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 ;
_kru mkgs
 Bgayal`pãmcb fbrfärb
, Bmcsum, 6??:, g¿ TTUCCC-TCT > =65=-=653
H@QBSLK
Dãlägb A
LKRM@]
-D
 KZKM
 
H`sbylk
 `u
Husbyl 
k, `rtd`jrkpdcã s`uvbgt H`abclk mkgs lbs puflcaktc`gs erkgêkcsbs bt Høsclk `u Hksçlk bg krkfb, bst ug g`i biflãiktcqub kss`acã ï ug ãpcs`mb abgtrkl mb l–dcst`crb mu Ikjdrbf > lk a`gquîtb krkfb. Lb pbrs`ggkjb kcgsc g`iiã, mãpbcgt s`us pluscburs ekabttbs, mkgs mbs akmrbs tbip`rbls bt spktckux mcvbrs, cgakrgb lk rãscstkgab l`aklb ï lk m`icgktc`g mb l–Cercqcyk pkr lbs Krkfbs ku UCCb scäalb. Lbs s`urabs prcgacpklbs quc lb ibgtc`ggbgt s`gt mb mbux `rmrbs. Cl s–kjct, m'ugb pkrt, m–ãarcts bg lkgjub krkfb pr`mucts s`ct pkr mbs v`ykjburs iãmcãvkux, ãtrkgjbrs ku pkys, s`ct pkr mbs lbttrãs l`akux m`gt lbs ikgusarcts ‑ a`gsbrvãs mkgs lbs fcflc`tdäqubs prcvãbs mu G`rm-@ubst kercakcg ‑ rbi`gtbgt, p`ur ug abrtkcg g`ifrb m–bgtrb bux, kux TUCCb bt TUCCCb scäalbs (G`rrcs, ;346 > 2=). Cl bxcstb, m'kutrb pkrt, mb g`ifrbux rãacts dcst`rcqubs mb trkmctc`g `rklb (bg lkgjub fbrfärb g`tkiibgt), ãikgkgt mb rãjc`gs vkrcãbs. Lk jbstb mb
H`sbylk
 bst kcgsc träs prãsbgtb nusqu–ï kun`urm–duc mkgs l–@ubst mu pkys t`ukrbj (
 Kmkjd, Krkfkgmk, Kwzk
). Lbs s`urabs krkfbs (pkr bxbiplb Bl Fbhrc ku mãfut mu TCb scäalb 8 Cfg Hdklm`ug, ï lk ecg mu TCUb scäalb) e`gt mb
H`sbylk
 lb adbe mbs Kwrãfk. Mkgs s`g
Dcst`crb mbs Fbrfärbs
, Cfg Hdklm`ug a`gscjgb qub lbs Kwrãfk `aaupkcbgt lb prbicbr rkgj pkric lbs trcfus fbrfärbs ï l'ãp`qub mb lk a`gquîtb iusulikgb. « H`abclk Cfg Lbibzi ¸ mbvcgt lbur adbe bt « eut kussc adbe mb t`utbs lbs kutrbs trcfus mbsabgmubs mb Fbrgäs ¸ (C > 645), a'bst-ï-mcrb lbs D`ukrk, lbs Qkgdkmnk, lbs Hbtkik... Bg 5:2, H`abclk, `aaupkgt lbs a`gecgs mb l'@ubst ikjdrãfcg (
Ikjdrbf-bl-Kqsk
) kvba sbs Kwrãfk bt kutrbs trcfus, sb rãv`ltk a`gtrb lbs a`gquãrkgts cslkicqubs. Ukcgau, cl bifrkssk l'cslki p`ur ãvctbr lk i`rt. Bg 54;, lb a`iikgmbibgt mb l'Cercqcyk eut rbprcs pkr @qfk fbg Gbeek
(—Rqfk cfg Gæec 
) quc ect mb Hkcr`ukg sk akpctklb. _krtc bg bxpãmctc`g mkgs lb Ikjdrbf `ó cl kikssk fbkua`up mb futcg, @qfk ikcgtbgkct akptce H`abclk bg lb trkçgkgt ï sk suctb. Rg n`ur qu'cl l'duiclckct kpräs l'kv`cr a`gtrkcgt ï cii`lbr ug fãlcbr, cl eut kssksscgã pkr lb prcs`ggcbr. Ab mbrgcbr, ãpkulã pkr sbs pkrbgts bt kllcãs quc l'kvkcbgt sucvc mkgs lbs Kuräs, kgãkgtct lk tr`upb m'@qfk e`riãb m'bgvcr`g tr`cs abgts jubrrcbrs. Lb t`ifbku m'@qfk sb sctub ï qublqubs hcl`iätrbs mb Fcshrk. Q'cgstkllkgt bgsuctb ï Hkcr`ukg, H`abclk kurkct j`uvbrgã l'Cercqcyk pbgmkgt acgq kgs, nusqu'ï sk mãekctb a`gtrb lbs Krkfbs bg 54: ï Ibis mkgs lk pr`vcgab mb Hkcr`ukg. Lbs Kwrãfk sb ecxärbgt kl`rs mkgs l'`ubst mu Ikjdrbf
Ikgusarct kutbur, puflcã mkgs "Bgayal`pãmcb Fbrfärb TTUCCC-TCT (6??:) =65=-=653"
 
 6
vbrs Ebz. Lk pucsskgab mbs Fbrfärbs sb tr`uvkct frcsãb (Cfg Hdklm`ug, C > 6;;-6;1 bt 645-63?). Lk gkrrktc`g mb abt ãpcs`mb dcst`rcqub sctub lbs ekcts mkgs ug vkstb pãrciätrb, ï l'ãadbllb mu Ikjdrbf t`ut bgtcbr, pucsqub l–katc`g mãfutb mkgs lb I`ybg-Ktlks, sb p`ursuct mkgs lbs Kuräs bt s'kadävb ï Hkcr`ukg. Qbl`g lbs ãarcts, `g a`gstktb qub lbs lcbux mu mrkib bt lbs katburs bg prãsbgab vkrcbgt. Adkqub pbrs`ggkjb rbprãsbgtb s`uvbgt lk sygtdäsb mb pluscburs ecjurbs dcst`rcqubs e`gmubs bg ugb sbulb. Kcgsc, mkgs lb rýlb m–@qfk, s'bgtrbiîlbgt, a`iib lb s`ulcjgb G`rrcs (;3:2 > 6=), lbs mbstcgãbs m'@qfk kl-Iustknkf lb [urksdctb, @qfk fbg Gkek `u @qfk fbg Kicr, lb dãr`s mbs Kgskr bt mb lk erkatc`g Sãiãgctb mkgs lbs tr`upbs krkfbs (m–kpräs Kfu 'l-Krkf, ;354 > 24-23). Bgecg, mbs ikgusarcts ãarcts pkr mbs Hugtk (« Krkfbs ¸) a`iib pkr mbs Hbl Bssuh (« ]`ukrbjs ¸) prãsbgtbgt @qfk a`iib ug ikrtyr, truacmã abpbgmkgt g`g pks sur lb adkip mb a`ifkt, ikcs mkgs l–bxbracab pkacecqub mb s`g mbv`cr rblcjcbux, lk prcärb (G`rrcs, ;3:2 > 6:-64). Lk gkturb iîib mu mceeãrbgm bgtrb
H`sbylk
 bt s`g kmvbrskcrb adkgjb mb sbgs sucvkgt lbs vbrsc`gs, lbs ugbs ibttkgt l–bipdksb sur s`g akrkatärb bxaluscvbibgt rblcjcbux, tkgmcs qub m–kutrbs luc kttrcfubgt ãjklbibgt mbs kspbats plus p`lctcqub, nurcmcqub, psyad`l`jcqub, cmbgtctkcrb, aulturbl… Lb a`gelct sb mãalcgb kcgsc ï trkvbrs mcvbrs rbjcstrbs m–`pp`sctc`gs > Fbrfärb/Krkfb 8 kut`adt`gb/ãtrkgjbr 8 pkàbg/iusulikg 8 iusulikg rãabiibgt a`gvbrtc/iusulikg mb l`gjub mktb 8 p`uv`cr pkàbg cllãjctcib /p`uv`cr iusulikg lãjctcib 8 jubrrcbr/pkacecstb 8 kllcã mbs Erkgas adrãtcbgs/Krkfb iusulikg…  K pkrtcr mb abs iktãrckux, lbs dcst`rcbgs i`mbrgbs `gt bux-iîibs ãlkf`rã mbs dyp`tdäsbs a`gtrkstãbs. _kr bxbiplb, J. Akips (;341) v`ct bg
H`sbylk
 ug prcgab r`ikg`-kercakcg m`gt lb g`i, rkppr`adã mb Akbaclcus, p`urrkct îtrb lktcg. Mb s`g aýtã, _. Ekrcks mb I`rkbs (6??1, §111) cgscstb sur lk mcad`t`icb a`gabptubllb ãtkflcb mkgs lbs ikgusarcts skdkr`-skdãlcbgs bg krkfb bgtrb mbux typbs mb p`uv`cr > abluc mbs rblcjcbux bt abluc mbs jubrrcbrs. L–`pp`sctc`g bgtrb H`sbylk bt —Rqfk cllustrb ab i`tce rãaurrbgt mkgs t`utb lk z`gb mb l–@ubst skdkrcbg quc rbprbgm ug i`mälb bxcstkgt ku Qkdkrk bt ku Qkdbl kvkgt l–krrcvãb mb l–cslki (§121). _. Ekrcks ibgtc`ggb ãjklbibgt lbs vbrsc`gs cslki`-abgtrãbs pr`muctbs pkr lbs lbttrãs iusulikgs t`ukrbjs bt pkr lbs H`ugtk krkf`pd`gbs, gkrrktc`gs e`aklcsãbs sur lk vcllb mb ]kmbibhhkt/Bssuh, ikcs gb prbgkgt pks bg a`iptb lbs vbstcjbs ãpcjrkpdcqubs bg krkfb quc mktbgt mu TCb scäalb. L–dcst`crb mb l–keer`gtbibgt, quc sb sbrkct mãr`ulãb bg 54? bgtrb
Husbylk
, lb adbe fbrfärb, bt
'Rqfk fbg Gkek
 (`u
fbg Gkec' 
), lb a`gquãrkgt cslkicqub, sbrkct cac utclcsãb ï mbs ecgs p`lctcqubs p`ur keecribr lbs mr`cts tbrrct`rckux bt p`lctcqubs mbs
cgbslcibg
 (lcttãrklbibgt lbs « iusulikgs ¸), mr`cts dãrctãs mb lk a`gquîtb ibgãb pkr –Rqfk, bt nustceckgt qub lbs rblcjcbux gb s`cbgt pks suf`rm`ggãs kux jubrrcbrs (§ 111), a`iib a–bst lb aks mkgs l–`rmrb s`ackl t`ukrbj.
 
 1
H`sbylk
 bst ãjklbibgt ug dãr`s mbs trkmctc`gs dcst`rcqubs `rklbs quc, nusqu–ï kun`urm–duc, s`gt pkrtcaulcärbibgt rcadbs bt kf`gmkgtbs mkgs l–@ubst mu i`gmb t`ukrbj. Ku iclcbu mu TCTb scäalb, lb v`ykjbur kllbikgm Fkrtd (;424 (U) > 225) rblbvkct mãnï lk prãsbgab mb ab tdäib dcst`rcqub. Nb i–kppucbrkc cac sur lb a`rpus bg t`ukrbj rbaubcllc l`rs mb pluscburs bgquîtbs ibgãbs pkr Dkwkm bt i`c-iîib bgtrb ;346 bt ;343 mkgs l–Kmkjd bt lk f`ualb mu Gcjbr (lbs bxtrkcts actãs ac-mbss`us s`gt trkmucts mb lk
tkiksdkq
).  Ku a`gtrkcrb mbs ãarcts krkfbs, bt g`tkiibgt mb abux pr`mucts pkr lbs lbttrãs l`akux (v`cr G`rrcs, ;3:2, 6:-1;), quc e`gt mb @qfk lb dãr`s mb l–dcst`crb, a–bst lb pbrs`ggkjb mb H`sbylk quc bst m`tã mb vklburs p`sctcvbs mkgs lbs trkmctc`gs `rklbs t`ukräjubs, qub abllbs-ac ãikgbgt m–kcllburs mbs jr`upbs g`g rblcjcbux kutkgt qub mbs jr`upbs rblcjcbux (Hbl Bssuh, Ce`jdks). L–cgelubgab mbs vbrsc`gs lcvrbsqubs cgtr`muctbs - `u rã-cgtr`muctbs - pkr lbs lbttrãs iusulikgs, sb rbpärb ï pluscburs mãtkcls, rbprcs ï l–cmbgtcqub, ikcs rãkppr`prcãs mb ikgcärb `rcjcgklb. Lk gkrrktc`g mu a`gelct bgtrb
H`sbylk
 - kppblã s`uvbgt
H`sbylktk
 bg t`ukrbj- bt @qfk fbg Gkek, trkmuct m–kf`rm ugb mcvbrjbgab mkgs lbs räjlbs mb l–`rmrb s`ackl, `pp`skgt lbs tbgkgts mb lk eclcktc`g iktrclcgãkcrb (kss`acãb ï mbs vklburs iktrcabgtrãbs bt ku a`mb mb l–d`ggbur jubrrcbr t`ukrbj), ï abux quc `gt km`ptã lk pktrclcgãkrctã (bt lbs vklburs kjgktcqubs mb l–krkfctã bt mb l–cslki). Mkgs abttb vkstb rãjc`g mb l–@ubst t`ukrbj, lbs rbprãsbgtkgts a`gtbip`rkcgs mb l–`rjkgcsktc`g iktrclcgãkcrb, l–kssuikgt bt lk rbvbgmcqukgt, s`gt lbs Cibmbmkjdbg. Kgacbgs mcrcjbkgts mb l–Kmkjd, abs mbrgcbrs kurkcbgt ãtã ãvcgaãs ku TUCb scäalb pkr lb p`uv`cr i`gtkgt mbs Cwbllbiibmbg*. Lbs rãacts rka`gtbgt lb mãpkrt mbs Cibmbmkjdbg p`ur lb sum, bt lbur cgstkllktc`g bg pluscburs ãtkpbs sur lbs rcvbs mu elbuvb Gcjbr, mkgs l–Kwzk (Dk`ussk), pucs mkgs l–Krkfbgmk, kppblã kussc J`urik (katubl Iklc). Ku TUCCCb scäalb, s`us l–dãjãi`gcb mbs Cwbllbiibmbg quc `gt rbn`cgt ï lbur t`ur lbs z`gbs plus ebrtclbs mu elbuvb, sb a`gstctub lk vkstb a`geãmãrktc`g p`lctcqub mb l–@ubst. Lbs Cibmbmkjdbg y ecjurbgt kvba lb stktut m–
cijdkm,
tbrib quc mãscjgb lbs « trcfutkcrbs ¸, ikcs quc k, mkgs abttb rãjc`g t`ukräjub, ugb a`gg`tktc`g mb jrkgmbur bt mb pucsskgab jubrrcärb qub lbs tbxtbs a`l`gckux rbgmr`gt m–kcllburs pkr l–bxprbssc`g «
cijdkm 
 mb jrkgmb tbgtb ¸. K l–krrcvãb mbs tr`upbs erkgêkcsbs, ï lk ecg mu TCTb scäalb, lbs Cibmãmkjdbg, rkttkadãs ku pýlb p`lctcqub plkaã s`us l–kut`rctã mbs Cwbllbiibmbg Hbl Ktkrki, e`ribgt ugb ugctã a`geãmãrklb cip`rtkgtb bt rcadb, ï lkqubllb s`gt kjrãjãs mb g`ifrbux pr`tãjãs kppblãs lbs « pkuvrbs ¸ (
tclkqkwcg
). Mkgs lk trkmctc`g `rklb, l'dcst`crb mb l–Kmkjd sb a`ge`gm ku mãfut kvba abllb mbs Cibmbmkjdbg. A–bst lbur kgaîtrb, Husbylktk quc mcrcjb lb pkys. Qk akpctklb bst lk vcllb mb ]kmbibhhkt, kppblãb kussc Bssuh >

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