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The Lathe
5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 The Headstock The Carriage The Tailstock The Guideways


Types of Lathe
5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 CuttingTools Types of Lathe Tool Single Point HSS Tools Lathe Work Holdings


Turning Operations
5.4.1 Generating 5.4.2 Forming 5.4.3 Generating Operations


Experiment No. 1 : Generating Flat Faces Experiment No. 2 :Step Turning Experiment No. 3 : Step Turning, Knurling and Taper Turning Experiment No. 4 :Prep-aration of Nut




After studying this unit, you should be able to


describe the various parts of the lathe machine, know the various types of lathe machines, define all lathe machines operations, and perform turning, taper turning and facing operations, etc.

a a

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The lathe is a machine tool, which enables a rigidly held cutting tool to be guided past, or through, a rotating Workpiece in order to produce the desired form. The lathe is mostly used for facing, turning and drilling operations. The lathe consists of, headstock, the carriage, tailstock, guideways, etc.

5.2.1 The Headstock

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caniage and cross-slide to be driven under power. The power is supplied by an electric motor connected to the gearbox by endless Vee belts.

5.2.2 The Carriage

The carriage is a tool holder for machining purpose. It also guides the cutting tool. The tool is rigidly clamped in a tool post which it self is mounted on a compound slide. The compound slide is manually operated and allows the tool to be moved at an angle to the machine axis for the production of taper forms.

5.2.3 The Tailstock

The tailstock has its own set of machine guideways. It can be moved manually along the bed and clamped rigidly in position. The barrel of tailstock has a taper for a centre or for cutting tools and can be fed manually back and forwards with in the tailstock body. The tailstock can be offset from the central axis of the machine to allow accurate tapers to be turned.

5.2.4 The Guideways

Guideways are provided along the top of the machine bed to ensure alignment between the hard stock spindle, the tailstock and the camage. These guideways are generally machined into the cast iron bed and then handed locally by induction or flame hardening before final grinding.

Four types of lathe are : (a) (b) (c) (d) Centre lathe The captan lathe The turret lathe The CNC lathe High speed steel tool (HSS) Steelite Cemented carbides Ceramics Solid tool bit (HSS) Solid single point butt-welded tool Tipped single point tool Inserted tooth cutters Light turning and facing tool Straight-nosed roughing tool Knife tool Pasting-off tool Recessing tool Bar-turning tool Screw-cutting tool Knurling tool

5.3.1 Cutting Tools

(a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d)

5.3.2 Types of Lathe Tools

5.3.3 Single Point HSS Tools

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)



5.3.4 Lathe Work Holdings

Self Centering Chucks
(a) (b) (c) Two jaw, three jaw and sixjaw chucks Independent four jaw chucks Face plates.

Machine Tools


Turning operation is performed by the lathe machine to generatelproduce the required diameters, faces and tapers on the product. The above required diameters, faces and tapes can be produced by generating or forming processes.

5.4.1 Generating
Generating requires the movement of tool and Workpiece to get the required shapes on the product.

5.4.2 Forming
It is the process of reproducing the tool shape in the Workpiece.

5.43 Generating Operations

These are three main generating operations : (a) (b) (c) Flat faces and shoulders Cylindrical surfaces - external diameters and internal bores Tapers and chamfers : Internal and external.


(a) (b) (c) Take the drawing of a product to be generated, observed the drawing dimensions and operations to be performed. Also take the raw material of a product, the tools to be used and the measuring instruments required. Measure the dimensions to be made.

Facing Operation
Locate the Workpiece on the 3 jaw chuck or 4 jaw chuck and lock the jaws with LN key. Set the cutting tool on the tool post. For rough cutting, adjust tool to the cutting edge angle about 75" (approach angle 15"). In the rough cutting operation the material will be removed in one or two rough cuts leaving about 0.5 rnrn for a finishing cuts to give the required dimensional size and surface finish. Adjust the feed rate to suit the power available on the machine and set the cutting speed about 10% below the finish speed.

Finishing Operation (For TurningWacing)

When performing finishing operations, the cut is taken with a lighter feed about 0.1-0.15 rnmtrev, and at the required speed. The cutting edge 'angle of a tool should be 90"-95".

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Taper Turning
Taper turning is done by the compound slide. The compound slide is used for small and large tapers. By using compound slide, the accuracy will be limited the tool feeding must be done by hand. It is a quick method of turning a wide range of tapers.

Drilling Operation
The drilling is an operation to drill the holes on the end of turned parts. to be drilled parts will be holded in a self-holding taper in the tailstock. Drilling tools are held in a Jacob's chuck.

Before drilling, it is essential that the tailstock is adjust to be dead center in line with the headstock. Use a dial test indicator mounted in the three-jaw chuck and rotated about the tailstock. Select the best suitable size of the drill bit, according to the required hole and mount in a Jacob's chuck.

Pitot drilling will be done, before drilling larger holes (more than 12 mm).

Flat-bottom Drilling
Pre-drill the hole with a stard type drill, taking account of the point angle follow with a flat-bottomed drill of the same size and remove the conical portion of the hole.

Reaming Operation
Reaming operation is used to perform to get the good surface finish in the drilled holes. It remove the very small amount of the material in the drilled holes. In the reaming operation the amount of stock removed will be about 0.25 mm to 1.00 mm. To much stock causes heat, tool wear and poor finish. Too little stock produces rubbing rather than cutting and rapidly blunts and reamer.

Taper Turning
The Comfiund Slide
The compound slide as shown in Figure 5.1 is used to turn both large and small tapers. It has a limited accuracy and hand folding must be used, but it is a quicker method of turning a wide ranger of tapers.

Figure 5.1 :Taper Turning

The Offset Tailstock The method is used to turn shallow tapers with a high degree of accuracy. The machine feed may be used, producing a good surface finish. The offset must be calculated using half the included angle of the taper, and the length between centers. The taper is calculated as offset per unit length, and the tailstock, adjusted using a mandrel and dial test indicator. Forming Tool A rapid method of forming tapers, but the surface finish may be poor. Accurate tapers require the tool to be accurately produced and set, with consequent cost. General purpose chamfers can be made quickly and cheaply using knife tools.

Machine Tools


Aim To turn the raw material as given in Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.2 :Step Turning

Tools and Instruments Required (a) (b) (c) (d) Round nose tool Parting tool Steel rule Outside caliper.

Sequence of Operations (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)


The round nose tool is centred for facing operations. The given raw material (here rod) is fixed in the 3-jaw chuck, such that, about 65 mm is projecting from the 3-jaw chuck. The end of the raw material is faced and checked for the centering of the tool.

n Then turn the job for required dimensions, that is 30 r m diameter to a length of slightly more than 60 mm.
Now turn the step of 20 x 30 mm in.stage. Now measure the step lengths, 30 + 30 = 60 mm. If any extra size is there, it is cut off by using the parting tool. Hold the job in the reversed position, facing of the other end is completed such that, the total length is exactly 60 mm.

(g) (h)

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To turn a Workpiece as per the Figure 5.3.

Raw Material, Mild Steel :1015

0 28x 75
Figure 5.3 :Step Turning, Knurling and Taper Turning

Tools and Instruments Required

(a) (b) (c) (d) Round nose tool Parting tool Knurling tool Steel rule and outside caliper.

Steps in Performing Operations

(a) (b) (c) (d) Adjust the round nose tool for centering for facing operation. The given raw material rod is fixed in the chuck such that, about 105 mm projecting from the chuck and end is faced for centering the tool. The tool is set for turning and the job is turned to 40 mm diameter and mark the 4 stages to a length of slightly more than 105 m n r. With a parting tool, under cut an operation at about 40 mm length from the starting to a depth of 10 mm and the shoulder at the end to be adjusted to 25 mm. With a parting tool, under cut an operation at about 30 r r from another nn side by reversing the job and held in the chuck.


(g) (h)

The knurling tool is fixed in the tool post and the knurling operation is completed.
Both the edges of the knurling are chamfered. The another side is faced until the length of the total workpiece is 100 mm. Under cutting the step of @ 20 x 30, @ 20 x 15 is done with a parting tool and the shoulders are corrected.



The taper angle 0 is calculated, using the formula,

Machine Tools

where, D = Diameter at the big end of the taper,

d = Diameter at the small end of the taper, and L = Length of the taper.

(k) (1)

The compound rest is set to the taper angle. The taper is turned in stager using the compound slide feed feeding and cutting from right to left.

The required product is produced.


To produce a nut as per the Figure 5.4.

Figure 5.4

Tools Required

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Turning tool Twist drilling tool Steel rule Inside caliper. Take the raw material having the dimensions more than 15 rnm to the required dimensions. Adjust the drilling tool to centering. Fix the Workpiece in the chuck. Take the drilling tool of about 9.8 mm diameter. Bring the drilling tool nearer to the Workpiece and check for centering. Then press the drilling tool on the Workpiece, so that the drilling operation is carried out.

Sequence of Operations


w I


(c) (d) (e)


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(g) (h) (i)

Drill up to the required dimensions in length, for example about 3 mm depth. Then stop the drilling and remove the Workpiece. Locate the Workpiece in the inside expansion jaw chuck. With the turning tool, carry out the facing operation, in octagonal form as each side dimension is about 10 mm.


(k) Finally it has to be turned to another size by taking the angle (8) about 45".
The required nut with 10 mm diameter hole, 10 mrn side octagonal nut is obtained.