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Project Report
Submitted by:-





81306107047 CSE GP.1 4 SEM.

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelors In








I wish to take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to SD (Switch room, F.R.S., Broad Band , Sanchaar Haat)for their untiring supervision , constant help, suggestion and encouragement during the course of this study .I also thankful to them to expose me into a new field. I would also like to thank my elder sister and all of my friends for their untiring help and suggestion. It would be a sacrilege to record any formal gratitude to my parents for their perennial encouragement and moral support without which it would have been impossible to accomplish this study. And above of all, my humble and wholehearted prostration before Almighty God for his unprecedented favor upon me .

Today, MTNL is a huge company that providing all communication levels to the customer. Chairman(R.S.P. Sinha) of MTNL said that It gives me great sense of satisfaction and pleasure to see and share the growth of our company in the face of highly competitive times through which Indian telecom sector is passing. In order to establish a fine customer interface, the MTNL has taken various initiatives viz. launch of MTNL Info line and MTNL News line in Delhi and ED Online and 4-Message System in Mumbai. These initiatives are aimed at adding another dimension in providing information about various schemes of MTNL, grievance handling and bill collection eventually to bring about complete customer satisfaction. MTNL also continues to offer attractive schemes to customers of basic services, mobile services & Internet services and expects greater market participation in these services in days to come. The corporation is also readying for optimal utilization of existing copper cable by offering

ADSL Broadband services at most affordable rates.

Mission of MTNL

To remain market leader in providing world class Telecom and IT related services at affordable prices and to become a global player.

Introduction Of Company

MTNL was set up on 1st April, 1986 by the Government of India to upgrade the quality of telecom services, expand the telecom network, and introduce new services and to raise revenue for telecom development needs of Indias key metros Delhi, the political capital and Mumbai, the business capital of India. In the past 17 years, the company has taken rapid strides to emerge as Indias leading and one of Asias largest telecom operating companies. Besides having a strong financial base, MTNL has achieved a market share of approximately 13% of the Indian telecommunication network with a customer base of over 4.74 million lines. The company has also been in the forefront of technology induction by converting 100% of its telephone exchange network into the state-ofthe-artdigitalmode. The Govt. of India currently holds 56.25% stake in thecompany. In the year 2002-03, the company has not only consolidated the gains but also focused on new areas of enterprise viz. Joint Ventures for

projects outside India, widened the cellular and CDMA-based WLL customer base , set up internet and allied services on all India basis.



Leased Line. A leased line is a telecommunication path between two points that is available 24 hours a day for use by a designated user (Individual or Company). A leased line can be a physical path owned by the user or rented from a telephone company like BSNL/MTNL/VSNL. A synonym is non-switched line (as opposed to switched or dial up line). Managed Leased Line Network. The MLLN is an integrated, fully managed, multi-service digital network platform through which service provider can offer a wide range of services at an optimal cost to Business Subscribers. Backed by a flexible Network Management System with powerful diagnostics and maintenance tools, the MLLN can be used to provide high-speed leased lines with improved QoS (Quality of Service), high availability and reliability. The Network Management System also supports Service

Provisioning, Network Optimization, Planning and Service Monitoring. The system offers features such as end to end circuit creation and monitoring, Circuit Loop Test and fault isolation, Alternate re-routing of traffic in case of trunk failure, Software programmability of NTUs, etc. Due to its wide range of applications in various sectors like banking, financial institutions, stock markets, newspaper industry, broadcasting houses and Internet Service Providers, this managed leased line equipment will benefit all sections of people by way of faster Internet access, accessibility of bank accounts from anywhere, instant news coverage etc.Various organizations like banks, ATM operators, IT companies will be using this flexible leased line solution. The following are the few features, which are the beneficial for the customers. 1. Customers need not to buy 2 pairs of Modems. 2.Modems will be supplied and maintained by Service Provider. 3. Hours performance monitoring of the circuit. 4. Circuit fault reports generated proactively. 5. On demand the bandwidth can be increased.

6.Low lead-time for new circuit provisioning. 7. Protection against the failure of the circuit. 8. Long drive on single pair copper. 9. Centrally managed from Network Management System. The MLLN also supports enhanced features such as Corporate Internet Access, Point to Point Data, Point to Multipoint Data, LAN-IC, Hotline, EPABX Inter-connect, EPABX Remote Extension and ISDN Line Extension, Virtual Private Network, etc.

Advantages Providers.



Todays Lease Line Network is unmanaged. The concept of manageability is currently not a novelty, but rather a need. TRAI had currently advised the mandatory need of Service Level agreements (S L As) for every service being provided. This SLA today exists only as a matter of dispute between the service provider and the subscriber, which can be ensured only with statistics on an end-to-end status, which is totally achieved with MLLN.

Today a degradation / disruption in service is known to the service provider on a subscriber notification. With the competition of service providers, the subscriber would definitely choose a provider who could proactively detect a fault and take corrective measures. This is totally achievable using MLLN. In such an above faulty status, MLLN feature of automatic re-routing of traffic ensures both customer satisfaction and also prevent a likely loss of revenue of BSNL/MTNL. These could be the only measure for ensuring Carrier class operation and the uptimes cited in the S L As. With the tomorrows network the Customer would be demanding the service. Flexibility in the SLA i.e. the negotiable bandwidth during the different time of the day would be requirement, which can only be provisioned through MLLN. Also todays leased line network being dedicated to fixed speeds has absolutely zero flexibility, which would be unheard of in the future.




The MLLN is planned as three-tier structure of consisting of aggregation and connectivity at two different levels: A. Central Node: It will provide following functionality: (i) NMS Center. (ii) Connectivity to second stage nodes. (iii) Leased line aggregation.

B. Second stage Node: It will be located at major cities of a Telecom Circle, where demand for leased line is high. (Number of such nodes and their capacity is to be planned by respective circles).
It will provide following functionality: (i) Connectivity to third stage nodes. (ii) Leased line aggregation.

Functional Requirements
The MLLN system is able to provide the following functionality: (i) Speedy end-to-end service provisioning. (ii) Round-the-clock end-to-end performance monitoring. (iii) Automated alarm / fault management. (iv) Easy re-routing and configuration. (v) Accounting and Security management.

(vi) On-demand bandwidth availability up to 2 Mbps.

Technical Requirements

The various components of the MLLN shall be: a) Network Management System (NMS). b) Digital cross Connect (DXC). c) Versatile Multiplexer (VMUX). d) Network Termination Unit (NTU).


Network Manageme -nt System.


1. The network is fully managed both from the local and from a _tilizing_d location through industry standard commercially available workstation with Graphical User Interface (GUI). It is having the capability to consolidate all NMS information to one unified console and provide a unified system having single database command set for all platform. 2. As an optional feature, Multiple MLLN systems is having capability to get integrated to a _tilizing_d NMS system, at a future date, which support SNMP V.1 and V.2. The NMS of MLLN is centrally managing all the elements of MLLN viz. Digital Cross
Connect, VMUX and NTUs. This NMS shall be built using the open architecture _tilizing an


industry standard commercially available operating system and relational data base management system. The NMS is cost-effectively expandable to meet the requirements of future network growth. As such, the NMS shall be able to be expanded to manage at least 1000 nodes (VMUX.DXC) and 1,00,000 NTUs. The Network Management System shall allow the Network operator to configure, Provision, manage and monitor all aspects and parameters of the remote elements of the MLLN without the need of local intervention. Failure of the Network Management System shall not result in loss of any network Service or features except the viewing of long term statistics and event logs. In the event of node communication failure with the NMS, node faults shall be buffered in the node for presentation to the NMS when the communication with the NMS is restored. The delivery of all faults to the NMS shall have a reliability of 100% with no fault events being lost .It is possible to manage the entire network from any single location.


It provides Network Status Display using any standard graphical facility to view the Network. The information to be collected from the network elements by the NMS does not require any additional physical connection. It is accessible from the remote site using a remote terminal of the NMS either through dial-up or by using leased line The interface between the NMS and the network elements of the MLLN is through industry standard protocol. The NMS is able to diagnose its own faults by running some diagnostic software. It is optional that the NMS shall provide capability of auto-recovery based on a set of pre-defined rules or knowledge base. It shall have the capability to re-route the traffic dynamically through the pre defined alternative path. The NMS supports hot standby connectivity between the NMS hardware and the network. It is ensured that in case of any link failure NMS connectivity to network is not disrupted and there is no loss of NMS data from the network. Further NMS connectivity to the

nearest network element is at the 64 Kbps or more./ Through RS 232 port as standby.

The NMS is able to perform the following:

NMS auto recognize any change of configuration of any network element. The change of configuration or other settings locally at NTUs shall not be provided. All local settings on VMUX and DXC shall be password protected. Re-initialisation of the network element shall be possible from NMS. This shall be equivalent to manual start-up (physical jack-out and jack-in) of the network element. This might be required in case of a complete or partial 'network element' stoppage due to hardware/software failures. NMS has the capability to configure the bandwidth on demand of any leased line for specified time of the day. This bandwidth on demand is configurable to all

possible programmable bandwidths of NTUs. NMS has the capability to assign priority to the leased line at the time of configuration. This allows the high priority customer lines to be routed first to the standby route, in case of failure of the main route. The configuration of the various network elements like building, viewing, and changing is possible remotely from the central NMS. The configurations of the network elements are stored at some place in NMS from where it can be retrieved in case of failure. It supports macro command facility to carry out the same kind of operation on a group of interface by a single command. The NMS is capable of placing the Network elements In or Out of service.

Fault Management.
It is able to inform the operator about the problems occurring in the network elements and their modules.


The fault events are logged in a fault log file and are accessible when required through database style facilities for information retrieval. The fault information provided contains type of network element, the time at which fault occurred, time when it corrected. In addition to the fault information, it provides a brief explanation of the cause of the fault and proposed corrective action to be taken to rectify the fault. The printout of active faults and fault log file is possible. It is possible to list: (i) total number of active faults in the network. (ii) Number of active faults in a specified network element. (iii) Number of active faults in each of the faulty network elements. The equipments of MLLN is capable of reporting to a pre-specified destination on detection of an alarm condition.Faults in the network elements, links & system generate audible alarms also. The

activation / inhibition of the audible alarm is controlled by the Network Manager.

Performance Management.
It supports the end to- end performancemonitoring functionality as per ITU-T recommendation G.821 for links and circuits. The information provided includes Total time, Unavailable time, Errored seconds, Severely Errored seconds and degraded minutes. It is possible to configure the interval when this performance data is to be collected by the NMS. It provides information about the percentage bandwidth usage of the network elements like VMUX, DXC for a specified period. Performance management module supports collection, processing & presentation of the performance related data from all the Network elements. Facility

is provided for collection of the network data continuously. All the VMUX and DXC must be polled at least once in 5 minutes at Primary NMS level. All other network elements must be polled at least once in every 5 minutes at Primary NMS level. It is possible to collect network data periodically; and for definite interval of time, as required.. These are configurable by the Network operator through NMS. Further it is possible to configure collection of network data for specific or all network elements. NMS is able to manage all the above polling arrangements (A, B and C) for the full network capacity defined in clause 4.4.The network data for NMS includes following information from the Network elements. A. Status. B. Control parameters. C. Performance parameters. D. Alarm information. E. Configuration parameters. F. Accounting and billing information. Data base hard disk memory is sufficient to store all the information in para above and

any other necessary system information for at least one month duration. This information is auto backed up (or backed up by operator action) to secondary memory devices (off line storage devices) before deleting / overwriting any portion of this information, on completion of one complete month. Minimum, of 16 Gb of configured secondary storage space (secondary hard disk / cartridges / tapes etc) is supplied.

Security Management
It supports the user identification and operator passwords with various privileges for giving commands.It records all the login and logout operations done on the NMS.It is able to set the time of expiry of the operator passwords.It supports password protection for the for the network elements in the MLLN. Network Manager is able to create the operators' passwords. Network Manager is also be able to control and limit operator's authorisations, rights and privileges. (Here

Network Manager is an account in NMS will full control, rights and privileges. Operator created accounts by Network Manager for other personnel to help him in controlled way.) NMS allows changing of the password by the Network Manager for all accounts. NMS allows Operator to change their own password. Change of password shall not required system reboot. NMS provides for validation of source addresses of all the data that are coming from the network elements. The data transport mechanism from network elements to NMS centre has necessary in built facility for error checking and correction.

Route Management.
predefined routing schedule is supported by NMS enabling the MLLN to route automatically.It is possible to perform fast re-establishment of circuits within the network across alternative paths totally automatically, in the event of failure. Point28

to-point and point-to-multipoint channel routings on an end-to-end basis.

Software management

It is able to monitor the hardware and software forming the NMS. It is possible to add new functionality (network upgrades), without the physical installation of new PROMs, by simply downloading new Software generics to any of the elements locally from the element or remotely from the Network Management System. It is possible to pre-configure the time by which the software downloading has to do software down load to all the modules of the same type by a single command. The NMS makes backup of current configuration data during normal operation. If the current configuration of a network element

fails it has provision to still continue to work with some fall back arrangement. This fall back arrangement of network element is operated only on the failed network element and only for the "Minimal time" period till the back up copy of current configuration is loaded again from NMS automatically by the system. This "Minimal time" shall be specified.Operation using 'Fall back arrangement' does not affect system performance in any way




DACC or DXC is a large capacity cross connect device and is installed at different main sites for providing VMUX connectivity. DACC is made up of Cluster Master control subrack and slave subracks. Single Subrack (RXS-S) is used as slave subrack and its units depend on the port capacity ordered. In addition to multiplexing and demultiplexing the signal, the node takes also care of crossconnecting the signal. (The signal is first demultiplexed into a lower level after which it is cross-connected and then multiplexed again). A digital corss-connect (DXC) is a device used in transmission networks. It separates channels coming from other devices and rearranges them into new channels for output. A digital cross-connection means that the connection is set up and released by the network operator, but not through subscriber _inimized, which is the case in switching.



a) DXCs at metros (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata & Chennai) for maintenance regions will be designated as Regional DXCs (R-DXC).

(b) DXCs of maintenance regions apart from Regional DXCs as above will be called sub-regional DXCs (SR-DXC). (c) DXCs in the SSAs will be called SS-DXC. The DXC comes in the following configurations. DXC-256 = 256 E1 ports. DXC-128 Expandable to 256 = Equipped with 128 Ports. DXC-96 Expandable to 128 = Equipped with 96 Ports. DXC-64 Expandable to 128 = Equipped with 64 Ports. DXC- 16 Expandable to 64 DXC SS-DXC TO SR-DXC : The DXCs of the SSA will also be connected to the subregional DXC initially by 2 E1 for each SS-DXC, for the circuit going out of the city. Additional E1s to meet the demand shall be connected to those SSDXC under whose coverage area demand has grown, if there are more than one SSDXCs at a station.


SR-DXC to SR-DXC Sub-Regional DXC to Sub-Regional DXC in the same region may initially be connected by 1 E1 each.




Versatile Multiplexer (VMUS) is a small capacity cross connect device and is installed at different sites for providing user connectivity. VMUX is made up of Basic Node, which is the building block of the MLLN system. The VMUX is provided with two types of interfaces to connect STU-160 ( SDSL product family used for point- to- point connections) and CTU-S ( HDSL product family modem , with line connection rate up to 4640 Kbit/s ) modems. The number of interfaces depends on the type of VMUX configuration supplied. There are Four types of VMUXs supplied Viz. VMUX-Type I, VMUX-Type-II, VMUX-Type-III/DC operation, VMUX-Type-III AC operation. The V-MUXs also have a digital cross connect capability and additional E1 ports have been provided in the V-MUXs. Therefore interconnectivity among V-MUXs in the same city can be established using the spare E1 ports for extending local circuits. Initially one V-MUX should be connected to a maximum of 2 other V-MUXs in the same city directly with one E1 each. As the demand for circuits in the areas served by V-MUXs grows,

more E1 links can be directly established among the V-MUXs. If there are more than one VMUXs in one exchange area, then depending upon justification, one of the VMUXs can be dedicated to provide local circuits through direct route to other VMUXs in the city. This will save DXC ports. However, SS-DXC connectivity, where SS-DXC is available, shall also be maintained for setting up leased circuits to VMUXs with which direct route is not available. Efforts should be made that no circuit should pass through more than three VMUXs. However, use of more than four VMUXs in tandem for one circuit must be avoided. Routes shows as standby in Annexure IV A(b) are to be used for meeting incremental requirements of long distance circuits from other V-MUXs if the direct routes are full and the other link has spare capacity (utilized below 80%). This is done with the intention of saving port capacities. Protection path can also be provided against failure of other links to SS/SR-DXC.


V-MUX to SS-DXC in the same City / SDCA.

V-MUX to DXCs connectivity in the same city/SDCA will serve two purposes: first to set up circuits to other V-MUXs in the city and second to set up circuits going out of the city. Direct V-MUX to V-MUX connectivity should be utilized for local circuits as per the plan indicated above. However, for local circuits to other V-MUX areas where the requirement is, say, less than 10 in the beginning, the circuits can be routed via the E1 link established with the DXC. Each V-MUX site in the city should be connected by at least two E1s to the SS DXC. This connectivity may be distributed in case of multiple SS-DXCs. Number of E1s can be increased as the requirement grows.


If there are more than one VMUXs in the same exchange area, DXC connectivity may be distributed on each of them.



Base band modems (Network Terminating Units = NTUs) are usually customer premises equipment (CPE). They are typical last mile equipment. NTUs can also be used for standalone pointto-point connections without the NMS. NTUs allow use of the existing telecom copper cables (twisted pair) for digital traffic with medium distances (~5 km) and high speeds. NTUs must be capable of being managed from the centralised NMS for the following essential parameters: (i) Speed (ii) Line loop testing (iii) Diagnostic NTU on the DTE side must support the V.35/V.24/V.28/V.36/ V.11/G.703 data interfaces.


NTU must be functionally compatible for all features with the integrated Line drivers of the VMUX ports. .NTU should work with the line side interface, which is a built-in feature of the VMUX and shall support the end to end manageability with NMS of the Managed Leased Line Network. NTU must perform internal self-tests on power-up and provide a visual indication if an internal failure is detected. After power-up, the NTU configurations shall be automatically downloaded from the connected node. .


Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model)


The Open model (OSI at

Systems model) is

Interconnection a product of for

the OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION effort the International Organization Standardization. It is a way of sub-dividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. On each layer an instance provides services to the instances at the layer above and requests service from the layer below.


Communication in the OSI-Model (Example with layers 3 to 5)

For example, a layer that provides error-free communications, across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path. Conceptually two instances at one layer are

connected by a horizontal protocol connection on that layer.


The mtnl company works on the physical layer.

The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a physical medium. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, cable specifications, hubs, re peaters, network adapters,host bus adapters (HBAs used in storage area networks) and more. To understand the function of the Physical Layer, contrast it with the functions of the Data Link Layer. Think of the Physical Layer as concerned primarily with the interaction of a single device with a medium, whereas the Data Link Layer is concerned more with the

interactions of multiple devices (i.e., at least two) with a shared medium. Standards such as RS-232 do use physical wires to control access to the medium. The major functions and services performed by the Physical Layer are: Establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium. Participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users. For example,contention resolution and flow control. Modulation, or conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel. These are signals operating over the physical cabling (such as copper and optical fiber) or over aradio link.

Parallel SCSI buses operate in this layer, although it must be remembered that the logical SCSI protocol is a Transport Layer protocol that runs over this bus. Various Physical Layer Ethernet standards are also in this layer; Ethernet incorporates both this layer

and the Data Link Layer. The same applies to other local-area networks, such as token ring, FDDI, ITU-T G.hn and IEEE 802.11, as well as personal area networks such as Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4.

IP address
An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical label that is assigned to devices participating in a the

computer network that uses Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.
An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network



and location

role has been characterized as follows: "A

addressing. Its name indicates what we


seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there."

The designers of TCP/IP defined an IP address as a 32-bit number[1] and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 or IPv4, is still in use today. However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses, a new addressing system (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995[3] and standardized by RFC 2460 in 1998.[4] Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers,

they are usually displayed in humanreadable notations, such as (for IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1 (for IPv6). The Internet Protocol is used to route data packets between networks; IP addresses specify the locations of the source and destination nodes in the topology of the routing system. For this purpose, some of the bits in an IP address are used to designate a subnetwork. The number of these bits is indicated in CIDR notation, appended to the IP address; e.g., As the development of private networks raised the threat of IPv4 address exhaustion, RFC 1918 set aside a group of private address spaces that may be used by anyone on private networks. They are often used with network address translators to connect to the global public Internet.


An illustration of an IP address (version 4), in both dot-decimal notation and binary.






Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of

the two original components of the suite (the other being Internet Protocol, or IP), so the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. Whereas IP handles lower-level transmissions from computer to computer as a message makes its way across the Internet, TCP operates at a higher level, concerned only with the two end systems, for example a Web browser and a Web server. In particular, TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. Besides the Web, other common applications of TCP include e-mail and file transfer. Among other management tasks, TCP controls segment size, flow control, and data exchange rate .



A TCP segment consists of a segment header and a data section. The TCP header contains 10 mandatory fields, and an optional extension field (Options, pink background in table). The data section follows the header. Its contents are the payload data carried for the application. The length of the data section is not specified in the TCP segment header. It can be calculated by subtracting the combined length of the TCP header and the encapsulating IP segment header from the total IP segment length (specified in the IP segment header).
TCP Header Bit offset 0 32 64

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Source port Sequence number Acknowledgment number


Destination port

96 Data offset Reserved

Window Size


128 160 ...

Checksum Options (if Data Offset > 5) ...

Urgent pointer

. Source port (16 bits) identifies the sending port .Destination port (16 bits) identifies the receiving port .Sequence number (32 bits) has a dual role: .If the SYN flag is set, then this is the initial sequence number. The sequence number of the actual first data byte (and the acknowledged number in the corresponding ACK) are then this sequence number plus 1.

Difference Between TCP and IP


TCP vs. IP
Transmission Control Protocol (also known as TCP) is a core protocol of the Internet Protocol Suite. It operates at a higher level than its compatriot, Internet Protocol (also known as IP). The two main concerns of TCP are the two end systems a web browser and a web server, for example. TCP provides the delivery of a stream of bytes from a program from one computer to another computer. TCP is also in charge of controlling size, flow control, the rate of data exchange, and network traffic congestion. IP is a protocol used for data communication across a packet switched internetwork (that is, an internetwork in which all transmitted data is grouped together). As with TCP, it also uses the Internet Protocol Suite. It is the primary

protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite. Its main task is to deliver distinguished protocol datagrams (also known as packets) from the source host to the destination host based only their addresses. As such, IP defines addressing methods and structures for the encapsulation of the packets. TCP provides communication services at an intermediate level between an application program and the IP. What this means is that when an application program wants to send a large piece of data across the internet using the IP, instead of breaking the data into sizes that will fit the IP and using a series of requests from the IP, the software is capable of issuing a single request to TCP, and let this protocol handle the details of the IP transfer. TCP detects problems that arise in the IP, requests retransmission of the packets that were lost, rearranges the order of the packets (so that they are put back into their proper order), and helps to minimize network congestion (in order to reduce the occurrence of other problems

down the line). Once all this has been done and the proper copy of the data has been compiled, the packet is passed along to the application program. IP encapsulation means that the data from an upper layer protocol is collected in the form of a packet or datagram. There is no real need for circuit setup before a host sends packets to another host to which it has never previously communicated. As such, IP is a protocol without a connection in direct contrast with public switched telephone networks that require the setup of a circuit in order for each phone call to go through. As a result of the IP encapsulation, it can be used over a heterogeneous network (a network connecting computers that may consist of a combination of connection tools) in order to resolve IP addresses to data link addresses. Summary: 1. TCP is a core operating on a relatively high level; IP operates at a lower level.



Synchronous transmission


The term synchronous is used to describe a continuous and consistent timed transfer of data blocks. These types of connections are used when large amounts of data must be transferred very quickly from one location to the other. The speed of the synchronous connection is attained by transferring data in large blocks instead of individual characters. The data blocks are grouped and spaced in regular intervals and are preceded by special characters called syn or synchronous idle characters. See the following illustration.
Figure 1. Synchronous transmission

After the syn characters are received by the remote device, they are decoded and used to synchronize the connection. After the connection is correctly synchronized, data transmission may begin.

An analogy of this type of connection would be the transmission of a large text document. Before the document is transferred across the synchronous line, it is first broken into blocks of sentences or paragraphs. The blocks are then sent over the communication link to the remote site. With other transmission modes, the text is organized into long strings of letters (or characters) that make up the words within the sentences and paragraphs. These characters are sent over the communication link one at a time and reassembled at the remote location. The timing needed for synchronous connections is obtained from the devices located on the communication link. All devices on the synchronous link must be set to the same clocking. The following is a list of characteristics specific to synchronous communication: There are no gaps between characters being transmitted.

Timing is supplied by modems or other devices at each end of the connection.


Special syn characters precede the data being transmitted.

The syn characters are used between blocks of data for timing purposes.


Asynchronous transmission


The term asynchronous is used to describe the process where transmitted data is encoded with start and stop bits, specifying the beginning and end of each character. An example of synchronous transmission is shown in the following figure. Figure 1. Asynchronous transmission

These additional bits provide the timing or synchronization for the connection by indicating when a complete character has been sent or received; thus, timing for each character begins with the start bit and ends with the stop bit. When gaps appear between character transmissions, the asynchronous line is said to

be in a mark state. A mark is a binary 1 (or negative voltage) that is sent during periods of inactivity on the line .When the mark state is interrupted by a positive voltage (a binary 0), the receiving system knows that data characters are going to follow. It is for this reason that the start bit, which precedes the data character, is always a space bit (binary 0) and that the stop bit, which signals the end of a character, is always a mark bit (binary 1). The following is a list of characteristics specific to asynchronous communication: Each character is preceded by a start bit and followed by one or more stop bits.

Gaps or spaces between characters may exist.




Alternating Current Annual Maintenance Contract Asynchronous Transfer Mode Department of Telecommunication Data Terminating Equipment Digital Cross Connect Electromagnetic Compatibility Generic Requirements Graphics User Interface



High Speed Digital Subscriber Line Integrated Subscriber Digital Network International Standards Organisation International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardisation Sector. Kilo bits per second Mega bits per second Managed Leased Line Network Man Machine Interface Mean Time Between Failure Mean Time to Restore Network Management


System Network Termination Unit Printed Circuit Board Packet Switched Public Data Network Quality Assurance Simple Network Management Protocol Telecommunication Engineering Center Versatile Multiplexer



REFERENCES http://www.mtnldelhi.in http://www.efy.com http://www.freshersworld.com Magazine ELECTRONICS FOR YOU