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Report

No.

M-932-69-09

-APOLLO (AS-504)MISSION 9
OFFICEOFMANNEDSPACEFLIGHT
Prepared by: Apollo FOR Program INTERNAL Office-MAO USE ONLY

M-932-69-09

GENERAL The Apollo 9 (AS-504) mission was the first manned flight involving R. Scott, Launch the Lunar Module.

The crew were James A. McDivitt, Pilot; and Russell L. Schweickart, scheduled crewmen any Launch Recovery 13 March

Commander; Lunar Module

David Pilot.

Command had been

Module initially all three without from 1969. on

for 28 February 1969, but was postponed for three days because had virus respiratory infections. The countdown was accomplished holds flight and crew the and AS-504 Space Command Space Center, Module hours of 241 Vehicle Florida, was successfully Complex of the 1969, 39 at Kennedy for a flight on Monday,

unscheduled

launched 3 March accomplished

was successfully 53 seconds.

duration

Initial review of test data indicates that overall performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and flight crew together with ground support and control facilities and and that all primary mission objectives were accomplished. personnel was satisfactory,

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NASA

OMSF

PRIMARY

MISSION 9

OBJECTIVES

FOR APOLLO PRIMARY OBJECTIVES Demonstrate a manned crew/space Saturn V mission vehicle/mission with CSM and

support LM.

facilities

performance

during

. .

Demonstrate Demonstrate Rendezvous

LM/crew

performance. of nominal activities, and selected including: backup Lunar Orbit

(LOR)

performance mission docking, crew

Transposition, Intervehicular Extravehicular SPS and LM actiQe CSM/LM

LM withdrawal

transfer

capability rendezvous and docking

DPS burns

consumables

assessment.

i ($dot$e Lt. General, USAF Apollo Program Director Date: 14 FEB 67 ,,&sociate Manned Date: E. Mueller Administrator Space Flight for

RESULTS Based upon a review of the assessed and completed 13 March 1969, this the objectives stated above.

OF APOLLO

9 MISSION 1969 with

performance of Apollo 9, launched 3 March mission is adjudged a success in accordance

Sam C. Phillips Lt. General, USAF Apollo Date: Program 3.~ Director 196 ? Date: /

&RIL

MAY 5

1969 .,

2/l

8/69

Page 2

M-932-69-09

COUNTDOWN The 1969. 3 hours, 2:00 , The Apollo a.m. burned a nominal EST, 9 mission 3 March longer of orbit was 1969. than by 102.3 launched All planned, 103.9 a.m. terminal and countdown holds at T-9 3 March one for Apollo encountered hours 1969, and 9 began were two at T-28 planned The count hours at 10:00 p.m. EST, 1 March at

The only EST,

for 6 hours. proceeded

holds: one at T-16 hours for was resumed for the last time at 11:00:00 a.m. EST.

to launch

FLIGHT from

SUMMARY Kennedy vehicle the miles Space stages (NM). Module Lunar Module GET burn, (Ground to place the (CSM) (LM). Elapsed the S-IVB/ proCenter, Florida, satisfactorily, combination at 11:OO:OO but into

launch

performed

slightly

inserting nautical

S-IVB/spacecraft

After post-insertion was separated from The docked Time). After spacecraft

checkout the S-IVB, two

was completed, transposed, from unmanned

the Command/Service and docked with the the S-IVB at 4:08:05 were the third burns After

was separated

separation,

S-IVB

performed

Instrument Unit on an earth-escape traiectory. pellant dumps could not be performed. After (SPS) spacecraft firings were separation made with from the GET, The the launch

planned

vehicle, docked.

four

Service

Propulsion

System

CSM/LM the first

At approximately (CDR) transferred System (DPS) was Command Module At approximately LMPs Module exterior. At about perform the and 89 hours 37-minute Pilot

43.5 hours to the LM.

Lunar Module manned firing

Pilot (LMP) and the Commander of the LM Descent Propulsion crewmen then returned to the

initiated about 6 hours later. (CM) for the fifth SPS firing. 70 hours extravehicular GET, the the CM LMP and (EVA). and hatch

The two

CDR again During retrieved

transferred this period, thermal

to the the samples

LM

for the the CSM

activity

Command from

(CMP)

o p ened

GET,

the

CDR

and

LMP

returned being made

to the guidance

LM for the system

third was

time used The

to phasing

the CSM/LM with Descent using the maneuvers

rendezvous. backup were Reaction Stages LM

The performed

LM primary

to conduct

rendezvous insertion and

calculations were

by the CM

computer.

Ascent maneuver was fired began Ascent

using the DPS to set up the rendezvous. The followed by a concentric sequence initiation separated, The LM Ascent Propulsion System (APS) Control System. delta were 2.5 lasted The terminal height. again docked at about hours later. Shortly and 350 seconds resulted phase the of the rendezvous The fired to by of 3747 99 hours GET. APS was

to establish the constant and the spacecraft on time, Stage was jettisoned about The firing

after,

propellant depletion. 124.5 NM.

in an orbit

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M-932-69-09

The

sixth

SPS firing, the maneuver and last

to lower was not

apogee, programmed completed

was delayed properly. in the SPS firing Experiment landing area next was and

because However, revolution. made

the

+X translation the maneuver

to was

precede rescheduled During the

successfully three days,

the

a seventh

to raise

the

apogee, were maneuver

and accomplished. (SPS 8) were was near the

SO65

Multispectral weather for one forces of the point from ship,

Photography in the were prime the planned

landmark the descent Ocean. The crew

tracking deorbit and

Unfavorable to be delayed and within the prime Table recovery sight target

caused was made

revolution. redeployed. recovery onboard

This ship computer

decision Final in the north solution. within events. TABLE 1

the day

before

splashdown

parachute Atlantic latitude, 1 hour

splashdown west safely

Splashdown were

of 23 degrees

15 minutes

68 degrees of splashdown.

longitude, aboard

as determined recovery 1 presents

USS Guadalcanal, of mission

a summary

SUMMARY EVENT

OF

MISSION

EVENTS TIME (GET) HR: MIN: SEC PLANNED* ACTUAL oo:oo:oo 0O:O 1:26 00:02: 00:02:43 00:02:44 00:02:44 10 00:03: 14 14

First

Motion Dynamic Engine Engine Pressure Cutoff Cutoff

oo:oo:oo 0o:o 1:2 1 00:02: 00:02 14 :40

Maximum S-IC S-IC Center

Outboard

S-IC/S-II S-II Ignition

Separation

00:02:40 00:02:42

Jettison

S-II

Aft

Interstage

00:03:

LV events SC events

based based

on MSFC on MSC

LV Operational SC Operational

Trajectory, Trajectory,

dated Revision

31 January 2,

1969. 1969.

20 February

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M-932-69-09

Jettison S-II

Launch Cutoff

Escape

Tower

00:03: 00:08:5 00:08:52 00:08:55

16 1

00:03:18 00:08:56 00:08:57 00: 09:Ol 00: 11:05 00:11:15 02:41 :16

Engine

Command

S-II/S-IVB S-IVB S-IVB Parking Separation Spacecraft Engine Engine

Separation Ignition Cutoff Insertion Docking Maneuver Initiation

00: 10:49 00: 10:59 02:33:49 03:05:00 (Approx)

Orbit and

Docking

03:01:59 .\

Spacecraft S-IVB S-IVB S-IVB S-IVB

Final

Separation

04:08:57 04:36: 12

04:08:06 04:36: 04:45:56 04:46:58 05:59:4 05:59:01 06:07: 06:11:21 Not Not Not 19 Not Accomplished Accomplished Accomplished Accomplished 19 1 17

Restart Reignition Second Restart 1

Preparation (2nd Cutoff Burn) Signal

04:45:50 04~46~52 05:59:35 06:O 1:40

Preparations

SPS Burn S-IVB S-IVB Start LOX Start LH,

Reignition Third LOX Dump LH2 Dump 2 3 Cutoff Dump Cutoff Dump Cutoff

(3rd

Burn)

06:07: 06:11:14

13

Signal

06: 12:44 06:23:54 06:24:04 06:42:

SPS Burn SPS Burn

22: 12:oo 25: 18:30

22: 12:04 25: 17:39

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M-932-69-09

SPS Burn 4 Docked DPS Burn

28:28:00 49:42:00 54:25:19 92:39:00

28:24:41 49:4 1:35 54:26: 92:39:36 93:02:54 93:47:35 95:39 :08 12

SPS Burn 5 Undocking . CSM/LM Separation

93:07:40 93:5 1:34 95:43:22

DPS Phasing DPS Insertion Concentric Constant Terminal CSM/LM Sequence Delta Phase Docking Height Initiation Initiation - APS - LM RCS Burn Burn

96~2 1:00 97:05:27 98:00: 10

96:16:07 96:58 : 15

97:57:59 99:02:26

99: 13:oo hv-o4

APS

Burn

to Propellant

Depletion

101:.58:00 12 1:58:48 169:47:54 ** ** ** **

101:53:15 123:25:07 169: 39:00 240:31 :15

SPS Burn 6 SPS Burn 7 SPS Burn Entry Drogue 8 (Deorbit) (400,000 Deployment ft) (25,000 feet Approx)

Interface Chute

240:44:10 240: 55:08 24 1: 00:54

Splashdown

**

Premission weather orbit

planned and

deorbit

was

changed

to permit planned

shift

sea conditions

in initial

recovery

in landing point due One additional area.

to

was added.

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MISSION The significant portions of the Apollo systems and mission support performance TRAJECTORY The CSM/LM/IU/S-IVB a normal given Four first launch phase. II for all were in Table combination The engine resulting firings. prior was

PERFORMANCE 9 mission are are covered discussed herein. Space in succeeding sections. vehicle

inserted

into

earth and

orbit maneuver

at 0O:ll:

15 GET are

after

orbital

elements

parameters

SPS maneuvers three

performed was made

to the

first

docked

DPS firing.

SPS maneuvers

without

requiring

a +X translation

Each to settle

of the propelmade

The fourth SPS maneuver was preceded by an 18-second lants. with the Service Module Reaction Control System (SM RCS).

+X translation

The fifth docked SPS maneuver resulted in the perigee being approximately than planned causing the rendezvous to be initiated 4 minutes earlier. errors initiation the craft flight weight of this magnitude and times deorbit and were velocity preplanned significantly expected, increments. and real-time trajectory planning rendezvous was conducted to accommodate Out-of-plane to provide the orbital

Small

5 NM less cutoff

for both in the added during

minor adjustments components were substantial parameters reduction

to certain without

maneuvers changing

in space-

for subsequent

maneuvers. The trajectory aspects of the rendezvous exercise will be discussed in the rendezvous

section. After the performed The did sixth a separation Ascent Stage jettison, The APS engine by the SM RCS. SPS maneuver at the was delayed proper time, one maneuver of 3 feet per second (fps) was then fired to propellant depletion. when the accompanying ullage was

revolution

burn

not occur

but was completed in real

nominally. time to provide a desired higher burn

The seventh SPS maneuver time and was successfully The deorbit separation north latitude maneuver was and was

was restructured accomplished. made over Hawaii landed longitude.

during

revolution GET

152, near

and

CM/SM 15 minutes

performed. 68 degrees

The CM west

at 241:00:53

23 degrees

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TABLE II

SUMMARYOFMANEUVERS
OV (FEET PER SECOND) Prelaunct LANNEC Real Time PLANNEC

T
First Service Propulsion

BURN TIME (SECONDS)

--

T
125.2 X 108.7 190.2 X 109.1 268.2 X 111.3 268.7 X 111.4 267.6 X 111.8 130.2 X 129.7 4673.3 X 128.9** 127.9 X 94.6 238.7 X 93.9 241.8 X -15.1

RESULTANT ORBIT Real Time PLANNEI 128.2 X 110.2 189.8 X 107.7 270.3 X 109.4 273.8 X 109.3 269.9 X 109.1 129.8 X 129.8 6932.3 x 125.9 120.2 X 104.8 250.4 X 97.9 238.5 X ---

*Prelaunch PLANNEC

teal Time LANNED

ACTUAL -5.2

ACTUAL

Prelauncl PLANNEf

ACTUAL 127.6 X 111.3 192.5 X 110.7 274.9 X 112.6 275.0 X 112.4 274.6 X 112.1 131 .o X 125.9 3760.9 X 126.6 123.1 X 108.5 253.2 X 100.7 240.0 J.7

5.0

4.96

36.8

36.8

36.6

Second Service Propulsion

111.3

111.2

110.3

849.6

850.6

850.5

Third Service Propulsion

280.0

281.9

279.9

1548.2

2570.7

2567.9

Fourth Service Propulsion

28.1

28.4

27.9

299.4

300.9

300.5

First Descent Propulsion

367.0

370.6

372.0

734.0

1744.0

1737.5

Fifth Service Propulsion

41.5

43.2

43.3

552.3

575.4

572.5

Ascent Propulsion Firing to Depletion

389.0**

444.9**

362.4

>074.9**

7427.5**

5373.4

Sixth Service Propulsion

2.4

1.33

1.40

62.7

38.8

33.7

Seventh Service Propulsion

9.9

25.0

24.9

252.8

653.3

650.1

Eighth Service Propulsion

11.7

11.6 --

11.7

323.3

325.0

322.7

NOTES:

* Prelaunch planned refers to Apollo 9 Spacecraft Operational Trajectory, Revision 2, 20 February 1969. ** APS burn to depletion planned for unattainable apogee value to insure propellant depletion cutoff,

M-932-69-09

EXTRAVEHICULAR Extravehicular 15 minutes cause mission. the LMP

ACTIVITY activity (EVA), 1 hour pi anned for the third day, during was This the reduced change first two from was days 2 hours made beof the

to about

of depressurized a minor in-flight

LM activity. illness

experienced

Preparation for EVA began at approximately 71 hours GET. The CDR and the LMP were in the LM and the CMP in the CM. At approximately 73 hours GET, after donning the Purge System (OPS), the LMP Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and the Oxygen egressed platform. Thermal The was LMP through the forward hatch and moved to the external foot restraints on the During this time the CM was depressurized and the side hatch was opened. sample retrieval was photographically recorded with the sequence cameras. used the The hydroxide analysis. cycles for both vehicles were nominal, and post-EVA procedures handrails PLSS was cartridge to evaluate GET. successfully from at about 74 hours body Both control hatches and transfer techniques. were then secured and with oxygen and water. CM for post-flight the Ingress vehicles

completed

repressurized. The lithium

recharged was

the system

returned

to the

metabolic The were

repressurization followed without

difficulty.

RENDEZVOUS The CDR rendezvous SM RCS. maneuver of 90.5 fps was performed with the LM DPS about Approximately 12 NM above and 27 NM behind the CSM, a 43. and I-fps insertion Stages of 40.0 and the with velocity of the fps was to the made LM. with At a range and LM RCS. the Ascent initiation Descent LM were separated, 2.8 the NM from DPS was from the and the LMP transferred to the LM on the with a 5-fps fifth day for the rendezvous. using the The

exercise

began

on schedule

separation

maneuver

A phasing the CSM. used CSM, sequence the

to impart

of 75 NM a concentric

maneuver

Approximately maneuver was terminal phase

10 NM below performed with began on time

78 NM behind APS imparting a 22.3-fps

the CSM, a velocity

the constant delta height change of 41.5 fps. The

LM RCS maneuver.

Braking maneuvers were conducted on schedule, and stationkeeping was maintained at a distance of approximately 100 feet so that photographs could be taken from both vehicles. Docking was successfully completed at about 99 hours GET. Problems were experienced in using the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) in both vehicles during docking. relatively dim The reticle combination of a bright CM, in the alignment sight made a dimly lighted CM LM docking a difficult target, task. and a

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M-932-69-09

LM

rendezvous systems

navigation were

and satisfactory.

guidance by the correct

maneuver targeting using both the Radar data were successfully manual insertion in the About Maneuver solutions from both The crew correction

primary and the backup used, both automatically Guidance System, to onboard systems and from

primary system and through rendezvous state vet tors.

ground computations appeared to correlate closely. solutions for all maneuvers through the first midcourse phase initiation. Rendezvous however, both vehicles for terminal FLIGHT Crew navigation and mirror-image targeting

selected

the

primary after

syitem terminal

performed

in the sextant indicate

CM

were

performed

satisfactorily; the CM when calculations

loss of th,e LM tracking were in darkness. phase initiation were PERFORMANCE was excellent with to the for the and

light prevented Preliminary data satisfactory.

measurements from that CM maneuver

CREW performance

throughout the LM also nominal required to don contributed to the

the plan. longer the

mission,

and

the

flight

was conducted

essentially Preparation of the a source result, time about

in accordance for transfer required 1 hour photographic and before of interference

than space time

anticipated, suits. The suit preparation

primarily supply time. transfers.

because hoses As a were

crewmen

to the

longer

was added

preparation entire

for subsequent

Visual and rendezvous FLIGHT

inspection docking.

of the

spacecraft

was accomplished

after

CREW

BIOMEDICAL

EVALUATION respiratory inlaunch revealed

The launch was postponed for 72 hours because of symptoms of upper fections in all three crewmen. Physical examinations 3 hours before no infection. The planned medical some operations nausea and were vomiting conducted prior as scheduled to and following except the

that

the transfer

LMP to

experienced the LM. Plans were for EVA essentially

initial

were

modified

because the

of the

LMPs

illness. The LMPs

The work

physiological rate during

parameters EVA was on

normal Btu/hr.

throughout

mission.

the order

of 500

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10

M-932-69-09

FLIGHT Flight Apollo that Early just had

CONTROL control performance Minor mission the was satisfactory spacecraft operations a caution cycle a rest during problems or the and flight in providing were plan light operational but support none altered. 1 was observed for the was such

9 mission. either in the prior

encountered, was significantly on Hydrogen

mission,

warning heaters.

Tank

to an automatic

of the period

to be disturbed

This condition persisted at 81 hours GET to increase the

and the crew hydrogen tank

pressure. On and On the the the third all day, the the crew relay were with about television. 1 hour behind except the timeline, resulting in S-band test

cancelling

planned

communications

tests

the

LM secondary

LM two-way fourth

the CM because on the

day, the EVA was abbreviated and the external transfer from the LM to was not performed. The activity was restricted to the LM forward platform of concern about the LMPs earlier illness and proper readiness for the rendezvous day. 78 hours an unplanned rest day, period about GET, after the tunnel hardware had been installed, This a change

following

At approximately crewman shortened On the made the fifth

return

to the

LM to open

a circuit

breaker.

30 minutes. was performed approximately 40 minutes early to insure

LM activation initiation. and

an on-time The LM VHF

rendezvous telemetry after

S-band power amplifier were lost for 6 and 12 hours, These failures were expected because APS firing to depletion. The electrical system capability for this spacecraft was several of the lack of cooling. LM support terminated at 113:42:00 GET. hours longer than predicted. respectively, the On the sixth day, the sixth SPS maneuver was delayed by one revolution. The crew A procedural error was made in loading reported that the +X translation did not occur. since the proper SM RCS quads were not selected. The computer the CM computer,

was On

reloaded, the eighth a test

and day,

one the

revolution seventh Propellant

later,

the

maneuver was and

was made

satisfactorily. in duration

SPS maneuver Utilization

increased Gaging

to 25 seconds System (PUGS).

to permit

of the

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11

M-932-69-09

RECOVERY Recovery Atlantic list of the Apollo by the prime recovery 9 Command recovery ship, on events Module and crew 1969: was completed The following in the West table is a

USS Guadalcanal. 13 March

of significant

EVENT First First First VHF beacon visual contact and contact voice contact

EST 11:51 11:57 11:59 12:Ol a.m. a.m. a.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m.

Landing Swimmers Flotation CM First All hatch deployed collar open aboard helicopter installed

12:07 12:14 12:27 12:39 12:46 12:50 ship 2:13

astronaut astronauts

in helicopter on deck recovery

Astronauts CM aboard

The

CM

remained at the

in the recovery

stable site.

I flotation

attitude.

Sea-state

conditions

were

very

moderate SYSTEMS , Engineering Further systems of the

PERFORMANCE data reviewed analysis will anomalies to date of all and data be reported indicate that all and are mission and MSC objectives were refined reports. Ill, attained. results IV, of and V. Summaries

detailed performance significant

is continuing in MSFC

appropriate technical

discrepancies

presented

in Tables

4/24/69

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12

_----

TABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE

Ill SUMMARY

DISCREPANCY

DESCRIPTION Oscillations pressure lations firings, and have but occurred the S-II occurred only after in the S-II structure on four late flights center in the and of S-II engine burn. five burn. chamber Osci Istatic Apparently and cutoff the caused stage

REMARKS by coupling Fix will on Apollo between be early 10. the center center engine engine

structure.

at 299 seconds

320 seconds

S-IVB slowly.

APS Module

No.

2 helium

supply

pressure

decayec

Leak of seal

in teflon material

seals

upstream

of the

regulator. approved.

Change Closed.

to rubber

has been

S-IVB redline pressure

helium during was

regulator countdown, high

lock-up and

pressure the helium the mission.

exceeded pneumatic

the

Internal Modified S-IVB-505.

leakage regulator

in regulator has been has been

caused tested raised

by wear and installed 585 from

on poppet. on to 630 psi.

throughout

Redline

S-IVB at start, engine control mance

third control

burn

anomaly: chamber pneumatic

Gas pressure

generator oscillations, abnormal

pressure attitude

spike

Caused which oscillations the with

by extreme resulted and

out-of-spec possible

engine engine

start

conditions pressure followed that

engine system during

loss of

in excessive system.

chamber

pressure,

gas generator There rules are applicable mission inoperative

damage, is no evidence allowing are being

oscillations, and burn, burn.

decrease in engine perforinability to dump residual

by loss of pneumatic causes start. recirculation 10. engine

of this anomaly The flight systems

to an in-spec restart revised

propellants

after

for Apollo

TABLE COMMAND/SERVICE MODULE

IV DISCREPANCY SUMMARY

DESCRIPTION Unable isolation closed. Master out any During because alarm occurred coincident annunciator. eight master alarms occurred with hard docking withaccompanying the third to translate valves the in two CSM to the left. were Propellant found to be Apparently separation. separation Caused caused on Apollo by a sensor

REMARKS by mechanical will 10 and transient shock. check shock at CSM/S-IVB positions short during after circuit the CSM missions.

SM RCS quads

The crew

the valve

subsequent Also occurred

or a momentary

due to mechanical 106 docking test. unbalance. Caused by erroneous SPS oxidizer tank. from the PUGS have subsequent spacecraft. a counter

SPS burn,

of indications

of propellant

readings from the primary probe in the The master alarm and warning function been drum deleted was on CSM wedged 106 and in a split with operates For Closed. found 10 and inspected. controls Block of contamination I valves subs will Closed. coolant temperature in the which glycol. are be replaced

The scanning driven Fuel the manually, Cell normal No.

telescope

mechanism

jammed

frequently

when mode.

A pin gear. units

from Units that

but worked 2 condenser several

normally outlet

in automatic

on Apollo been that valve because missions,

have

temperature

exceeded

The bypass improperly subsequent tible will

range

times,

less suscep-

to contaminants be vibrated and caused switch Closed.

will be installed and the radiators flushed 30 to 45 days before launch. open No hardware circuit in the will

Closed. Automatic hydrogen manually. The first the release 2nd docking, on the probe duced control tanks two was of the pressure in the cryogenic was controlled unsuccessful enough. the capture the switch because the latches proProbably motor be made, attempts switch was to undock not held were long showed recycling Before by an intermittent circiut. lost and pressure control change

The Apollo Operations clarify the procedure

Handbook for extending

has been revised to the probe. Closed.

the flag check were not cocked; indication.

a cocked

TABLE

IV (CONTINUED) REMARKS

DESCRIPTION CSM mands accepted. telemetry The CM programs loading The entry through would not The computer entered except monitor the emulsion respond 10 hours; problem reset failed for the system by DSKY. last to multiple only switch. twice entry, did to respond The ground which during scribe properly verified to correct cut Probably entry caused the was cleared uplink first realtime the comwas upCaused acceptance by flight pulse. hardware

associated

with

the

message-

for about

command

by cycling

command

by procedural Closed.

error

in making

the

last

on the

DSKY.

is not monitored. entry. Caused by a leak in the scroll assembly hardening of the emulsion. On Apollo assembly used. will Closed be leak . the charge Closed. holders tested and which caused 10, the scrol I stylus will be

not continuously

on the scroll

a sharper

After the

recovery, oarachute

one riser

docking lines durina

ring

separation to possibly deployment.

charge foul

holder or cut

was out

of its channel

far enough

A spring has been incorporated to retain on CM 106 and subsequent spacecraft.

TABLE LUNAR MODULE

V SUMMARY

DISCREPANCY

DESCRIPTION During critical psia and the first 30 seconds regulator recovered rise also of the manifold to a normal occurred during 1st DPS burn, pressure 240 psia. the superto 180 servicing. decaying a An anomaFlow was probably contaminants Servicing Closed.

REMARKS blocked momentarily and by freezing helium procedures tank have of air heat been

helium then

dropped

or other exchanger. revised.

in the supercritical equipment

lous pressure

prelaunch

The DPS supercritical helium tank pressure began at the end of the 1st DPS burn at a rate indicating 0.1 lb/hr leak.

Possible leak upstream of the solenoid latch valve. LM-4 flight configuration will be checked to assure quate valve strength firing margins shock. for thermal, The squib power switch valve vibration, braze and joints will

The adesquib also

be tested. The oxygen purge system light did not come on during a Failure which Probably common parallel. Probably circuitry, the because telemetered. was rough the light second failed for a few DPS burn. during ascent/descent staging. seconds at 27% of the main has been caused wire Closed. a malfunction but the failure parameters the AGS of the mode are caution cannot and warning or during effect network. light. actuator (broken switches mechanism, subs. are Closed, in the in wire) which self-test prior to rendezvous, after being erratic The LMPs push-to-talk switches on the umbilical the attitude hours GET. operations, The abort period five. guidance system in standby The AGS (AGS) warning nominally light modes remained during on continuously mission. ne DPS engine throttle during and operating be identified controller LMP used were inoperative mode after the VOX for remainder earlier. and on 89 of LM redesigned for Apollo 10 and

by a discontinuity push-to-talk

about

to the

operated

throughout

not displayed

Closed. on

Caused by helium trapped in the propellant lines the previous SPS burns, which has no detrimental the system. Closed. caused simulations by a failure are being in the pulse forming LM-4 run on the Probably Mission

The tracking

TABLE

V (CONTINUED

DESCRIPTION The Crewman difficult Optical Alignment rendezvous. Sight (COAS) re t IC I e was Background and subsequent with a diffuser will At the start sure to the of the increased of the propellant from 176 to APS burn tanks to depletion, regulated at At 290 seconds, the the helium pres177 psia instead the The be provided. failure behavior presently shift effects switches blanket with tape for possible of the Possible light

REMARKS washed out the reticle image. On the light filter will be replaced LMs, lens and modes identified a detachable will be simulated pressure of failure pressure filter assembly and a Closed. on a regulator will that produce be determined. can cause no detriregulated types LM-4

to see during

expected

185 psia.

pressure

180 psia.

downward mental

in regulation in DPS operation. in the which Clear

remained When bind the

on,

and

multiple hatch

depression the would light. was opened

of the for EVA,

Clear

button to

the

two

pushbutton, with the stop

Closed. hatch is being will be

was required at the

to extinguish forward top and it also

it tended

A thermal retained studied

interfered

not stay

open.

on LM-4. improvement.

The door

M-932-69-09

MISSION LAUNCH No maior COMPLEX problems minimal occurred and ground during system the

SUPPORT

terminal

countdown. was as expected.

Launch

damage

to the

pad was NETWORK Overall Network hardware, no major factory. Control problems

performance

mission was data The Center in that

support

by the and Network which

Mission computer telemetry, were

Control throughout

Center the

and mission.

the

Manned Mission very few

Space Control

Flight Center with

considered losses. few

satisfactory

communications, failures the

systems

experienced

problems

tracking, experienced

and command support were satishad minimal impact on Mission persistent outages. sites; support

operations.

Carnarvon was the only site which had command and telemetry computers experienced during possible. with some periods was marginal

HF communications the were ground The requirement experienced, were procedural munications problems systems

reception when

at several

however,

for HF communications no significant experienced errors. anomalies and

was kept at a minimum by using satellite comAlthough several minor communications outages losses were experienced. A number primarily of significant because of communications

data

air-to-ground

most significant

discrepancies

are

presented

in Table

VI.

4/24/69

Page

18

TABLE MISSION SUPPORT

VI SUMMARY

DISCREPANCY

DESCRIPTION

REMARKS

luring ground

the voice

fourth was

revolution, lost

over

Guaymas,

air-to-

Caused Center,

by a procedural which had been

error

at the

Mission configured

Control for the

for approximately

6 minutes.

improperly

transmissions.

luring sland, luring

extravehicular were and period. Bermuda, remoted the same

activity, lost USNS

air-to-ground Vanguard Control stations. Center

transmissions Texas, Merrit Downlink nominally

The

loss of uplink than S-band

capability configured and VHF

was caused to uplink simultaneously)

by a combinatior S-band and only the decrease1 by the of 1 LM the

o the spacecraft moice was

from, Guaymas,

of the stations (rather spacecraft as planned. inability simultaneous and keyed Portable

being

to the Mission

crew having the S-band volume fully Th e prob1e.m was further complicated to transmit VHF voice on that from uplink System. Bermuda transmission Life Support frequency from

because

a suppression

of the VHF

by the continuously

4ir-to-ground j minutes over

communications Texas during

were revolution

lost for approximately 119.

Caused

by a patching

error

at Texas.

MISSIONOPERATION REPORT (APOLLO)

SUPPLEMENT

25 FEBRUARY 1969
OFFICEOFMANNEDSPACEFLIGHT
Prepared by: Apollo Program Office - MAO FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

,.

M-932-69-09

.-

CONTENTS

Space

.............................. Vehicle ...................... Saturn V Launch Vehicle .......................... S-IC Stage. S-II S-IVB Apollo Stage Stage ........................... .......................... Unit. ........................ .........................

1 1 1 6 10 16 20 20 23 26 38 41 43 57 65 65 65 65 65 68 System ...... 73 75 77 5 78 78 78 79 80

Instrument Spacecraft.

.................... Spacecraft LM Adapter. ........................ Service Module ....................... Command Module. Common Launch Lunar Crew Spacecraft Escape Module. Provisions. Systems .................. ..................... System ......................... ........................

............................. Launch Complex .............................. General. LC 39 Facilities and Equipment Vehicle Launch Mobile Launch Apollo Assembly Control Building

................... ...................

..................... Center ........................ Launcher .......................... Pad.

Ingress/Egress and Escape ..................... Fuel System Facilities ...................... LOX System Facility .................. Azimuth Alignment Building Photography Pad Water Faci Iities System ..................... .................. Facilities

Emergency

Mobile Service Crawler-Transporter Vehicle Assembly

.................... Structure ...................... and Checkout. ..................

2/l

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i I

M-932-69-09

Page Mission Support, Monitoring, ............................... General and Control ................ 81 81 82 86 86 8: 87 ii Group Group ........ ........ ...... 88 88 88 89 iy 93 .......... 93 94

................. Vehicle Flight Control Capability. .................... Space Vehicle Tracking. ........................ Command System Display Contingency MCC Vehicle Flight Parameters Parameters Parameters Parameters Parameters Manned NASA Apollo MSFC Abbreviations Space Launch Support and and Role Control and in Aborts. System ................... ................ ................. Planning Execution ......................

Control Parameters. Monitored by LCC .................. Monitored Monitored Monitored Monitored Flight Data for

by Booster Systems by Flight Dynamics by Spacecraft by Life Network. Systems ................... .................. ................. Operations. Flight

Systems Group

Group. ..........

Network. System

Communications Launch

(ALDS) and

Acronyms

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ii

M-932-69-09

LIST Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Apollo S-IC S-II S-IVB APS APS Saturn Spacecraft S LA Panel Service Command Main Title Saturn Stage Stage Stage Functions Control

OF

FIGURES Page

V Space

Vehicle

2 3 7 11 14

Module Unit

15 17 21 22 24 27 31 System Ranges 33 34 35 Stowage Functional Flow 37 38 42 44

Instrument

LM Adapter Jettisoning

Module Module Console

Display

Telecommunications CSM Communication of Antennas Component and Escape Module Control System

Location ELS Major Guidance Launch Lunar

2/l

l/69

... III

M-932-69-09

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

LM

Physical

Characteristics Stage Stage Links

46 47 48 55 58

LM Ascent LM Descent

LM Communications Apollo Apparel at Flight

LM Crewman LM Crewmen Launch Vehicle Mobile Holddown Mobile Launch Launch Launch

Station

63 63 66 67 69

Rest Positions 39 Building

Complex Assembly Launcher Arms/Tail Launcher Pad A, Structure

Service Service

Mast

71 72 73

Arms

LC 39 Exploded System System System View

74 75 76 77 79 79

Pad Interface Egress Egress

Elevator/Tube Slide Mobile Wire/Cab Service

Structure

Crawler-Transporter Command, Basic Telemetry, Interfaces for Flight Control and Communication

82

2/l

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iv

M-932-69-09

40 41

MCC

Organization Flow Room Functional Spaceflight Mission Configuration Network Communications Network Mission Operations

83 84

Information Control

42 43 44

MCC Manned Typical

85 90 92

2/l

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M-932-69-09

SPACE The and primary an Apollo (SV) flight (Figure hardware 1). VEHICLE Vehicle orbit (IU). (LV) and of the Apollo Collectively,

VEHICLE program they are consists designated of a Saturn V Launch Vehicle V Space

Spacecraft.

the Apollo-Saturn

Vehicle SATURN The

V LAUNCH V Launch mile

Saturn

is designed to provide propulsive for

to boost lunar stages

up to 285,000 payloads S-II, of S-IVS),

pounds two

into pounds.

105 nautical The Saturn and S-IC

earth Unit

100,000

V LV consists

of three

(S-IC,

interstages,

an Instrument Stage General The S-IC stage

(Figure

2) is a large by five liquid thrust of loaded

cylindrical propellant total 159 seconds. stage and and service

booster, F-l rocket

138 feet engines.

long

and These

33 feet engines

in diameter, develop have 295,300 The S-IC interfaces ment (GSE) electronic measurements Structure The S-IC control,

powered

a nominal an operational pounds stage and

sea level burn the time total

of approximately The stage weight electrically pneumatically three arms, stage with

7,650,OOO dry weight the S-II

pounds and is approximately 5,031,500 stage. pounds. It also Equipcertain

is approximately

interfaces two

structurally electrically, umbilical which are

structurally, through systems

with Ground Support tail service masts, and for operational telemetry

by antennas.

The S-IC transmitted

is instrumented

or signals

by its independent

system.

structural instrumentation,

design

reflects and

the

requirements systems.

of F-l Aluminum

engines, alloy

propellants, is the primary

interfacing

The major structural components are the forward skirt, oxidizer structural material. tank, intertank section, fuel tank, and thrust structure. The forward skirt interfaces structurally with the S-IC/S-II inter-stage. The skirt also mounts vents, antennas, The and and link electrical and foot electronic tank equipment. is the structural link between the forward skirt

47,298-cubic the fuel intertank tanks. tank,

oxidizer

structure which The 29,215-cubic and the through fuel

between

the thrust

provides structural continuity foot fuel tank provides the Five oxidizer intertank structures. tank, to the F-l engines.

between the oxidizer load carrying structural ducts run from the

oxidizer

2/l

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Page

M-932-69-09

APOLLO-SATURNVSPACEVEHICLE
!UMENT

SYSTEM
INTER. STAGE

.
T ECTIVE COVER

COMMAND MODULE

-INTERSTAGE

SERVICE MODULE

LUNAR MODULE

SPACECRAFT

SPACE

VEHICLE

LAUNCH

VEHICLE Fig. 1

2/l/69

Page

._x

---__I_-

M-932-69-09

S-K STAGE
FLIGHT TERMI~~ATION RECEIVERS (2) \
FORWARD SKIRT

GOX DISTRIBUTORHELIUM

rCRUCIFORM \FFLE
INTERTANK SECTION

CENTER ENGINE SUPPORT \

IX SUCTION NfS (51

CkBLE TUNNEL UPPER THRUST

SHIELD-

LOWER THRUST RING/

F-l ENGINES (5) -

RETRORDCKETS

-I

i- FLIGHT CONTROL SERVOACTUATO R

HEA

,T SHIELD -

Fig. 2/l l/69 Page 3

M-932-69-09

The into

thrust nearly

structure uniform five ring fins,

assembly loading F-l propellant has four during

redistributes about lines, the engine holddown

the applied periphery of the and which accessories, points release.

loads fuel base support pounds)

of the tank. heat the and

five Also,

F-l

engines

it provides engine ducts.

support fairings The Saturn restrain Propulsion The F-l propellant Propellant-l fuel, and

for the and thrust the

engines,

shield, fully also,

retrorockets, 6,483,OOO

environmental

control loaded

lower

V Space

Vehicle

(approximately controlled

as necessary,

vehicle

engine is a single-start, 1,530,000-pound engine which uses Liquid Oxygen (LOX) (RP-1) the are nozzle supplied as the to the fuel. thrust The thrust chamber extension is cooled chamber

fixed-thrust, calibrated, bias the oxidizer and Rocket is cooled turbopump regeneratively gases. powered by Oxidizer by a used as control provisions control An External flight followed the operation. by the system. LOX exhaust

and fuel

by gas generator by a single combination. fluid for the fluid

gas generator the turbopump system. for supply The and engine externally The and

which uses the same propellant lubricant and as the working four contains outboard a heat engines exchanger engine are return supplied system of RP-1 helium monitors as the working system for stage

RP-1 is also engine hydraulic and have vector

capable

of gimbaling for a thrust tank and to condition

engine-supplied pressurization. operation. during first,

propellant performance engine

instrumentation thermal The four can insulation

provides engine the

an allowable cutoff

environment engine sensors

normal outboard tank be cut

in-flight engines. initiate off Cutoff, Systems systems by any

sequence

is center depletion Ground

Engine engine of the

optical-type cutoff Detection following

in either

the oxidizer engine (GSE)

or fuel Command Propellant The and Fuel and

sequence. methods: System,

In an emergency, Support or Outboard Cutoff

Equipment System.

Emergency

propellant tank tank maintain

include prior

hardware to and Suction the source the and connect sliding during during Head oxidizer

for fill flight, engine (NPSH)

and

drain,

propellant and fuel flight inlet

conditioning, to the to the is helium engines. engine from The from to establish

pressurization pressurization a Net During mounted 12-inch and with

and

for delivery

is required Positive flight, inside which flex stage ducts

starting at the Fuel tank

turbopumps. storage bottles through ducts engine are two

of fuel the joints

tank fuel

pressurization feed to each F-l

tank.

is accomplished engine. for motions

equipped

to compensate

gimbaling

stresses.

2/l

l/69

Page

M-932-69-09

Gaseous portion exchangers

is used for oxidizer Oxygen (GOX) of the LOX supplied to each engine where to the joints. System vector engines control to the through consists thrust the hydraulic it is transformed engines through into five GOX

tank and

pressurization into which the are routed back

during engine to the supplied

flight. heat tanks. with

A LOX flex

is diverted lines

is delivered and Flight sliding Control

suction

The S-IC to attach per engine), to the

thrust these and

ring, engine

of four outboard F-l engine hydraulic supply. block. Engine gimbal

engines, gimbal blocks servoactuators (two thrust are is transmitted two servo-

an engine

power

thrust

structure

There

located 90 degrees actuator attach points per engine, The gimbaling which the gimbaling force is applied. changes the direction to achieve the desired within Electrical The electrical power system of the S-IC stage consists a square pattern of thrust and trajectory. at a rate

from each other, through of the four outboard engines vehicle +5O

as a result corrects the attitude of the Each outboard engine may be gimbaled

of 5O per second.

of two

basic

subsystems: Onboard as the such as system. but IU sequencing power distributor, switch selector in the control and

the operational power subsystem power is supplied by two 28-volt operational valve and each is the and various Batteries controls, flight system interface S-IC flight the control. supply power system and Battery power between stage activities battery. venting purge

and the measurements Battery batteries. It supplies power systems, loads through from 2 is identified the other.

power subsystem. number 1 is identified to operational systems, measurement main S-IC power stage loads and

pressurization as the The a common

number isolated

to their the such

is completely electrical

Launch

Vehicle Digital Its function circuits. calibration,

Computer (LVDC) is to sequence and retrofire initiation,

as telemetry

pressurization. Ordnance The S-IC and the limits the means ordnance retrorocket systems systems. path include the The S-IC flight shuts propellant Propellant a safety all open dispersion Dispersion V if it varies hazard engines the opening fuel during and and (flight termination) System (PDS) provides beyond the S-IC oxidizer the command tanks. propellant The prescribed phase. boost

of terminating ground explosives is 180

the command which (opposite)

of the Saturn down

of its flight

or if it becomes longitudinally

A transmitted detonates fuel opening mixing.

a second

to the oxidizer

to minimize

2/l

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Page

M-932-69-09

Eight stage. in the in the ward thrust separate second. S-II Staae General

retrorockets The fairings end level of the the S-IC S-K

provide retrorockets of the fairing stage four

thrust are outboard

after F-l firing and

S-IC

burnout in pairs

to separate external The At firing by the retrorocket the vehicle

it from thrust ignition out) command

the

S-II

mounted

to the

structure the gases. one forThe to

engines. systems. blown feet through (one from

originates

IU and activates developed

redundant is burned by seven a minimum

retrorocket

exhausting

retrorockets of six

is adequate

in less than

The S-II in diameter, a nominal Dry mate 11,665 ments weight

stage

(Figure powered thrust S-II

3) is a large by five stage liquid of 230,000 is 1,064,600 stage

cylindrical propellant pounds

booster, J-2 each 84,600 rocket

81.5

feet of

long which stage R&D

and

33 feet pounds.

engines The and

develop approxiweighs measurestage electric, and

vacuum of the

for a total pounds. The S-IC/S-II for operational telemetry

1,150,OOO interstage The S-II stages, and

is approximately pounds. is instrumented with GSE

loaded which

gross weight The S-II transmitted electrical fluid and and are

pounds.

by its independent interfaces with

system. and S-IV

has structural pneumatic, Structure Major tank, S-II the

the S-IC through

interfaces

its umbilicals

antennas.

structural 12,745-cubit structure, material. interface imposed constitute

components foot

are

the tank

forward (with

skirt, the

the common

37,737-cubic bulkhead),

foot

fuel

oxidizer

the aft is the major structural

skirt/thrust structural loads the stage tank and loads walls

and the S-IC/S-II interstage. Aluminum alloy The forward and aft skirts distribute and transmit structurally on the the thrust to the aft with skirt the interstages. by the J-2 between structure The aft engines. the skirt The

also distributes S-IC/S-II interThe The aft propellant bulkhead

is comparable

in capability structure

and

construction. skirts.

cylindrical

of the fuel tank head is fabricated

is also the forward bulkhead of the oxidizer of aluminum with a fiberglass/phenolic of the (-297F) common on the bulkhead minimize LH2 (-423OF).

tank. This common bulkhoneycomb core. The the heating effect of

insulating characteristics the relatively hot LOX Propulsion The S-II altitude Fuel outer J-2 stage J-2 is liquid engine rocket hydrogen are

system engines (LH2) equally

consists of 230,000 and spaced

of five pounds

single-start, of nominal is liquid

high-performance, vacuum oxygen diameter circle thrust (LOX). and each. The are

highfour

the oxidizer

engines

on a 17.5foot

2/l

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Page

M-932-69-09

S-II STAGE

11-l/2 VEHICLE STATION 2519

FORWARDSKIRT FEET

I-

SYSTEMS TUNNEL

LH2/LOX COMMON BULKHEAD 81-l/2 FEET

Yi
-0
_

LIQUID OXYGEN TANK (12.745.5 CU FT)

4
. I^ ----

AFT SKIRT THRUST

INTERSTAGE

VEHICLE STATION 1541

Fig.

2/l

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Page

--.__

-__.-..--..

M-Y32-69-09

capable vector stage. helium system operations The and The J-2

of being control. The which that engine

gimbaled The fifth valves state

through a +7 degree square pattern to allow thrust engine is fixed and is mounted on the centerline of the are controlled inside elements power signals deviations, Each signal by a pneumatic the start is used tank. system powered the start by gaseous control and shutdown An electrical

is stored uses solid engine. may engine depletion

in a sphere logic Electrical cutoff

to sequence

of the engine include sends

is stage-supplied. from several sources S-II different signals sources. abort which the LVDC These cutoffs, IU. in turn in the

receive

sources

interlock cutoff. cutoff

EDS automatic to the switch

or manual selector,

propellant LVDC the cutoff will signals initiation

of these which liquid detection

the engine

signals for the vide cutoff sensors

electrical

control package, Five discrete sequence. of engine cutoff same tank upon are a signal the to shut

controls all local signals level sensors per propellant of propellant engines when depletion. two out

necessary tank proThe cutoff engine

initiate from

down

the

of five

received.

Propellant The propellant

Systems systems by the and and feed powered supply propellant delivery which five prior fuel and oxidizer to the components The passages feed system five engines. the which five tanks This servicing, are helium 8-inch insulated is forced vacuumis

accomplished conditioning, with foam-filled for purging jacketed During tank each

management subsystems. contains The prevalves. to S-II ignition, thrust After S-II LH,

and through includes

engine

propellant

honeycomb leak ducts flight, outboard cooling manifold duct, and detection. and

Gaseous chamber engine

Hydrogen ignition,

(GH,) LHz

for manifold

LH2 of

pressurization of the four

is bled

from engines. tubes in the

the

hydrogen

injector

is preheated thrust medium.

in the regenerative chamber injector The LOX feed with uninsulated plished The feed GOX

of the engine and tapped off from the form of Gt 2 to serve as a pressurizing 8-inch, LOX prevalves. vacuum-jacketed feed LOX tank pressurization bled from the LOX

system

includes five

four

ducts, one is accomoutlet.

obtained

by heating system depletion. flight, compared

turbopump

propellant

management and During and probes, monitored valve valves propellant

loading, capacitance tronic probes utilization utilization fuel-rich are

utilization, equipment.

monitors propellant mass for control Components of the system include valves, signals from liquid the tank signal level sensors, to the the and engines. the continuous

of propellant continuous and eleccapacitance

utilization

to provide

an error on this residual

propellant propellant assure a

on each LOX are positioned by varying

pump. Based to minimize of LOX

error signal, propellants to the

cutoff

the amount

delivered

2/l

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Page

M-932-69-09

Flight Each planes capable

Control outboard control to provide

System engine is equipped that control engine of 8 degrees with a separate, two roll, and independent, mounted yaw. pitch and yaw closed-loop, in perpendicular are degrees planes (+lO

hydraulic

system vehicle the rate

includes

servoactuators in the

in pitch, +7 degrees

The servoactuators

of deflecting at the

diagonally) Electrical The electrical subsystems. power trols The units trolled sequenced Ordnance The S-II propellant dual-plane stages the single remains stage. seconds. To ensure is required four thrust ullage interstage plane source in-flight stage are

per second.

system is comprised The electrical power and distribution. the mission

of the system The

electrical provides of the

power the S-II stage. the the

and electrical control stage with the electrical interfaces LVDC switch electrical operation. that can provide with selector. sequence These be conproperly the The stage stage in the IU con-

electrical functions

control through through transistorized

system

IU to accomplish switch or the basically electrical individually

requirements are routed

sequencing selector separation

of stage outputs controller upon

controller

to accomplish from the

the directed switches selector,

a network and, signals

of low-power command to control

the switch functions.

stage

ordnance systems include the dispersion (flight termination) separation at two after located S-II near part develops are technique different engine the aft of the by the is severed planes. ignition. skirt S-II four

separation, systems. The The stage. thrust by the

ullage the

rocket,

retrorocket, separation, a two the occurs the fires IU. forward develops function S-II for

and

For S-IC/S-II structure

is used wherein

between separation

second-plane S-II/S-IVB stage. located located To separate of 34,810 LVDC

jettisons at a stage, inter1.52 interstage

separation The and pounds S-IVB retard and

of the S-IVB retrorockets

as an integral Each All rocket

a deceleration

is provided separations flow

in the in the a small acceleration rocket ullage

S-II/S-IVB

a nominal initiated into

stable rockets

of propellants the propellants and fires

the

J-2 tanks.

engines, This The Each

acceleration by prior a nominal occurs

to settle

in their for 3.75

is provided

mounted pounds

on the S-IC

interstage. seconds.

of 23,000

to second-plane The S-II during Propellant the S-II

separation. Dispersion phase System if the (PDS) provides path for termination varies beyond hazard. The fuel of vehicle its prescribed The S-II PDS tank linear shaped flight

boost

vehicle

flight

limits or if continuation may be safed after the

of vehicle flight creates a safety launch escape tower is jettisoned.

2/l

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Page

M-932-69-09

charge, tank tank S-IVB and

when destruct the

detonated, charges S-II aft skirt.

cuts

a 30-foot cut

vertical l3-foot

opening lateral

in the openings

tank. in the

The

oxidizer

simultaneously

oxidizer

Stage General The S-IVB feet multiple pounds trol pounds. of 8,080 telemetry Structure The tanks, major aft structural skirt, thrust components structure between distribute skirt mounts oxidizer of the and aft the fuel structural the J-2 tank. S-IVB stage are The the forward skirt, skirt propellant tank stage engine (Figure powered starts. independent weight is not burns. 4) is a large by one Engine This of the J-2 stage stage thrust cylindrical engine. is 232,000 is also engine. is 259,160 stated which weights. are booster The S-IVB pounds unique Dry 59 feet stage for the in that weight pounds. The transmitted long first and burn 21.6 of and 206,000 con-

in diameter,

is capable

for subsequent Th e I aunch pounds system.

it has an attitude of the stage The interstage is 25,300

capability

of its main in the

weight

included

stage

is instrumented

for functional

measurements

or signals

by its independent

interstage.

forward

provides

structural continuity walls transmit and structure. The thrust circumference 2830-cubic the common material S-II Main The stage stage The aft structure

tank walls and the IU. loads from the aft skirt to imposed loads distributes insulated foot from the and

The propellant and the thrust S-IVB aft loads separates

is subjected

interstage. to the the

engine

its structtiral bulkhead fuel tank and The predominant structurally

of the

A common,

foot oxidizer tank bulkhead discussed stage the IU. is aluminum and

and the 10,418-cubic in the S-II description. alloy. The stage

is similar to structural with the

of the

interfaces

Prooulsion high-performance has a multiple system the aft 232,000-p restart powered start ound capability. thrust The helium that J-2 engine as installed are state in the S-IVB by a inside power a is used is

engine which of the

valves is stored engine.

controlled logic Electrical

pneumatic start bottle. to sequence supplied

by gaseous control No. 1.

in a sphere

An electrical battery

system operations

uses solid

elements

and shutdown

from

2/l

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Page

10

M-932-69-09

S-IV6 STAGE
t

10.2 FORWARDSKIRT

FEET

I--

21.6

FEET-

LH2 TANK 10,418 CUFT I I I*

I I 44.c EET

\ / 2830 cu Fr ,

55
FE

7.0

:ET

THRUST STRUCTURE

,33.0

FEET

v 2/H/69 Page 11

Fig.

M-932-69-09

During (from the

engine helium

operation, spheres turbine

the oxidizer inside the

tank fuel

is pressurized tank) through

by flowing the heat

cold

helium in

mounted

exchanger

oxidizer

causing it to expand. from the thrust chamber planes The safety J-2 during engine systems, burn may Thrust

The heat exchanger heats the cold helium, exhaust duct. The fuel tank is pressurized during engine operation by GH2 Thrust vector control in the pitch and yaw fuel manifold. is achieved cutoff pressure (velocity is identical The start GH2 Spark tank.) will be available to build to allow raise period for spinning sufficient the in the the the fuel and oxidizer to 6 hours by warming exhaust tank. stored attempt This relief energy to six system loss valve from tank the by gimbaling signals from the via initial with chamber fuel line the entire engine. sources; depletion switch start selector. except fuel for the GH2 the fill the tank is EDS, sensors, range and

periods receive OK

following the

switches, or timed) to the thrust (ASI)

propellant

an IU programmed The first and restart burn LH2

command engine tank.

of the J-2 of the period from the restart. to recharge that sufficient a waiting The tank Prolonged start

procedure

is filled

LH2 and to refill engine

during start

by bleeding Augmented the start energy

injection

manifold

Igniter

for engine required To insure pump is required. the start to cool. occurs setting. will hours. Propellant LOX -297F. engine.

(Approximately

50 seconds

of mainstage

operation

turbines,

period time will GH2 continues limits natural

of between is required means warm over and and cause

approximately

80 minutes pressure start total hot gas turbine

minimum heating LH2 and venting This

through the

a loss of energy a prolonged

when

the gas pressure period prior to a restart

to the

If this

be depleted.

the waiting

Systems in the aft tank of the propellant supply duct is supplied tank structure at a temperature of

is stored During

A six-inch,

low-pressure LOX engine burn,

supplies LOX from the tank to the at a nominal flow rate of 392 pounds supply duct gimbaling, The tank is equipped manufacturing is prepresboost

per second, with bellows tolerances, surized and The duct. transfer common engine LH;!

and at a transfer pressure to provide compensating and thermal movement 38 and 41 psia and Gaseous helium tank

above 25 psia. The flexibility for engine connections.

of structural

to between operation. is stored to the This duct pressure bulkhead J-2

is maintained at that pressure during is used as the pressurizing agent. at less than 80 pounds is located duct -423OF. LH2 from the

in an insulated engine is capable of 28 psia. joint.

tank

is IO-inch the

supplied

turbopump of flowing The duct Bellows

by a vacuum-jacketed,

low-pressure,

per second at -423F and at a in the aft tank side wall above for engine gimbaling,

in this

compensate

2/l

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Page

12

M-932-69-09

manufacturing to 28 psia The

tolerances, minimum and provides and fuel

and 31 psia

thermal maximum.

motion.

The

fuel

tank

is prepressurized

PU subsystem of oxidizer

a means tank

of controlling mass probes,

the

propellant and

mass ratio. an electronic

It

consists assembly. Propel1an.t pump system. Flight The J-2

a PU valve,

Th ese components monitor the propellant and maintain command control. utilization is provided by bypassing oxidizer from the oxidizer turboback engine System system flight, and engines incorporates thrust yaw for roll vector control control. hydraulic the signals during two steering and The systems for flight the Mechanical position forces and flight yaw and attitude control. the degree from the actuators engine. from engine the Propulsion to the inlet. The PU valve mixture is controlled varies by signals from 4.5: from the PU 1. The oxidizer/fuel mass ratio 1 to 5.5:

outlet

Control flight engine (APS) pattern to the

control

During System square actuator are The flight alone. Auxiliary The 180 four ul lage system. hypergolic gravity hydrazi used

powered

is accomplished engine system. is gimbaled

by gimbaling Auxiliary in a +7.5 feedback loop. Two the signals APS

for pitch

by operating

by a closed-loop servovalve the are rates steering

provides proportional Steering

closed into coast

engine vector pitch

to translate computer.

to position steering

deflection control

to the

is by use of the

Propulsion APS control

System three-axis coast flight. S-IVB thrust contains propellant supplied fuel to the tetroxide for these skirt of the stage attitude control The APS engines stage (Figure 6). (Figure 5) and main stage are located in two modules Each module contains

S-IVB apart engines;

provides during

propellant

on the aft

engine.

three 150-pound Each module expulsion are Nitrogen is the

control engines, its own oxidizer, feed (N204), engines. subsystem engines

and one 70-pound thrust fuel, and pressurization is used zero oxidizer to assure g and that or random monomethyl

A positive propellants conditions. ne (MMH),

under is the

-.

2/l

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Page

13

M-932-69-09

APS FUNCTIONS

0
0
0 I 2/l l/69

-P

Fig. Page 14

M-932-69-09

APS CONTROLMODULE

OUTER MODULE HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM SPHERES OXIDIZER TANK -7 FUEL TANK 150 LB PITCH ENGINE 7 150 LB ROLL AND 1 YAW ENGINE (2) 70 LB ULLAGE ENGINE-

Fig.

Electrical The electrical the and electrical the electrical loads batteries. equipment the final part area. pre-launch of each system power throughout of the subsystem control Two the S-IVB which stage. are located stage which is comprised of all distributes of two the power power major and subsystems: on the signals stage; to control

consists

sources

subsystem

various silver-zinc the aft during

Onboard electrical in the forward are activated and Heaters

power is supplied by four equipment area and two in and installed in the stage are instrumentation probes

These battery.

batteries

preparations.

an integral

2/l

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Page

15

M-932-69-09

Ordnance The S-IVB interstage. below attached. To provide during J-2 acceleration APS provides The S-IVB propellant engine start, settling the and S-IVB thus stage ensure stable ullage flow rockets of fuel for the and first oxidizer This burn. The the ordnance plane systems include four fire the separation, is located motors the S-II ullage mounted stage rocket, top with on the and of the the PDS systems. S-II/S-IVB structure

The separation

for S-II/S-IVB plane

staging to decelerate

at the

At separation separation

retrorocket

interstage interstage

requires

a small

acceleration.

is provided by two jettisonable ullage for subsequent burns. PDS provides for termination

of vehicle

flight

by cutting

two

parallel

20-foot openings in the fuel The S-IVB PDS may be safed S-IVB engine cutoff at orbit command. Instrument General The and Instrument 3 feet high and and system control Unit (IU) Unit

tank and a 47-inch diameter hole in the LOX tank. after the launch escape tower is jettisoned. Following insertion, the PDS is electrically safed by ground

I (Fg ure 7), on top equipment along

is a cylindrical stage. Launch for the with

structure The Vehicle. electrical

21 .6 feet the and and In addition,

in diameter guidance, it contains emergency environ-

installed control telemetry,

of the S-IVB

IU contains tracking, power

navigation, measurements detection mental Structure

command

communications, supporting

components systems.

The basic IU structure is a short cylinder fabricated of an aluminum alloy honeycomb sandwich material. Attached to the inner surface of the cylinder are cold plates which serve both as mounting structure and thermal conditioning units for the electrical/electronic Guidance, V Launch guidance, A Launch and functions. equipment. and Control its launch located (LVDC) (FCC) pad into earth orbit by in the IU. An all-inertial and is used attitude for the measureflight is used to solve guidance

Navigation, The Saturn

navigation, system ments. equations control

Vehicle is guided from and control equipment platform Computer Computer Digital

uti I izes

a space -stabilized Vehicle a Flight Control

for acceleration (analog)

2/l

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Page

16

M-932-69-09

SATURNINSTRUMENT UNIT

SEGMENT ASSEMBLY

C-BAND ANTENNA ACCESS DOOR SEGHEWT ASSEMBLY UHF ANTENNA CCS PCM TRAN ;i:

--Fig; 2/l l/69 Page 17 7

M-932-69-09

The three-gimbal stabilized platform (ST-124-M3) provides a space-fixed coordinate reference frame for attitude control and for navigation (acceleration) mounted on the gyro-stabilized measurements. Three integrating accelerometers, inner from Launch ometer to obtain gational acceleration. can be updated The stations. inserting The control the gimbal vehicle of the platform, measure the three components of velocity are sent resulting the the acceleracceleration the and velocity) ground or from navipropulsion. The accelerometer measurements through

Vehicle Data measurements velocity program and

Adapter (LVDA) to the LVDC. are combined with the computed position of the vehicle. computes information the into IU command system the provides LVDC. to maintain to be used guidance commands, measured signal data and the stored vehicle in the the During

In the LVDC, gravitational orbital (e.g., transmission capability flight, velocity, position, LVDC

continually Guidance through IU command

position,

system

by data general

of changing

information subsystem steering

is designed commands system These accepts guidance with command computations

control controlling

vehicle engines from the

attitude

by

forming

by the

of the active LVDC/LVDA attitude error sensors. and FCC. point,

The control stage. Guidance System. signals, The APS are then The resultant nozzles. output

computations which from are the

are actually various engine

combined isthe final

control actuators the within

to the

various

(analog)

performed

The FCC is also the central switching point for command signals. From this the signals are routed to their associated active stages and to the appropriate attitude control devices. and Telemetry within IU consists of a measuring This instrumentation subsystem. and events which receiving take place to ground stations. the subsystem, is for the within the

Measurements The

instrumentation

subsystem monitoring transmitting Command

and an antenna certain conditions monitored Communications Communications stations information data stations originates of the Vehicle. to the

a telemetry purpose of IU and for

signals

System System LVDC. (CCS) provides functions Center for digital link (MCC) (MSFN) through data is used the and transmission to update LVDC. to to is sent

The Command from ground guidance Command remote to the

This certain

communications other Control

or command Manned

in the Mission Space

Flight

Network

for transmission

Launch

2/l

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Page

18

M-932-69-09

Saturn

Tracking

Instrumentation two C-band radar trajectory flight flight earth of the into after orbit. MSFN transponders data information earth injection. During and orbit; and from and Launch an Azusa/GLOTRAC different increased Vehicle orbital Continuous orbital flight, radar flight; tracking reliability may be injection is is tracking stations.

The Saturn tracking systems through divided into required

V IU carries best

transponder. provides the redundant into four

A combination possible The and powered coast into flight stations System System EDS rate (pitch, roll, provides are the The tracking

of tracking

data. phases: powered

of the Saturn

mission

trajectory; by S-band Detection Detection are nine three signal axes

tracking

during

accomplished IU Emergency The each The Emergency There of the control

by C-band

Components (EDS) gyros and is one installed yaw) thus to and and display contains element in the of several IU. Three triple inputs crew safety monitor the box for the nine and and

systems.

gyros from

providing receives serves panels

redundancy.

processor

power

These inputs EDS rate gyros. to the flight control computer. switching if emergency automatic An electronic abort also normal crew dition Electrical Primary selector. must after provided This vehicle initiate arises. Power flight Systems for the level by solid through device abort to furnish sequence. timer 30 seconds by the inhibiting sequencing. a manual in the vehicle conditions exist.

processed

sent

on to the with diode

EDS distributor emergency logic signals

EDS distributor relay

as a junction

spacecraft It also

and

IU allows flight is required While abort

multiple Inhibiting sequencing prior the

engine of circuits

shutdowns abort through S-IC engine

without circuitry the cutoff the engine-out

automatic is and other con-

of flight.

automatic

IU switch flight

to normal

automatic

abort

is inhibited, or two

if an angular-overrate

power voltage

IU equipment of 28 +2 vdc. state power & to ac distributors

at a nominal

is supplied by silver-zinc oxide batteries Where ac power is required within the inverters. which Power are distribution within junction the boxes essentially

IU it is developed IU is accomplished and switching

circuits.

2/l

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Page

19

M-932-69-09

Environmental The Environmental

Control

System System (ECS) during maintains pre-flight an acceptable operating and flight operations.

Control of the

environment

for the

IU equipment following:

The

ECS is composed 1. The Thermal

Conditioning to the purging air/gaseous supply electronic system

System

(TCS)

which of 59

temperature 2. Pre-flight regulated 3. Gas inertial 4. Hazardous forward APOLLO The Apollo bearing

equipment which maintains in the

maintains +lOF.. -

a circulating

coolant

a supply

of temperature area. to the

and

pressure

nitrogen system which

lU/S-IVB

equipment nitrogen

furnishes

gaseous

ST-124-M3

platform

gas bearings. sampling for the equipment presence which monitors vapors. the IU/S-IVB

gas detection interstage area

of hazardous

SPACECRAFT Spacecraft (S/C) to support three men in space for periods surface, Spacecraft Launch up and

a d esigned IS to two weeks, docking in space, landing safely reentering the earths atmosphere. LM Adapter Escape Spacecraft System (SLA), (LES), th e S ervice and the Module Lunar

on and returning The Apollo S/C (SM), the (LM). Command

from the lunar consists of the Module (CM),

Module

LM Adapter

General The SLA between smoothly diameter encloses Structure The SLA upper or aft, pletely heating lower is constructed panels during panels. about of 7 feet 1.7-inch thick aluminum honeycomb panels. The four lower, comthe (Figure the from the encloses that nozzle 8) is a conical SM and irregularly upper of the also the structure supports shaped stage engine and which the LM and the provides LM. transitions Gain a structural the Antenna. space load path

LV and

Aerodynamically, of the SM. The

the SLA vehicle SLA also

of the

LV to that High

of the SM

jettisonable, by a layer

or forward, of cork. The boost.

panels are about 21 feet long, and the fixed The exterior surface of the SLA is covered long. The cork helps insulate the LM from aerodynamic LM is attached to the SLA at four locations around

2/l

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Page

20

M-932-69-09

SPACECRAFT ADAPTER LM
A CIRCUMFERENTIAL LINEAR SHAPED LONGITUDINAL CHARGE

UPPER (FORWARD) 21 JETTISONABLE PANELS (4 PLACES)

CIRCUMFERENTIAL
LINEAR SPRING SHAPED CHARGE PANELS

+ LOWER (AFT)
7 FIXED

THRUSTER/HINGE

Fig. S LA-SM The SLA Explosive four assure trains, upper and Seoaration and SM are are bolted used SLA together to separate panels. initiating detonation type panels. through flanges on each of the two

structures. the

trains separation;

jettisonable sympathetic type the and

the SLA and SM as well Redundancy is provided signals, of nearby redundant charges.

as for separating in three areas to and cord

redundant

detonators

Pryotechnic jettisoning

spring

SLA

upper

thrusters (Figure 9) are The four double-piston

used in deploying and pyrotechnic thrusters

are located inside the The two pistons of the two the separate panels thrusters is routed thrusters

SLA and start the panels swinging outward on their hinges. thruster push on the ends of adjacent panels thus providing The explosive train which separates operating each panel. two the pressure panels cartridges in each thruster assembly. The rotate

through

2 degrees establishing a constant angular When the panels have rotated about velocity of 33 to 60 degrees per second. 45 degrees, the partial hinges disengage and free the panels from the aft section of the The panel panels the depart SLA, subjecting thrusters the of the are them to the force of the spring thrusters. When the fixed lower 110 degrees will then to

pyrotechnic

spring hinges centerline

disengage, at a speed

mounted on the outside of the upper panels. the springs in the thruster push against the away from 5-l/2 the vehicle at an angle The of of about miles per hour. panels

to propel the area

panels

spacecraft. Page 2 1

2/l

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PII___ ______.,.-, _. ._ .-.--_^...I -

M-932-69-09

SLA PANEL JET-T-ISONING

LOWER HINGE SPRING THRUSTER AFTER DEPLOYMENT, AT START OF PANEL SPRING

JETTISON

THRUSTER BEFORE DEPLOYMENT

PANEL

Fig. SLA-LM Spring service adapters mounted Assembly Seoaration thrusters module which on the also secure lower are used LM to separate the LM, in the SLA. SLA panels from the the mild LM from the are the vehicle. Sequence Instrument that The sever the detonator Controllers Unit (IU). SLA. fired four LM After spring the

command/ the four

has docked the (fixed) the

with

charges

to release Landing Gear

Simultaneously, push against launch

thrusters Truss

to separate

spacecraft by two fire

The separation inside fire blade the SLA send controllers which

is controlled near signals to cut severs the which the

LM Separation point Umbilical. to the the charges

located The redundant also

the attachment LM-IU

a detonator

connections and impels a guillotine

umbilical

wires.

2/l

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Page

22

M-932-69-09

Service

Module

General The Service Module capability (oxygen, (SM) (Fg ure I during water, 10) provides the main spacecraft propulsion and

maneuvering consumables

a mission. propellant,

The SM provides most of the spacecraft hydrogen) and supplements environmental, The SM remains attached

electrical power, and propulsion to the CM until it is iettisoned Structure The six the alloy comb basic radial structural beams, aft botton components four heat and sector shield, SM. the secure machined

requirements of the CM. just before CM reentry.

are and

forward a fairing. beam The them-milled beams tension

and

aft four

(upper reaction

and

lower) control

bulkheads, system honey-

honeycomb Radial CM. and

panels,

panels, top and which

of the

The forward and aft bulkheads cover trusses extending above the forward radial beams are made of solid pads and aluminum 2 center the other to thicknesses have ties. compression Explosive the CM from engine which eight are one face panels varying charges the SM. the the of eight and The from are sector the sides between in the

bulkhead inches and three have sections An aft the trical bulkhead The sector aluminum are SM. bolted mental

support

has been

0.018 inch. Three of these shear-compression pads and tension ties are the used service

of these heat shield heat

to separate propulsion

surrounds during is closed radiators

to protect and

SM from elecpanels. made of panels environof the

engines power

thrusting. off with alternated

The gap a fairing with panels two Radiators

between

the CM aluminum inch sheets.

forward

of the SM system and

is composed thick heat

honeycomb

reaction radial are

control core beams. are each into

system

honeycomb to the control

between bonded about six

aluminum used sector feet

to dissipate in area.

subsystem radiators

to the

on opposite

These

30 square sectors and

The SM currently should quad tank three panel oxidizer tains two box. oxygen trol

interior void. the need larger

is divided

a center

section.

Sector

one

is

It is available arise. Sector on its exterior of the two

for installation of scientific or additional equipment two has part of a space radiator and an RCS engine panel tanks and that contains hold the the SPS oxidizer sump tank. This oxidizer for the SPS engine. Sector RCS engine quad on its exterior tank is the second of two SPS in sector two. Sector four conIt contains and a power three fuel cells, control relay and con-

(module) is the

has the rest of the space and contains the oxidizer tanks and is fed and tanks to the from two most of the cryogenic The and radiator cryogenic hydrogen and electrical

radiator storage the oxidizer

and another tank. This sump hydrogen tank

power supply fuel

generating oxygen ccl Is.

equipment. tanks

oxygen

cryogenic

to the environmental Sector five has part

control subsystem of an environmental

an RCS engine quad on the exterior panel and contains the SPS engine This tank feeds the engine and is also connected by feed lines fuel sump tank. to the fuel storage tank in sector six. Page 23

2/l

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M-932-69-09

SERVICEMODULE

-_..
FLOODLIGHT SCIMITAR ANTENNP

tl ---DOCKING LIGHT

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SUBSYSTEM RADIATOR

NOZZLE EXTENSION

FUELTANKS __-. _ 6 lu, FORWARD BULKHEAD INSTALL \ -..-. --. \ FUtL CtLLS PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM PANEL OXYGEN TANKS

y#fL~~~~~M fl bUAOS (41

tSECTOR 2 SECTOR 3 SECTOR 4 SECTOR 5 SECTOR 6 \ 1

12FT10lN.

-HYOROGEN TANKS

SERVICE PROPULSION SUBSYSTEM OXIDIZER TANKS OXYGEN TANKS, HYDROGEN TANKS, FUEL CELLS SERVICE PROPULSION SUBSYSTEM FUEL TANKS

S-BAND HIGH GAIN ANTENNA

/
L \

iiFT BULKHEAO

SERVICE PROPULSION ENGINE CENTER SECTION. SERVICE PROPULSION ENGINE AND HELIUMTANKS

Fig.

10

2/H/69

Page

24

M-932-69-09

Sector quad the and fuel the

six

has the tank

rest of the and The in sector

environmental the are five. The used center

control fuel section

radiator storage contains helium

and tank

an RCS engine which helium feeds tanks two

on its exterior sump SPS engine. tanks.

contains tanks

SPS engine to provide

pressurant

for the SPS

propellant Propulsion Main

spacecraft System

propulsion (SPS).

is provided

by the 20,500-pound is a restartable,

thrust

Service engine

Propulsion

The SPS en g ine

non-throttleable

which uses nitrogen and unsymmetrical velocity insertion, automatic from Thrust and System for more Additional In addition umbilical the aft the The CM which and Seven one floodlight activities, used outside bulkhead; near fairing. SM manual vector (SM thrust-vector control changes transearth firing controls.

tetroxide as an oxidizer and a 50-50 mixture of hydrazine dimethylhydrazine as fuel. This engine is used for major during commands The with control the mission and from engine the the such CSM assembly spacecraft is maintained by the .) crew. as midcourse aborts. and center The about The corrections, SPS engine system lunar responds to allow by the Module three orbit to engine tumbling. stabilization Reaction axes. Control (See page 40 injection,

guidance

navigation

or to commands

is gimbal-mounted automatically Service and along

alignment alignment system RCS) comprehensive SM Systems to the of the two the systems p rovides

of mass to preclude

or manually description

for maneuvering

already several the the

described exterior S-band

the SM mounted

has communication lights. The antenna, antenna, four

antennas, antennas sides mounted on on the of the in mounted

connections, VHF top;

and

SM are and

steerable rendezvous

high-gain mounted transponder

omnidirectional

antennas, radar

on opposite

module

umbilicals and

consist

of the to the

main

plumbing (aluminum tower.

and wiring The

connections

between

the

SM enclosed pressurization, gas. are and

in a fairing launch water-gylcol,

is connected purge lights green,

covering), and latter supplies power

a flyaway oxygen and ground

umbilical nitrogen

for cabin

electrical

from

equipment,

mounted two amber)

in the aluminum are used to aid

panels

of the

fairing.

Four

(one one

red, is a

the astronauts

in docking,

which can be turned on to give astronauts visibility one is a flashing beacon used to aid in rendezvous, from 500 feet to docking with the LM.

during extravehicular and one is a spotlight

in rendezvous

2/l

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Page

25

M-932-69-09

SM/CM Separation events Module Physical transfer the and sever charges taneously fire the from until carry Command General that the CM the the

Separation of the SM separation Controllers requires control, A tenth signals The ties which tension Jettison separation of electrical and SM. send pads tension drive from the CM is controlled (SMJC) severing and fire ties of a second occurs I ocated of all firing after are shortly before reentry. bulkhead between the are three tie time, The sequence Service of the SM. the modules, distance deadfaced, tension assembly explosive Simulties of the between of

during

automatically on the the

by two forward connections

redundant

of the

SM RCS to increase connections to sever hold At the the in each in the the CM tension same

electrical devices which charges from and the SM. tubing

the SMJCs compression

ordnance straps

umbilical.

on three

on the SM. to separate through

Linear-shaped the CM the wiring

guillotines

umbilical.

with the firing of the ordnance SM RCS. Roll engines are fired of the CM, propellant and the from translation or fuel the entry is depleted away

devices, the SMJCs send signals which for five seconds to alter the SMs course (thrust) cell path power engines are fired continuously These maneuvers is expended.

the SM well Module

of the CM.

The Command communications vides three It also vessel Structure The CM (pressure pressurized sisting outer stainless insulation face consists shell) all axes life safe and permits in open for their

Module center support return some ocean.

(CM) elements to earths lateral

(Figure

11) serves crewmen

as the

command, mission

control, by the control in earth serves SM, environments

and it proand

for most

of the mission. for three surface.

Supplemented in the of attitude velocities egress, and

It is capable at high ingress and

about atmosphere. as a buoyant

lift

translation CM/LM

LM attachment,

of two and the

basic outer

structures structure is made

joined (heat

together: shield). The

the

inner

structure the

inner

structure,

crew sheet. steel

compartment, aluminum The outer the inner heat

of a welded

of aluminum sandwich construction conbonded aluminum honeycomb core and inner skin, structure is basically a heat shield and is made of brazed and outer between sheets steel is filled alloy with face a layer sheets. Parts of fibrous

brazed

honeycomb

of the area

between as additional

protection.

2/l

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Page

26

M-932-69-09

COMMAND MODULE

.v-

-x -.

C@MRlNED

TIJPJNtL

HATCH

>HIELD

SIDE WINDOW (TYPICAL 2 PLACES

NEGATIM

PITCH

c RFW COMPARTMEN HFA~SHIELD

FORWARD VIEWING (RENDEZVOUS) WINDOWS

4II t+tATSHIELD

YAW ENGINES RAND ANTENNA

POSITIVF

PITCH CNGlNES

S BAND

ANTENNA

(TYPICAL)

-Y FORWARD COMPARTMENT, LEFT H*ND FORWARD EQUIPMENT RIGHT HAND FORWARD MY

-X

-2
COMCttNED /

TUNNFL.

HAlCtt

/
CREW COMPARTMENT \

COMPARTMENT

AlTl

~-rllAlIoN

\ \ \

FT ECXJIPMENT LFFT HAND EQUIPMENT BAY

STORAGE

b*y HAND EQUIPMENT / AFT COMPARTMENi

RIGHT

AFT COMPAUTMENl

Fig.

11

M-932-69-09

Thermal The

Protection of the

(Heat CM

Shields) must be protected from the extremes of environment that

interior

will be encountered through the Boost which The it. The vided insulation by the encloses the

during Protective CM.

The heat of launch is absorbed principally a mission. Cover (BPC), a fiberglass structure covered with cork The cork is covered to the launch with a white tower reflective and coating. is jettisoned with escape

BPC is permanently

attached

between environmental

the

inner control

and

outer

shells, heat

plus

temperature the crew that CM. white and forms

control sensitive the

proouter by and then

subsystem,

protects This

equipment structure ablative material melts shield coating), Forward The heat tain light, release The

in space. is to protect heat shields conducting outer and a silver is a phenolic

task of the Th e p rincipal the crew during reentry. of varying epoxy relatively coverings: Mylar thermal thicknesses resin. This little a pore coating. heat material

shield the turns

protection

is provided The ablative hot, chars, The (white

covering

away,

has several

to the inner a moisture seal,

structure. barrier

heat reflective

Compartment compartment from the crew is the area around into the forward and (docking) covered tunnel. by the which It is forward con-

forward shield. earth and

separated

compartment (all the etc.),

by a bulkhead four

The compartment landing equipment sling, sea recovery

is divided

90-degree

segments

parachutes, recovery antennas and beacon two RCS engines, and the forward heat shield

mechanism. heat shield are CM contains attached. containing the when nuts four recessed The Launch 25,000 tower Escape feet small fittings legs are explosive System during into which the which legs of the CM forward

forward escape

launch structure the heat of the Aft

tower the

connected charges, is jettisoned.

to the

by frangible from is jettisoned

separate The deployment

tower shield

at about

return

to permit

parachutes.

Compartment compartment heat and is located shield. helium tanks around the periphery bays of the contain CM at its widest the The crushable CM-SM part, the ribs

The aft near fuel,

the aft oxidizer,

The aft

compartment for the CM

10 RCS engines;

RCS; water

tanks;

of the impact attenuation umbilical is also located

system; and a number in the aft compartment.

of instruments.

M-932-69-09

Crew The and other

Compartment crew compartment are displays and equipment has a habitable maintained for operation by the bays. by crew. volume of 210 cubic feet. The crew compartment crew two couches, five hatches, Pressurization contains and all windows,

temperature

theECS.
of the

the the and

controls a number Equipment The

spacecraft,

needed

It contains

of equipment Bays bays

equipment of the

contain named bay

items and according

needed

by the

crew needed

for up to with

14 days,

as well space-

as much

electronics

other

equipment to their

for operation reference

of the

The bays are craft. The lower equipment navigation Computer system battery tain The food electronics, (CMC), electronics charger supplies,

position

to the couches.

is the largest and contains most of the guidance and as well as the sextant and telescope, the Command Module keyboard. including power instruments, bay contains key and Most the five of the Stowage astronaut of the CM and forward unit ECS. telecommunications inverters, areas in the equipment. Space is provided and bay consubbay, batteries,

and are of the

a computer in this electrical

subsystem. other

scientific

Ibft-hand

equipment

elements

in this tunnel contains The

bay for stowing the forward hatch when the between the modules is open. The left-hand ECS equipment, equipment electrical controllers bay. The such target, and right-hand items and bay portable space as well bay power signal as survival as the water waste and equipment kits, medical harness space and suits drogue

LM are docked and the equipment bay also and system clothing controls storage. and

delivery management a variety Food bay also

right-hand

contains equipment,

equipment, sequence in this and

of electronics, is stored optical is used principally

including in a compartment for stowage equipment, the

conditioners.

forward bioinstrumentation

contains

supplies, equipment. and

LM docking The aft fecal and

equipment

is used life

for storing support the probe

helmets, and other

life

vests,

the

canister, includes

systems

(backpacks),

equipment,

for stowing

assembly.

Hatches The and are and two the CM hatches hatch, The side and are the used hatch secondary side hatch, used to and integrated seals. The for getting from the in and LM when out of the CM, and LM opens outward contains a small

forward

to transfer is a single thermal

the CM

docked. has primary

assembly which hatch normally

window, but has provisions hatch are so designed that

for installation pressure exerted

of an airlock. The latches for the side against the hatch serves only to increase

2/l

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Page

29

M-932-69-09

the which

locking

pressure which of two

of the opens nitrogen

latches. bottles

The hatch and

hatch in the

handle BPC.

mechanism

also

operates assembly

mechanism

the access

A counterbalance

consists

BPC hatch to be opened easily. In space, without the counter balance, and the piston vented after launch. A second nitrogen landing. deformation screws The the with point hatch valve the if the Windows The the CM 4), center has five and are with surface window couch. made a single coating to filter glass by a tenth windows: window two side (number each silica tenths infrared are

a piston assembly enables the hatch and the crew can operate the hatch easily cylinder can and nitrogen to open bottle the can hatch be after be used

bottle

The side hatch can readily be opened or other malfunction prevented the provided (docking) docking in the crews hatch tunnel. tool set to hold

from the outside. In case some latches from engaging, three jackthe doorclosed. and ablative of the This foil. hatch hatch hatch mounted is covered has a sixside before at

forward top

is a combined The and operated from are exterior a layer

pressure or upper of aluminum

of the latching and can so that

side

a half-inch

of insulation arrangement also the gear be opened pressure There mechanism

by a pump the outside. and fail. that provisions

handle similar to that on the It has a pressure equalization in the LM can the be equalized latches for opening

in the tunnel also should

hatch

is removed.

manually

handle

(numbers consist glass with

1 and of inner windows

5),

two and

rendezvous window panes. double

(numbers is over The inner panes,

2 and windows

a hatch

3 or center).

The

hatch outer

The windows of tempered of an inch. pane on the out seven external most

quarter-inch are thick. made

thick Each rays. point pane

separated silicon reflecting inner glass inner provided Impact During on the of the CM

The outer surface and

of amorphous-fused has an anticoating The outer shades of 31 TOOF. on the window The are

of an inch and all

a blue-red ultraviolet of 2000F.

reflective

has a softening for all Attenuation a water shape energy impact

temperature has a softening

of 28OOOF and a melting temperature

Aluminum

windows.

the CM and

deceleration the dynamics is absorbed

force of the

will CMs

vary

considerably A maior by deformation

depending portion of the

of the waves The level. impact The

descent. and

(75 to 90 percent)

by the water

structure.

to a tolerable

attenuation system impact attenuation

reduces the forces acting on the crew system is part internal and part external. (each about four inches thick The ribs are made of bonded energy that by collapsing the ribs are upon the first and impact. a

The external part consists of four crushable ribs foot in length) installed in the aft compartment. laminations The main of corrugated parachutes aluminum the CM which absorb suspend at such

an angle

2/l

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M-932-69-09

point of the module of eight struts which absorb Displays The Main energy and

that hits connect

the water. the crew steel wire

The couches rings

internal to the between

portion CM an inner

of the and

system These

consists struts piston.

structure.

by deforming Controls Console

an outer

MAIN DISPLAY CONSOLE


(Figure 12)
CRYOGENICS I SERVICE PROPULSION

Display

has been arranged to provide for the expected duties of crew members. These duties fall into the categories of Commander, Pilot, and CM occupying right Pilot couches also CM the Pilot, left, and LM The
SCS POWER PANEL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL

center,

respectively.

navigator. designed astronauts trols are

acts as the principal have been Al I controls so they can be operated by wearing predominantly switches, click-stops, push buttons. so that guarded gloves. The rotary thumbCritical they In have they conbasic of four

types: toggle switches with wheels, switches cannot addition, and are

be thrown inadvertently. some critical controls be released before

. LAUNCH VEHICLE EMERGENCY DETECTION . FLIGHT ATTITUDE . MISSION SERUENCE . VELOCITY CHANGE MONITOR

0 PROPELLANT GAUGING l ENVIRONMENT CONTROL e COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL 0 POWER OlSTRl8UTlON . CAUTION &WARNING

locks that must can be operated.

rENTRYMoNToR

Flight controls are located on the left-center and left side of the Main Display mander. such control, earth detection. navigation altitude The and CM Console, These subsystems landing, opposite include as stabilization crew safety, and is located here, as are velocity, attitude, and the controls Comfor and
COMMANDER CM PILOT LM PILOT

propulsion,

and emergency One of two guidance panels also

Fig.

12

computer indicators. Pilot faces directly warning,

the

center system

of the controls

console on the

and right

thus

can

reach

many console.

of the

flight

controls, controls caution

as well and

as the

side control cryogenic

of the

Displays

opposite him environmental

include reaction control, and

propellant storage

management, systems.

2/l

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Page

31

M-932-69-09

The

LM Pilot here, displays and lower

couch as well and

faces control,

the

right-center data storage, propulsion placed Most

and and

right fuel

side cell

of the system

console. components management.

Communiare

cations, located Other bays the

electrical

as service are

subsystem the

propellant cabin and

controls couches. bay,

throughout of the guidance

in the navigation

various

equipment is in including a simple system

on the

crew

equipment

equipment

the sextant and restraint system. are located management and are can translation located be mounted conditions System. light

telescope, The non-time-critical

at the foot is operated

of the center couch. This equipment, by an astronaut standing and using controls of the all environmental

control

in the left-hand equipment bay, while system are on a panel in the right-hand controllers on the arms at the used of two navigation spacecraft for attitude, crew couches. position

the controls of the waste equipment bay. The rotation and translation maneuvers a rotation controller bay. And

thrust vector, In addition, in the are lower

equipment

Critical Warning

of most that identifies

systems

monitored

by a Caution

A malfunction

or out-of-tolerance the abnormality.

of a status

condition results It also activates the

in illumination master alarm

circuit, which illuminates one in the lower equipment The The master Caution alarm This can And lights Warning and circuit. malfunctions. Telecommunications The telecommunications and and ranging LM, and and and radio System be done

two master alarm lights on the Main bay and sends an alarm tone to the tone before System continue the also until a crewman deal with equipment resets the crewmen contains

Display Console and astronauts headsets. the master indicated. its own alarm

problem

to sense

system between (PLSS). includes correlation subsystem frequency

(Figure

13) provides between the

voice, spacecraft

television, and wearing among earth,

telemetry, between the Portable the astronauts of the

tracking, the CM Life other (voice), in the Support

communications

the spacecraft It also provides the can central be divided of telemetry equipment,

and astronauts communications timing into and equipment four areas: equipment. antennas.

spacecraft equipment data,

for synchronization For convenience, intercommunications

telecommunications

Intercommunications The astronauts has an audio control headsets modules. spacecraft what and headsets control comes audio into control are used for all and are voice Display where connected communications. Console he will to three which send identical Each enables audio his voice. astronaut him The to three

panel

on the Main panels

his headset

center

The audio center is the assimilation The audio signals voice signals.

and distribution point for all can be routed from the center to the

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32

M-932-69-09

TELECOMMUN IONS SYSTEM I CAT


VHF ANTENNA Y 131

UP-DAIA

d
VHF BCN

PREMOOUlATlCt4 PROCESSOR UP VOICE RELAY

.Fig. appropriate checkout), Two methods transmitter the recovery or receiver, forces transmission and the S-band and earth for the Launch Control tape are and with and not 14. the phases possible, Center recorders. The VHF/AM The VHF/AM Space Flight The S-band of a mission. of audio Net(for 13

pre-launch

intercom, and

or voice reception

of voice is.used launch, is used

possible: receiver. Manned of a mission. phases CSM

transmitter-receiver equipment work When signals range Data The status spacecraft and during equipment can

transmitter

for voice ascent, during with on tape is depicted

communications near-earth are later both near-earth

deep-space a limited The

communications be stored capability

number

transmission.

communication

in Figure

structure

performance.

and subsystems contain Biomedical, TV, and

sensors which gather data on their timing data also are gathered.

These various forms of data are assimilated into the data system, processed, and Some data from the operational systems, and some then transmitted to the ground. voice communications, may be stored for later transmission or for recovery after landing. or realtime 2/l l/69 Stored data. Page 33 data can be transmitted to the ground simultaneously with voice

M-932-69-09

CSM COMMUNICATION RANGES


wcwN1 VOICE

UP-DATA BACKUP VOICE & oIIE#MY KEY

ZKMC HtGH GAIN UP-DAT, A L UP-VOICE _-. -. DNVOICE, WlMPRll

I NARRaV

BWM

NHEAR EARTH B DEEP SPACE --HIGH GAIN AMJENW OPERATIONAL IMa,

,j i
do !X la r 210

,l

.4

4.6

80

ZaO

30.0

RAhCE FRWA FARMS

SURFACE IN NAUTICAL MILES IMWSANDS,

.Radio The data, Freauencv radio and frequency ranging consists (primary (for Eauipment equipment and tracking is the means information transceivers transponders (in one and the by which are

Fig.

14

voice

information, and received.

telemetry The S-band primary an X-band

transmitted

equipment equipment and transponder

of two VHF/AM and secondary power radar),

in one unit, the unified and an FM transmitter), unit), a VHF beacon, premodulation the processor. CM and astronauts, between and from from from the the information the

secondary

S-band

amplifiers

rendezvous

The equipment provides for voice transfer between the CM and LM, between the CM and extravehicular CM and recovery from the forces. LM and and ground, Telemetry and then can then ground, astronauts pseudo-random CM and five the and back to the CM

ground, between and between the and of to the CM the extravehicular consists ground LM to the

be transferred to the ground, Ranging signals signals radar ranging

the CM

to the CM noise to the

to the ground. and of X-band

double-Doppler

back to the LM. The VHF beacon seconds for line-of-sight direction CM after landing.

equipment emits a 2-second signal every finding to aid recovery forces in locating

2/l , ..-.--

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Page

34

I_____---

M-932-69-09

Antennas There are nine CSM, radar antennas antenna (Figure the is which

LOCATION
TWO SCIMITAR VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL A.NTENNAS (160 DEGREES APARTI

OF ANTENNAS
FOUR SBANO OMNlOlRECTlONAL ANTENNAS ,j

15) on the rendezvous

not counting

an integral part radar transponder. can VHF, beacon. (called shape) are the SM. are be divided S-band, The scimitars

of the rendezvous These antennas into four VHF because groups: and antennas of their and apart S-band at the
STEERABLE S.BAN; HIGH-GAIN ANTENNA

recovery, two

omnidirectional 180 degrees are five one mounted There

mounted

on

antennas,

bottom of the SM and four located 90 degrees apart around the CM. The S-band used parallel After the for deep to the CSM reflectors high-gain space surrounding separates line. ranges antenna are mounted The and antennas, communications, an 1 l-inch nozzle from four the

Fig. is composed square so that SLA reflector. it fits within the antenna surface-mounted The backup. be steered communications. the surface of the of four At the 31-inch spacecraft

15

diameter it is folded at a right down angle to LM adapter.

launch

SPS engine

is deployed S-band high-gain a gimbal The CM four are and

the SM center at near-earth after the CSM/SLA CM principal

smaller

separation. flush

deep-space It can with

antennas are used antenna is deployable system S-band used and antennas for S-band is the on

through

for deep-space

communications in deep space. partment parachutes beacon. Environmental The three includes atmosphere, Environmental astronauts and a pressurized of the deploy.

during near-earth phases of the The two VHF recovery antennas CM, and One

mission, as well as for a backup are located in the forward comafter the main to the VHF recovery

are deployed automatically shortly of these antennas also is connected

Control

System System 14 days. (five circuit temperature suit (ECS) pounds provides per a controlled conditions, square inch), this environment environment oxygen The phases and system for a loo-percent fahrenheit. mission for

Control for up to a cabin cabin

For normal

of 70 to 75 degrees for use during critical

provides a pressurized emergencies.

2/l

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Page

35

M-932-69-09

The odors

ECS provides from the CM

oxygen cabin,

and

hot and

cold

water,

removes

carbon and

dioxide

and excessive

provides

for venting

of waste,

dissipates

heat from the cabin and from operating electronic equipment. that a minimum amount of crew time is needed for its normal unit carbon control contains dioxide panels the coolant control panel, water chiller, two odor-absorber canisters, The oxygen surge tank, for oxygen and with provide management and to hatch environmental opening. is 60 percent hazard. be changed maintains The pressure oxygen mixed and to pure and oxygen replenishes 40 percent after water three the

It is designed so operation. The main water-glycol evaporators, and and

compressors.

suit heat exchanger, water separator, water glycol pump package and reservoir, are adjacent elements: and functions to the unit. water, with and other coolant systems.

The system (water-91 These control, suit also and The circuit, is part cooling CM three

is concerned ycol). elements water water, of the prior

maior maior

oxygen, of spacecraft

Al I th ree are

interrelated through control

intermingled

atmosphere,

thermal pressure ventilation,

and

water-glycol.

four major subsystems: oxygen, A fifth subsystem, post-landing system, providing outside air

for breathing

cabin pad will control

atmosphere fire gradually system

nitrogen

on the

launch equipment mental During oxygen This vents oxygen Spacecraft loops.

to reduce

atmosphere

supplied launch the cabin

by ground as the environatmosphere. supplies and suit The pure leakage. preexcess which

pre-launch at a flow results cabin gases suit

and initial rate slightly being entering from circuit and

the suit circuit orbital operation, more than is needed for breathing pressurized and slightly the cabin. above cabin contaminating into the suit circuit.

in the suit

pressure,

in the

is vented

heating

The water-glycol,

cooling is performed initially cooled

through two water-glycol through ground equipment,

coolant is pumped

through the primary loop to cool operating electric and electronic and the cabin heat exchangers. The water-glycol the space suits, lated through a reservoir in the CM to provide a heat sink during Earth The nauts part Landing Earth and of the System System (ELS)

equipment, also is circuascent.

Landing the CM. system. control entry,

Several Operation system. about 1.5

a safe landing for the astro(F i g ure 16) provides recovery aids which are activated after splashdown are normally is automatic, timed, and activated by the automatic after functions forward can heat be backed shield up manually. the two initial

sequential For normal drogue deceleration.

All

seconds

jettison,

parachutes

are deployed At about 10,000

to orient the CM properly feet, the drogue parachutes

and to provide are released

2/l

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Page

36

M-932-69-09

ELSMAJORCOMPONENT STOWAGE
OROGUE PARACHUTE MORTAR

CTlON CONTROL NGINE PROTECTOR

WRTAA

0 RACESI I I

Fig.

16

and the The loads After

the

three

pilot section

parachutes of the CM. to limit the hang

forward main

are deployed; these pull the main parachutes The main parachutes initially open partially deceleration CM at an angle prior to full-diameter degrees deployment. to decrease of 27.5

from

(reefed)

for ten

seconds

parachutes

impact

at touchdown. splashdown the crew releases the The subsystem main parachutes and sets the recovery aid consists of an uprighting system, swimmers

subsystem umbilical mitter. recovery are position

in operation.

cable, a sea dye marker, a flashing beacon, and a VHF beacon transA sea recovery sling of steel cable is provided to lift the CM aboard a Three inflatable uprighting bags, stowed under the main parachutes, ship. for uprighting splashdown. the CM should it stabilize in an inverted floating after

available

2/l

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Page

37

M -932-69-09

The

two

VHF

recovery

antennas

are

located

in

the forward

compartment after which to provide the the emits

with the
main CM. voice paraa twoThe

parachutes. chutes. second other

automatically eight seconds Th ey are deployed One of them is connected to the beacon transmitter every five seconds the crew to aid and recovery recovery forces and forces. to the VHF/AM between Systems Control transmitter receiver

signal

in locating

is connected

communications Common Spacecraft and

Guidance The Apollo

spacecraft is guided and controlled by two interrelated systems One is the Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GNCS). (Figure 17). The other is the Stabilization and Control System (SCS). The two systems prorotational, line-of-flight, and and rate-of-speed it into information. commands They for the integrate convert spacecraft

vide

and interpret this information propulsion systems.

GUIDANCEANDCONTROL FUNCTIONALFLOW
VEHICLE DYNAYICS l---------

NAVIGATION SUSSYSTEY -

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SUGSYSTEY

I
SERVICE PROPULSION SUBSYSTEM 4

I I

1 IFT I
REACTION ENGINE ON.DFF

-_.
I VEHICLE OVNAYICS

SERVO AMPLIFIER LccFYll

i
I -

ASTNONAUT

ROTATION SREAWUT

CONTROL SWITCHES

f I ' L D,"ECTR,S w-------s

ROTATION 2

Fig.

17

2/l

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Page

38

M-932-69-09

Guidance, Guidance optical, velocity which system the and

Navigation, and and navigation

and

Control

System through three major elements; the inertial,

is accomplished

computer systems. The inertial subsystem senses any changes in the and angle of the spacecraft and relays this information to the computer transmits any necessary signals to the spacecraft engines. The optical subis used and to obtain moon. navigation It passes The the this computer and sightings information subsystem position control. and of celestial along speed bodies to ti., and, and from landmarks a number on of computer in automatic for guidance operation,

earth control

purposes.

uses information

sources to give

to determine commands and

spacecraft

for guidance Control and attitude System

Stabilization The the and Stabilization spacecrafts controls and

Control

System

(SCS) of the of the

operates maintains service in the spacecraft CM

in three the propulsion to provide attitude

ways; engine. and

it determines attitude; Both thrust the control is provided

(angular of thrust by the control

position); computer

spacecrafts automatic

the

direction used Manual

GNCS of the mainly The

SCS are

Spacecraft. through

the SCS equipment. Attitude attitude information Indicators errors, source actual and is the stable is a Gyro attitudes (FDAI) their on the main console One Inertial (GDC) with show of the which the total

Flight

Director position,

angular of total

rates platform Display

of change. of the Coupler

sources gives selected of of this about as to attitude the proper a

attitude

Measurement

Unit (IMU). Th e second reading of the spacecrafts

as compared also angles. any goes control necessary

an attitude source rotation CMC as well Then the is desired,

Information about attitude error by the crew. the IMU gimbal angles with computer reference information any the error reaction of the FDAls signals is gyro tnree on the are assembly Total to the . control the include in velocity of center tanks. the the time of thrust. and duration console. sent No. 1, which axes. attitude If a specific reaction fires in the iet information attitude engine direction

is obtained Another spacecraft to the

by comparison

senses

or orientation assembly.

iet automatically position

to return

spacecraft

to the desired The and CMC

provides data

primary into

The

flight of thrust. thrust.

crew display

pre-sets keyboard.

thrusting The sense control

spacecraft

computer

by means

of the

forthcoming the amount is required in service actuators may is also originate

commands of change because propulsion which in either

Accelerometers Thrust direction

obtained

by the

of gravity shifts caused by depletion This control is accomplished through gimbaled guidance controls. SPS engine. and navigation Automatic subsystem

of propellants electromechanical commands SCS. There

position

control or the

provision

for manual

2/l

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Page

39

M-932-69-09

Reaction The

Control

Systems Module and

(RCS) the Service Module each has its own independent

Command the

system,

CM

RCS and

the SM

RCS respectively.

RCS qua& mounted around the SM 90 degrees two fuel and two oxidizer tanks, and a helium pressurization sphere. thrust engines, The SM RCS provides redundant spacecraft attitude control through cross-coupling logic dent after entry. SM inputs from can the Stabilization be made with and the Guidance SM RCS. Systems. The CM Small velocity of two change maneuvers also RCS consists

The SM RCS has four identical Each quad has four 100-pound apart.

indepen-

subsystems separation The other RCS are

of six 94-pound thrust engines each. from the SM; one is used for spacecraft serves in standby hydrazine These combined without as a backup. fuel and are need nitrogen hypergolic,

Both subsystems are activated attitude control during for both oxidizer they i.e., CM burn and tetroxide with

Propellants

monomethyl

helium pressurization. spontaneously when Electrical The Electrical and spacecraft is the fuel Power

propellants

for an igniter.

System System power the (EPS) provides electrical and The cells. Each two energy sources, power distribution water to

Power control,

generation to the

conversion mission. fuel in the SM. and of the

throughout as a by-product cells also power oxide provide

conditioning, and power EPS also furnishes drinking The cell primary consists source The

.-

the

astronauts

of electrical gas used

power storage in the Three after CM a full

mounted located plants,

of a hydrogen cryogenic

compartment, system, fuel cell

an oxygen

compartment,

electrodes.

in the SM, supplies the hydrogen and oxygen as well as the oxygen used in the ECS. batteries for sequence power demand. A battery charger supply power to the CM during

silver-zinc landing, lower periods equipment prior

storage power

entry

and

ccl Is during charge

of peak bay. to entry.

controllers, and These batteries is located

supplement the fuel are located in the same bay to assure

in the

Two other silver-zinc from the rest of the devices separation, for CM/SM launch

oxide batteries, dc power system, separation, escape system tower

independent of and completely isolated are used to supply power for explosive deployment separation, and and separation, pyrotechnic third-stage uses. other

parachute

2/l

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Page

40

M-932-69-09

Emergency

Detection

System System (EDS) monitors critical conditions of launch

The Emergency vehicle main visions tower manding included ing to lift-off powered display

Detection flight. console

Emergency conditions are displayed to the crew on the to indicate a necessity for abort. The system includes profor a crew-initiated abort with the use of the LES or with the SPS after The crew the planned can initiate an abort separation from the LV from prior until separation time. A capability also exists for comfrom the S-II stage when necessary. Also for an automatic abort in case of the follow-

jettison.

early staging in the system

of the S-IVB are provisions

time-critical 1.

conditions: on two or more engines in any on the first stage of the yaw, LV. planes.

Loss of thrust Excessive

2. 3.
The abort EDS will are signals

vehicle

angular continuity initiate

rates from an abort rates events

of the pitch,

or roll

Loss of hotwire automatically out are or when sent to the

SM to IU. signal are when two or more in the which Console below Sep extinguish is illuminated first-stage IU. provide pre-specified light will at secondif an abort The the initiates

engines the abort

LV excessive master lights

sensed Main

by gyros Display

sequence

controller,

sequence.

The engine

on the

following infbrmation to the crew: ignition, thrust level, and physical stage separation. illuminate plane at second-stage first-plane separation. A high-intensity, red

cutoff, engine A yellow S-II

separation ABORT

and will
light

is requested by the Launch Control Center for a pad abort or an abort during liftThe ABORT light can also be illuminated after lift-off by off via updata link. the Range Safety Officer or by the Mission Control Center via the updata link from the Manned Space Flight Network. Launch Escape I Escape and the System ordnance. pad an abort, manually LV during During CM orientation (LES) (Figure The 18) includes aborts the LES structure, means completion earth jettison The canards, of separating of second return or System

Genera The rocket the stage abort CM

Launch motors, from ignition.

LES provides the

an immediate up through the CM.

or suborbital before jettisoning

LES must provide from

a satisfactory

trajectory can

and

be initiated

or automatically.

2/l

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Page

41

M-932-69-09

Assembly The forward propellant Q-ball 500-pound that pletely vents, and near plane to the covers explosive or rocket rocket which tower the bolts. section and of the a ballast system is cylindrical topped and houses three cone solidand The skirt of comengines, and

motors measures is made rocket A Boost

compartment

by a nose

attitude and flight dynamics of the space vehicle. of titanium tubes attached at the top to a structural nozzles and Cover at the (BPC) ports protects launch the shield bottom for the the CM to the CM CM reaction the by means tower rocket control Protective is attached to the from

exhaust

It has 12 blowout covers the CM. and an 8-inch window. This cover also the from forward the and heat end generated away the during when heat tower during is carried

exhaust attached mounted

vehicle

boost. tumble the

It remains Two canards CM

LES is jettisoned. is forward.

of the assembly so that

aerodynamically

in the pitch

an abort

LAUNCHESCAPE SYSTEM
NOSE CONE 6 0 MALL P!TCH CONTROL MOTOR TOWER JETTISON MOTOR,

LAUNCH ESCAPE WTOR,

POWER SYSTEMS h INSTRUMENTATION

WlRE HARNESS

LAUNCH ESCAPE TOWER

BOOS7

ELECTRICAL DISCONNECT FITTINGS

PROTECTIVE COVER IAPEX SECTION1

.-

Fig.

18

2/l

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Page

42

M-932-69-09

Prooulsion Three 1. solid propellant The Launch motors Escape are Motor used on the LES. They - thrust are: for CM aborr. It weighs for

which

providr pounds

4700 pounds approximate1 2. The Pitch and

and provides 147,000 y eight seconds. Motor during 2400 Motor, which pad pounds which

of thrust

at sea level

Control Ocean provides Jettison

provides of thrust is used

an initial for half to jettison

pitch abort.

maneuver It weighs

toward 50

the Atlantic pounds 3. The

or low-altiiude

a second. the LES, provides

Tower

3 1,500 System Operation

pounds

of thrust

for one second.

The system first son altitude. after ignition is cut and the the off

is activated

automatically

by the emergency at any 295,000 at about After the

detection time from the feet,

system pad

in the to jetti-

100 seconds

or manually

by the astronauts

The system is jettisoned of the second stage. 30 seconds escape motor canards motor (used are of flight), only

or about signal, charges motor lifts

30 seconds the booster are fired, the path CM and off to Three

(after launch control Two

receiving CM-SM The launch altitudes)

an abort separation escape directs an abort

the pitch side.

is ignited. at low deployed

the flight

11 seconds

after

is initiated.

seconds later on high-altitude motor jectory. system safely. replaced During events the Jettison Lunar Module General The CSM, The Lunar

on extreme aborts, These is started. Four-tenths is activated All by crew a successful timer Motor and the preceeding action. and

low-altitude aborts, or at approximately 24,000 feet the tower separation devices are fired and the jettison actions carry the LES away from the CMs landing tmafter tower jettisoning, of operations can the CMs earth the CM landing down or begins automatic its sequence sequences to bring

of a second

be prevented,

interrupted,

launch S-II the

the Sep System

LES is jettisoned light as cues. abort Motor Escape automatic

by the astronauts, The jettisoning jettison circuits. may

using

the digital

Emergency

Detection failure,

of the LES disables In the event of Tower the LES.

Launch

Module orbit,

(LM)

I (Fg ure lunar

19) is designed surface and such

to transport return them

two

men

safely telemetry,

from CSM.

the

in lunar LM provides

to the

to the orbiting

operational

capabilities

as communications,

2/l

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Page

43

M-932-69-09

LUNAR MODULE
S-BAND STEERABLE ANTENNA DOCKING WINDOW ASCENT STAGE

OVERHEAD HATCH /~J~K2;

RENDEZVOUS RADAR ANTENNA

S-BAND IN-FLIGHT

RCS THRUST CHAMBER ASSEMBLY CLUSTER \ (2

VHF SCIMITA DFI ANTENNA

EGkESS PLATFORM

DESCENT- ENGINE SKIRT

DESCENT STAGE

LAN-DING RADAR ANTENNA w

Fig. 2/l l/69 Page 44

19

M-932-69-09

environmental and istics The Stage stages lunar Ascent the are Lunar (DS). and return shown

support, of surface in Figure

the

transport with 20. of two attached separate

of scientific the crew

equipment to the CSM.

to the

lunar

surface, character-

samples

Physical

Module

consists are until

stages;

the Ascent fittings subsystem Stage

Stage

(AS),

and bolts.

the

Descent Separable both LM The

The stages hardline unit

at four provide Ascent after

by explosive continuity the CSM, operation from

umbilicals is designed stay

connections for 48 hours

to operate with

as a single time

is desired.

to operate

separation

a maximum

of 44 hours.

Staae two three comprises component cluster front astronauts and is the control main sections consisting of the pressurized cabins parts of the structure and aluminum and across the structure. the cabin antenna alloy and con-

The Ascent Stage (AS) (Figure 21) accommodates center of the LM. The stage structure provides a crew compartment and mid-section, the unpressurized aft equipment bay. sists of the The tion. crew cylindrical Large compartment Thrust Chamber crew structural Assembly extend compartment beams which Other (TCA) up the

supports, face

supports. construc-

is of semi-monocoque,

top of the The structural assembly.

concept utilizes The cabin volume The entire at least consists sheet, sulation provided. The flight supports Alignment are for for provided EVA the exit transfer Stage station and Sight for and Ascent

to distribute loads applied to the cabin bulkheads, and trusses to cradle beams, is approximately Stage structure 235 cubic is enveloped feet. by a vented The thermal nickel foil, nominally H-film,

blanket

shield

suspended

two inches from of multiple-layer and, in certain +350 against

the main structure. aluminized mylar, areas, H-film. F temperatures; with

and micrometeoroid shield inconel mesh, inconel provides thermal inis up to +lOOOF

The shield

protection

area (COAS), ingress entry. of crew is the

restraints,

has two front an Alignment data and and files, egress. equipment of all

windows, Optical

a docking Telescope

window, (AOT),

window Crewman

shades, Optical

and control and The inward-opening hatch internally LM systems. have seals

display panels. Two hatches forward hatch is used tunnel docked Life their which CSM is used and LM. the

The overhead

the docking between Two been

The Ascent Systems are

nucleus

Portable made for

Support replenishExtra

stowed

in the

LM and

provisions

ment: Stowage is provided Vehicular Gloves, Lunar

for docking equipment, Extra Overshoes, and crew provisions

Vehicular in general.

Visors,

2/l

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Page

45

M-932-69-09

LM PHYSICALCHARACTERISTICS
TOTAL WEIGHT (Propellant WEIGHT (Less ASCENT STAGE WEIGHT (Less Prop) Prop '1 & Crew) 32,025 9,336 LB. LB.

5,070 LB.
4,137 LB.

TANKED PROPELLANT (APS) TANKED PROPELLANT (RCS) DESCENT STAGE WEIGHT (Less Prop)

608 ,LB.

4.260 LB.
17.944 LB.

TANKED PROPELLANT (DPS)

[ 19 10.65

23'1"

4 FWD

Fig. 20 2/H/69 Page 46

--

M-932-69-09

LM ASCENT STAGE

KEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. II. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 16. 19. 20. Abort sensor assembly Alignment optical telescope Inertial measurement unit Pulse torque assembly Cabin dump and relief valve (upper hatch) CSM/LM electrical umbilical fairing Aft equipment bay bulkhead Water tank Rendezvous radar electronics assembly Propellant quantity gaging system control unit Caution and warning electronics assembly Electrical control assembly Attitude and translation control assembly S-band power amplifier and diplexer S-band transceiver Abort electronic assembly Signal processor assembly VHF transceiver and diplexer lnverter Batteries Signal-conditioning and electronic replaceable assembly No. 2 22. Pulse-code-modulation and timing equipment assembly 23. Signal-conditioning and electronic replaceable assembly 24. RCS quadrant 2 25. Gaseous oxygen tank 26. Helium tank 27. RCS fuel tank 28. APS fuel tank 29. RCS helium tank 30. RCS tank module 3 I. Helium pressurization module 32. Oxidizer service panel 33. RCS oxidizer tank 34. RCS quadrant 1 35. lighting control assembly 36. Auxiliary switching relay box 37. Cabin dump and relief valve (forward hatch) 30. RCS quadrant 4 21.

No. 1

Fig. 21
2/l l/69

Page 47

M-932-69-09

The Ascent Stage also provides get, tracking and orientation antennas, The Ascent separated attitude Descent The for and Staae Stage structure shape and (DS) an S-band Propulsion from the translational steerable System descent

external mounting for a CSM-active lights, two VHF antennas, two S-band antenna (APS) and about and a rendezvous radar

docking inflight

tar-

antenna.

p rovides

Stage control

for major +X axis translations when a Reaction Control System (RCS) provides and along three

axes.

Descent major

(Fg ure 22) I of the of four shielding heat shielding

is the unmanned to deorbit structural is similar of nickel engine and main crossed-beams

portion land whose

of the on the ends

LM. define

It provides surface. the alloy. Stage and

velocity

changes consists of the stage.

LM

lunar

The basic octagon Thermal but with Fiberfrax

The major

material to that foil, heat

is aluminum Fibrocel,

micrometeoroid base the stage

used on the Ascent


H-film,

additional protecting

base from

radiation.

LM DESCENTSTAGE
DESCENT STRUCTURAL
SURSYSTEM OUADRANT 1 ENGINE THERMAL AND FORWARD INTERSTAGE FITTING

OXiDIZEI

TANK

QUADRANT

( I

I I

YI
i+,

GUADRANT

WATER

TANK

_-..--EXPLOSIVE SURSYSTLMS RATTERIES LOCATION OXYGEN TANK QUADRANT 3

OUTRIGGER

(8 E*)

OXIDIZER

TANK

LANDING GEAR LOCK ASSEMBLY

SUPERCRITICAL HELIUM TANK

NEUUM
GIMBAL RING

TANK

LANDING PRIMARY

GEAR STRUT

LANDING GEAR FOOTPAD

LANDING SECONDARY

GEAR STRUT

LANDING GEAR TRUSS ASSEMUY

Dfsct ENOINE

NT SKIRT

Fig. 2/l l/69 Page 48

22

M-932-69-09

The the and The

Descent Descent Stage will

Stage Stage

has four which any trusses nozzle

landing

gear

to absorb pad surface against is designed lunar struts

landing

shock

and

to support The

must serve extension influence of the also provide

as a launch

for the Ascent to collapse stability. crushable attachment

Stage.

Descent is achieved

engine

up to 28 inches Impact aluminum points (SLA). to the attenuation honeycomb. A ladder, lunar surface for securing

not have gear

on LM main the

by compression

landing

structural

the LM to the lower (fixed) portion of the Spacecraft LM Adapter integral to a primary landing gear start, provides access from and from the ten-foot high forward hatch platform. The Descent for Stage landing the for an erectable required the contains radar, Protable S-band lunar the Life Descent Support phase Propulsion for the Systems, of the System System a Landing system are Guidance (GNKS) lunar landing Radar designated Subsystem provides System (DPS)

as well

as electrical six equip-

batteries, batteries ment, not

supplements antenna, ascent and

Environmental a storage and mission.

Control System, area for scientific generally, LM

pyrotechnics,

components

Guidance, The Guidance,

Navigation, Navigation, and control

Control and

Control and

vehicle The Guidance and the in navigation.

guidance, GNKS and Control

navigation, utilizes The major Navigation Electronics The GNKS the

required Radar of the (CES). and (PGNS), (RR),

for a manned

mission. Primary (AGS),

a Rendezvous subsystems Subsystem Subsystem

(LR) to aid

GN&CS Abort

has a primary Primary

alternate and

system

path.

The

primary Control

guidance Electronics

path Sub-

comprises system, alternate Subsystem, gation, ation and

Guidance

Navigation

Subsystem,

Landing system and and and

Radar, Rendezvous Radar, and the selected propulsion path comprises the Abort Guidance Subsystem, Control the selected System propulsion (PGNCS) system. The term Primary

system. The Electronics NavidocumentNavigation,

Guidance,

Control System. Guidance

connotes

use of systems

app ears in certain technical mission in the primary path of the LM Guidance,

Control Primary

and

Navigation

Subsystem Subsystem (PGNS) Measurement Unit, establishes an inertial uses optics and radar

The Primary Guidance reference for guidance for navigation, and generation sense incremental taneous the Optical conditions The Telescope, vehicle.

and Navigation with an Inertial

and a digital LM Guidance Computer of flight control signals. The inertial changes of velocity and attitude. against reference stars, software for the horizons, programs inertial and the generates system computer.

(LGC) for data processing ly stabilized accelerometers Comparison of sensed instancorrections using PGNS, The used the to control Alignment is aligned

in conjunction fully

with the CES, engine thrust, automatic 2/l l/69

controls LM attitude, and thrust vector.

ascent or descent engine firing, descent Control under the PGNS mode ranges from

to manual.

M-932-69-09

Abort The

Guidance Abort

Subsystem Subsystem (AGS) provides an independent backup for the

Guidance

PGNS. The section The AGS is capable sequence with the accomplish and control AGS respect Abort differs Sensor CSM or can

is not utilized of determining place display the

during aborts unless trajectories required vehicle in a safe to be acted upon

the PGNS has failed. for a coelliptic rendezvous parking/rendezvous by the astronauts orbit to

to automatically rendezvous. in conjunction from the vehicle Assembly Electronics

conditions

The activated AGS performs with the Control Electronics in that than its inertial on a stabilized attitude which (AEA) sensors and rather (ASA)

LM navigation, guidance, Subsystem (CES). The are rigidly mounted mode, supplies computer. and digital with the data In this

PGNS

to the

platform. acceleration is a high-speed

measures

to the Abort Control The and on/off Descent Rendezvous The and

Assembly

Electronics Electronics three engine axes thrust

Subsystem Subsystem by processing vector is also (CES) control controls from engines, LM attitude the ascent by the PGNS engine, CES. and translation and or descent about routing engine.

Control along

commands controlled

or AGS

commands

to 16 reaction

Radar Radar data for transmitted mode. Assembly from cabin and (RR) tracks rendezvous energy During (AEA) monitored AGS through the CSM to provide The relative transponder radar are line of sight, in the CSM and the LGC the Abort range

Rendezvous range rate the PGNS crew Network Radar

and

docking.

augments minimizing in the by the Flight Landing The Electronics

power

requirements.

of the RR thus increasing Radar data is automatically operation, the Radar Data data data inputs

capabilities entered into into

entered

displays.

Entry and Display Assembly (DEDA) is telemetered to the Manned Space

for gross

inaccuracies.

Landing descent

Radar

provides lunar

the 25,000

LGC feet

with Slant and

slant range

range data

and below

velocity

data below

for

control

of the altitudes feet. Main Main

to the

surface.

is available

lunar 18,000

of approximately

velocity

approximately

Propulsion Propulsion is provided by the Descent Propulsion System (DPS) and the Ascent

Propulsion System (APS). Each system is wholly independent of the other. The DPS provides the thrust to control descent to the lunar surface. The APS can

2/l

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Page

50

M -932-69-09

provide APS any the the point cause

the

thrust

for ascent place on how descent

from the LM

the into

lunar The

surface. choice

In case trajectory has been Stage. of engine

of mission with operating, Both

abort, the CSM and

the from on on systems and Gaseous at

and/or

DPS can in the for abort, hypergolic Di-Methyl

a rendezvous engine Descent fuel oxidizer state and

trajectory. long remaining propellants. Hydrazine propellant in the

to be used depends propulsion of Hydrazine Tetroxide. in the it is gaseous

the descent in the The and feed the

quantity

of propellant

use identical Unsymetrical Helium cryogenic ambient Ullage vided able 6300

is a 50-50 Helium

mixture storage

is Nitrogen in the APS

pressurizes temperatures. for propellant by the and pounds.

the

systems.

DPS is at

temperatures

super-critical

settling reaction The positions

is required engines. engine can

+X axis Throttle

prior to descent engine start and is proThe descent engine is gimbaled, throttlebe throttled from 10.50 pounds of thrust to thrust Gimbal and

restartable.

to reduce combustion chamber trim of the engine compensates is automatically and on/off capability ride The from similar propellant other pounds bulk may, ascent the on/off control but of engine at any engine lunar to those for fuel. of which are temperature time and the and for operation accomplished is available

above this value automatically produce full Nominal full thrust is 9870 pounds. erosion. for a changing center of gravity of the vehicle by either in the the PGNS throttle PGNS mode control or AGS. of operation. capability. Automatic Manual throttle The AGS

commands control overLGC. 3500 Stage are the

has no automatic

firing functions has been provided. command more thrust than the time, is a fixed., non-throttleable to abort place for the in two tank are 50F the lunar it in the desired descent engine. titanium of 36 cubic Oxidizer prior spherical unusable. and life 90F engine. descent lunar tanks,

Manual thrust level commanded The orbit. one for engine Control Propulsion oxidizer

control by the

develops the Ascent modes and

pounds

of thrust,

sufficient surface described Each unusable. between and

or to launch

The Ascent feet. weight

System

is contained

has a volume The APS

71 pounds

Total fuel weight is 2008 is 3170 pounds of which must have a propellant 460 seconds not exceed

92 pounds of burn

has a limit of 24 hours

of 35 starts, to start, after

must

has a system main propulsion lines use.

pressurization. isolation deterioration time valves is limited in presbut

In general, surization Once adequate Reaction The LM

systems to prevent

use pyrotechnic corrosive operating

propellant its designed System

of components.

the APS

or DPS is activated,

its reliable

Control

Reaction attitude

Control helps and

System to maintain

(RCS) the about

stabilizes desired or along

the trajectory three

LM, axes

provides during during

ullage descent, hover.

thrust

for the

DPS or APS,

translation

and controls Sixteen engines

2/l

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Page

51

M -932-69-09

termed two Each ments, operation. increased

Thrust

Chamber around operating The the parallel

Assemblies the LM Ascent systems alone, can

(TCAs) Stage (A&B) perform

of 100 pounds in clusters controlling all required is slightly two

thrust TCAs attitude

each The

are

mounted cluster. requiresystem for can TCA

symmetrically independent, system, however

of four.

RCS contains

in each control under

translational independent RCS system. feed under

performance propellant The by manual

degraded

single

operational expulsion

dependability. zero-g

systems have a crossfeed capability During APS thrusting, APS propellant tanks utilize bladders to achieve gravity switches. by the Control Electronics Section conditions. Malfunctioning

supplement positive pairs The GNKS modes. and second Thirty-two ranging Propellant 194.9 usable. In order firing tures from pounds can

propellant

be deactivated firing

RCS TCA

is accomplished to manual of operation The TCAs state are operation. to heat are system (50-59

of the

in response RCS modes override. up to steady heaters 132F usable; capacity manual

commands or signals generated in the PGNS or AGS automatic; attitude hold (semi-automatic); are: firing time ranges from a pulse of less than one

used

the

16 TCAs. to safe RCS is: and UDMH)

TCA and oxidizer

temperature proper TCA (N204) pounds,

requirements operation. 207.5 99.1 pounds, pounds

to 154F of each Fuel

important of the N2H,

106.5

to ensure with

reliable firing

RCS operation, times

firing

time

for each

TCA

must

not

exceed

500 seconds

times less than one between 40F and lOOoF. damage I Power to descent System Power System

exceeding one second, and RCS operation requires second. Firing stage time of vertically or the ascent insulation

1000 seconds of pulses with propellant tank temperamounted stage thrusters antennas. is limited

to prevent Electrica The

Electrical

(EPS) contains

six

batteries

which

supply

the

electrical

power requirements of the LM during undecked mission phases. Four batteries are located in the Descent Stage (DS) and two in the Ascent Stage (AS). Batteries for the Explosive Devices System are not included in this system description. Postlaunch While During batteries lunar just LM power docked, is supplied by the DS batteries until the LM and CSM are docked. the CSM supplies electrical power to the LM up to 296 watts (peak). the two AS batteries are paralleled with the DS the lunar descent phase, for additional power assurance. The DS batteries are utilized for LM operations ascent for load, provided. phase and checkout. All and failure. The AS batteries batteries and busses isolation Several are may and brought on the line staging. be individually combination

surface before are

monitored modes

voltage,

2/l

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Page

52

M -932-69-09

Two buses: The

Inverters, LM

each Pilots

capable supply.

of supplying Electrical Commanders oxide

full power dc bus,

load,

convert

the

dc to ac for following

115-volt,

400-hertz

dc bus, Stage states

is distributed by the and ac buses A&B. are identical and

four

Descent at various

silver-zinc at 28 volts. of charge/load The Cross-tie regardless batteries

batteries

have

a 400

ampere-hour voltage

capacity

Because the levels, voltage

batteries do not have a constant high and low voltage taps tap is selected to initiate use of an even disThe two silverhave a 296 in connected the AS taps. current relays

are provided for selection. a fully charged battery. charge zinc parallel batteries Nominal for battery cold of the batteries oxide for Ascent capacity even do not have voltage failure rail Stage

low

circuits in the busses facilitate of distribution combinations. are The require identical of design high to each are low volts. designed load and other AS batteries normally

and

ampere-hour

at 28 volts. Because do not and

discharge.

characteristics, voltage Reverse into the

for AS and are one

DS batteries

is 30.0

of many

components

EPS to enhance

EPS reliability. System hours watt

Cooling of the batteries is provided by the Environmental Control heat sinks. Availabl e ascent electrical energy is 17.8 kilowatt at a maximum drain of 50 amps per battery and descent energy is 46.9 kiloat a maximum I Contro drain of 25 amps per battery.

hours

E nvi ronmenta The

I System System is four temperature for drinking, and and two water a larger (ECS) while cabin provides the LM a habitable is separated and electronic environment from the for two CSM. cycles. equipment, food Stage. Stage. an Oxygen

Environmental in this and larger provides Two oxygen

Control capability the water oxygen tank

astronauts Included The stores One The

for a maximum controls

of 48 hours

decompression/re-pressurization of electrical cooling, tanks tank fire extingusihing, and are located in the Ascent is located in the Descent (ARS),

ECS also

preparation.

water

ECS is comprised and Cabin

of an Atmosphere Pressure Control

Revitalization (OSCPCS),

Subsystem a Water

Supply

Subsystem

Management

Subsystem (WMS), a Heat Transport supply to the Portable Life Support the Pressure Garment Assemblies, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, excess moisture.

Subsystem (HTS), and an oxygen and water System (PLSS). The ARS cools and ventilates controls removes oxygen odors, temperature, particles, and noxious the level of gases, and

2/l

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Page

53

M -932-69-09

Oxygen The

Supply

and

Cabin and

Pressure Cabin

Control

Subsystem Subsystem pressure metabolic Stage and phases (OSCPCS) stores oxygen to and cabin oxygen mission. during

Oxygen

Supply

Pressure

Control

gaseous oxygen the ARS. This or suit the stage Water The fire tank; also and tanks. leakage. and used are descent

and maintains cabin and suit replenishes losses due to crew The during oxygen the tank phases ascent in the of the and lunar-stay

by supplying consumption provides the two of the

Descent mission,

in the ascent

rendezvous

Management Water and from Management

Subsystem Subsystem food of the of water to maintain tank supplies is supplies valve water DRINK (WMS) secondary from supplies for refilling coolant water the loop separators The pumping water Ascent two for drinking, PLSS cooling of the water pressure required Stage and HTS. tanks until storage food cooling, water It are staging tanks.

extinguishing, provides the

and for delivery water tanks launch

preparation;

for pressurization

ARS water the required of the water by the

to HTS sublimators in the

to ARS and

HTS sublimators. most

pressurized

before The Descent

Stage

occurs. After A self-sealing preparation. Heat Transport

staging, PLSS

delivers

for drinking

Subsystem Subsystem loop. The event loop. the The (HTS) consists of a primary coolant secondary loop serves as a backup loop that the heat. contain for the cold two secondary plates. mounted fails. loop require cabin on cold A water-glycol provides active and plates temperature thermal pressure and rails suits. primary loop and loop and solution control control, The through and for for a

The Heat secondary functions lates the and batteries, oxygen

Tmnsport coolant in the each that

primary

circu-

through

electronic

equipments through are excess

circulates equipment to remove used

batteries which

electronic is routed plates coolant The

coolant The loop. In flight, cold

separate

passages,

for equipment required for mission abort one for the primary loop and one coolant rejection sublimators loop serves both only abort equipment loops

secondary excess heat

from

coolant are vented

is achieved

primary pump check parallel to-glycol

and

secondary

which

overboard.

by the A coolant associated through the oxygen-

recirculation and relief circuits heat

assembly contains all the HTS coolant Coolant flow from the assembly valves. to the cold plates for exchanger in the ARS. the electronic

pumps and is directed and

equipment

2/l

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M -932-69-09

Communications

System

The Communications System (CS) provides the links between the LM and the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), between the LM and the CSM, and between the LM The following information is handled by the and any extravehicular astronaut. and ranging; voice; PCM telemetry (LM status); Communications System: Tracking biomedical data; computer updates; morse code; television; EVA/LM EMU data; The communications links and their functions and LM/CSM telemetry retransmission. VHF, and signal processing are listed in Figure 23. The CS includes all S-band, equipment necessary to transmit and receive voice, tracking, and ranging data, and to transmit telemetry and emergency keying.

LM COMMUNICATIONSLINKS
Link MSFN-LM-MSFN LM-MSFN LM-CSM ZSM-LM-MSFN LM-CSM MSFN-LM MSFN-LM Mode Pseudorandom noise Voice Voice Voice Low-bit-rate Voice Uplink data or uplink voice backup telemetry Band S-band s-band, VHF (optional) VHF simplex VHF and S-band VHF (one way) S-band, VHF (optional) S-band Purpose Ranging and tracking In flight communications In-flight communications

Conference (with LM as relay) Record and retransmit to earth In-flight communications

,M -MSFN iM-MSFN-CSM LM-EVA-LM EVA-LM-MSFN EVA-LM-CSM CSM-MSFNLM-EVA

Biomed-PCM Voice

telemetry

S-band S-band or VHF VHF duplex VHF, S-band VHF duplex S-band, VHF

Update LGC or voice backup for in-flight communications In-flight communications Conference (with earth as relay). EVA direct communicntion Conference (with LM xs relay) Conference (with LM as relay) Conference (via MSFNLM relay)

Voice and data Voice and data Voice and data Voice and data

Fig.

23

2/l

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Page 55

M-932-69-09

The CS antenna equipment consists of: two S-band in-flight antennas; an S-bond steerable antenna; two VHF in-flight antennas and di-plexer, and RF selector switches for S-band and VHF. The line of sight range of the VHF tmnsmitter is limited to 740 nautical miles. The LM S-band capability covers earth-lunar distances. Explosive Devices System

The Explosive Devices System (EDS) uses explosives to activate or enable various The system deploys the landing gear, enables pressurization of LM equipment. the descent, ascent, and RCS propellant tanks, venting of descent propellant tanks, There are two separate systems and separation of the Ascent and Descent Stages. in the EDS. The systems are parallel and provide completely redundant circuitry. Each system has a 37. l-volt (no load) battery, relays, time delay circuits, fuse resistors, buses and explosive cartridges. Each cartridge is Two separate cartridges are provided for each EDS function. sufficient to perform the function without the other. The EDS supports the main propulsion systems by clearing the valves isolating pressurants and propellants. Other pyrotechnic devices guillotine interstage umbilicals in addition to the System performance is indicated to the crew by instrustructural connections. The two EDS batteries use silver-zinc mentation and to the MSFN by telemetry. plates and are rated at .75 ampere-hour. Battery output/voltage status is displayed to the crew. One battery is located in the Descent Stage and one is in the Ascent Stage. Instrumentation System

The Instrumentation System (IS) monitors the LM subsystems, performs in-flight checkout, prepares LM status data for transmission to the MSFN, provides timing frequencies and correlated data for LM subsystems, and stores voice and time correlation data. During the lunar mission, the IS performs lunar surface LM checkout and provides scientific instrumentation for lunar experiments. The IS consists of system sensors, a Signal Conditioning Electronics Assembly

(SCEA), Pulse-Code-Modulation and Timing Electronics Assembly (PCMTEA), Caution and Warning Electronics Assembly (CWEA), and a Data Storage Electronics Assembly (DSEA). The CWEA provides the astronauts and MSFN with a continuous rapid check of data supplied by the SCEA for malfunction detection. The CWEA provides signals that light caution lights, warning lights, component caution lights, and Master-Alarm pushbutton lights.

2/l

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M-932-69-09 Lighting Interior lighting is designed to enhance crew performance by reducing crew fatigue in an environment of interior-exterior glare effects. Exterior lighting includes a five docking lights, and a high intensity tracking radioluminescent docking target, light. The five docking lights are automatically turned on prior to the first CSM They indicate gross relative attitude of docking and are turned off after docking. the vehicle and are color discernable to a distance of 1000 feet. The flashing, It high-intensity, tracking light on the LM facilitates CSM tracking of the LM. has a beam spread of 60 degrees and flashes 60 times per minute. Crew Provisions Appare I The combination of items a crewman wears varies during a mission (Figure 24). There are three basic configurations of dress: unsuited, suited, and extravehicular. A brief description of each item is contained in the latter part of this section. Unsuited .This mode of dress is worn by crewmen in the CSM under conditions termed The crewman wears a biomedical harness, a shirt-sleeve environment. Communications Carrier, a Constant Wear Garment, Flight Coveralls, and Booties. This unsuited mode is the most comfortable, convenient, and consequently, the least fatiguing of the modes. When unsuited, the astronaut relies upon the CSM ECS to maintain the proper cabin environment of pressure, temperature, and oxygen. Suited This mode enables a crewman to operate in an unpressurized cabin up to the The intmvehicular configuration design I ife of the pressure suit of 115 hours. includes: The Pressure Garment Assembly (PGA) made up of a Torso-Limb Suit, Pressure Helmet, and Pressure Gloves; the Fecal Containment System; Constant Wear Garment; Biomedical Belt; Communications Carrier; Urine Collection and Tmnsfer Assembly, and a PGA integrated with a thermalmicrometeoroid garment. The Command Module Pilot does not participate in any extravehicular activity, permitting substitution of a lighter, fire-resistant covering over the PGA in Various suit fittings and hardlieu of the thermal-micrometeoroid garment. ware required for LM and EVA operations are also omitted from the Command Module Pilots suit.

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APOLLO APPAREL

FECAL CONTAINMENT SYSTEM

CONSTANT URINE COLCECT!CN TRANSFER ASSEMBLV

EXTRA V EHI CUL AR VISOR ASSEMBLY /OVER

PRESSURE GARMENT ASSEMBLY WITH

H-lka
kidPRESSURE
EXTRAVEHICULAR

GAWENT ASSEMBLY & INTEGRAL THERMAL METEOROID GARMENT

E
UNSUITED

3 I 8 Y op 0 -0

SUITED

M -932-69-09

Extravehicular In the extravehicular configuration, the Constant Wear Garment is replaced by a Liquid Cooling Garment and four items are added to the Pressure Garment Assembly: Extravehicular Visor Assembly, Extmvehicular Gloves, Lunar Overshoes, and a connector cover which fits over umbilical connections on the front of the suit. The addition of the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Oxygen Purge System back-pack completes the configuration termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The EMU protects the astroand lunar surface temperatures naut from radiation, micrometeorite impact, ranging from +250F to -25OF. I tern Description Torso Limb Suit AssemblyThe Torso Limb Suit is the basic pressure envelope for the astronaut. It contains connectors for oxygen, water (for the Liquid Cooling Garment), communication, biomedical data, and urine transfer. Pressure Helmet - The Pressure Helmet is basically a polycarbonate plastic shell. It contains a vent manifold and an air-tight feed port for eating, drinking, and purging. The astronaut can turn his head within the fixed helmet. Pressure Glove - The Pressure Glove is basically made of nylon tricot dipped in Neoprene. A fingerless glove, inner and outer covers, and a restraint The Extravehicular Glove is a modified pressure system complete the assembly. glove with additional layers of thermal and protective material added. This garment is sewn over the Torso Integrated Thermal Meteoroid GarmentLimb Suit. Construction utilizes multi-layered combinations of Beta cloth, aluminized Kapton film, Beta Marquisette, Neoprene-coated nylon Ripstop, and Chromel-R. Snap-secured covers are located for inner access to some LM restraint rings PGA areas and pockets are provided for specified items. Boots are attached over the PGA with slide are integrated into the hip area. fasteners and loop tape. Lunar Overshoe - The overshoe is worn over the PGA thermal, meteoroid covered boot. The Lunar Overshoe meets the extensive, additional, thermal and protective requirement for a lunar excursion. Materials used in its conBeta cloth, Kapton film Beta Marquisette, Beta struction are: teflon-coated felt, silicon rubber and Chromel-R.

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Extravehicular Visor - The Extravehicular Visor consists of two carbonate visors mounted on a polycarbonate shell. The visors tection against micrometeoroids, solar heat and radiation, and the PGA helmet. The outer visor features a vacuum-deposited

pivoted polyfurnish proprotection of gold film.

Garment consists of a network Liquid Cooling Garment - The Liquid Cooling of Tygon tubing interwoven in nylon Spandex material. Water from the PLSS circulates through the tubing to maintain the desired suit temperature. An The integral socks do not contain inner liner is fabricated from nylon chiffon. cooling tubes. Constant Wear Garment - The Constant Wear Garment is an undergarment for It is fabricated the flight coveralls and the non-EVA spacesuit configuration. in one piece, encloses the feet, has short sleeves, a waist to neck zipper, and lower torso openings front and rear. - The flight covemll is the outer garment for unsuited Flight Coverall It is of two-piece, Beta cloth construction with zipper and pockets. operation.

covemlls are made of Beta cloth, with Booties - Booties worn with the flight Velcro hook material bonded to the soles. During weightlessness, the Velcro hook engages Velcro pile patches attached to the floor to hold the crewman in place. Communications Carrier and Biomedical Harness - The Communications Carrier is a polyurethane foam headpiece which positions two independent earphones The Biomedical Harness carries signal conditioners and conand microphones. verters to transmit heart beat and respiration rates of the astronauts. The wiring of the Biomedical Harness and Communications Carrier connect to a common electrical connector which interfaces with the PGA or an adapter when unsuited. Urine Collection and Transfer Assembly - The Urine Collection and Transfer Assembly is a truss-like garment which functions by use of a urinal cuff, storage compartment, and tube which connects to the external collection system. It is worn over the Constant Wear Garment or Liquid Cooling Garment. System (FCS) is an elastic Fecal Containment System - The Fecal Containment underwear with an absorbent liner around the buttock area. This system is worn under the LCG or CWG to allow emergency defecation when the PGA Protective ointment is used on the buttocks and perineal area is pressurized. to lessen skin irritation.

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Portable

Life

Support

System

The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is a portable, self-powered, rechargeable environmental control system with a communications capability. It is carried as a backpack in the extravehicular suited mode. It weighs about 68 pounds. The PLSS supplies pressurized oxygen to the PGA, cleans and cools the suit atmosphere, cools and circulates water through the Liquid Cooling Garment, and provides RF The PLSS can operate for up to four communications with a dual VHF transceiver. hours in a space environment before replenishment of water and,oxygen is required. The 17-volt PLSS battery can supply 280 watt-hours of electrical power to meet a nominal usage rate of 50 watts per hour. Oxygen Purge System

A detachable, non-rechargeable oxygen purge system attaches to the top of the PLSS. The system can supply 30 minutes of regulated flow to the PGA independent of the PLSS for contingency operations. The Oxygen Purge System may be removed from the PLSS and used as an emergency source of oxygen at any time. The Oxygen Purge System also serves as a mount for the PLSS antenna. Food and Water Food supplies in the LM and CSM are designed to supply each astronaut with a balanced diet of approximately 2800 calories per day. The food is either freezedried or concentrated and is carried in vacuum-packaged plastic bags. Each bag of freeze-dried food has a one-way valve through which water is inserted and a food is packaged in bitesecond valve through which food passes. Concentrated Several bags are packaged together to size units and needs no reconstitution. make one meal bag. The meal bags have red, white, and blue dots to identify them for each crewman, as well as labels to identify them by day and meal. The food is reconstituted by adding hot or cold water through the one-way valve. The astronaut kneads the bag and then cuts the neck of the bag and squeezes the food into his mouth. A Feed Port in the Pressure Helmet allows partaking of liquid food and water while suited. Food preparation water is dispensed from a unit which supplies 150F and 50F water in the CSM and 90F and 50F water in the LM. Drinking water comes from the water chiller to two outlets: the water meter disThe dispenser has an aluminum mounting unit. penser, and the food preparation bmcket, a 72-inch coiled hose, and a dispensing valve unit in the form of a buttonThe pistol barrel is placed in the mouth and the button is pushed actuated pistol. for each half-ounce of water. The meter records the amount of water drunk. A valve is provided to shut off the system in case the dispenser develops a leak or malfunction.

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Couches

and Restraints Module

Command/Service

The astronaut couches are individually adiustable units made of hollow steel tubing and covered with a heavy, fireproof, fiberglass cloth. The couches rest on a head beam and two side-stabilizer beams supported by eight attenuator strust (two each for the Y and Z axes and four for the X axis) which absorb the These couches support the crewmen during accelemtion and impact of landing. decelemtion, position the crewmen at their duty stations, and provide support for translation and rotation hand controls, lights, and other equipment. The couches can be folded or adjusted into a number of seat positions. The one used most is the 85-degree position assumed for launch, orbit entry, and landing. The 170-degree (flat-out) position is used primarily for the center couch, so that crewmen can move into the lower equipment boy. The armrests on either side of the center couch can be folded footward so the astronauts from the two outside couches can slide over easily. The hip pan of the center couch can be disconnected and the couch can be pivoted around the head beam and laid on the aft bulkhead floor of the CM. This provides both room for the astronauts to stand and easier access to the side hatch for extravehicular activity. Two armrests are attached to the back pan of the left couch and two armrests The center couch has no armrests. The are attached to the right couch. translation and rotation controls can be mounted to any of the four armrests. A support at the end of each armrest rotates 100 degrees to provide proper tilt for the controls. The couch seat pan and leg pan are formed of framing The foot pan contains a restraint and cloth, and the foot pan is all steel. device which holds the foot in place. The couch restraint harness consists of a lap belt and two shoulder straps which connect to the lap belt at the buckle. The shoulder straps connect to the shoulder beam of the couch. Other restmints in the CM include handholds, a hand bar, hand straps, and patches of Velcro which hold the crewmen when they wear booties. The astronauts may sleep in bags under the left and right couches with heads toward the hatch or in their couches. The two sleeping bags are made of lightweight Beta fabric 64 inches long, with zipper openings for the torso and a They are supported by two longitudinal 7-inch diameter opening for the neck. straps that attach to storage boxes in the lower equipment bay and to the CM inner structure. The astronauts sleep in the bags when unsuited and restmined on top of the bags when suited.

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Lunar

Module

The crew support and restraint equipment in the LM includes armrests, hand holds, Velcro on the floor to interface with the PGA Boots, and a restraint assembly operated by a rope-and-pully arrangement that holds the LM crewThe restraint assembly attaches to ID rings men in a standing position. located at the hips of the astronauts suit and holds him to the cabin floor with a force of about 30 pounds (Figure 25). The armrests restrain the crewLM crew members rest positions are shown in Figure 26. men laterally.

LM CREWMAN FLIGHTSTATION 1 LM CREWMEN AT RESTPOSITIONS

Fig. Hygiene Equipment

25

Fig.

26

Hygiene equipment includes wet and dry cloths for cleaning, towels, a toothbrush, The waste management system controls and and the waste management system. disposes of waste solids, liquids, and gases. The major portion of the system is in the right-hand equipment bay. The system stores feces, removes odors, dumps urine overboard, and removes urine from the space suit. Waste management in the LM differs in that urine is stored and not dumped overboard. Operational Aids

tools, workshelf, cameras, fire extinguishers, Operational aids include data files, and waste bags. The CM has one fire extinguisher, oxygen masks, medical supplies, located adjacent to the left-hand and lower equipment bays. The extinguisher

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weighs about eight pounds. The extinguishing agent is an aqueous gel expelled in two cubic feet of foam for approximately 30 seconds at high pressure. Fire ports are located at various panels so that the extinguishers nozzle can be inserted to put out a fire behind the panel. Oxygen masks are provided for each astronaut in case of smoke, toxic gas, or other hostile atmosphere in the cabin while the astronauts are out of their suits in the CM. Oxygen ii supplied through a flexible hose from the emergency oxygen/repressurization unit in the upper equipment bay. Medical supplies are contained in an emergency medical kit, about 7 x 5 x 5 inches, which is stored in the lower equipment bay. It contains oral drugs and stimulant, antibiotic, motion sickness, diarrhea, decongestant, pills (pain capsules, and aspirin), injectable drugs (for pain and motion sickness), bandages, topical agents (first-aid cream, sun cream, and an antibiotic ointment), and eye drops. Survival Equipment

intended for use in an emergency after earth landing, is Survival equipment, stowed in two rucksacks in the right-hand forward equipment bay. One of the rucksacks contains a three-man rubber life raft with an inflation assembly, a carbon-dioxide cylinder, a sea anchor, dye marker, and a sunbonnet for each crewman. The other rucksack contains a beacon transceiver, survival lights, desalter kits, a machete, sun glasses, water cans, and a medical kit. The survival medical kit contains the same type of supplies as the emergency medical kit: six 30 tablets, and one tube of all-purpose ointment. bandages, six injectors, Miscellaneous Equipment

Each crewman is provided a toothbrush, wet and dry cleansing cloths, ingestible toothpaste, a 64-cubic inch container for personal items, and a two-compartment which also contains three temporary storage bag. A special tool kit is provided jack screws for contingency hatch closure.

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M-932-69-09 LAUNCH GENERAL Launch Complex 39 (LC 39), I ocated at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the facility provided for the assembly, checkout, and launch of the Apollo Saturn V Space Vehicle. Assembly and checkout of the vehicle is accomplished on a Mobile Launcher in the controlled environment of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The Space Vehicle and the Mobile Launcher are then moved as a unit by the Crawler-Transporter to the launch site. The major elements of the launch complex shown in Figure 27 are the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), the Launch Control Center (LCC), the Mobile Launcher (ML), the Crawler-Transporter (C/i), the crawlerway, the Mobile Service Structure (MSS), and the launch pad. LC 39 FACILITIES Vehicle Assembly AND Building EQUIPMENT COMPLEX

The VAB provides a protected environment for receipt and checkout of the propulsion stages and IU, erection of the vehicle stages and spacecraft in a vertical position on the ML, and integrated checkout of the assembled space vehicle. The VAB, as shown in Figure 28, is a totally-enclosed structure covering eight acres of ground. It is a structural steel building approximately 525 feet high, 518 feet wide, and 716 feet long. The principal operational elements of the VAB are the low bay and high bay areas. A 92-foot wide transfer aisle extends through the length of the VAB and divides the low and high bay areas into equal segments. The low bay area provides the facilities for receiving, uncrating, checkout, and preparation of the S-II stage, S-IVB stage, and the IU. The high bay area provides the facilities for erection and checkout of the S-IC stage; mating and erection operations of the S-II stage, S-IVB stage, IU, and Spacecraft; and integrated checkout of the assembled Space Vehicle. The high bay area contains four checkout bays, each capable of accommodating a fully-assembled Apollo Saturn V Space Vehicle. Launch Control Center

The LCC, Figure 28, serves as the focal point for overall direction, control, and monitoring of space vehicle checkout and launch. The LCC is located adjacent to the VAB and at a sufficient distance from the launch pad (three miles) to permit the safe viewing of lift-off without requiring site hardening. The LCC is a four-story structure. functions. The second floor houses instrumentation and data reduction separate but similar control areas, The ground floor is devoted to service and support telemetry and tracking equipment, in addition to The third floor is divided into four facilities. each containing a firing room, a computer room,

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LAUNCHCOMPLEX 39

LAUNCH AREA B

LAUNCH AREA A

CRAWLERWAY

MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE PARK

VEHICLE ASSEMBLY B,,I,J,I,t& 3EENi-;;

Fig. Page 66

27

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-_

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VEHICLEASSEMBLYBUILDING
VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING

LAUNCH CONTROL CENTER

Fig. 2/l l/69 Page 67

28

M-932-69-09

a mission control room, a test conductor platform area, a visitor gallery, and offices. one for each high bay in the VAB, contain control, monitoring The four firing rooms, and display equipment for automatic vehicle checkout and launch. The display rooms, equipment offices, Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) rooms, and mechanical are located on the fourth floor. The power demands in this area are large and are supplied by two separate systems, industrial and instrumentation. This division between power systems is designed to protect the instrumentation power system from the adverse effects of switching transients, large cycling loads and intermittent motor starting loads. Communication and signal cable troughs extend from the LCC via the enclosed bridge to each ML location in the VA0 high bay area. Cableways also connect to the ML refurbishing area and to the Pad Terminal Connection Room (PTCR) at the launch pad. Antennas on the roof provide an RF link to the launch pads and other facilities at KSC. Mobile Launcher

The ML (Figure 29) is a transportable steel structure which, with the C/T, provides the capability to move the erected vehicle to the launch pad. The ML is divided into two functional areas, the launcher base and the umbilical tower. The launcher base is the platform on which a Saturn V vehicle is assembled in the vertical position, tmnsported to a launch site, and launched. The umbilical tower provides access to all important levels of the vehicle during assembly, checkout, and servicing. The equipment used in the servicing, checkout, and launch is installed throughout both the base and tower sections of the ML. The launcher base is a steel The upper deck, designated four hold-down arms and the through the ML base for first structure 25 feet high, 160 feet long, and 135 feet wide. in addition to the umbilical tower, the level 0, contains, three tail service masts. There is a 45foot square opening stage exhaust.

The base has provisions for attachment to the C/t, six launcher-to-ground mount mechanisms, and four extensible support columns. All electrical/mechanical interfaces between vehicle systems and the VAB or the launch site are located through OI adjacent to the base structure. The base houses such items as the computer systems test sets, digital propellant loading equipment, hydraulic test sets, propellant and pneumatic lines, air conditioning and ventilating systems, electrical power systems, and water systems. Fueling operations at the launch area require that the compartments within the structure be pressurized with a supply of uncontaminated air.

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Page 6%

MOBILELAUNCHER
GSCU FLOW CONTROL VALVE BOX

IU

PNEUMATIC CONSOLE

IU GROUND SUPPORT COOLING UNIT (2 UNITS)

S-IVB

PNEUMATIC CONSOLE "A"

ATIC CONSOLE "B"

-IVB

APS PNEUMATIC CONSOLE

S-II S-II PNEUMATIC CONSOLE S7-41A

LH2 HEAT EXCHANGER A7-71

S-II

PNEUMATIC CONSOLE S7-41B

S-IC FWD UMBILICAL SERVICE CONSOLE

S-II

PNEUMATIC CONSOLE S7-41C

Fig. 2/H/69 Page 69

29

M-932-69-09

The primary electrical power supplied to the ML is divided into four separate services: instrumentation, industrial, in-transit, and emergency. Emergency power is supplied by a diesel-driven generator located in the ground facilities. It is used for obstruction lights, emergency lighting, and for one tower elevator. Water is supplied to the ML for fire, industrial, and domestic purposes. The umbilical tower is a 380-foot high open steel structure which provides the support for eight umbilical service arms, Apollo Spacecraft access arm, 18 work and access platforms, distribution equipment for the propellant, pneumatic, electrical, and instrumentation subsystems, and other ground support equipment. Two high-speed elevators service 18 landings from level A of the base to the 340-foot tower level. The structure is topped by a 25-ton hammerhead crane. Remote control of the crane is possible from numerous locations on the ML. The four holddown arms (Figure 30) are mounted on the ML deck, 90 apart around the vehicle base. They position and hold the vehicle on the ML during the VA6 checkout, movement to the pad, and pad checkout. The vehicle base is held with a pre-loaded force of 700,000 pounds at each arm. At engine ignition, the vehicle is restrained The unlatching interval for the four arms should until proper engine thrust is achieved. If any of the separators fail to operate in 0.180 second, not exceed 0.050 second. release is effected by detonating an explosive nut link. At launch, the holddown arms but the vehicle is prevented from accelerating too rapidly by the quickly release, controlled-release mechanisms (Figure 30). Each controlled-release mechanism basically consists of a tapered pin inserted in a die which is coupled to the vehicle. Upon vehicle release, the tapered pin is drawn through the die during the first six inches of vehicle travel. There are provisions for as many as 16 mechanisms per vehicle. The precise number is determined on a mission basis. The three Tail Service Mast (TSM) assemblies (Figure 30) support service lines to the S-IC stage and provide a means for rapid retraction at vehicle lift-off. The TSM Each TSM is a counterbalanced assemblies are located on level 0 of the ML base. structure which is pneumatically/electrically controlled and hydraulically operated. Retraction of the umbilical carrier and vertical rotation of the mast is accomplished simultaneously to ensure no physical contact between the vehicle and mast. The carrier is protected by a hood which is closed by a separate hydraulic system after the mast rotates. The nine service arms provide access to the space vehicle and support the service lines that are required to sustain the vehicle, as described in Figure 31. The service arms are arms are retracted and designated as either pre-flight or in-flight arms. The pre-flight The in-flight arms retract at vehicle locked against the umbilical tower prior to lift-off. lift-off. Carrier withdrawal and arm retraction is accomplished by pneumatic and/or hydraulic systems.

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HOLDDOWNARMSITAILSERVICEMAST

TAIL SERVICE MAST 3-2-

-TAIL

SERVICE MAST 1-2

TAIL SERVICE MAST 3-4 -

HOLDDOWNARM (TYP 4 PLACES: ENGINE/HOLDDOWN ARM/TAIL SERVICE MAST ORIENTATION VEHICLE STA 113.31 DIE TAPERED PIN

BRACKET CONTROLLED RELEASE MECHANISMS

HOLDDOWNARM

TAIL SERVICE MAST

Fig. 2/H/69 Page 71

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M-932-69-09

MOBILELAUNCHER SERVICEARMS
S-IC Intertank (preflight). Provides lox Umbilical fill and drain interfaces. withdrawal by pneumatically driven compound parallel linkage device. Arm may be, Retract reconnected to vehicle from LCC. Reconnect time is aptime is 8 seconds. proximately 5 minutes. Provides pneuS-IC Forward (preflight). and air-conditioning matic, electrical, interfaces. Umbilical withdrawal by pneumatic disconnect in conjunction with pneumatically driven block and tackle/lanyard device. Secondary mechanical system. Retracted at T-20 seconds. Retract time is 8 seconds. S-II Aft (preflight). vehicle. Arm retracted as required. Provides prior to access to liftoff

4
9

Command Module Access Arm (preflight). Provides access to spacecraft through enArm may be retracvironmental chamber. ted or extended from LCC. Retracted 12" park position until T-4 minutes. Extent time is 12 seconds from this position.

Provides S-II Intermediate (inflight). LH2 and lox transfer, vent line, pneumatic, instrument cooling, electrical, and Umbilical air-conditioning interfaces. withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward with addition of a pneumatic cylinder actuated lanyard system. This system operates if primary withdrawal system fails. Retract time is 6.4 seconds (max). 5 4 S-II Forward (inflight). Provides GH2 and pneumatic interelectrical, vent, faces. Umbilical withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward. Retract time is 7.4 seconds (max). S-IVB Aft (inflight). Provides LH2 and lox transfer, electrical, pneumatic, and Umbilical air-conditioning interfaces. withdrawal systems same as S-IVB Forward. Also equipped with line handling device. Retract time is 7.7 seconds (max). 7 4 S-IVB Forward (inflight). Provides fuel tank vent, electrical, pneumatic, air-conand preflight conditioning inditioning, Umbilical withdrawal by pneuterfaces. matic disconnect in conjunction with pneumatic/hydraulic redundant dual cylinder Secondary mechanical system. Arm system. also equipped with line handling device to protect lines durin withdrawal. Retract time is 8.4 seconds 4 max). Service Module (inflight). Provides airvent line, coolant, electriconditioning, Umbilical interfaces. cal, and pneumatic withdrawal by pneumatic/mechanical lanyard system with secondary mechanical system. Retract time is 9.0 seconds (max).

Fig.

31

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Launch

Pad

The launch pad (Figure 32) provides a stable foundation for the ML during Apollo Saturn V launch and pre-launch operations and an interface to the ML for ML and There are presently two pads at LC 39 located approximately three vehicle systems. Each launch site is approximately 3000 feet across. miles from the VA6 area.

Fig.

32

reinforced concrete structure with a top elevation of The launch pad is a cellular, Located within the fill under the west side of the 42 feet above grade elevation. structure (Figure 33) is a two-story concrete building to house environmental control On the east side of the structure within the and pad terminal connection equipment. fill, is a one-story concrete building to house the high-pressure gas storage battery. staircase, and interface structures to provide service On the pad surface are elevators, to the ML and the MSS. A ramp with a five percent grade provides access from the This is used by the C/t to position the ML/Saturn V and the MSS on the crawlerway. building is located on the approach ramp in support pedesta Is. The azimuth alignment A flame trench 58 feet wide by 450 feet long bisects the the crawlerway median strip. pad. This trench opens to grade at the north end. The 700,000 pound, mobile, wedgetype flame deflector is mounted on rails in the trench.

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LAUNCHSTRUCTUREEXPLODEDVIEW

-8

10

HIGH PRESSURE GAS PTCR 2ND FLOOR EGRESS SYSTEM PTCR TUNNEL ECS TUNNEL PTCR ECS BUILDING COOLING TOWER SUBSTATION FLUSHING AND COOLING TANK

Fig.

33

The Pad Terminal Connection Room (PTCR) (Figure 33) provides the terminals for communication and data link transmission connections between the ML or MSS and the This facility also launch area facilities and between the ML or MSS and the LCC. accommodates the electronic equipment that simulates functions for checkout of the facilities during the absence of the launcher and vehicle. The Environmental Control System (ECS) room, located in the pad fill west of the pad structure and north of the PTCR (Figure 33), houses the equipment which furnishes temperature and/or humidity-controlled air or nitrogen for space vehicle cooling at the pad. The ECS room is 96 feet wide by 112 feet long and houses air and nitrogen a 3000-gallon water-glycol storage handling units, liquid chillers, air compressors, tank, and other auxiliary electrical and mechanical equipment. The high-pressure gas storage facility at the pad provides the launch vehicle with high-pressure helium and nitrogen. The launch pad interface system (Figure 34) provides mounting support pedestals and support structures for fueling, the ML and MSS, an engine access platform, pneumatic, electric power, and environmental control interfaces. for

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LAUNCHPAD INTERFACE SYSTEM


ENGINE SERVICING
ID-l1.1 I

-l
\

MOUNT MECHANISM (6 PLACES) r

PNEI JMA

Fig. Apol lo Emergency Ingress/Egress and Escape System

34

The Apollo emergency ingress/egress and escape system provides access to and from the Command Module (CM) pl us an escape route and safe quarters for the astronauts and service personnel in the event of a serious malfunction prior to launch. The system includes the CM Access Arm, two 600-feet per minute elevators from the 340foot level to level A of the ML, pad elevator No. 2, personnel carriers located adjacent to the exit of pad elevator No. 2, the escape tube, and the blast room. The CM Access Arm provides a passage for the astronauts and service personnel from the spacecraft to the 320-foot level of the tower. Egressing personnel take the highspeed elevators to level A of the ML, proceed through the elevator vestibule and corridor to pad elevator No. 2, move down this elevator to the bottom of the pad, and enter armored personnel carriers which remove them from the pad area. When the state of the emergency allows no time for retreat by motor vehicle, egressing personnel, upon reaching level A of the ML, slide down the escape tube into the blast room vestibule, commonly called the rubber room (Figure 35). Entrance to the blast room is gained through blast-proof doors controllable from either side. The blast room floor is mounted on coil springs to reduce outside acceleration forces to between 3 and 5 gs. Twenty people may be accommodated for 24 hours. Communication facilities

M -932-69-09

ELEVATOR ITUBEEGRESS SYSTEM

Fig.

35

are provided in the room, including an emergency RF link. An underground air duct from the vicinity of the blast room to the remote air intake facility permits egress from the pad structure to the pad perimeter. Provision is made to decrease air velocity in the duct to allow personnel movement through the duct. An alternate emergency egress system (Figure 36) is referred to as the Slide Wire. The system consists of a winch-tensioned cable extending from above the 320-foot level of the ML to a 30-foot tail tower on the ground approximately 2200 feet (horizontal projection) from the launcher. A nine-man, tubular-frame cab is suspended from the cable by two brake-equipped trol leys. The unmanned weight of the cab is 1200 pounds and it traverses the distance to the landing area in 40 seconds. The cab is decelerated by the increasing drag of a chain attached to a picked-up arresting cable. The occupants of the cab then take refuge in a bunker constructed adjacent to the landing area. The cable has a minimum breaking strength of 53.2 tons and is varied in tension between 18,000 and 32,000 pounds by the winch located beyond the tail tower. The lateral force exerted by the tensioned cable on the ML is negligible relative to the mass of the launcher and the rigidity of the ML tower precludes any effect on tolerances or reliability of tower mechanisms.

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SLIDEWIRElCABEGRESSSYSTEM
EGRESS STATION (443 ABOVE GROUND LEVEL)

a
I \ \

LAN>NG

AREA

WINCH Fig. 36

Fuel System Facilities The RP-1 facility consists of three 86,000-gallon steel storage tanks, a pump house, a circulating pump, a transfer pump, two filter-separators, an 8-inch stainless steel transfer line, RP-1 foam generating building, and necessary valves, piping, and controls. Two RP-1 holding ponds (Figure 32), 150 feet by 250 feet, with a water depth of two feet, are located north of the launch pad, one on each side of the north-south axis. The ponds retain spilled RP-1 and discharge water to drainage ditches. spherical storage tank, a The LHP facility (F igure 32) consists of one 850,000-gallon vaporizer/heat exchanger which is used to pressurize the storage tank to 65 psi, a vacuum-jacketed, lo-inch invar transfer line and a burn pond venting system. Internal tank pressure provides the proper flow of LH2 from the storage tank to the vehicle without using a transfer pump. Liquid hydrogen boil-off from the storage and ML areas is directed through vent-piping to bubble-capped headers submerged in the burn pond where a hot wire ignition system maintains the burning process.

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LOX

System Facility storage tank, a pumps, a drain

The LOX facility (Figure 32) consists of one 900,000-gallon spherical LOX vaporizer to pressurize the storage tank, main fill and replenish basin for venting and dumping of LOX, and two transfer lines. Azimuth Alignment Building

The azimuth alignment building (Figure 32) houses the auto-collimator theodolite which senses, by a light source, the rotational output of the stable platform in the Instrument This instrument monitors the critical inertial reference Unit of the launch vehicle. system prior to launch. Photography Facilities

These facilities support photographic camera and closed circuit television equipment to provide real-time viewing and photographic documentation coverage. There are six activities and launch camem sites in the launch pad area. These sites cover pre-launch operations from six different angles at a radial distance of approximately 1300 feet from the launch vehicle. Each site has four engineering, sequential cameras and one fixed, high-speed metric camera. Pad Water System Facilities

The pad water system facilities furnish water to the launch pad area for fire protection, cooling, and quenching. Specifically, the system furnishes water for the industrial water system, flame deflector cooling and quench, ML deck cooling and quench, ML sewage treatment plant, Firex water system, tower fogging and service arm quench, liquid propellant facilities, ML and MSS fire protection, and all fire hydrants in the pad area . Mobile Service Structure

which The MSS (F i g ure 37) provides access to those portions of the space vehicle cannot be serviced from the ML while at the launch pad. The MSS is transported to the launch site by the C/t where it is used during launch pad operations. It is removed from the pad a few hours prior to launch and returned to its parking area 7000 feet from The MSS is approximately 402 feet high and weighs 12 million the nearest launch pad. pounds. The tower structure rests on a base 135 feet by 135 feet. At the top, the tower is 87 feet by 113 feet.

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The structure contains five work platforms which provide access to the space vehicle. The outboard sections of the platforms open to accept the vehicle and close around it to provide access to the launch vehicle and spacecraft. The lower two platforms are vertically adjustable to serve different parts of the launch vehicle. The upper three platforms are fixed but can be disconnected from the tower and relocated as a unit to serve different vehicle configThe second and third platforms urations. from the top are enclosed and provide environmental control for the spocecmft. The MSS is equipped with the following systems: air conditioning, electrical power, various communication networks, fire protection, compressed air, nitrogen hydraulic pressure, pressurization, potable water, and spacecraft fueling. Crawler-Transporter The C/l (Figure 38) is used to transport the ML, including the space vehicle, and the MSS to and from the launch pad. The C,/? is capable of lifting, transporting, and lowering the ML or the MSS, as required, without the aid of auxiliary equipment. The C/f supplies limited electric power to the ML and the MSS during transit.

MOBILE SERVICESTRUCTURE

Fig.

37

CRAWLERTRANSPORTER

The C/t consists of a rectangular chassis which is supported through a suspension system by four dual-tread, crawler-trucks. The overal I length is 131 feet and the overall width is 114 feet. The unit weighs approximately six million pounds. The C/r is powered by self-contained, dieselelectric generator units. Electric motordriven pumps provide hydraulic power for steering and suspension conditioning and ventilation are provided where required.

Fig.

38

control.

Air

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in either direction. Control cabs are The C/T can be operated with equal facility located at each end. The leading cab, in the direction of tmvel, has complete control of the vehicle. The rear cab, however, has override controls for the rear trucks only. Maximum C/f speed is 2 mph unloaded, 1 mph with full load on level grade, and 0.5 mph with full load on a five percent grade. It has a 500-foot minimum turning radius and can position the ML or the MSS on the facility support pedestals within +2 inches. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY AND CHECKOUT

The Saturn V Launch Vehicle propulsive stages and the IU are, upon arrival at KSC, transported to the VAB by special carriers. The S-IC stage is erected on an ML in one of the checkout bays in the high bay area. The S-II and S-IVB stages and the IU are delivered to preparation and checkout cells in the low bay area for inspection, All components of the space vehicle, checkout, and pre-erection preparations. including the Apollo Spacecraft and Launch Escape System, are then assembled vertically Following assembly, the space vehicle is connected to on the ML in the high bay area. the LCC via a high-speed data link for integrated checkout and a simulated flight test. When checkout is completed, the C/f picks up the ML with the assembled space vehicle and moves it to the launch site via the crawlerway. At the launch site, the ML is emplaced and connected to system interfaces for final The MSS is transported from its parking area vehicle checkout and launch monitoring. by the C/f and positioned on the side of the vehicle opposite the ML. A flame deflector is moved on its track to its position beneath the blast opening of the ML to During the pre-launch checkout, the deflect the blast from the S-IC stage engines. final system checks are completed, the MSS is removed to the parking area, propellants are loaded, various items of support equipment are removed from the ML, and the vehicle After vehicle launch, the C/T transports the ML to the parking is readied for launch. area near the VAB for refurbishment.

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MISSION GENERAL

MONITORING.

SUPPORT,

AND

CONTROL

Mission execution involves the following functions: pre-launch checkout and launch operations; tracking the space vehicle to determine its present and future positions; securing information on the status of the flight crew and space vehicle systems (via commanding the space vehicle by telemetry); evaluation of telemetry information; transmitting real-time and updata commands to the onboard computer; voice communication between flight and ground crews; and recovery operations. These functions require the use of a facility to assemble and launch the space vehicle (see Launch Complex); a central flight control facility; a network of remote stations located strategically around the world; a method of rapidly transmitting and receiving information between the space vehicle and the central flight control facility; a realtime data display system in which the data is made available and presented in usable form at essentially the same time that the data event occurred; and ships/aircraft to recover the spacecraft on return to earth. The flight crew and the following control operations: 1. organizations and facilities participate in mission

Center (MSC), Houston, Mission Control Center (MCC), M anned Spacecraft Texas. The MCC contains the communication, computer, display, and command systems to enable the flight controllers to effectively monitor and control the space vehicle. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Cape Kennedy, Florida. The space vehicle is launched from KSC and controlled from the Launch Control Center (LCC), Pre-launch, launch, and powered flight data are as described previously. collected at the Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) at KSC from the launch Merritt Island Launch Area (MILA), and the down-range pads, CIF receivers, Air Force Eastern Test Range (AFETR) stations. This data is transmitted to MCC via theApollo Launch Data System (ALDS). Also located at KSC (ETR) is the Impact Predictor (IP), for range safety purposes. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. GSFC manages and operates the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) and the NASA comDuring flight, the MSFN is under opemmunications (NASCOM) networks. tional control of the MCC. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Huntsville, MSFC, by means of the Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) and the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Alabama. provides

2.

3.

4.

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M-932-69-09 launch launch, A block diagram vehicle systems real-time and flight opemtions. of the basic flight control support to KSC and MCC for pre-flight,

interfaces

is shown

in Figure

39.

BASICTELEMETRY, COMMAND, AND COMMUNICATIONINTERFACES

FORFLIGHTCONTROL

Fig.

39

VEHICLE

FLIGHT

CONTROL

CAPABILITY two flight control rooms. (MOCR), is used indeStaff Support Rooms by flight control specialists the organization of the Information flow

The MCC has Flight operations are controlled from the MCC. Each control room, called 6 Mission Operations Control Room pendently of the other and is capable of controlling individual The SSRs are manned (SSRs) located adjacent to the MOCR. Figure 40 outlines who provide detailed support to the MOCR. MCC for flight control and briefly describes key responsibilities. within the MOCR is shown in Figure 41.

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MCC ORGANIZATION

PUBLIC 1

AFFAIRS

DDD MANAGER AECOVERYANDOTHER MISSION SUPPORT

MISSION STATUS TOPUBLIC

MClSIDNS/ACTIONS ON SPACE VEHICLE SYSTEMS/DYNAMICS

MISSION COMMAND AN0 CONTROL GROUP OPERATIONS MCCIMSFN & PROCEDURES MISSION CONIO&P)

rR;$+S

OPERATIONS

FLIGHT GROUP rFLlGHT DYNAMICS

DYNAMICS

OFFICER

IFDO) 1

NETWORKCONTROL MSFNCONTROL;RADAR COMMAND HANDOVERS *ND

GUIDANCE

OFFICER

(GUIDO)

SPACECRAFT

SYSTEMS

ENGINEERS I

I
FLIGHT ACTIVITIES IFAOL FLIGHTPLAN DETAILED IMPLEMENTATION SPACE ENVIRONMENT SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT DATA ISEO)

MONITOR STATUS OF ELECTRICAL. COMMUNICATION.

IMPLEMENTATION

L
APOLLOSC PROGRAM OFFICE MISSION EVALUATION ROOM KSC LAUNCH OPERATIONS AUXILIARY COMPUTING

Fig. 2/l l/69 Page 83 40

M-932-69-09

INFORMATION FLOW MISSION OPERATIONS CONTROL ROOM

I
1
LAUNCH VEHICLE STAGES STAGE STAT&'& I

MISSION DI------

I EQU*PMENT STATLJS ;U~;V~soR '

b*III

I
NETWORK

INFORMATION

FLIGHT DYNAM1CS GROUP NETWORK CONTROLLER

1 MCC/MSFN STATUS

S/C COMMANDSAND DATA _1

OFFICER

Fig.

41

The consoles within the MOCR and SSRs permit the necessary interface between the flight controllers and the spacecraft. The displays and controls on these consoles and other group displays provide the capability to monitor and evaluate data concerning the mission and, based on these evaluations, to recommend or take appropriate action on matters concerning the flight crew and spacecmft. Problems personnel 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.* 6. 7. concerning crew safety and mission in the following ways: success are identified to flight control

Flight crew observations; Flight controller real-time observations; Review of telemetry data received from tape recorder playback; Trend analysis of actual and predicted values; Review of collected data by systems specialists; Correlation and comparison with previous mission data; Analysis of recorded data from launch complex testing.

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The facilities at the MCC include an input/output processor designated as the Command, facility, the RealCommunications, and Telemetry System (CCATS) and a computational Time Computer Complex (RTCC). F i g ure 42 shows the MCC functional configuration.

MCC FUNCTIONAL CONFIGURATION


Mm - SSR RTCC - RECOVERY -cCATS CDNSDLES Ml DISPLAYS

1 DISPLAY/CDNTRDt DISTRI~TION

1 t RTC COWWID TABLES

A t

I CCATS RTCC CM0 LMDS

ADDRfSSIlG D/C FDRMTTINS t

COWnO C-ND

LOGIC

PROCESSING Y I ( DECOW 1 PROCESS ( ROUTE 1 t 1 PROCESS

TELEIIETRY PRDCESSING

TRAJECTORY PROCESSING

I RTU

CCATS I HSFN RLDS

Fig.

42

The CCATS consists of three Univac 494 general purpose computers. Two of the computers are configured so that either may handle all of the input/output communications One of the computers acts as a dynamic standby. The for two complete missions. third computer is used for nonmission activities. The RTCC is a group of five IBM 360 large-scale, general purpose computers. Any of the five computers may be designated as the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). The MOC performs all the required computations and display formatting for a mission. One Another pair of computers may of the remaining computers will be a dynamic standby. be used for a second mission or simulation.

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Space Vehicle

Trackina

From lift-off of the launch vehicle to insertion into orbit, accurate position data are required to allow the Impact Predictor (IP) to function effectively as a Range Safety device, and the RTCC to compute a trajectory and an orbit. These computations are required by the flight controllers to evaluate the trajectory, the orbit, and/or any abnormal situations to ensure safe recovery of the astronauts. The launch tracking data are transmitted from the AFETR site to the IP and thence to the RTCC via highThe IP also generates spacecraft inertial positions speed data communications circuits. and inertial rates of motion in real-time. During boost the trajectory is calculated the MOCR and SSRs. Also displayed If the vehicle and spacecraft systems. nominal flight path, or if any critical if the safety of the astronauts or range abort the mission. and displayed on consoles and plotboards in are telemetry data concerning status of launch space vehicle deviates excessively from the vehicle condition exceeds tolerance limits, or personnel is endangered, a decision is made to

tracking the spaceDuring the orbit phase of a mission, all stations that are actively craft will transmit the tracking data through GSFC to the RTCC by teletype. If a thrusting maneuver is performed by the spacecraft, high-speed tracking data is also transmitted. Command System

The Apollo ground command systems have been designed to work closely with the telemetry and trajectory systems to provide flight controllers with a method of closedI oop command. The astronauts and flight controllers act as links in this operation. To prevent spurious commands from reaching the space vehicle, switches on the Command Module console block uplink data from the onboard computers. At the appropriate times, the flight crew will move the switches from the BLOCK to the ACCEPT positions and thus permit the flow of uplink data. commands to the space vehicle fail into two categories: realWith a few exceptions, time commands, and command loads (also called computer loads, computer update, loads, or update). Real-time commands are used to control space vehicle systems or subsystems from the ground. The execution of a real-time command results in immediate reaction by the Real-time commands ore stored prior to the mission in the Command affected system. Data Processor (CDP) at the applicable command site. The CDP, a Univac 6428, general-purpose digital computer, is programmed to format, encode, and output commands when a request for uplink is generated.

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Command loads are generated by the real-time computer complex on request of flight controllers. Command loads are based on the latest available telemetry and/or trajectory data. Flight controllers typically required to generate a command load include the Booster Systems Engineer (BSE), the Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the Guidance and the Retrofire Officer (RETRO). Officer (GuIDO), Disolav and Control System

The MCC is equipped with facilities which provide for the input of data from the MSFN and KSC over a combination of high-speed data, low-speed data, wide-band data, teletype, and television channels. These data are computer processed for display to the flight controllers. Several methods of displaying data are used including television (projection TV, group displays, closed circuit TV, and TV monitors), console digital readouts, and event lights. The display and control system interfaces with the RTCC and includes computer request, encoder multiplexer, plotting display, slide file, digital-to-TV converter, and telemetry event driver equipments. A control system is provided for flight controllers to exercise their respective functions This system is comprised of different for mission control and technical management. request keyboards, communications equipgroups of consoles with television monitors, ment, and assorted modules added as required to provide each operational position in the MOCR with the control and display capabilities required for the particular mission. CONTINGENCY PLANNING AND EXECUTION

Planning for a mission begins with the receipt of mission requirements and objectives. The planning activity results in specific plans for pre-launch and launch operations, pre-flight training and simulation, flight control procedures, flight crew activities, data acquisition and flow, and other MSFN and MCC support, recovery operations, Numerous simulations are planned and performed to test mission-related operations. procedures and train flight control and flight crew teams in normal and contingency operations. MCC Role in Aborts

_.._

After launch and from the time the space vehicle clears the ML, the detection of slowly-deteriorating conditions which could result in an abort is the prime responsibility In the event such of LCC. of MCC; prior to this time, it is the prime responsibility conditions are discovered, MCC requests abort of the mission or, circumstances permitting, sends corrective commands to the vehicle or requests corrective flight crew actions. In the event of a noncatastrophic contingency, MCC recommends alternate and mission events are rescheduled to derive maximum benefit from flight procedures, the modified mission. 2/l l/69 Page 87

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VEHICLE

FLIGHT

CONTROL

PARAMETERS

In order to perform flight control monitoring functions, essential data must be collected, transmitted, processed, displayed, and evaluated to determine the space vehicles capability to start or continue the mission. Parameters Monitored by LCC

The launch vehicle checkout and pre-launch operations monitored by the Launch Control Center (LCC) determine the state of readiness of the launch vehicle, ground support, telemetry, range safety, and other operational support systems. During the final countdown, hundreds of parameters are monitored to ascertain vehicle, system, and component Among these parameters are the redlines. The redline values performance capabilities. must be within the predetermined limits or the countdown will be halted. In addition to the redlines, there are a number of operational support elements such as ALDS, range and ground support facilities instrumentation, ground tracking and telemetry stations, which must be operational at specified times in the countdown. Parameters The Booster and IU) and responsible engines go, and digital Parameters Monitored by Booster Systems Group launch vehicle systems (S-IC, S-II, S-IVB, flight crew of any system anomalies. It is stage ignition, holddown release, all monitors attitude control, stage separations,

Systems Group (BSG) monitors advises the flight director and for confirming in-flight power, BSG also engine cutoffs, etc. commanding of LV systems. Monitored by Flight Dynamics

Group

The Flight Dynamics Group monitors and evaluates the powered flight trajectory and It is responsible for abort makes the abort decisions based on trajectory violations. planning, entry time and orbital maneuver determinations, rendezvous planning, inertial alignment correlation, landing point prediction, and digital commanding of the guidance systems. The MOCR positions of the Flight Dynamics Group include the Flight Dynamics Officer and the Retrofire Officer (RETRO). The (FDO), the Guidance Officer (GUIDO), MOCR positions are given detailed, specialized support by the Flight Dynamics SSR. The survei I lance parameters measured by the ground tracking stations and transmitted to the MCC are computer processed into plotboard and digital displays. The Flight Dynamics Group compares the actual data with pre-mission, calculated, nominal data and is able to determine mission status.

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Parameters

Monitored

by Spacecraft

Systems Group

The Spacecraft Systems Group monitors and evaluates the performance of spacecraft electrical, optical, mechanical, and life support systems; maintains and analyzes consumables status; prepares the mission log; coordinates telemetry playback; determines spacecraft weight and center of gravity; and executes digital commanding of spacecraft systems. The MOCR positions of this group include the Command and Service Module Electrical, Environmental, and Communications Engineer (CSM EECOM), the CSM Guidance, Navigation, and Control Engineer (CSM GNC), the Lunar Module Electrical, Environand the LM Guidance, Navigation, mental, and Communications Engineer (LM EECOM), and Control Engineer (LM GNC). These positions are backed up with detailed support from the Vehicle Systems SSR. Parameters Monitored by Life Systems Group

The Life Systems Group is responsible for the well-being of the flight crew. The group Aeromedical and environmental control is headed by the Flight Surgeon in the MOCR. specialists in the Life Systems SSR provide detailed support to the Flight Surgeon. The group monitors the flight crew health status and environmental/biomedical parameters. MANNED SPACE FLIGHT NETWORK

The Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) (F i g ure 43) is a global network of ground stations, ships, and aircraft designed to support manned and unmanned space flights. The network provides tmcking, telemetry, voice and teletype communications, command, recording, and television capabilities. The network is specifically configured to meet the requirements of each mission. MSFN stations are categorized as lunar support stations (deep-space tracking in excess of 15,000 miles), near-space support stations with Unified S-Band (USB) equipment, and near-space support stations without USB equipment. The deep-space S-band capability is attained with 85foot antennas located at: Honeysuckle Creek, Australia; MSFN stations include facilities operated Goldstone, California; and Madrid, Spain. by NASA, the United States Department of Defense (DOD), and the Australian Department of Supply (DOS). The DOD facilities include the Eastern Test Range (ETR), Western Test Range (WTR), White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), Range Instrumentation Ships (RIS), and Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA). The MSFN coverage by ground stations is supplemented by the five Range Instrumentation Ships. The number and position of the ships is determined for each mission. The Vanguard, Redstone, and Mercury support earth-orbital insertion and translunar injection phases of The Huntsville and Watertown support reentry phases of a mission. The ships a mission.

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Cd 4.v.c U. 40 T.

STATION CAPABILITY.
UnCED S BkNG I5' LlUM AYnNNA I(' ANTENM 1.sIl6L1 Z*OUA r INTElIN

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MOBILE
PACJFIC

CAPABILITIES
ATLAN

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REENTRY SHIPS 1.i?i3. V, C. 1. AG 2. HUNTSVLLE 9. V. C. VO. AG

ksERlKw yll~ 1. VANGUARD 1 2. REDSTONE 3.MEmRY

r 2.v.

-2,'11,'69

Page 90

M-932-69-09

ANG

ANT

MSFN STATIONS
WCC IwnM: cw EL 4 ACII M6 MT &SC lol Ckl CIIV CR0 CYI al ww 60s El6 eww EYW .nA* no&syf CRffK * YRmll ISUYO USAl WfRRllT lsuD .mo1 ?AmcX If MSf PRfToRU TAkylLwE ems cmn wm wlos WOOYM Ycenf flCgmS vouo wl6f iYSTPl Amcm usx MM ML MU PAT PRL TM rtx WIG WOW

3BILE CAPABILITIES
A

TlANTlC

il 1
_-_, .3 * 2s _. ____----

illollsvluf
ytfil?JFl uw6f nucffl fwln flllS wmn IfnrmL WlYfRTOwn v1116u1Ro

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6 I

T. AG do. AC

,,$EfOT,N WI1. VA,W.lAl?D 2. 2. REDflO,E 3. ME~O.U?Y


.I -2. __

V. c. H. U. 40. T. ffi v. c. H. w). T. ffi V. t. tl. U. M. T. PG


_w--I

i. 8.
_

ARIA HYV IhEm Rrx lfv Rfn wnl VIII

--.

Fig.

43

M-932-69-09

operate as integral stations of the MSFN, meeting target acquisition, tracking, telemand command and control requirements. The reentry ships have etry, communications, or satellite command control system, mission control center, no telemetry computer, The DOD operates the ships in support of NASA/DOD communications terminal. missions with an Apollo priority. The Military Sea Transport Service provides the maritime crew and the WTR provides the instrumentation crews by contract. The WTR also has the operational management responsibility for the ships. The ships may contribute to the recovery phase as necessary for contingency landings. Eight modified C-135 aircraft supplement the ground stations and instrumentation ships The ARIA support other space and missile projects when as highly mobile gap fillers. The ARIA provide two-way not engaged in their primary mission of Apollo support. relay of; voice communications between the spacecraft and surface stations; reception, recording, and retransmission of telemetry signals from the spacecraft to the ground and shortly after injection (postpass). The aircraft are used: shortly before, during, burn; from initial communications blackout to final landing; for coverage of a selected abort area in the event of a no-go decision after injection or for any irregular reentry. The ARIA have an endurance of about 10 hours and a cruise airspeed of about 450 knots. NASA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

network (Figure 44) is a point-to-point The NASA Communications (NASCOM) communications system connecting the MSFN stations to the MCC. NASCOM is where the primary communications managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, switching center is located. Three smaller NASCOM switching centers are located Patrick AFB, Florida and Wheeler AFB, Hawaii at London, Honolulu, and Canberra. serve as switching centers for the DOD eastern and western test ranges, respectively. The MSFN stations throughout the world are interconnected by landline, undersea cable, radio, and communications satellite circuits. These circuits carry teletype, voice, and data in real-time support of the missions. Each MSFN USB land station has a minimum of five voice/data circuits and two teleThe Apollo insertion and injection ships have a similar capability type circuits. through the communications satellites.

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TYPICAL MISSION COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK

:Ink

ASCENSION Is. (NASA STATION) ACN ACSW CANBERRASWITCHING STA. ANTIGUA ISLAND AFETR SITE ANTIGUA ISLAND ETG AOCC AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS CONTROL CENTER ARIA APOLLO RANGE INSTRUMENTATION AIRCRAFT BERMUDA BDA CALIFORNIA (VANDENBERGAFB) CAL CDSC COMMUNICATION DISTRIBUTION SWITCHING CENTER CR0 CARNARVON, AUSTRALIA GRAND CANARY ISLAND CYI ETR EASTERN TEST RANGE GBM GRAND BAHAMA IS. GDS GOLDSTONE, CALIFORNIA GSFC GODDARDSPACE FLIGHT CENTER GWM GUAM GYM GUAYMAS, MEXICO HAW HAWAII

HSK HTV LLDN LROB MAD MER MCC MIL MSFC PGSW PHON RED TAN TEX VAN WHS WOM WTR

HONEYSUCKLECR. AUST. USNS HUNTSVILLE LONDON SWITCHINGCENTER MADRID, SPAIN SWITCHING CENTER MADRID, SPAIN USNS MERCURY MISSION CONTROL CENTER, MERRITT ISLAND, FLA. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER GUAM SWITCHING CENTER HONOLULU SWITCHINGSTA. USNS REDSTONE. TANANARIVE, MALAGASY CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS USNS VANGUARD WHITE SANDS, NEW MEXICO WOOMERA,AUSTRALIA WESTERNTEST RANGE

Fig.

44

2/11/69

Page 92

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APOLLO

LAUNCH

DATA

SYSTEM

(ALDS)

The Apollo Launch Data System (ALDS) between KSC and MSC is controlled by MSC telemetry, voice and is not routed through GS FC. The ALDS consists of wide-band coordination circuits, and a high-speed circuit for the Countdown and Status Transother circuits are provided for launch coordination, mission System (CASTS). I n addition, tracking data, simulations, public information, television, and recovery. MSFC SUPPORT FOR LAUNCH AND FLIGHT OPERATIONS

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), by means of the Launch Information Exchange Facility (LIEF) and the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC), provides real-time support of launch vehicle pre-launch, launch, and flight operations. MSFC also provides support, via LIEF, for post-flight data delivery and evaluation. In-depth real-time support is provided for pre-launch, from HOSC consoles manned by engineers who perform and analysis. launch, detailed and flight operations system data monitoring

Pre-launch flight wind monitoring analysis and trajectory simulations are jointly performed by MSFC and MSC personnel located at MSFC during the terminal countdown. periodically from KSC to the Beginning at T-24 hours, actual wind data is transmitted HOSC. These measurements are used by the MSFC/MSC wind monitoring team in vehicle flight digital simulations to verify the capability of the vehicle with these contingency data are provided MSFC In the event of marginal wind conditions, winds. in real-time via the Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF). DATA-CORE and trajectory simulations are performed on-line to expedite reporting to KSC. During the pre-launch period, primary support is directed to KSC. At lift-off primary The HOSC engineering consoles provide support transfers from KSC to the MCC. support as required to the Booster Systems Group for S-lVB/IU orbital operations by monitoring detailed instrumentation for the evaluation of system in-flight and dynamic trends, assisting in the detection and isolation of vehicle malfunctions and providing advisory contact with vehicle design specialists.

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M-932-69-09 .-

ABBREVIATIONS ac AEA AFB AFETR AGS ALDS AM AOT APS APS ARIA ARS AS AS ASI BPC BSE CASTS CCATS ccs CDP CES CIF CM COAS cs CSM C/T CWEA CWG DATA-CORE dc DEDA DOD DOS DPS DS DSEA

AND

ACRONYMS

Alternating Current Abort Electronics Assembly Air Force Base Air Force Eastern Test Range Abort Guidance Subsystem Apollo Launch Data System Amplitude Modulation Alignment Optical Telescope Auxiliary Propulsion System (S-IVB) Ascent Propulsion System (LM) Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Apollo Saturn Ascent Stage (LM) Augmented Spark Igniter Boost Protective Cover Boost Systems Engineer Countdown and Status Transmission System Communications, Command, and Telemetry Command Communications System Command Data Processor (MSFN Site) Control Electronics Subsystem Central Instrumentation Facility Command Module Crewman Optical Alignment Sight Communications System Command Service Module Crawler/Transporter Caution and Warning Electronics Assembly Constant-Wear Garment CIF Telemetry Conversion System Direct Current Data Entry and Display Assembly Department of Defense Department of Supply (Australia) Descent Propulsion System (LM) Descent Stage (LM) Data Storage Electronics Assembly

System

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ECS EDS EDS ELS EMS EMU EPS ETR EV EVA FCC FDA1 FDO 9GDC
GH2 GN2

G NCS GN&CS GOX GSE GUIDO GSFC


H2

HF HOSC HTS KG IMU IP IS IU KSC LC LCC LCG LEA LEB LES LET LH

Environmental Control System Emergency Detection System Explosive Devices System (LM) Earth Landing System Entry Monitor System Extravehicular Mobility Unit Electrical Power System Eastern Test Range Extravehicular Extravehicular Activity Flight Control Computer (IU, analog) Flight Director Attitude Indicator Flight Dynamics Officer Gravity force at sea level (1 g) Gyro Display Coupler Gaseous Hydrogen Gaseous Nitrogen Navigation, and Control System Guidance, Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (LM) Gaseous Oxygen Ground Support Equipment Guidance Officer Goddard Space Flight Center Hydrogen High Frequency Huntsville Operations Support Center Heat Transport Subsystem (LM) In-flight Coveral I Garment Inertial Measurement Unit Impact Predictor (at KSC) Instrumentation System (LM) Instrument Unit Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex Launch Control Center Liquid-Cooling Garment Launch Escape Assembly Lower Equipment Bay Launch Escape System Launch Escape Tower Liquid Hydrogen

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M-932-69-09

LIEF LM
LN2

LOX, LO2 LR LV LVDA LVDC MCC MILA ML MMH MOC MOCR MSC MS FC MSFN MSS NASCOM
N2H4 N, 02 04

NPSH OMR OPS OSCPCS OSR PCMTEA PDS PGA PG NCS PG NS PLSS PTCR PU RCS RETRO RF RIS RP- 1 RR RTCC

Launch Information Exchange Facility Lumar Module Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Oxygen Landing Radar Launch Vehicle Launch Vehicle Data Adapter Launch Vehicle Digital Computer Mission Control Center Merritt Island Launch Area Mobile Launcher Monomethyl Hydrazine Mission Operations Computer Mission Operations Control Room Manned Spacecraft Center Marshall Space Flight Center Manned Space Flight Network Mobile Service Structure NASA Communications Network Hydrazine Nitrogen Tetroxide Net Positive Suction Head Oxygen Operations Management Room Oxygen Purge System Oxygen Supply and Cabin Pressure Control Subsystem Operations Support Room Pulse-Code-Modulation and Timing Electronics Assembly Propellant Dispersion System Pressure Garment Assembly Primary Guidance Navigation and Control System (LM) Primary Guidance and Navigation Subsystem (LM) Portable Life Support System Pad Terminal Connection Room Propellant Utilization Reaction Control System Direction Opposite to Velocity Vector Radio Frequency Range Instrumentation Ship Rocket Propellant (refined kerosene) Rendezvous Radar Real Time Computer Complex

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SC scs SCEA SECS SLA SM SPS SSR sv TCA TCS TSM TV UDMH USB UHF VAB VHF WMS WSMR WTR

Spacecraft Stabi I ization and Control System Signal Conditioning Electronics Assembly Sequential Events Control System Spacecraft LM Adapter Service Module Service Propulsion System Staff Support Room Space Vehicle Thrust Chamber Assembly Thermal Conditioning System Tail Service Mast Television Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine Unified S-band UI tra-High Frequency Vehicle Assembly Building Very High Frequency Water Management Subsystem (LM) White Sands Missile Range Western Test Range

GPO

871-233

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Page 97

Post Launch Mission Opemtion No. M-932-69-09

Report

MEMORANDUM To: From:


. T

6 May A/Administmtor MA/Apollo Apollo Program Director Post Launch Report #l

1969

Subject:

9 Mission

&S-504)

. The Apollo 9 mission was successfully launched from the Kennedy Space Center on Monday, 3 March 1969 and was completed as planned, with recovery of the spacecraft 13 March 1969. Initial evaluation and crew in the Atlantic recovery area on Thursday, of the flight, based upon quick-look data and crew debriefing, indicates that all mission Further detailed analysis of all data is continuing and approobjectives were attained. priate refined results of the mission will be reported in Manned Space Flight Center technical reports. Based on the mission performance the Apollo 9 mission be adjudged and be considered a success. as described in this report, as having achieved agency I am recommending that preset primary objectives

---Giiim
APPROVAL:

Lt. Gdneml, USAF Apollo Program Director

Report No . M-932-69-09

OFFICEOF MANNEDSPACEFLIGHT
Prepared by: Apollo
FOR

Program Office-MAO INTERNAL USE ONLY

M-932-69-09

GENERAL the Lunar Module. The Apollo 9 (AS-504) mission was the first manned flight involving The crew were James A. McDivitt, Commander; David R. Scott, Command Module Pilot; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module Pilot. Launch had been initially scheduled for 28 February 1969, but was postponed for three days because all three crewmen had virus respiratory infections. The countdown was accomplished without any unscheduled holds and the AS-504 Space Vehicle was successfully launched from Launch Complex 39 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on Monday, 3 March 1969. Recovery of the flight crew and Command Module was successfully accomplished on 13 March 1969, for a flight duration of 241 hours 53 seconds. Initial review of test data indicates that overall performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and flight crew together with ground support and control facilities and personnel was satisfactory, and that all primary mission objectives were accomplished.

-.

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Page 1

M-932-69-09 .,_ NASA OMSF PRIMARY MISSION 9 OBJECTIVES

FOR APOLLO PRIMARY . OBJECTIVES

Demonstrate crew/space vehicle/mission support a manned Saturn V mission with CSM and LM. Demonstrate Demonstrate Rendezvous LM/crew performance. and selected including:

facilities

performance

during

. .

performance of nominal (LOR) mission activities,

backup

Lunar

Orbit

docking, LM withdrawal Transposition, Intervehicular crew transfer Extravehicular capability SPS and DPS burns LM active rendezvous and docking CSM/LM consumables assessment.

i Lt. General, -USAF Apollo Program Director Date: j 4 Fgg bq @oGe ,&sociate Manned Date: RESULTS OF APOLLO 9 MISSION 1969 with E. Miel ler Administrator Space Flight for

based upon a review of the assessed performance of Apollo 9, launched 3 March and completed 13 March 1969, this mission is adjudged a success in accordance the obiectives stated above.

Sam C. Phillips Lt. General, USAF Apollo Program Director

Date:

MAY 5

1969 c

2/l 8/69

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M-932-69-09

COUNTDOWN The terminal countdown for Apollo 9 began at T-28 hours at 10:00 p.m. EST, 1 March 1969. The only holds encountered were two planned holds: one at T-16 hours for 3 hours, and one at T-9 hours for 6 hours. The count was resumed for the last time at 2:00 a.m. EST, 3 March 1969, and proceeded to launch at 11:00:00 a.m. EST. . FLIGHT SUMMARY

The Apollo 9 mission was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 11:OO:OO a.m. EST, 3 March 1969. All launch vehicle stages performed satisfactorily, but burned slightly longer than planned, inserting the S-IVB/spacecraft combination into a nominal orbit of 102.3 by 103.9 nautical miles (NM). After post-insertion checkout was completed, the Command/Service Module (CSM) was separated from the S-IVB, transposed, and docked with the Lunar Module (LM). The docked spacecraft was separated from the S-IVB at 4:08:05 GET (Ground Elapsed two unmanned S-IVB burns were performed to place the S-IVB/ Time). After separation, Instrument Unit on an earth-escape trajectory. After the third burn, the planned propellant dumps could not be performed. After spacecraft separation from the launch vehicle, (SPS) firings were made with the CSM/LM docked. At approximately (CDR) transferred System (DPS) was Command Module four Service Propulsion System

43.5 hours GET, the Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) and the Commander to the LM. The first manned firing of the LM Descent Propulsion initiated about 6 hours later. The two crewmen then returned to the (CM) for the fifth SPS firing.

At approximately 70 hours GET, the LMP and CDR again transferred to the LM for the LMPs 37-minute extravehicular activity (EVA). During this period, the Command thermal samples from the CSM Module Pilot (CMP) o p ened the CM hatch and retrieved exterior. At about 89 hours GET, the CDR and LMP returned to the LM for the third time to The LM primary guidance system was used to conduct perform the CSM/LM rendezvous. the rendezvous with backup calculations being made by the CM computer. The phasing and insertion maneuvers were performed using the DPS to set up the rendezvous. The Ascent and Descent Stages were separated, followed by a concentric sequence initiation The LM Ascent Propulsion System (APS) maneuver using the LM Reaction Control System. The terminal phase of the rendezvous was fired to establish the constant delta height. began on time, and the spacecraft were again docked at about 99 hours GET. The Ascent Stage was jettisoned about 2.5 hours later. Shortly after, the APS was fired to The firing lasted 350 seconds and resulted in an orbit of 3747 by propellant depletion. 124.5 NM, 4/24/69 Page 3

M-932-69-09

The sixth SPS firing, to lower apogee, was delayed precede the maneuver was not programmed properly. rescheduled and successfully completed in the next During the last three the SO65 Multispectral days, a seventh SPS firing Photography Experiment

because the +X translation However, the maneuver revolution.

to was

was made to raise the apogee, and and landmark tracking were accomplished.

Unfavorable weather in the planned landing area caused the deorbit maneuver (SPS 8) to be delayed for one revolution. This decision was made the day before splashdown and recovery forces were redeployed. Final parachute descent and splashdown were within sight of the prime recovery ship in the Atlantic Ocean. Splashdown was near the target point of 23 degrees 15 minutes north latitude, 68 degrees west longitude, as determined from the onboard computer solution. The crew were safely aboard the within 1 hour of splashdown. prime recovery ship, USS Guadalcanal, Table 1 presents a summary of mission events. TABLE SUMMARY EVENT 1 EVENTS TIME (GET) HR: MIN: SEC PLANNED* ACTUAL oo:oo:oo Dynamic Engine Pressure Cutoff Cutoff 0o:o 1:2 1 00:02: 14 00:02 :40 00:02:40 00:02:42 Aft Interstage 00:03: 10 oo:oo:oo 0O:O 1:26 00:02: 14 00:02:43 00:02:44 00:02:44 00:03: 14

OF MISSION

First Motion Maximum S-IC S-IC

Center Outboard

Engine

S-IC/S-II S-II Ignition

Separation

Jettison

S-II

LV events SC events

based on MSFC LV Operational based on MSC SC Operational

Trajectory, Trajectory,

dated 31 January 1969. Revision 2, 20 February 1969.

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Page 4

M-932-69-09

Jettison S-II

Launch

Escape Tower Command

00:03: 16 00:08:5 00:08:52 00:08:55 00: 10:49 00: 10:59 1

00:03: 18 00:08:56 00:08:57 00:09:01 00: 11:05 00:11:15 02:41:16 03:01:59 i 04:08:06 04:36: 17 04:45:56 04:46:58 05:59:4 05:59:01 06:07: 19 06:? 1:21 Not Accomplished Not Accomplished Not Accomplished Not Accomplished 22: 12:04 25: 17:39 1

Engine

Cutoff

S-II/S-IVB S-IVB S-IVB Parking Separation Spacecraft

Separation Ignition Cutoff Insertion Maneuver Initiation

Engine Engine Orbit

and Docking Docking

02:33:49 03:05:00 kvrox)

Spacecraft S-IVB S-IVB S-IVB S-IVB

Final

Separation

04:08:57 04:36: 12 04:45:50 04:46:52 05:59:35 06:O 1:40

Restart Reignition Second Restart

Preparation (2nd Burn) Cutoff Signal

Preparations

SPS Burn 1 S-IVB S-IVB Start LOX Start LH, Reignition Third LOX Cutoff Dump (3rd Burn) Signal

06:07: 13 06:l 1:14

06: 12:44 06:23:54 06:24:04 06:42: 19 22: 12:oo 25: 18:30

Dump Cutoff LH2 Dump Dump Cutoff

SPS Burn 2 SPS Burn 3

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M-932-69-09

SPS Burn 4 Docked DPS Burn

28:28:00 49:42:00 54:25: 19 92:39:00

28:24:41 49:4 1:35 54:26: 12 92:39:36 93:02:54 93:47:35 95:39:08 96:16:07 96~58~15 97:57:59 99:02:26

SPS Burn 5 Undocking CSM/LM Separation

93:07:40 93:51:34 95:43:22

DPS Phasing DPS Insertion Concentric Constant Terminal CSM/LM ._. APS Burn to Propellant SPS Burn 6 SPS Burn 7 SPS Burn 8 (Deorbit) Entry Drogue Interface Chute (400,000 Deployment ft) (25,000 feet Approx) Depletion Sequence Delta Height Initiation - LM RCS Burn

96:2 1:OO 97:05:27 98:00: 10 99: 13:oo b%vox) 10 1:58:00 12 1:58:48 169:47:54 ** ** ** **

- APS Burn

Phase Initiation Dot ki ng

101:53:15 123:25:07 169: 39:00 240:31:15 240:44:10 240:55:08 24 1: 00:54

Splashdown

**

Premission planned deorbit weather and sea conditions orbit was added.

was changed to permit shift in initial planned recovery

in landing point due to area. One additional

-.

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M-932-69-09

MISSION

PERFORMANCE

The significant portions of the Apollo 9 mission are discussed herein. Space vehicle systems and mission support performance are covered in succeeding sections. TRAJECTORY The CSM/LM/IU/S-IVB a normal launch phase. given in Table II for all combination was inserted into The resulting orbital elements engine firings. earth orbit at 00:11:15 GET after and maneuver parameters are

Four SPS maneuvers were performed prior to the first docked DPS firing. Each of the first three SPS maneuvers was made without requiring a +X translation to settle propellants. The fourth SPS maneuver was preceded by an 18-second +X translation made with the Service Module Reaction Control System (SM RCS). The fifth docked SPS maneuver resulted in the perigee than planned causing the rendezvous to be initiated 4 errors of this magnitude were expected, and real-time rendezvous and deorbit was conducted to accommodate initiation times and velocity increments. Out-of-plane the flight to certain preplanned maneuvers to provide craft weight without significantly changing the orbital maneuvers. The trajectory section. aspects of the rendezvous exercise will being approximately 5 NM less minutes earlier. Small cutoff trajectory planning for both minor adjustments in the components were added during substantial reduction in spaceparameters for subsequent

be discussed

in the rendezvous

After the Ascent Stage jettison, a separation maneuver of 3 feet per second (fps) was depletion. performed by the SM RCS. The APS engine was then fired to propellant The sixth SPS maneuver was delayed one revolution did not occur at the proper time, but was completed The seventh SPS maneuver was restructured time and was successfully accomplished. when the accompanying nominally. a desired ullage burn

in real time to provide

higher

burn

The deorbit maneuver was made over Hawaii during revolution 152, and CM/SM separation was performed. The CM landed at 241:00:53 GET near 23 degrees 15 minutes north latitude and 68 degrees west longitude.

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Page 7

-.--.-

TABLE II
T-

SUMMARYOFMANEUVERS

BURN TIME (SECONDS) Prelounct PLANNEC :eol Time LANNED

T
5.2

OV (FEET PER SECOND) Real Time PLANNEC

RESULTANT ORBIT Prelaunch PLANNED 125.2 X 108.7 190.2 X 109. I 268.2 X 111.3 268.7 X 111.4 267.6 X 111.8 130.2 X 129.7 4673.3 X 128.9** 127.9 X 94.6 238.7 X 93.9 241 .a X -15.1 Real Time PLANNEI 128.2 X 110.2 189.8 X 107.7 270.3 X 109.4 273.8 X 109.3 269.9 X 109.1 129.8 X 129.8 6932.3 x 125.9 120.2 X 104.8 250.4 X 97.9 238.5 X ---

KTUAL

Prelaunct LANNEC

ACTUAL

ACTUAL 127.6 X 111.3 192.5 X 110.7 274.9 X 112.6 275.0 X 112.4 274.6 X 112.1 131 .o X 125.9 3760.9 X 126.6 123.1 X 108.5 253.2 x 100.7 240.0 -:7

First Service Propulsion

5.0

4.96

36.8

36.8

36.6

Second Service Propulsion

111.3

111.2

110.3

849.6

850.6

850.5

Third Service Propulsion

280.0

281.9

279.9

t548.2

2570.7

2567.9

Fourth Service Propulsion

28.1

28.4

27.9

299.4

300.9

300.5

First Descent Propulsion

367.0

370.6

372.0

1734.0

1744.0

1737.5

Fifth Service Propulsion

41.5

43.2

43.3

552.3

575.4

572.5

Ascent Propulsion Firing to Depletion

389.0**

444.9**

362.4

5074.9**

7427.5**

5373.4

Sixth Service Propulsion

2.4

1.33

I .40

62.7

38.8

33.7

Seventh Service Propulsion

9.9

25.0

24.9

252.8

653.3

650.1

Eighth Service Propulsion

11.7

11.6

11.7

323.3

325.0

322.7

NOTES:

* Prelaunch planned refers to Apollo 9 Spacecraft Operational Tmjectory, Revision 2, 20 February 1969. ** APS burn to depletion planned for unattainable apogee value to insure propellant depletion cutoff.

M -932-69-09

EXTRAVEHICULAR

ACTIVITY

Extravehicular activity (EVA), pl anned for the third day, was reduced from 2 hours 15 minutes to about 1 hour of depressurized LM activity. This change was made because the LMP experienced a minor in-flight illness during the first two days of the mission. Preparation for EVA began at approximately 71 hours GET. The CDR and the LMP were in the LM and the CMP in the CM. At approximately 73 hours GET, after donning the Purge System (OPS), the LMP Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and the Oxygen egressed through the forward hatch and moved to the external foot restraints on the platform. During this time the CM was depressurized and the side hatch was opened. Thermal sample retrieval was photographically recorded with the sequence cameras. The LMP used the handrails to evaluate body control and transfer techniques. Ingress Both hatches were then secured and the vehicles was completed at about 74 hours GET. repressurized. The PLSS was successfully recharged with oxygen and water. The lithium hydroxide metabolic analysis. cartridge from the system was returned to the CM for post-flight

The repressurization cycles for both vehicles were followed without difficulty. RENDEZVOUS

were

nominal,

and post-EVA

procedures

The CDR and the LMP transferred to the LM on the fifth day for the rendezvous. rendezvous exercise began on schedule with a 5-fps separation maneuver using SM RCS. A phasing maneuver of 90.5 fps was performed with the LM DPS about the CSM. Approximately 12 NM above and 27 NM behind the CSM, used to impart a 43.1-fps insertion velocity to the LM. At a range of CSM, the Ascent and Descent Stages of the LM were separated, and a sequence initiation maneuver of 40.0 fps was made with the LM RCS.

The the

2.8 NM from the DPS was 75 NM from the concentric

Approximately 10 NM below and 78 NM behind the CSM, the constant delta height maneuver was performed with the APS imparting a velocity change of 41.5 fps. The terminal phase began on time with a 22.3-fps LM RCS maneuver. Braking maneuvers were conducted on schedule, and stationkeeping was maintained at a distance of approximately 100 feet so that photographs could be taken from both Problems were Docking was successfully completed at about 99 hours GET. vehicles. experienced in using the Crewman Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) in both vehicles The combination of a bright CM, a dimly lighted CM target, and a during docking. relatively dim reticle in the alignment sight made LM docking a difficult task.

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M -932-69-09

LM rendezvous navigation and maneuver targeting using both the primary and the backup Radar data were successfully used, both automatically guidance systems were satisfactory. by the primary system and through manual insertion in the About Guidance System, to solutions from both onboard systems and from correct rendezvous state vet tors . Maneuver ground computations appeared to correlate closely. The crew selected the primary system solutions for all maneuvers through the first midcourse correction performed after terminal phase initiation. Rendezvous navigation and mirror-image targeting in the CM were performed satisfactorily; however, loss of th.e LM tracking light prevented sextant measurements from the CM when Preliminary data indicate that CM maneuver calculations both vehicles were in darkness. for terminal phase initiation were satisfactory. FLIGHT CREW PERFORMANCE the mission, plan. and the flight was conducted

Crew performance was excellent throughout essentially in accordance with the nominal

Preparation for transfer to the LM required longer than anticipated, primarily because of the time required for the crewmen to don the space suits. The suit supply hoses were a source of interference and also contributed to the longer preparation time. As a result, about 1 hour was added to the preparation time for subsequent transfers. Visual and photographic rendezvous and before FLIGHT inspection docking. of the entire spacecraft was accomplished after

CREW BIOMEDICAL

EVALUATION

The launch was postponed for 72 hours because of symptoms of upper respiratory inPhysical examinations 3 hours before launch revealed fections in all three crewmen. no infection. The planned experienced the LM. medical operations were conducted as scheduled some nausea and vomiting prior to and following except that the LMP the initial transfer to

Plans for EVA were modified because of the LMPs illness. The physiological The LMPs work rate during were essentially normal throughout the mission. the order of 500 Btu/hr.

parameters EVA was on

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FLIGHT

CONTROL

Flight control performance was satisfactory in providing operational support for the Minor spacecraft problems were encountered, but none was such Apollo 9 mission. that either the mission operations or the flight plan was significantly altered. Early in the mission, a caution and warning light on Hydrogen Tank 1 was observed just prior to an automatic cycle of the heaters. This condition persisted and the crew had to be disturbed during a rest period at 81 hours GET to increase the hydrogen tank pressure. On the third day, the crew were about 1 hour behind the timeline, resulting in cancelling all the planned communications tests except the LM secondary S-band and the LM two-way relay with television.

test

On the fourth day, the EVA was abbreviated and the external transfer from the LM to The activity was restricted to the LM forward platform the CM was not performed. because of concern about the LMPs earlier illness and proper readiness for the rendezvous on the following day. At approximately 78 hours GET, after the tunnel hardware had been installed, a crewman made an unplanned return to the LM to open a circuit breaker. This change shortened the rest period about 30 minutes. On the fifth day, LM activation an on-time rendezvous initiation. was performed approximately 40 minutes early to insure

The LM VHF telemetry and S-band power amplifier were lost for 6 and 12 hours, These failures were expected because respectively, after the APS firing to depletion. The electrical system capability for this spacecraft was several of the lack of cooling. LM support terminated at 113:42:00 GET. hours longer than predicted. On the sixth day, the sixth SPS maneuver was delayed by one revolution. The crew A procedural error was made in loading reported that the +X translation did not occur. since the proper SM RCS quads were not selected. The computer the CM computer, was reloaded, and one revolution later, the maneuver was made satisfactorily. On the eighth day, the seventh to permit a test of the Propellant SPS maneuver was increased to 25 seconds Utilization and Gaging System (PUGS). in duration

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RECOVERY Recovery of the Apollo 9 Command Module and crew was completed in the West Atlantic by the prime recovery ship, USS Guadalcanal. The following table is a list of significant recovery events on 13 March 1969:

EVENT First VHF contact First beacon First visual and voice contact contact

EST 11:51 a.m. 11x57 a.m. 11:59 a.m. 12:Ol p.m.

Swimmers Flotation CM hatch

deployed collar
open

12:07 p.m. 12:14 p.m. 12:27 p.m.

installed

First astronaut All astronauts

aboard

helicopter

12:39 p.m. 12:46 p.m. 12:50 p.m.

in helicopter

Astronauts CM aboard

on deck recovery ship

2:13 p.m.

The CM remained in the stable moderate at the recovery site. SYSTEMS , PERFORMANCE

I flotation

attitude.

Sea-state

conditions

were very

Engineering data reviewed to date indicate that all mission objectives were attained. Further detailed analysis of all data is continuing and appropriate refined results of systems performance will be reported in MSFC and MSC technical reports. Summaries of the significant anomalies and discrepancies are presented in Tables Ill, IV, and V.

4/24/69

TABLE Ill LAUNCH VEHICLE DISCREPANCY SUMMARY

DESCRIPTION Oscillations pressure and lations have firings, but occurred in the S-II center engine chamber the S-II structure late in the burn. Osciloccurred on four flights and five static only after 320 seconds of S-II burn.

REMARKS Apparently caused by coupling between the center engine Fix will be early center engine and the stage structure. cutoff at 299 seconds on Apollo 10.

S-IVB APS Module slowly.

No.

2 helium

supply

pressure decayed

Leak in teflon seals upstream of the regulator. of seal material to rubber has been approved.

Change Closed.

S-IVB helium regulator lock-up pressure exceeded the redline during countdown, and the helium pneumatic pressure was high throughout the mission.

Internal leakage in regulator caused by wear on poppet. Modified regulator has been tested and installed on S-IVB-505. Redline has been raised from 585 to 630 psi.

S-IVB third burn anomaly: Gas generator pressure spike at start, engine chamber pressure oscillations, loss of engine control pneumatic pressure, abnormal attitude control system oscillations, decrease in engine perforto dump residual mance during burn, and inability propellants after burn.

Caused by extreme out-of-spec engine start conditions which resulted in excessive engine chamber pressure oscillations and possible gas generator damage, followed by loss of pneumatic system. There is no evidence that the causes of this anomaly are applicable to an in-spec engine start. The flight mission rules allowing restart with recirculation systems inoperative are being revised for Apollo 10.

TABLE IV COMMAND/SERVICE MODULE DISCREPANCY SUMMARY

DESCRIPTION Jnable to translate the isolation valves in two closed. Master alarm occurred ,ut any accompanying CSM to the left. Propellant SM RCS quads were found to be coincident annunciator. with hard docking with-

REMARKS Apparently caused by mechanical shock at CSM/S-IVB separation. The crew will check the valve positions after separation on Apollo 10 and subsequent missions. Caused by a sensor transient or a momentary short circuit due to mechanical shock. Also occurred during the CSM 106 docking test. Caused by erroneous readings from the primary probe in the SPS oxidizer tank. The master alarm and warning function from the PUGS have been deleted on CSM 106 and subsequent spacecraft. Closed. A pin from a counter drum was found wedged in a split Units on Apollo 10 and subs will be replaced with gear. units that have been inspected. Closed. The bypass valve that controls coolant temperature operate improperly because of contamination in the glycol. For subsequent missions, Block I valves which are less susceptible to contaminants will be installed and the radiators will be vibrated and flushed 30 to 45 days before launch. Closed. Probably caused by an intermittent open circuit in the motor switch control circiut. No hardware change will be made. Closed. The Apollo Operations Handbook has been revised to clarify the procedure for extending the probe. Closed.

During the third SPS burn, eight master alarms 3ecause of indications of propellant unbalance.

occurred

The scanning telescope mechanism jammed frequently when driven manually, but worked normally in automatic mode. Fuel Cell No. 2 condenser outlet the normal range several times. temperature exceeded

Automatic control of the pressure in the cryogenic hydrogen tank s was lost and pressure was controlled manually. The first two attempts to undock were unsuccessful because the release switch was not held long enough. Before the 2nd docking, the flag check showed the capture latches on the probe were not cocked; recycling the switch produced a cocked indication.

TABLE IV (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION CSM would not respond to multiple uplink realtime commands for about 10 hours; only the first command was accepted. The problem was cleared by cycling the uptelemetry command reset switch. The CM computer failed twice to respond properly to programs entered by DSKY. The ground verified correct loading except for the last entry, which is not monitored. The entry monitor system scribe did not continuously cut through the emulsion on the scroll during entry. REMARKS Caused by flight hardware acceptance pulse. associated with the message-

Probably caused by procedural entry on the DSKY. Closed.

error in making

the last

one docking ring separation After recovery, was out of its channel far enough to possibly the parachute riser lines during deployment.

charge holder foul or cut

Caused by a leak in the scroll assembly which caused hardening of the emulsion. On Apollo 10, the scroll assembly will be leak tested and a sharper stylus will be used. Closed. A spring has been incorporated to retain the charge holders on CM 106 and subsequent spacecraft. Closed.

TABLE V LUNAR MODULE DISCREPANCY SUMMARY

DESCRIPTION During the first 30 seconds of the 1st DPS burn, the supercritical helium regulator manifold pressure dropped to 180 psia and then recovered to a normal 240 psia. An anomalous pressure rise also occurred during prelaunch servicing. The DPS supercritical helium tank pressure began decaying at the end of the 1st DPS burn at a rate indicating a 0.1 lb/hr leak.

REMARKS Flow was probably blocked momentarily by freezing of air or other contaminants in the supercritical helium tank heat Servicing equipment and procedures have beer exchanger. revised. Closed. Possible leak upstream of the solenoid latch valve. The LM-4 flight configuration will be checked to assure adequate strength margins for thermal, vibration, and squib valve firing shock. The squib valve braze joints will also be tested. Failure of the main power switch actuator mechanism, which has been redesigned for Apollo 10 and subs. Closed Probably caused by a discontinuity (broken wire) in the common wire to the push-to-talk switches which are in parallel. Closed. Probably a malfunction of the caution and warning circuitry, but the failure mode cannot be identified because the AGS parameters are not displayed or telemetered. Closed, Caused by helium trapped in the propellant lines during the previous SPS burns, which has no detrimental effect on the system. Closed. Probably caused by a failure in the pulse forming network. Mission simulations are being run on the LM-4 light.

The oxygen purge system light did not come on during a self-test prior to rendezvous, after being erratic earlier. The LMPs push-to-talk switches on the umbilical and on the attitude controller were inoperative after about 89 hours GET. LMP used the VOX mode for remainder of LM operations. The abort guidance system (AGS) warning light remained on continuously in standby and operating modes during period five. The AGS operated nominally throughout the mission. The DPS engine was rough for a few seconds at 27% throttle during the second DPS burn. The tracking light failed during ascent/descent staging.

TABLE V (CONTINUED

DESCRIPTION The Crewman Optical difficult to see during Alignment Sight rendezvous. (COAS) reticle was

REMARKS Background light washed out the reticle image. On l-M-4 and subsequent LMs, the light filter will be replaced with a diffuser lens and a detachable filter assembly will be provided. Closed. Possible failure modes will be simulated on a regulator and the behavior of the regulated pressure will be determined. The presently identified types of failure that can cause a downward shift in regulation pressure produce no detrimental effects in DPS operation. Probably caused by failure of contacts to close on one of the two switches in the Clear pushbutton. Closed. A thermal blanket which interfered with the hatch will retained with tape on LM-4. The door stop is being studied for possible improvement. be

At the start of the APS burn to depletion, the helium pressure to the propellant tanks regulated at 177 psia instead At 290 seconds, the pressure of the expected 185 psia. increased from 176 to 180 psia. The Data Entry and Display Assembly operator error light button remained on, and multiple depression of the Clear was required to extinguish the light. When the forward hatch was opened for EVA, it tended to bind at the top and it also would not stay open.

M-932-69-09

MISSION LAUNCH COMPLEX

SUPPORT

No maior problems occurred pad was minimal and ground . NETWORK

during the terminal system performance

countdown. Launch was as expected.

damage

to the

Overall mission support by the Mission Control Center and the Manned Space Flight Network was considered satisfactory throughout the mission. Mission Control Center hardware, communications, and computer systems experienced very few problems with Network telemetry, tracking, and command support were satisno ma ior data losses. factory. The few failures which were experienced had minimal impact on Mission Control Center operations. Carnarvon was the only site which had persistent support problems in that the command and telemetry computers experienced outages. HF communications reception during some periods was marginal at several sites; however, the requirement for HF communications was kept at a minimum by using satellite comAlthough several minor communications outages munications systems when possible. were experienced, no significant data losses were experienced. A number of significant problems were experienced with air-to-ground communications primarily because of ground procedural errors. The most significant anomalies and discrepancies are presented in Table VI.

4/24/69

Page 18

TABLE VI MISSION SUPPORT DISCREPANCY SUMMARY

DESCRIPTION During the fourth revolution, over Guaymas, air-toground voice was lost for approximately 6 minutes.

REMARKS Caused by a procedural error at the Mission Control Center, which had been improperly configured for the transmissions.

luring extravehicular activity, air-to-ground transmissions o the spacecraft were lost from, Guaymas, Texas, Merrit Downlink sland, Bermuda, and USNS Vanguard stations. loice was remoted to the Mission Control Center nominally luring the same period.

The loss of uplink capability was caused by a combination of the stations being configured to uplink S-band only (rather than S-band and VHF simultaneously) and the spacecraft crew having the S-band volume fully decrease< as planned. The problem was further complicated by the inability to transmit VHF voice from Bermuda because of ( simultaneous transmission on that frequency from the LM and a suppression of the VHF uplink by the continuously keyed Portable Life Support System.

4ir-to-ground communications were lost for approximately 9 minutes over Texas during revolution 119.

Caused

by a patching

error at Texas.