i l o m e t r e s a w a y f r o m t h e c a p i t a l
. T h e
Ne g u s h a d e s c a p e d t o Ji b u t i , A d d i s A b a b a w a s
i n t h e h a n d s o f a b a r b a r o u s a n d u n r u l y
p o p u -
l a c e a n d t h e Et h i o p i a n Em p i r e w a s r a p i d l y d i s -
i n t e g r a t i n g
.
O n M a y 5 t h M a r s h a l B a d o g l i o e n t e r e d A d d i s
A b a b a . T h a t s a m e d a y M u s s o l i n i c a l l e d
a n o t h e r
r a l l y o f F a s c i s t f o r c e s i n I t a l y a n d f r o m t h e
b a l c o n y o f P a l a z z o Ve n e z i a i n Ro m e a n n o u n c e d
f e a t e d c r u e l t y a n d l a w l e s s n e s s , a n d b y t h e r e d e m p -
2
6 4
t o h i s p e o p l e t h a t a
t h e w a r w a s f i n i s h e d a n d
Et h i o p i a w a s n o w I t a l i a n . I t a l i a n
d e f a c t o ,
h e s a i d ,
b e c a u s e i t h a s b e e n o c c u p i e d b y
o u r
v i c t o r i o u s t r o o p s , I t a l i a n b y r i g h t
b e c a u s e c i -
v i l i s a t i o n b r a n d i s h i n g
t h e Ro m a n s w o r d , h a s
t r i u m p h e d o v e r t h e b a r b a r i a n s ,
ju s t i c e h a s d e -
t i o n o f s l a v e s h a s t r i u m p h e d o v e r a c e n t u r i e s o l d
s e r v i t u d e .
a
Wi t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f Et h i o p i a p e a c e i s
a l r e a d y a n a c c o m p l i s h e d f a c t . T h e m a n y r a c e s
o f t h e f o r m e r Em p i r e o f t h e Li o n o f Ju d a h h a v e
g i v e n c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f t h e i r d e s i r e t o l i v e a n d
w o r k p e a c e f u l l y i n t h e s h a d e o f t h e I t a l i a n f l a g .
O n M a y 9 t h a n o t h e r r a l l y w a s c a l l e d . F r o m
t h e f a t e f u l b a l c o n y M u s s o l i n i i n f o r m e d t h e w o r l d
t h a t I t a l y h a d c o n qu e r e d h e r Em p i r e . ( ( I t i s a
F a s c i s t Em p i r e , h e s a i d b e c a u s e i t b e a r s t h e i n -
d e s t r u c t i b l e m a r k o f t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d p o w e r
o f t h e Ro m a n f a s c e s , b e c a u s e t h i s i s t h e g o a l t o -
w a r d s w h i c h , d u r i n g f o u r t e e n y e a r s , w e s p u r r e d
t h e a r d e n t y e t d i s c i p l i n e d e n e r g i e s o f t h e y o u n g
a n d g a l l a n t g e n e r a t i o n s o f I t a l y .
A n Em p i r e o f
p e a c e b e c a u s e I t a l y w a n t s p e a c e f o r h e r s e l f a n d f o r
a l l , a n d d e c i d e s u p o n w a r f a r e o n l y w h e n c o m p e l l -
e d t o d o s o b y i m p e r i o u s , i n c o e r c i b l e n e c e s s i t i e s
o f l i f e . A n Em p i r e o f c i v i l i s a t i o n a n d h u m a n e n e s s
f o r a l l t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f Et h i o p i a , i n t h e t r a d i -
t i o n s o f A n c i e n t Ro m e w h i c h , a f t e r c o n qu e r i n g
a s s o c i a t e d t h e v a n qu i s h e d p e o p l e s w i t h h e r o w n
d e s t i n y ) ) .
M u s s o l i n i t h e n p r o c l a i m e d t h e t e x t o f t h e A c t
w h i c h a c l o s e s o n e p e r i o d o f o u r h i s t o r y a n d
b e g i n s a n o t h e r , l i k e a n i m m e n s e g a t e w a y f l u n g
o p e n o n t h e u n t o l d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e f u t u r e .
26 5
T h e A c t d r a f t e d a n d v o t e d b y t h e G r a n d C o u n -
c i l o f F a s c i s m a n d b y t h e C a b i n e t , d e c r e e d t h a t
t h e t e r r i t o r i e s a n d t h e p e o p l e s b e l o n g i n g t o
t h e Em p i r e o f Et h i o p i a w e r e p l a c e d u n d e r t h e
f u l l a n d u n qu e s t i o n a b l e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e Ki n g -
d o m o f I t a l y , t h e t i t l e o f Em p e r o r o f Et h i o p i a
b e i n g a s s u m e d b y t h e Ki n g o f I t a l y f o r h i m s e l f
a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r s .
u
T h e I t a l i a n p e o p l e , h e c o n c l u d e d , h a v e c r e a t -
e d a n Em p i r e a t t h e c o s t o f b l o o d s h e d , t h e y
w i l l m a k e i t f r u i t f u l b y t h e i r l a b o u r a n d w i l l
d e f e n d i t w i t h a r m s a g a i n s t e v e r y o n e . I n t h i s
s u p r e m e c e r t a i n t y , O h l e g i o n a r i e s , r a i s e h i g h
y o u r b a n n e r s , y o u r w e a p o n s a n d y o u r h e a r t s
t o g r e e t , a f t e r f i f t e e n c e n t u r i e s , t h e r e b i r t h o f
t h e Em p i r e u p o n t h e f a t e f u l h i l l s o f Ro m e .
T w o d a y s b e f o r e t h e Ki n g h a d p r e s e n t e d M u s -
s o l i n i w i t h t h e i n s i g n i a o f Kn i g h t G r a n d C r o s s
o f t h e M i l i t a r y O r d e r o f Sa v o y f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g
s e r v i c e t o h i s c o u n t r y : u A s M i n i s t e r o f t h e A r m e d
F o r c e s , h e p r e p a r e d , c o n d u c t e d a n d w o n t h e
g r e a t e s t c o l o n i a l w a r r e c o r d e d i n h i s t o r y ; a w a r
w h i c h h e - He a d o f t h e Ki n g ' s G o v e r n m e n t -
f o r s a w a n d d e c r e e d f o r t h e p r e s t i g e , t h e l i f e a n d
t h e g r e a t n e s s o f o u r F a s c i s t F a t h e r l a n d
.
26
6
C O NT ENT S
F o r e w o r d
5
F r o m F i u m e t o t h e M a r c h o n Ro m e 9
T h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e St a t e 22
Sy n d i c a t e s , C o r p o r a t i o n s a n d t h e La b o u r C h a r t e r .
34
M o n e y , l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n , b r e a d
44
Li f e o r d e a t h ? 5 2
So c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n
6 2
Ro a d s a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s 7 8
P u b l i c w o r k s 9 o
Sc h o o l s , e d u c a t i o n , c u l t u r e
T h e a t r e , C i n e m a t o g r a p h , Ra d i o a n d T o u r i n g

1 1 6
Re v i v a l o f Sp o r t . .
T h e r e f o r m o f t h e p e n a l c o d e a n d t h e d e c r e a s e i n
c r i m i n a l i t y 1 37
T h e a r m y
1 47
T h e F a s c i s t m i l i t i a
1 5 6
T h e n a v y
1 6 2
A v i a t i o n 1 6 7
I t a l y ' s r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y a n d t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n
.
. .
1 7 1
T h e I t a l i a n s a b r o a d 1 8 8
M u s s o l i n i ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . .
Eu r o p e a n o r i g i n s o f t h e F o u r P o w e r P a c t . . .
21 2
A u s t r i a , G e r m a n y a n d F r a n c e 225
T h e r e - c o n qu e s t o f Ly b i a a n d Et h i o p i a n t r e a c h e r y 2
. 42
T h e c o n qu e s t o f Em p i r e 25 3