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Karnataka J. Agric. Sci.

,23 (2) : (369-371) 2010

Management of shoot fly Atherigona soccata Rondani through seed treatment with organics in late sown sorghum
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important food and fodder crop of the world which ranks fourth among major cereals after wheat, rice and maize. Low yield of sorghum in India is attributed mainly due to biotic stresses. Among them shoot fly (Atherigona soccata Rondani) is one of the most important and destructive pest causing damage at seedling stage. In India, about five per cent of the loss has been attributed to sorghum shoot fly (Jotwani, 1983).Currently used methods to manage this pest are early sowing, increased seed rate, thinning and destroying of seedlings with deadhearts and soil application of carbofuran. Pesticides like endosulfan, malathion, methyl demeton and cypermethrin have been recommended for spraying at 7 and 14 days after germination. To stick to this spray schedule it may not be feasible. Further, insecticides are harmful to non-target species and natural enemies. They have resulted in environmental pollution, hazards, biomagnifications and resistance to insecticides by insect pests, resurgence of number of insect pests and disturbance of ecological balance. Hence the present work on management of shoot fly. Experiment was conducted at All India Coordinated Sorghum Improvement Project (AICSIP), University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Experiment was laid out in the Randomized Block Design in three replications with a plot size of4mx2.8 m leaving a gangway of 1 m. all around the plots. The sorghum cultivar CSH-16 with a spacing of 45 cmx15 cm was sown during second fortnight of July 2008. Treatments included were seed treatments (Table 1). To know the efficacy of treatments treated check of insecticide (Endosulfan) as well as untreated check was maintained. All the recommended package of practices was followed except plant protection. Total number of eggs on ten plants were taken at 7, 14 and 21 days after emergence (DAE) and averaged to represent the eggs per plant. Dead heart counts were taken at 21 and 28 DAE of crop by counting total number of plants in each treatment. Grain yield was recorded and converted to per hectare. Cost economics for the treatments which found better than untreated check was also calculated. The data on per cent deadheart revealed that on 14 DAE, the best treatment was NSKE (5%) which was on par with Azagro 5% (1 ml/l) (9.66% deadhearts) and neem oil (2%) (10.66% deadhearts). (Table 1). Plant mixture (5%) recorded 11.33% dead hearts and was the next best. This was followed by garlic bulb (5%) and pongamia leaf (5%) extracts (15% deadhearts each) and pongamia oil (2%), castor leaf (2%), jatropha leaf (5%) were on par with garlic bulb extract recording 15.33, 16.33 and 17.66% deadhearts, respectively. B. monosperma seed extract (5%), B. monosperma leaf (5%), V. negundo leaf extract (5%), P. julifera leaf extract (5%) and A. squamosa leaf extract (5%) were on par with each other (20.00, 20.00, 20.53. 19.33 and 22.33% deadhearts respectively). However, it can be compared with the studies of Kareem et al. (1989) who found that fewer first instar Nephotettix virescens (Distant) nymphs reached the adult stage on rice raised from seeds treated before sowing with > 2.5 per cent neem kernel extract or with 2 per cent neem cake. Cow urine (5%), vermiwash (5%) were on par with untreated control (24.33 and 22.66% deadhearts, respectively). the least damage due to shoot fly was recorded by Endosulfan 35 EC (0.07%) and Imidacloprid (2 g/kg) and were on par with each other (6.66 and 7.00% deadhearts respectively). Almost similar trend was noticed at 21 and 28 DAE. These results neither can be compared nor discussed since such studies are wanting in sorghum and millets. The highest yield was recorded in neem oil (2%) treatment (14.56 q/ ha) which was on par with plant mixture (13.89 q/ha) and NSKE (5%) (13.65 q/ha). (Table 2). Next best treatment was Azagro (5%) which recorded 10.46 q per ha and B. monosperma seed extract (5%) (12.89 q/ha), V. negundo (5%) were on par with it (12.72 q/ha). Next highest yield was recorded in garlic bulb extract (5%) and it was also on par with pongamia leaf extract (5%), pongamia oil (2%), Prosopis julifera leaf extract (5%) and Anona squamosa leaf extract (5%) which recorded 10.40, 10.78, 10.34 and 10.96 q/ha yield respectively. Castor leaf extract (5%), jatropha leaf extract (5%), jatropha oil (2%), cow urine (5%), vermiwash (5%) all were ineffective which recorded 9.3, 9.25, 8.94, 8.62 and 8.67 q/ha yield and it was on par with untreated control (8.69 q/ha). However, among all treatments, chemicals proved significantly superior. Highest yield was recorded in Imidacloprid (16.95 q/ha) which was on par with Endosulfan 35 EC (0.07%) (16.81 q/ha). Highest net returns of 13642.50 Rs/ha were recorded by Neem oil 2% followed by plant mixture and NSKE (5%) which recorded 12645 and 12285Rs/ha,respectively (Table 2). Chemicals however proved their efficacy by recording higher net returns than organics (Imidacloprid and Endosulfan recorded net returns of Rs. 17221.80 and 17023 per ha. Among organics highest BC ratio was recorded by neem oil (2.66:1) followed by plant mixture (2.54:1). But imidacloprid and endosulfan remained superior recording 3.10:1 and 3.08:1, respectively. Thus it may be concluded that botanicals seed treatment can be used to manage sorghum shoot fly. In future it is necessary to evaluate large number of botanicals available in the nature by conducting taking trials on larger areas for replicable results at different environments.

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Karnataka J. Agric. Sci.,23 (2 ) : 2010 Table 1. Evaluations of seed treatment with organics against shoot fly and yield of sorghum Sl. No. Treatments Number of Pre cent deadhearts eggs/plant 14 DAE 21 DAE 1 Cow urine 5% 1.75*ab 24.33a 53.33a (28.25)** (41.82) 2 Vermiwash 5% 1.77ab 22.26abc 50.33ab (27.66) (40.63) 3 Butea monosperma 1.43cde 20.00c 27.66e seed extract 5% (25.61) (30.12) 4 Butea monosperma 1.44cde 20.00cde 27.00e leaf extract 5% (25.61) (29.75) 5 Vitex negundo 1.63abc 20.53b-e 38.66cd leaf extract 5% (25.82) (35.61) 6 Castor leaf extract 5% 1.72ab 16.33fg 50.00ab (23.14) (40.49) 7 Garlic bulb extract 5% 1.58bcd 15.00g 38.00d (22.18) (35.30) 8 NSKE 5% 0.94hi 9.00i 16.33f (17.18) (23.14) 9 Azagro 5% (1 ml/lit) 0.96hi 9.66hi 18.35f (17.80) (24.52) 10 Pongamia leaf extract 5% 1.49cde 15.00g 31.00e (22.18) (31.88) 11 Pongamia oil 2% 1.48cde 15.33g 37.33d (22.42) (34.99) 12 Neem oil 2% 0.90hi 10.66hi 15.66f (18.70) (22.66) 13 Jatropha leaf extract 5% 1.36def 17.66efg 41.00cd (24.07) (36.67) 14 Jatropha oil 2% 1.36def 19.00ef 39.66cd (24.96) (30.07) 15 Prosopis julifera 1.18fg 19.33de 36.66d leaf extract 5% (25.18) (34.68) 16 Annona squamosa 1.29efg 22.33a-d 44.33bc leaf extract 5% (27.06) (38.13) 17 Plant mixture 5% 1.10gh 11.33h 17.00f (19.28) (23.61) 18 Endosulfan 35 EC (0.07%) 0.76i 6.66j 9.33g (14.78) (17.49) 19 Imidacloprid 70 WS (2 g/kg) 0.75i 7.00j 9.66g (15.15) (17.80) 20 Untreated control 1.87a 23.33ab 53.00a (27.66) (41.69) SEm 0.07 0.64 0.86 CD at 5% 0.21 1.83 2.46 * Figures in parentheses are x + 1 transfored values ** Figures in parentheses are arc sine transformed values Means followed by same alphabet in column do not differ significantly (0.05) by DMRT DAE = Days After Emergence
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28 DAE 89.66ab (54.23) 92.61a (54.93) 61.00f (44.73) 63.66ef (45.69) 83.00bc (52.17) 83.00bc (52.17) 80.00c (51.22) 38.33h (35.45) 40.66gh (36.52) 67.33de (46.99) 73.33d (49.04) 39.33gh (35.91) 80.66c (51.43) 85.66a-c (53.00) 61.00f (44.73) 87.33a-c (55.52) 43.66g (37.84) 19.66i (25.39) 20.66i (26.00) 89.33ab (54.13) 0.71 2.05

Management of shoot fly Atherigona soccata ............


Table 2. Cost economics for the management of sorghum shoot fly through seed treatments Sl. No. Treatments Yield Increase in Per cent (q/ha) yield over increase in control (q/ha) yield over 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Butea monosperma seed extract 5% Butea monosperma leaf extract 5% Vitex negundo leaf extract 5% Garlic bulb extract 5% NSKE 5% Azagro 5% (1 ml/l) Pongamia leaf extract 5% Pongamia oil 2% Neem oil 2% Prosopis julifera leaf extract 5% Annona squamosa leaf extract 5% Plant mixture 5% Endosulfan 35 EC (0.07%) Imidacloprid 70 WS (2 g/kg) Untreated control 12.89 11.93 12.72 11.22 13.65 13.56 10.46 10.78 14.56 10.34 10.96 13.89 16.81 16.95 8.69 4.20 3.24 4.03 2.53 4.96 4.87 1.77 2.09 5.87 1.65 2.27 5.20 8.12 8.26 control 48.33 37.28 46.37 29.11 57.07 56.04 20.37 24.05 67.55 18.99 26.12 59.84 93.44 95.05 -

Cost of pest control (Rs/ha) 100 100 100 100 100 112.2 100 109 107.2 100 100 100 101.05 113.2 0.00

Gross return (Rs./ha) 19335 17895 19080 16830 20475 20228.8 15690 16170 21840 15510 16440 20835 25215 25425 13035

Net return (Rs./ha) 11145 9705 10890 8640 12285 12027 7500 7971 13643.50 7319.80 8250 12645 17023 17221.80 4945

BC

2.36 2.18 2.32 2.05 2.50 2.47 1.92 1.97 2.66 1.89 2.01 2.54 3.08 3.10 1.61

Note : Selling price of sorghum is Rs. 1500/2

Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, India. Email: shekhar1993@yahoo.com

ANITA V. SABLE SHEKHARAPPA G. M. PATIL R. K. PATIL Y. N. HAWALDAR

(Received: August, 2009)


References Jotwani, M. G., 1983, Losses due to shoot fly in high yielding sorghum cultivars. In: Crop Losses Due to Insect Pests, Eds. Krishnamurthi Rao B.H. and Murthi, K.S., Entomological Society of India, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, pp. 213-220. Kareem, A. A., Saxena, R.C., Boncodin, M.E.M., Krishnasami, V. and Seshu, D.V., 1989, Neem as seed treatment for rice before sowing: Effects on two homopteran insects and seedling vigor. J. Econ. Ent., 82 (4): 1219-1223.

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