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The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua:
enhancing digestion in a different manner

Fishmeal & fish oil

and its role in sustainable aquaculture

Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed EXPERT TOPIC

the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

If profits in the aquaculture industry are as appetising as a salmon dinner? As feed prices soar and formulation moves towards sustainability, aquaculture producers must think differently to stay on the menu. In all phases of the fishs life, proper nutrition will improve health. With decades of dedicated research, the Alltech Aqua Advantage programme responds to the challenges of todays aquaculture producers through nutritional innovation, addressing issues such as growth and performance, feed efficiency, flesh quality and immunity. So, when asked who cares about your profitability? Remember


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An internAtionAl mAgAzine for the AquAculture feed industry

Volume 15 / Issue 5 / September-October 2012 / Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2012 / All rights reserved
Best-selling authors of Megatrends unveiled as guest speakers at the World Nutrition Forum 2012 Applications open for MSc Sustainable Aquaculture Systems at Plymouth University AQUATIV launches two operations and signs strategic alliances to offer marine Hydrolyzate BioMar celebrates 50th birthday at AQUA 2012 Aquaculture Feeding World's Insatiable Appetite for Seafood Univerisdad Best Aquaculture Practices gains first two-star salmon operation in Southern Hemisphere 2012 Novus WAS Internship Challenge Algeria launches Orego-Stim AQUACULTURE UPDATES Good news for Mediterranean hatcheries The problem of deformities in sea bass and sea bream can soon have a solution Cermaq first in the Seafood Intelligence global survey on communication of sustainability for the second time

10 The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal 14 Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: - enhancing digestion in a different manner36 Enzymes to improve water and soil quality in aquaculture ponds 18 Fishmeal & fish oil and its role in sustainable aquaculture 22 Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed 22 The BIoMarine Business Convention

Regular items

International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058


Professor Simon Davies Email: simond@aquafeed.co.uk

Croeso (Welcome in Welsh)

Associate Editors
Professor Krishen Rana Email: krishenr@aquafeed.co.uk Alice Neal Email: alicen@perendale.co.uk

write this editorial within the busiest month with many international visits and meetings in progress. Indeed I have returned from the VIV event in Beijing, China with a Perendale team including Roget Gilbert who arranged my keynote talk on Aquaculture Nutrition and the Application of New Emerging Technologies. This was a very large event, which incorporated a comprehensive trade show covering most production species and also fish and crustaceans. I shall be reporting in detail for the next issue of the magazine on this event. I am also attending the BIOMIN nutrition Forum in Singapore this October and the prestigious BioMarine Business Convention in London. As ever my students are most important to me and I Professor Simon Davies have a new generation of students in Plymouth with some embarking on their masters degree in Sustainable Aquaculture as well as several PhD Doctoral Fellows from the UK, Nigeria and Pakistan. Sustainability is a the heart of our mission here in Plymouth and this is reflected in our various research activities which cover work on alternative proteins, energy ingredients, oils and trace elements. In China much was made of exogenous enzymes as supplements to enhance digestion of difficult plant components to improve their nutritional value, reduce waste and associated environmental impacts. This issue of International Aquafeed magazine is informative of individual topical areas and improves our species section which focuses and shrimp as well as our regular features on general nutrition, feed technology and management. Features include, a review of the role of fishmeal and fish oil in sustainable aquaculture, the various uses of algae in fish feeds, enhancing digestion using dietary supplements In the next issue, I will be reporting on the upcoming international meetings and much more. Enjoy your reading!

Editorial Advisory Panel

Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed (Egypt) Professor Antnio Gouveia (Portugal) Professor Charles Bai (Korea) Colin Mair (UK) Dr Daniel Merrifield (UK) Dr Dominique Bureau (Canada) Dr Elizabeth Sweetman (Greece) Dr Kim Jauncey (UK) Eric De Muylder (Belgium) Dr Pedro Encarnao (Singapore)

Subscription & Circulation

Tuti Tan Email: tutit@aquafeed.co.uk

Design & Page Layout

James Taylor Email: jamest@aquafeed.co.uk

International Marketing Team

Darren Parris Email: darrenp@aquafeed.co.uk Lee Bastin Email: leeb@aquafeed.co.uk


The 21st printed edition

Latin American Office

Ivn Marquetti Email: ivanm@perendale.com GFMT is supporting two events in India over the next six months - one exhibition and one conference. ISRMAX India 2012 is one of the largest platforms addressing the needs of the global rice, grain and aquaculture industries in India; a country with a growing food requirement from its 1.2 billion people. It will be held in New Delhi from December 13-15, 2012 at the IERI Ground, Pusa in New Delhi.

More information:
International Aquafeed 7 St George's Terrace, St James' Square Cheltenham, GL50 3PT United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267706 Website: www.aquafeed.co.uk


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Best-selling authors of Megatrends unveiled as guest speakers at the World Nutrition Forum 2012
nternational best-selling author, John Naisbitt, and the Director of the Naisbitt China Institute in Tianjin, Doris Naisbitt, will deliver their guest speech on Day One of the 5th World Nutrition Forum in Singapore. With less than three months until the doors open on one of the worlds most sought-after events in the animal nutrition industr y, the World Nutrition

For um 2012, BIOMIN has announced the attendance of Doris and John Naisbitt, authors of international bestsellers such as Megatrends and Mind Set. Based on the research of the Naisbitt China Institute, John and Doris Naisbitt are currently working on an analysis of Chinas key economic, cultural and political transformations and their impact on the global business landscape.

This will also be the topic of their guest speech on the first day of the World Nutrition Forum. John and Doris Naisbitt will join a list of over 40 industry experts already confirmed to speak at the World Nutrition Forum, including John Gilbert (Foodlife International, UK), Barton S. Borg (Murphy Brown LLC , USA), Julian Madely (International Egg Commission, UK), Wentzel Gelderblom (PROMEC, South Africa), and many more. The congress will be attended by more than 700 industry representatives and opinion leaders from all over the world, opening the floor to challenging discussions on and around NutriEconomics: Balancing Global Nutrition & Productivity. Professor Simon Davies will be representing International Aquafeed magazine at the event. www.worldnutritionforum.info

Applications open for MSc Sustainable Aquaculture Systems at Plymouth University

he one-year programme provides knowledge of the growing aquaculture industry from a multi-disciplinary approach with emphasis on sustainable use of aquatic and marine resources for commercial exploitation for food and products. The scientific rationale for improving aquatic animal health, production and reducing environmental impact, as well as socioeconomic factors will be addressed. For more information contact the postgraduate admissions office Tel: +44 1752 585858 email: admissions@plymouth.ac.uk or visit www.plymouth.ac.uk

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 3

Aqua News

AQUATIV launches two operations and signs strategic alliances to offer marine Hydrolyzate
q u a t i v, t h e l e a d i n g producer of functional Hydrolyzate for the aquafeed, just started new operations for Tilapia Hydrolyzate in Costa Rica and shr imp Hydrolyzate in Ecuador. These will produce both liquid and spray dried powder respectively from farmed tilapia and shrimps. In parallel AQUATIV has also signed a strategic alliance with a Norwegian company to produce krill functional Hydrolyzate. George Marco, Aquativ Director, said, AQUATIV has already finetuned the hydrolysis process for


tuna, sardine, squid, currently produced respectively in its plants in Thailand, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. These new operations will bring to the market a wider range of functional Hydrolyzate from both Aquaculture and marine origin, to best match with each market & specie needs for an optimum feed performance. Our raw material sourcing is secured thru the partnership with the raw material supplier which guarantees a consistent supply and price stability to our customers. In addition, our factories always meet DIANA Group standards in terms of quality & traceability. What is interesting with this new product is that we are using aquaculture raw materials which mean that the concern with fish-in fish out or 90, 000,000 tonnes - Global FIFO, will be addressed capture production, which has when needed, added remained steady since 2001. George Marco. For the krill, Aquativ 34,600,000 million tonnes - has formed a strategic Global aquaculture production alliance with Olympic in 2001. Seafood AS, a Norwegian seafood company owned 59,900,000 tonnes - Global by O ly m p i c G r o u p, aquaculture production in 2010. located on the West 6.3% - The average growth rate of aquaculture production.


Coast of Norway. The group has one of the four licences for the harvesting of krill in the Antarctic and is Friend of the Sea (FOS) certified. George Marco, Aquativ Director, said, OLYMPIC is the sole krill processing player offering an onboard hydrolysis technology. Therefore, it was a natural move to approach OLYMPIC and form this strategic alliance where we bring our scientific & marketing resources to produce and sell functional Hydrolyzate from krill for the feed market. Rather than just a protein concentrate, we have now developed together a functional product in a concentrate form with bioactive components Functional Hydrolyzate is a new generation of ingredients produced through the hydrolysis of fresh marine raw materials. They are currently used at 2-10 percent in diets, depending on the feed segment. They have been shown to be relatively new nutritional tools in health management of fish and marine shrimp thanks to the bioactive compounds generated by the enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition to the bioac-

tivity, these have properties such as better digestibility and palatability. With the higher levels of peptides and free amino acids, hydrolysates are categorised as functional feed ingredients. Ideally, these have added value for feeds by improving the fish and shrimp health therefore lowering the mortality. The enzymatic digestion of the raw material improves the nutrients digestibility and peptide availability increasing feed assimilation and attractiveness. The message that we have conveyed at World Aquaculture 2012 conference and trade show, is that besides developing a wide range of functional Hydrolyzate we are today the sole company in this industr y demonstrating our product bioactivity in regard with the feed performance and farming productivity, says George Marco. In a paper presented at the conference, Dr Vincent Fournier, AQUATIV R&D Director detailed trials conducted with hydrolysates from krill, tilapia and shrimp focusing on bioactivity benefits. These have been used in feeds where the effects include reduction in stress and mortality rates. www.aquativ-diana.com

US$119.4 billion - The estimated value of global aquaculture production in 2010.

BioMar celebrates 50th birthday at AQUA 2012

or fish feed manufacturer BioMar, AQUA 2012, held in Prague, Czech Republic in September, was a double celebration. Firstly, the company presented the results of its collaborative research with Lallemand

4,300,000 tonnes - The

amount of grass carp produced annually the most highly produced animal species by quantity. US$11.3 billion - The annual value of white leg shrimp produced by aquaculture in 2010 - the highest value of all species.

aimed at reducing the incidence and levels of deformities in sea bass and sea bream larvae. Secondly, staff at the event found time to commemorate the companys 50th birthday with a suitably grand cake.

95.5% - The share of

seaweeds and other aquatic algae produced by aquaculture in 2010. Source: FAO Yearbook
Irmgard Lorenzen, International Marketing Coordinator, Michal Sterba, Sales Manager of BioMar in the Czech Republic, Gioia Guarracino, International Marketing Coordinator, and Torben Svejgaard, CEO of the BioMar Group before cutting the cake.
4 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

Aqua News

Aquaculture Feeding World's Insatiable Appetite for Seafood

otal global fish production, including both wild capture fish and aquaculture, reached an all-time high of 154 million tons in 2011, and aquaculture is set to top 60 percent of production by 2020, according to new research conducted by the Worldwatch Institute (www.worldwatch.org) for its Vital Signs Online service. Wild capture was 90.4 million tons in 2011, up 2 percent from 2010. Aquaculture, in contrast, has been expanding steadily for the last 25 years and saw a rise of 6.2 percent in 2011, write report authors Danielle Nierenberg and Katie Spoden. "Growth in fish farming can be a double-edged sword," said Nierenberg, co-author of the report and Director of Worldwatch's Nourishing the Planet project. "Despite its potential to affordably feed an ever-growing global population, it can also contribute to problems of habitat destruction, waste disposal, invasions of exotic species and pathogens, and depletion of wild fish stock." Humans ate 130.8 million tons of fish in 2011. The remaining 23.2 million tons of fish went to non-food uses such as fishmeal, fish oil, culture, bait, and pharmaceuticals. The human consumption figure has increased 14.4 percent over the last five years. And consumption of farmed fish has risen tenfold since 1970, at an annual average of 6.6 percent per year. Asia consumes two thirds of the fish caught or grown for consumption. The fish sector is a source of income and sustenance for millions of people worldwide. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, for every one job in the fish sector, three to four additional jobs are produced in secondar y activities, such as fish processing, marketing, maintenance of fishing equipment, and other related industries. And on average each person working in the fish sector is financially responsible for three dependents. In combination, then, jobs in the primary and sec-

ondary fish sectors support the livelihoods of 660 million to 820 million people -10-12 percent of global population. Although Africa is only the fourth largest producer of fish in the world, its water resources are highly sought after by larger, more-competitive fishing trawlers. Extreme overfishing occurs when foreign trawlers buy fishing licenses from African countries for marine water use. In West African waters, foreign trawlers pose a threat because factory ships from the United Kingdom, other countries within the European Union, Russia, and Saudi Arabia can outcompete the technologies used by local fishers. In Senegal, for example, a local fisher can catch a few tons of fish each day in the typical 30-foot pirogue. In contrast, factory ships from industrial countries catch hundreds of tons daily in their 10,000-ton factory ships. Wild fish stocks are at a dangerously unsustainable level. As of 2009 (the most recent year with data), 57.4 percent of fisheries were estimated to be fully exploited meaning current catches were at or close to their maximum sustainable yield, with no room for further expansion. Of the remaining fisheries in jeopardy, around 30 percent were deemed overexploited, while a little less than 13 percent were considered to be not fully exploited. A number of government initiatives give some hope to a future of sustainable fishing. In the United States, the MagnusonStevens Act mandated that overfished stocks be restored; as of 2012, two-thirds of U.S. stocks are fished sustainably and only 17 percent are fished at overexploited levels. In New Zealand, 69 percent of stocks are above management targets, but Australia only reports 12 percent of stocks at overexploitation levels due to increased government fishery standards. To maintain the current level of fish consumption in the world, aquaculture will need to provide an additional 23 million

tons of farmed fish by 2020. To produce this additional amount, fish farming will also have to provide the necessary feed to grow the omnivorous and carnivorous fish that people want. Aquaculture is being pressured to provide both food and feed because of the oceans' overexploited fisheries. Continually increasing fish production, from both aquaculture and fisheries, raises many environmental concerns. If aquaculture continues to grow without constraints, it could lead to degradation of land and marine habitats, chemical pollution from fertilizers and antibiotics, the negative impacts of invasive species, and a lessened fish resistance to disease due to close proximity and intensive farming practices. o prevent T these problems, policymakers, fishers, and consumers need to find alternative sources for fish feed, combat illegal fishing, encourage more-sustainable practices in aquaculture, acknowledge the potential effects of climate change on the oceans, and think critically about what and how much fish to consume.

Further highlights from the report:

In 2011, inland aquaculture increased 6.2 percent to reach 44.3 million tons, while marine aquaculture increased 6.6 percent, to 19.3 million tons. Fish production rose 6.4 percent in Asia in 2010 (the latest year with regional data), amounting to 121.3 million tons. In 2010, Europe, a distant second, produced 9.7 percent (16.4 million tons) of the global fish supply. In 2010, some 54.8 million people were directly engaged full-time or part-time in capture fisheries or aquaculture.

About the Worldwatch Institute:

Worldwatch is an independent research organization based in Washington, D.C. that works on energy, resource, and environmental issues. The Institute's State of the World report is published annually in more than 18 languages. www.worldwatch.org




September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 5

The Industry view

I will attempt to bring insights acquired through working at the interface of academic and commercial aquaculture nutrition and feed formulation for several years. There will be no promotion of products (isn't there enough of that already?). Instead, this column will focus on concepts, recent progress, potential solutions, and the gaps in our knowledge and R&D needs. Please don't hesitate to send me ideas, suggestions, and questions that may help keep this column factual, informative and relevant to the needs of the aquaculture and feed industries. Dom Bureau dbureau@uoguelph.ca

meaningless without knowing the level of fishmeal in the control diet, the quality of the fish meal being replaced and careful characterisation of the nutritional composition and digestibility of nutrients in the alternative ingredient studied. Moreover, feed formulation relies on a combination of numerous complementary ingredients (nutrient sources) and as such, the fishmeal replacement of a given protein source alone is largely irrelevant. Aquaculture nutrition researchers often tend to forget that fishmeal (and fish oil) replacement is not a true parameter in itself. Ideally, this type of antiquated terminology should be abandoned. R&D efforts should ideally be a lot more pragmatic and focus on what the animal requires and how can we cost-effectively and safely meet the requirements of the animals. Progress is therefore highly dependent on a balanced understanding of the nutritional requirements of the animals and nutritive value and limitations of different feed ingredients and feed additives available on the market. Increasing collaboration between feed manufacturers, ingredient suppliers, fish producers, and research organisations has been instrumental in improving the quality and relevance of fish nutrition research in the past few decades. Many aquaculture feed manufacturers are investing heavily in R&D activities and have established their own research facilities to test their commercial feed formulations, determine the effect of feed composition/nutritional specifications and feed ingredients on growth and feed efficiency of animals grown under commerciallike conditions. This has probably resulted in improvement of the cost-effectiveness of the feeds available to aquaculture producers. However, limited amount of information from these efforts trickles down to the global aquaculture nutrition community since the information generated is generally proprietary and is closely guarded from public disclosure for competitive advantage. Nonetheless, a healthy, armlength, relationship with different industry stakeholders can truly help commercial relevance of academic research efforts in aquaculture nutrition and help this field meaningfully progress to address current and future challenges, including those related to fishmeal and fish oil replacement.

Best Aquaculture Practices gains first two-star salmon operation in Southern Hemisphere
he global nature of the Best Aquaculture Practices progr am recently grew with the BAP certification of the first two-star salmon facility in the Southern Hemisphere. In combination with its previously certified farms, the July 23, 2012 BAP certification of Salmones Camanchacas salmonprocessing plant in Tome, Chile, established the company's vanguard two-star status. "Chile is a truly major salmon-producing region, so it is exciting for us to recognize Camanchaca's multiple certifications," BAP Vice President of Development Peter Redmond said. "This achievement represents its considerable continued efforts to comply with the BAP standards for environmental and social responsibility." Camanchaca processes and distributes fresh and frozen salmon fillets and portions in a variety of sizes and specifications under the Camanchaca and Pier 33 brand names. With a monthly processing capacity of nearly 5,000 metric tons, its 8,200-square-meter plant is supported by over 9,600 square meters of freezer storage. Camanchaca has four BAP-certified salmon farms located near Puerto Montt, Los Lagos Region, Chile. Its Licha, Chonos and Maihueico Farms completed audits in July. The farm units typically harvest 4,000 metric tons of salmon per cycle. Three additional farms are scheduled for certification in August in a plan to have all active farming sites certified before the end of 2012, Camanchaca Corporate Marketing and Planning Director Igal Neiman said. The company also plans to work with BAP-cer tified feed suppliers and to certify its own hatchery in Petrohue, Los Lagos Region. "Camanchaca has a strong commitment to keep our quality standards at the highest possible level, while simultaneously caring for the sustainability of our activities," Neiman said. "The BAP standards are highly appreciated and valued by consumers, retailers and foodservice operators worldwide."

Rethinking fishmeal and fish oil replacement terminology and R&D efforts
High and rising fishmeal and fish oil prices represent significant challenges for aquaculture feed manufacturers and have a sizeable impact on the production costs of many aquaculture products. Larger and highly specialised aquaculture feed manufacturers may have the R&D capabilities to address this challenge but smaller ones or those working on a variety of species and production environments mainly rely on scientific and technical literature and focused R&D efforts. Fishmeal and fish oil replacement in aquaculture feeds has been the focus of thousands of scientific studies and hundreds of papers have been published on this issue over the past four decades. Despite these decades of intensive research effort, both fishmeal and fish oil remain very important, quasi essential, components of most commercial aquaculture feeds. It is my belief that the state-of-the-art is less advanced than it should be and than what required by the aquaculture feed industry. It is unfortunate that the results of a large proportion of the studies are very difficult to translate into practical solutions in the field. How meaningful is knowing that a protein source can replace 50 percent of the fish meal of the diet if the experimental feeds contained at least 25 percent fishmeal whereas most commercial feeds now contain lower levels that this? A certain degree of fishmeal replacement (50 or 75% fish meal replacement) is absolutely

Commercial aquaculture nutrition and commercial feed formulation

by Dominique P Bureau, member of the IAF Editorial Panel

Introductory note
My favorite parts of scientific meetings or industry workshops are the coffee breaks! They are a great opportunity to interact with industry professionals and colleagues to discuss the different talks, exchange perspectives and gather information about emerging challenges. As an academic, I love getting honest feedback from professionals working in the real world to help shape my research programme and keep it in tune with the needs of the industry. I am very glad to have been approached by the editorial team of International Aquafeed to develop a column on Commercial aquaculture nutrition and feed formulation for each issue of the magazine. The main goal of this column will be to briefly discuss nutritional and feed formulation issues of importance to aquaculture feed manufacturers and aquaculture producers and hopefully initiate an informal dialogue between academic researchers and industry professionals.

Aqua News

2012 Novus WAS Internship Challenge

ovus International, Inc. is to sponsor the 2012 Novus Wor ld Aquaculture Society (WAS) Inter nship program. Culture of low-cost freshwater fish (carp, tilapia or catfish) is rapidly expanding worldwide and provides a tremendous opportunity to provide high-quality animal protein for feeding growing world populations. As production expands, price pressures have increased on growers, demanding improved efficiencies. To be considered for the internship, Novus ask for a proposal that includes the following:

Suggest an experiment which will test a technology aimed at providing alternatives for feed producers which can help reduce production costs through increased productivity, growth and/or feed conversion efficiencies while controlling or reducing feed cost. Provide a background literature review that focuses on the mode of action behind the experimental hypothesis. Proposals to be submitted by November 15, 2012 describing an innovative testable proposal in the area described above. Proposals

should be limited to two to three typewritten pages plus references. A one-page CV of the candidate should be attached to the proposal. Applicant must be enrolled in a University MSc or PhD program at the time of application. The selection of the Novus intern will be announced at Aquaculture 2013 in Nashville, TN. A digital photograph of the intern will be needed for the announcement. Following the selection, the fourweek internship will be scheduled from June to August, 2013. The intern will work with The Novus Aquaculture Research team on a current project being carried out at the Novus Aqua Research Center in

Vietnam. Vietnam is the third largest aquaculture-producing country in the world. Our Novus Aqua Research Center is integrally connected to the aqua industry and will allow the intern to learn about and experience aquaculture in Vietnam through interactions with the Novus research and operations teams. The award will include: Travel to and from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Lodging in a university student dormitory in Vietnam during the internship $1,000 to help with living expenses in Vietnam Submit proposals by email to Lorraine Magney at Novus: Lorraine. magney@novusint.com

Algeria launches Orego-Stim

r e g o - S t i m w a s recently launched at a trade show in Algeria by Meridens distributor, VAPC. Meriden staff visited Algeria to present to product to numerous vet consultants, before attending

the trade show to help with the launch. Orego-Stim is the 100 percent natural feed additive/flavour used globally in the diets of a variety of commercial livestock species to enhance and maximise overall per-

formance, increasing financial returns. Orego-Stim not only improves the functioning of the gut, but is renowned for other interesting properties. William Stewart, Regional Sales Manager for North Africa, said: The launch of Orego-Stim in Algeria has been a huge success and we were overwhelmed with

how busy the stand was for the three days of the show. We are sure that Orego-Stim is going to play a key role in maximising performance in all aspects of animal production in the region. More


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Nutreco has announced that the conversion ratio of the interim stock dividend has been determined. This will amount to 1 new ordinary share for every 97 existing ordinary shares. Based on the average weighted price of 8, 9 and 10 August 2012 of EUR 57.92 1/97th share represents a value of EUR 0.597, which is virtually equal to the gross dividend in cash of EUR 0.60 per ordinary share. Both the cash dividend and stock dividend were made payable to shareholders on August 16, 2012. The Free Trade Agreement Fund plans to develop Thai fish products in local communities repor ts The Nation newspaper. The scheme, which will focus on gourami, comes amid growing concern that the domestic market is under threat from cheaper foreign imports. Chinese fisheries are to receive government relief after 150 ton plastic pellet spill. Plastic pellets have been found in the bodies of fish in Hong Kong's southern waters after Typhoon Vicente hit in July 2012. A farmer in Australia plans to raise eels in paddy fields reports ABC Rural. According to the article, the eels will live in the paddy for four months and won't pose a threat to existing wildlife. The first commercial seaweed farm is coming to Long Island Sound, Connneticut, USA. Seaweed and kelp are the edible by-products of decades of work by the University of Connecticut to rid the waters of nitrogen. Coimex is to build a new surimi processing plant in Vietnam. This year, the Coimex site in Rach Gia district, Kien Giang province will have a total capacity of 100 mt of raw material per day. The Scottish Fishermen's Federation claims a report by the New Economics Foundation and OCEAN2012 is misleading and jeopardises the future if the industry. The report described the European Union fish stocks as being in a poor state. The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) is to provide help for flood affected Philippine fish farmers. BFAR will contribute fingerlings, fishing paraphernalia, and appropriate livelihood assistance. Canadian lobstermen protest over US impor ts. According to a repor t in the Huffington Post, fishermen in New Brunswick are unhappy over the import of low-priced lobsters from Maine which are driving down prices for home-grown crustaceans.

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A regular look inside the aquaculture industry
ummer is usually a time for a bit of rest and relaxation but not so at the Aquaculturists. Some of us travelled to Prague for AQUA 2012 and also managed to squeeze in a few site visits on the way home. Those of us left in the UK dodged the wet weather and gorged on a summer of sport on tv. As autumn approaches, we are preparing for a string of events including VIV China and the World Nutrition Forum in Singapore. As ever, well be there, notebook in hand ready to report, Tweet and blog as events unfold so be sure to check the Aquaculturists for the latest news. Over on the blog, a several themes have dominated the summer:

The weather
It is not just the agriculture industry which is suffering from the US Midwest drought. The failure of crops has lead to a spike in feed prices which is putting the pressure on catfish farmers in Mississippi. http://bit.ly/NAv028 Typhoon Helen caused havoc at fish farms in the Philippines http://bit.ly/ TReTkb The 2012 Marine Climate Change in Australia Report Card found that climate change is having an impact on the country's marine ecosystems http://bit.ly/ OpNHnK

The WorldFish Center and Bangladesh Shrimp and Fish Foundation signed a memorandum of understanding for joint activities for the growth of sustainable aquaculture http://bit.ly/PyEHNe Health seafood comes form sustainable sources says Arizona State University http://bit.ly/QErY2o A report by UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis on the murky distinction between what consumers traditionally think of as 'wild' or 'farmed' fish proved very popular with blog readers http:// bit.ly/P6VmNP

At the end of July, we reported on fresh disease outbreaks at shrimp farms in Vietnam http://bit.ly/O7EUf5 While at the start of August a story about emerging eye disease in tilapia in Israel http://bit.ly/MYCbmP Incidents of the INH virus continued to be reported at sites across British Columbia, Canada http://bit.ly/MM8p5z


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Aqua News

Good news for Mediterranean hatcheries The problem of deformities in sea bass and sea bream can soon have a solution
he fish feed manufacturer BioMar and the producer of yeast and bacteria for feed applications Lallemand Animal Nutrition presented at the AQUA 2012 Conference in Prague the results of a long research collaboration aimed at reducing the incidence and levels of deformities in sea bass and sea bream larvae. The trial results presented showed that depending on farming conditions, 20 to 50 percent fewer deformities occurred in fish larvae fed feed, containing the feed additive, Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M. This probiotic strain, authorised in the EU for use in certain aquaculture applications and species since 2009, is routinely added to the rearing water in the production of live prey for fish larvae. However, as an addition via dry feed it seems to be more efficient in delivering the probiotic bacteria to the gut of the fish larvae. Since 2009, BioMar has included Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M as part of the INICIO Plus range of star ter feeds for salmonids and has developed a special process to add the heat sensitive live bacteria in dr y feed. We still have to await EU approval before we can apply this knowledge and launch an

u p d a t e d v e r s i o n Michel Autin (left), Technical Director for of our star ter and BioMar West Med with Mathieu Castex, weaning feeds in the Product Manager at Lallemand SAS LARVIVA range conpresented the results of the research leading to the approval of Bactocell at the AQUA taining this probi2012 in Prague otic for use in marine and other species. It has been a long and r i g o r o u s p r o c e s s , but good news is e x p e c t e d s o o n , says Michel Autin, Technical Director at BioMar West Med. He continues I am ver y optimistic that the approval will be obtained as results from smaller scale l a b o r a t o r y b a s e d tr ials were replicated in larger scale commercial hatcheries with similar or even better fish deformities to hatcheries in the the Mediterranean is around 900 Mediterranean area amounts to over million. Up to 20 percent of the effects on deformities. production is today discarded at The EU-approval of the use of 20 25 million EUR per year. Michel Autin explains, that the 0.5 to 2g due to deformities. the probiotic strain, Pediococcus With a cost price of around 20 acidilactici CNCM MA18/5M, in cost estimate relates both to the feed for salmonids obtained in cost of the fish fry, which have to cents per fry even a minor reduc2009 was based on a well-doc- be discarded due to deformities, tion in the number of deformumented demonstration of the and to the cost of the repeated ities will mean an enormous reduction of ver tebral deform- hand sorting process. In addition economic saving in the hatcheries ities in salmonids. However for to this comes the cost of down- and a reduced workload, says this approval to be extended to grading of additional fish when Michel Autin, who also attributes other species, additional doc- they have reached commercial improved fish welfare as an addiumentation needed to be pre- sizes, if the deformities are not tional benefit of using larval feed containing Pediococcus acidilactici sented to the EFSA, and this was detected at that earlier stage. The estimated annual production CNCM MA18/5M. done last year. www.biomar.com BioMar estimates that the cost of of sea bass and sea bream fry in

Cermaq first in the Seafood Intelligence global survey on communication of sustainability for the second time
eafood Intelligence has released a benchmark of the sustainability reporting of the 36 largest salmon farming companies globally. The companies were ranked and assessed against more than 200 indicators and principles. The main rating factors were comprehensiveness, relevance and frequency of reporting. Cermaq, including its farming division Mainstream, was number one in all three factors and was ranked as number one overall with a total score of 7.19 out of 10. "Through transparent reporting

we tell openly about our sustainability results and invite our stakeholders to make up their own opinion. Transparent reporting is the best basis for dialogue with stakeholders and continuous improvement. I encourage everyone to look at our reporting and results at www.report2011. cermaq.com," says Cermaq CEO Jon Hindar. Cermaq's largest shareholder is the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Trade. The Norwegian government has clear expectations that companies with state ownership should be

leading in social responsibility within their industries and in their areas. "It is very good news that Cermaq for the second year has been rated as no 1 of the world's leading farming and feed producers in the benchmark report about communication of the company's social responsibility. It is my hope that Cermaq's sustainability report can be an inspiration for others," says Minister of Industry and Trade Mr. Trond Giske. Cermaq's integrated annual and sustainability report is based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), and

expanded with customized indicators for aspects where GRI does not have indicators for fish farming and fish feed production, such as medicine use, sea lice, marine index etc. The report is reviewed by Cermaq's auditors based on ISEA 3000 as a GRI B+ report. "Comprehensive reporting requires systematic work and contribution from all parts of our operations. All employees can be proud of this recognition," underlines Jon Hindar. Mainstream Canada is one of the largest farmed salmon producers in Canada, with 27 sea sites, four hatcheries and two processing plants (one under contract). It is headquartered in Campbell River, B.C. www.mainstreamcanada.ca

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 9


The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal

by Eric C. Henry PhD, Research Scientist, Reed Mariculture Inc., USA

ishmeal is very extensively used in feeds for fish as well as other animals. A recent global survey estimated aquaculture consumption of fishmeal at 3724 thousand tonnes in 2006 (Tacon and Metian 2008). Now it is becoming increasingly evident that such continued exploitation of this natural resource will ultimately become both environmentally and economically unsustainable.

from consideration. This reflects the very early evolutionary divergence of different algal groups in the history of life on earth. Only one of the many algal groups, the Green Algae, produced a line of descent that eventually gave rise to all the land plants. Therefore it can be difficult to make meaningful generalisations about the nutritional value of this extremely diverse group of organisms; rather it is necessary to consider the particular qualities of specific algae.

Any satisfactory alternative feed ingredients must be able to supply compara- Protein and amino acids ble nutritional value at competitive cost. Fishmeal is so widely used in feeds Conventional land-based crops, especially largely thanks to its substantial content grains and oilseeds, have been favoured of high-quality proteins, containing all the alternatives due to their low costs, and have essential amino acids. A critical shortcomproved successful for some applications ing of the crop plant proteins commonly when they were used as substitutes for used in fish feeds is that they are deficient a portion of the fishmeal. But even when in certain amino acids such as lysine, these plant-based substitutes can support good growth they table 1: nutritional profiles of rotifers enriched using optimized protocols can cause significant changes in based on culture using reed Mariculture rotiGrow Plus and enriched with the nutritional quality of the fish n-rich feeds produced.
n-rich feed type High Pro Pl Plus Ultra Pl

methionine, threonine, and tryptophan (Li et al. 2009), whereas analyses of the amino acid content of numerous algae have found that although there is significant variation, they generally contain all the essential amino acids. For example, surveys of 19 tropical seaweeds (Loureno et al. 2002) and 34 edible seaweed products (Dawczynski et al. 2007) found that all species analysed contained all the essential amino acids, and these findings are consistent with other seaweed analyses (Rosell and Srivastava 1985, Wong and Peter 2000, Ortiz et al. 2006). Analyses of microalgae have found similar high contents of essential amino acids, as exemplified by a comprehensive study of 40 species of microalgae from seven algal classes that found that, All species had similar amino acid composition, and were rich in the essential amino acids (Brown et al. 1997).

One often-overlooked nutrient is the non-protein sulphonic acid taurine, which is sometimes lumped with amino acids in discussions of nutrition. Taurine is usually an essential nutrient for carnivorous animals, including some fish, but it is not found in any land plants. However, although taurine has been much less often investigated than amino acids, it has been reported in significant quantities in macroalgae such as Laminaria, Undaria, and Porphyra (Dawczynski et al. 2007, Murata and Nakazoe 2001) as well as certain microalgae, for example the green flagellate Tetraselmis (Al-Amoudia and Flynn 1989), the red unicellular alga

Why algae?
The reader may wonder why algae, including both macroalgae (seaweeds) and microalgae (e.g. phytoplankton), and which are popularly thought of as plants, would be good candidates to serve as alternatives to fishmeal in fish feeds. One fundamental consideration is that algae are the base of the aquatic food chains that produce the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. But often it is not appreciated that the biochemical diversity among different algae can be vastly greater than among land plants, even when Blue-Green Algae (e.g. Spirulina), more properly called Cyanobacteria, are excluded

Moderate PUFa; overnight gut-load maintenance

overnight or 2-6 hr enrichment

extreme DHa 2 hr enrichment

Composition of Biomass lipid (Dry wt. % of Biomass) DHa (% of lipids) ePa ara total PUFas Protein Carbohydrate ash Dry weight Biomass 35% 37% 5% 1.0% 45% 38% 19% 8% 9% 44% 41% 2% 1.0% 45% 32% 15% 9% 9% 66% 44% 0.5% 1.2% 48% 18% 7% 10% 9%

10 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

FEATURE Porphyridium (Flynn and Flynn 1992), the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis (Flynn and Fielder 1989), and the diatom Nitzschia (Jackson et al. 1992).
Macroalgae (seaweeds) of many kinds can form extensive stands with high biomass density

A few algae are used as sources of pigments in fish feeds. Haematococcus is used to produce astaxanthin, which is responsible for the pink colour of the flesh of salmon. Spirulina is used as a source of other carotenoids that fishes such as ornamental koi can convert to astaxanthin and other brightly coloured pigments. Dunaliella produces large amounts of beta-carotene.

In addition to its high content of highquality protein, fishmeal provides lipids rich in PUFAs, or polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. These are the fish oil lipids that have become highly prized for their contribution to good cardiovascular health in humans. But it is not always appreciated that algae at the base of the aquatic food chain in fact originate these fish oil fatty acids. These desirable algal fatty acids are passed up the food chain to fish, and they are indeed essential nutrients for many fish. Algae have been recognised as an obvious alternative source of these fish oil fatty acids for use in fish feeds (Miller et al. 2008), especially eicosapentaenoic

acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (ARA). There is a substantial literature devoted to analysis of the PUFA content of microalgae, particularly those used in aquaculture, because they have long been recognised as the best source of these essential nutrients

for production of zooplankton necessary for the first feeding of larval fish, as well as filter-feeding shellfish. Many shellfish producers are aware the sterol profile of feed lipids is of critical importance, but much less attention has been paid to the importance of the

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Various species of microalgae are used as aquaculture feeds, depending on the cell size and nutritional profile needed for particular applications

Often the algae chosen for fish feeding studies appear to have been selected largely for convenience, because they are low-cost and commercially available. For example, microalgae such as Spirulina, Chlorella and Use of algae in aquaculture Dunaliella can be produced by low-cost openMany different algae already play a vital pond technologies and are marketed as dry role in aquaculture. It is widely known that powders, and their nutritional profiles are the addition of microalgae to larval fish well-documented. Macroalgae such as the kelps Laminaria, Undaria, and Durvillea, table 2: Because these algae are produced using continuous-harvest technology that maintains and the brown rockweed Ascophyllum, exponential growth, their protein and lipid contents are comparable to those provided by fish feeds. occur in dense stands that can be harnannochloropsis tetraselmis sp. Pavlova sp. Isochrysis thalassiosira vested economically, and they have a long (Dry Weight) oculata (t-Iso) weissflogii history of use as sources of iodine, as soil amendments, and animal feed additives to supply trace elements. Protein 52% 55% 52% 47% 52% In recent years there has been great Carbohydrate 16% 18% 23% 24% 23% interest in the potential of algae as a biofuel feedstock, and it has often been lipid 17% 14% 20% 17% 14% proposed that the protein portion remaining after lipid extraction might be a useful culture tanks confers a number of benefits, microalgae to improve the PUFA profile input for animal feeds (e.g. Chen et al. 2010). such as preventing bumping against the walls of live prey (Table 1) demonstrate how However, the algae chosen for biofuel producof the tanks (Battaglene and Cobcroft 2007), effectively an algal feed can enhance the tion may not be optimal for use as a feed input, and the economic pressure for the lowest-cost enhancing predation on zooplankton (Rocha nutritional value of these live feeds. methods of fuel production is likely to result et al. 2008), enhancing the nutritional value of in protein residues with contamination that zooplankton (Van Der Meeren et al. 2007), Use of algae in makes them unfit for use as feed (e.g. Hussein as well as improving larval digestive (Cahu et formulated fish feeds al. 1998) and immune (Spolaorea et al. 2006) Various species of macroalgae and micro- et al. 2012). By contrast, the high-value microalgae that are functions. algae have been incorporated into fish feed Furthermore, it has also been shown formulations to assess their nutritional value, used in shellfish and finfish hatcheries are generally that larvae of some fishes benefit greatly and many have been shown to be beneficial: produced in closed culture systems to exclude by direct ingestion of microalgae (Reitan Chlorella or Scenedesmus fed to Tilapia (Tartiel contaminating organisms, and they cannot be et al. 1997). One study has even shown et al. 2008); Chlorella fed to Korean rockfish dried before use without adversely affecting their that that live zooplankton could be elimi- (Bai et al. 2001); Undaria or Ascophyllum fed nutritional and physical properties, greatly reducnated from the larval diet of Red Drum if to Sea Bream (Yone et al. 1986); Ascophyllum, ing their value as feeds. Inevitably their production microalgae were fed along with a formu- Porphyra, Spirulina, or Ulva fed to Sea Bream costs are higher, but their exceptional nutritional lated microparticulate diet (Lazo et al.). (Mustafa and Nakagawa 1995); Gracilaria or value justifies the extra expense. Table 2 presents
12 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

sterol profile of fish feeds. Aside from alterations in the normal sterol profile of the fish, the possible endocrine effects of plant phytosterols in fish feeds (e.g. soy phytohormones) have yet to be thoroughly investigated (Pickova and Mrkre 2007).

It is not surprising that the biochemical compositions of certain marine microalgae are well-matched to the nutritional requirements some marine fish. Larval feeds are probably deserving of the most attention in efforts to discover how algae can best be used in fish feeds, because microalgae are a natural component of the diet of many larval fish, either consumed directly or acquired from the gut contents of prey species such as rotifers and copepods. Existing protocols that use

Ulva fed to European Sea Bass (Valente et al. 2006); Ulva fed to Striped Mullet (Wassef et al. 2001); Ulva or Pterocladia fed to Gilthead Sea Bream (Wassef et al. 2005); Porphyra, or a NannochloropsisIsochrysis combination fed to Atlantic Cod (Walker et al. 2009, 2010). Unfortunately, it has rarely been possible to determine the particular nutritional factors responsible for these beneficial effects, either because no attempt was made to do so, or poor design of the study. For example, in one of the few studies that has focused on the effects of substituting algal protein for gluten protein, the control and all the test diets contained casein plus added methionine and lysine, no analysis of the algal protein was provided, and the algal protein (a biofuel process by-product) contained very high levels of aluminium and iron (Hussein et al. 2012). More and better-designed studies are necessary before we will have a good understanding of how algae can best be used in fish feeds.

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typical nutritional profiles of algae produced by Reed Mariculture Inc. Just as it would be senseless to arbitrarily substitute one conventional crop plant for another (e.g. potatoes for soybeans) when formulating a feed, the particular attributes of each alga must be carefully considered. In addition to the protein/amino acid profile, lipid/PUFA/sterol profile, and pigment content, there are important additional considerations. The type and quantity of extracellular polysaccharides, which are very abundant in certain algae, can interfere with nutrient absorption, or conversely be useful binding agents in forming feed pellets. The thick cell walls of microalgae such as Chlorella can prevent absorption of the nutritional value of the cell contents. Inhibitory compounds such as the phenolics produced by some kelps, and brominated compounds produced by red algae such as Laurencia, can render an alga with an excellent nutritional analysis unsuitable for use in a feed. Depending on growth and processMore inforMation: ing conditions, algae can contain high concentrations of trace elements that may be detrimental. Fur ther careful study of the prop-

er ties of numerous algae will be necessary in order to optimally exploit the great potential offered by this diverse group of organisms. But it is already apparent that algae will play an impor tant part in the effor t to move the formulation of fish feed down the food chain to a more sustainable future.
References available on request

Eric C. Henry PhD, Reed Mariculture Inc. Tel: +1 408 426 5456 Fax: +1 408 377 3498 Email: eric@reedmariculture.com Website: www.reedmariculture.com

Corporate offiCe P.O. Box 8 100 Airport Road Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 Fax: 785-284-3143 extru-techinc@extru-techinc.com www.extru-techinc.com

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 13

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Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: enhancing digestion in a different manner

by Waldo G. Nuez-Ortn (DVM, MSc) and Jorge Zarate Domnguez (Eng), Norel S.A, Spain

he digestive system of fish and shrimp is sensitive and responsive to a number of stressing factors that frequently occur and are cause of disease and poor performance. In order to lessen the negative impacts of those and achieve sustainable, safe, and cost-efficient aquaculture production, nutritionists must focus not only on nutritional specifications but also on promoting digestive health. In such task, probiotics and organic acid salts have aroused as natural solutions that result in improved health status, nutrient utilization, and consequently performance.

In both industrialised and developing countries, nutrition plays a critical role in the sustained development of aquaculture, thus particular emphasis is being placed on nutritional strategies and their effect on health, performance, and environmental integrity. While a first nutritional approach is the increasingly accessible information on nutrient requirements as well as on the more effective use of alternative and available ingredients, a second approach is supplementation with natural growth promoters (NGPs). NGPs not only provide benefits in terms of health and performance but also do not bear any risk

regarding bacterial resistance or undesired residues in the edible product. It is more and more common by nutritionists to include NGPs as organic acid salts or probiotics in the aquafeed formula. In the aim of optimising health and growth, both are characterized by the resultant enhancement of nutrient utilization, which is in turn achieved by different mechanisms of action.

Gustor Aqua- an organic acid salt

Gustor Aqua contains sodium butyrate, which has been proposed as candidate replacement for antibiotics. Although the consistency of the effects on performance achieved by antibiotics is difficult to emulate, sodium butyrate provides antimicrobial activity besides other key benefits that go beyond of those provided by antibiotics, such as enhanced development of intestinal epithelium and intestinal barrier integrity as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Once in the gastrointestinal tract, sodium butyrate dissociates into butyric, which is strongly lipophilic and capable to diffuse across the membrane of gram negative bacteria (Glfi and Bokori 1990), leading to a disruption of the metabolic processes and the consequent bacterial death. The subsequent reduction in the butyric acid intolerant microorganisms contributes to a diminished risk of subclinical infections and nutrient demand by the gut-associated immune system, resulting in enhanced health status, less nutrient competition, and consequently better efficiency in terms of nutrient utilisation. The stimulatory effect of butyrate on intestinal epithelium development has been demonstrated in both in vivo and in vitro conditions,

table 1: effect of dietary supplementation of GUStor aqua on performance parameters of catfish (P. hypohthalmus) Initial weight (g) Control GUStor aqua 6.90a 6.75a Weight gain (g) 37.56a 50.68b SGr (% day) 3.34a 4.32b FCr 1.65a 1.32b Per 1.34a 1.81b

Gustor Aqua dosed at 0.5 kg/ton feed Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) SGR: Specific growth rate / FCR: Feed conversion ratio / PER: Protein efficiency ratio table 2: effect of dietary supplementation of GUStor aqua (protected) on digestibility and performance parameters of shrimp (P. monodon) DMd (%) Control 64.90a CPd (%) 85.20a ed (%) 78.10a 83.26b Weigh gain Survival (%) (g) 13.67 4.01 90 93 FCr 3.43 3.29

89.11b GUStor aqua 72.46a Gustor Aqua dosed at 1 kg/ton feed

Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) DMd: Dry matter digestibility / CPd: Crude protein digestibility / Ed: energy digestibility / FCR: Feed conversion ratio Coefficients of digestibility were determined by the use of chromic oxide as an inert marker

14 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

FEATURE elucidating greater epithelial cell proliferation of commercial feed. This solution is attribwith the administration of sodium butyrate uted to the anti-inflammatory properties when compared to other salts as sodium of sodium butyrate, whose mode of action acetate and sodium propionate (Sakata and is by modification of transcription factors (NF-kB) that control the expression of Tamata 1978a, 1979; Sakata 1987). In a study conducted in broilers, dietary inflammatory response genes (Hamer et supplementation of 0.05% sodium butyrate al. 2008, Le Gall et al. 2009). The result is (92%) significantly increased the length a healthy absorptive surface area ensuring (+35.5%) and width (+ 55.7%) of villi at 21 and 42 days, respectively (Mallo et al. 2011). As a result of improved villi development, absorptive surface area is enlarged, leading to better feed utilisation and enhanced animal health status and performance. Gustor Aqua has also gained interest due to increasing use of plant-based diets. Several investigations have reported soya-induced enteritis in salmonids (Baeverfjord and Krogdahl 1996; Knudsen et al. Figure 1. Biomass of L. vannamei after Ecobiol Aqua supplementation 2008; Krogdahl et al. 2003) and common carp (Urn et al. 2008). This observation has led specialists to not include more than 5-15 percent optimal absorption of important nutrients of soya in salmon diets in order to prevent as water, minerals or fatty acids. In a experiment conducted with catfish enteritis. When coping with this situation, sodium (Pangasius hypohthalmus), a diet was supplebutyrate arises as a tool to prevent the mented with 0.5 Kg Gustor Aqua/ton of feed development of soya-induced enteritis and and fed twice daily during 56 days. Results allow for a more convenient formulation (Table 1) showed significant improvements in weight gain (+35%), specific growth rate (SGR) (+30%), feed conversion ratio (FCR) (-16%) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (+35%) relative to the non-supplemented diet. In a second experiment with shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a diet was supplemented with 1 kg of Gustor Aqua/ton of feed and fed during two months. As shown in Table 2, the supplementation of sodium butyrate significantly enhanced digestibility of dry matter (DMd) (+12%), crude protein (CPd) (+5%) and energy (Ed) (+7%), leading to numerical improvements in weight gain, survival and FCR. In both experiments, the observed positive results can be attributed to the abovementioned modes of action described for sodium butyrate.

Ecobiol Aqua- a probiotic

Ecobiol Aqua contains spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. This sporulated form gathers the essential and favourable properties for a potential probiont listed by several authors (Farzanfar, 2006; Gmez and Balcazar, 2008; Merrifield et al. 2010; Vine et al. 2006). Among them; viability under normal storage conditions, acceptable survival under processing conditions, being non-pathogenic and resistant to bile salts and low pH, fast growth at host


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FEATURE gens affecting both cold and warm water aquatic species such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio parahameolyticus (NuezOrtn 2011). This inhibitory activity promotes optimal gut flora balance, which in turn results in less nutrient competition, enhanced disease resistance, healthier absorptive surface area, and consequently better nutrient utilization. It is also known that probiotic bacteria can release extracellular enzymes that help in the digestion process. This ability was investigated in a recent study, in which a total of 96 shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with an average weight of 0.85 g were placed in 12 aquariums and fed to satiety with two different treatments (6 replicates/ treatment); 1) unaltered commercial shrimp feed (35% CP), and 2) comFigure 2. Lipase (a), protease (b), and amylase mercial shrimp containing (c) activity in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei Ecobiol Aqua at 2 kg/ ton feed. Final biomass rearing temperature, antagonistic properties was calculated as the sum of the indiagainst key pathogens, and capacity to pro- vidual weights of animals allocated in duce extracellular enzymes that improve feed each treatment. As shown in Figure 1, the difference in final biomass was numeriutilisation. It is the combination of different modes cally higher until day 40, however, this of action what leads to host benefit when difference became significant after day Ecobiol aqua is supplemented. B. amylolique- 50. As the experiment was conducted faciens is capable to secrete lactic acid and in controlled conditions with absence of barnase. While the former will reduce patho- pathogens, the most likely explanation genic bacteria and will be used by beneficial for this improvement can be found in the bacteria such as Lactobacillus as substrate to extracellular enzyme secretion capacity grow, the later is a potent bacteriocine. As a of the vegetative form of Bacillus amyresult, the antimicrobial properties of Ecobiol loliquefaciens. In order to investigate on Aqua have been demonstrated against patho- this assumption, a total of 6 shrimp per treatment with an average weight of 6 g were selected and fasted for 12 hours. Hepatopancreas were excised and the activity of lipase, protease, and amylase

"Nutritionists must pay special focus not only to nutritional specifications but also to maximise nutrient utilisation"

was analysed according to Hernndez (1993), Versaw and Coupett (1989) and Vega-Villsante et al. (1999), respectively. Results (Figure 2) showed increased enzymatic activity in hepatopancreas after feed intake, suggesting enhanced digestibility and consequently better final biomass. Secretion of amylases, cellulases and xylanases has also been reported for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Cortyl, 2010).

Nutritionists must pay special focus not only to nutritional specifications but also to maximise nutrient utilisation. It is therefore that supplementation with NGPs such as organic acid salts or probiotics has aroused as a natural alternative to develop a successful nutritional program. By different modes of action, supplementation of both Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua will lead to the enhanced gut efficiency to digest feed. Factors such as targeted species, methodology for use, or processing conditions, will determine the inclusion of one or the other, or their combination, in the aquafeed formula.

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16 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012


Fishmeal & fish oil

and its role in sustainable aquaculture
by Dr Andrew Jackson, Technical Director, IFFO, UK

he annual global production of fishmeal and fish oil is currently around five million tonnes of meal and one million tonnes of oil (Figure 1), except in years when the fishing in the South Pacific is disrupted by the warm waters of an El Nio, most recently in 2010. Around 22 million tonnes of raw material is used, of which approximately 75 percent comes from whole fish and 25 percent from by-products of processing fish for human consumption (IFFO estimates). The majority of the whole fish used are small pelagic fish such as anchovy, menhaden, sardines and sandeels for which there are limited markets for direct human consumption. In addition to the estimated 11.5 million tonnes of small pelagic fish used in fishmeal there is also an estimated five million tonnes of other fish, the majority from mixed tropical trawl fisheries in East Asia.

Going forward
The prospects for increasing the production of fishmeal and fish oil are very limited,

since most of the underlying fisheries are now being well managed, using the precautionary principle with tightly set and monitored quotas. Also increasingly, markets are being found for at least a proportion of the catches to go for direct human consumption. In addition there is concern that some of the mixed tropical trawl fisheries are not being well managed and that catches will therefore decrease in the coming years as these become severely depleted. The prospects for increasing volumes of fisheries by-products do however look better as fishing becomes concentrated at fewer landing sites and aquacultural production also becomes more concentrated. This will be further encouraged by the rising price of fishmeal and stricter laws against the dumping of waste material. So on balance the production of both fishmeal and fish oil over the next few years is likely to remain about where it is or possibly decrease slightly, which will certainly happen in El Nio years. The lack of growth in the production of marine ingredients has led some to speculate that the growth of aquaculture would in turn be limited by the shortage of such key ingredi-

ents the so-called fishmeal trap. It is certainly true that during the 1990s and early 2000s as aquaculture grew, it used more and more fishmeal, mostly by taking volumes that in the past had gone into pig and poultry feeds. However, since around 2005 aquaculture requiring feed has continued its strong annual growth of around seven percent but the volumes of fishmeal used in aquaculture have remained steady at around 3.2 million tonnes and those of fish oil have even reduced to around 600,000 tonnes. (Figure 2). This has led the FAO to state in their recently released report on the State of Fisheries and Aquaculture (FAO 2012): Although the discussion on the availability and use of aquafeed ingredients often focuses on fishmeal and fish-oil resource, considering the past trends and current predictions, the sustainability of the aquaculture sector will probably be closely linked with the sustained supply of terrestrial animal and plant proteins, oils and carbohydrates for aquafeeds.

Becoming a strategic ingredient

This growth in aquaculture production,

Figure 1. The Global Production of fishmeal and fish oil from 1964-2011 (IFFO data)

Figure 2. The global production of fed aquaculture and the use in the associated diets of fishmeal and fish oil, millions of tonnes (FAO FishStat data and IFFO data and estimates)

18 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

FEATURE ties has risen steeply in recent years and it is important to compare the price of fishmeal with the alternatives. The most commonly used alternative to fishmeal is that of soymeal. Figure 4 shows that over the last twenty years the price ratio of fishmeal to soymeal has increased significantly, which is indicative of the fact that fishmeal is being reduced in less critical areas such as grower feeds, but remains in the more critical and Figure 3. The dietary inclusion of fishmeal (%) in less price-sensitive areas aquaculture feeds over the period 1995-2010 (after of hatchery and broodTacon et al 2011 ) stock feeds. Fishmeal is therefore becoming less whilst not increasing the total amount of of a commodity and more of a strategic fishmeal used, is coming through the partial ingredient used in places where its unique replacement of fishmeal in the diets of almost nutritional properties can give the best results all species (Tacon et al 2011, Figure 3). This and where price is less critical. drive to replace fishmeal is being driven by the rise in the price of fishmeal and improving Fish oil and its fatty acids nutritional knowledge, but also by concern As has been well documented, during the about the fluctuating supply due to El Nio, period 1985-2005 fish oil usage moved from etc. Of course the price of all commodi- being almost exclusively used to produce hydrogenated margarines to being almost exclusively used in aquaculture. Within aquaculture by far the biggest user was in salmon feed, indeed it reached the point, in around 2002, when over 60 percent of the worlds fish oil production was being fed to salmon. The reason for this very high usage in salmon feeds was that salmon were found to perform best on diets with in excess of 30 percent fat and at the time fish oil was one of the cheapest oils on the market. In addition it also gave the finished salmon fillets a very high level of long chain Omega- 3 fatty acids, specifically EPA and DHA. During the last 10 years increasing evidence has been published on the very important role these two fatty acids play in human health. EPA has been shown to be critical in the health of the cardiovascular system and DHA in the proper functioning of the nervous system, most notably brain function. This growing awareness within the medical profession and the general public has led to many governments producing recommended daily intakes for these fatty acids and companies launching a large number of health supplements, including pharmaceutical products, with concentrated EPA. The importance placed on EPA and DHA in the human diet has had a number of profound effects on the fish oil market. Firstly over the last ten years a significant market has

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September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 19


developed for the sale of crude fish oil for its refinement and inclusion into capsules etc. This has grown from almost nothing, to the point where today around 25 percent of the worlds production of crude fish oil is sold to this market. This has occurred at a time when the demand for salmon feed has gone from 1.8 million tonnes to nearly three million tonnes. The other critical factor is that to obtain fish oil of the right quality (freshness, lack of oxidation products and levels of EPA and DHA) the nutraceutical market pays a premium of 25-30 percent over that for feed oil (current price for feed-grade fish oil is approximately $1,800/tonne). In order to increase the production of salmon feed in-line with the market (as well

vegetable sources and this trend seems likely to continue. As salmon are poor converters of shortchained omega-3 fatty acids to long-chain fatty acids the fatty acid profile of the finished salmon fillet is very much a reflection of the fatty acid profile in the feed. The result is that the EPA and DHA content of farmed salmon is decreasing and the omega-6 content is increasing. This trend seems set to continue in the years to come. It seems likely that the salmon market will differentiate into high EPA and DHA salmon demanding a price premium and regular salmon, which, while still containing some EPA and DHA will have levels well below that found in wild salmon.

Figure 4. The ratio of the price of Peruvian fishmeal and Brazilian soymeal based on weekly prices for the period 1993-2012 and the calculated trend line (IFFO data)

as trying to minimise any price effect) feed producers have been increasingly substituting fish oil with vegetable oil. The vegetable oil of choice is rapeseed (or canola) oil, which, while not having any EPA or DHA, does at least have short-chain omega 3 fatty acids and fewer omega-6 fatty acids than most other commonly available vegetable oils such as soya oil. The point has now been reached where over 50 percent of the added oil in salmon diets comes from

Is it sustainable?
One of the most often asked questions about fishmeal and fish oil is whether or not the practice is sustainable. This is a huge topic for discussion and one that is not easily covered in the last section of a short article. To answer the question one has to go back and look at the source of the raw material and look at the matter, fishery by fishery. The most widely accepted measure of sustainability for a fishery is the Marine Stewardship Councils

standard. However, whilst this has been adopted by a growing number of fisheries which can be eco-labelled at the point of sale, there are currently no substantial volumes of whole-fish from MSC certified fisheries being made available to fishmeal plants. Back in 2008 IFFO became aware that the fishmeal and fish oil industry needed an independently set, third-party audited standard, which could be used by a factory to demonstrate the responsible sourcing of raw material and the responsible manufacture of marine ingredients. IFFO convened a multistakeholder task force including feed producers, fish farmers, fish processors, retailers and environmental NGOs who over the next 18 months complied the standard which was launched late 2009. The IFFO RS standard has been quickly adopted by the industry and the point has now been reached where over one third of the world production comes from certified factories. The standard requires that any whole fish must come from fisheries that are managed according to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The standard also demands that the factory can demonstrate good manufacturing practice including full traceability from intake to finished product. There are now around 100 certified factories in nine different countries producing IFFO RS fishmeal and fish oil. Many of the worlds major feed fisheries have been approved for use, although some have yet to produce sufficient evidence to convince the auditors. Full details of certified plants and approved raw materials can be found on the IFFO web site, www.iffo.net . A continuing area of concern is Asia where, as discussed earlier, there are considerable volumes of fishmeal produced from trawled mixed species. IFFO is working with a number of different organisations including the FAO and the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership to investigate how to bring about fisheries improvement in this critical area. Asia

20 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

FEATURE stages of the life-cycle when optimum performance is required. The growing importance of EPA and DHA in human health will ensure that there is a strong demand for fish oil, either for direct human consumption or via farmed fish, such as salmon. There is a growing need for fish feed producers and farmers to demonstrate that all the raw materials in their feeds are being responsibly sourced. This is best achieved by using an internationally recognised certification standard. Increasing volumes of certified marine ingredients are now coming onto the market which will allow fish farmers to demonstrate their commitment to responsible aquaculture.

"Fishmeal and fish oil production is expected to remain around current levels, but this is unlikely to limit the growth of aquaculture which will continue to have reducing inclusion levels of marine ingredients in the diets of most farmed fish"

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is the region where aquaculture is growing fastest and the need for responsibly produced fishmeal is highest.
FAO (2012). The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture 2012. Rome: FAO. Tacon, A. G. J., Hasan, M. R., and Metian, M. (2011). Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed fish and crustaceans -Trends and prospects. In: FAO fisheries technical paper, Vol. 564. Rome: FAO.

Fishmeal and fish oil production is expected to remain around current levels, but this is unlikely to limit the growth of aquaculture which will continue to have reducing inclusion levels of marine ingredients in the diets of most farmed fish. Fishmeal will increasingly become a strategic ingredient used at critical

More inforMation:
Website: www.iffo.net


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Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed
by Dr Alex Obach, Managing Director, Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre, Norway

eed for fish and shrimp raised in aquaculture needs high levels of protein and energy. Traditionally feed for carnivorous or omnivorous fish and for shrimp provides these mainly as fishmeal and fish oil, which also contributes to the health promoting aspects of fish and shrimp in the human diet. Aquaculture of fed species today takes 6080 percent of the fishmeal and 80 percent of the fish oil produced, mainly from the industrial pelagic fisheries or, in a growing trend, from the trimmings produced during processing for human consumption. Trimmings are defined as by-products when fish are processed for human consumption or if whole fish is rejected because the quality at the time of landing does not meet requirements for human consumption. The International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organisation estimates trimmings are now used for around 25 percent of fishmeal production. The industry is, therefore, heavily dependent on marine resources but production from these resources cannot be increased sustainably, either for human consumption or the industrial fisheries. At best, sustainably managed fisheries will continue to yield around the current harvest of five million tonnes of fishmeal and one million tonnes of fish oil. Feed producers such as Skretting require their marine raw material suppliers to document that the fishmeal and fish oil are derived from responsibly managed and sustainable fisheries and do not include endangered species. Therefore, to meet a growing demand for fish, aquaculture must identify alternatives to these marine ingredients.

welfare and produce fish that are good Analyses of global demographics, widely to eat, both in terms of eating experience publicised by the Food and Agriculture and nutrition. It has been a main focus at Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre for indicate a continuing expansion of the popu- the past decade, for example determining lation passing nine billion by 2050. In parallel, the nutritional value of more than 400 economic development is providing a greater raw materials. These investigations led proportion with an income that permits to AminoBalance, where balancing of them to be more selective about their diet. amino acids increases the contribution The main trend is to switch from vegetable such proteins make to muscle growth. staples to animal and fish protein. A third, Figure 1: Raw material options for fish but lesser, factor is the growing awareness feed (Source Skretting) of the health benefits of fish in the diet, providing long chain omega-3 polyunProtein raw Starch Fats materials sources saturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) EPA and DHA, fish proteins and important vitamins and minerals such as iodine and Fish meal Fish oil Wheat selenium. Krill meal Krill oil Barley At the same time, a growing proporalgal meal algal oil Sorghum tion of the pelagic catch, which includes Soya products rapeseed oil tapioca the industrial fisheries, is going to the more lucrative markets of processing for Sunflower meal Soybean oil Potato starch human consumption, as processing techrapeseed meal Sunflower oil Peas nology improves and as new consumers Corn gluten Corn oil Faba beans with different tastes enter the market. Wheat gluten linseed oil oats Simultaneously, the omega-3 supplements Faba beans Palm oil industry is competing for the best quality fish oils and readily outbids the feed lupins Camelina oil producers. Pea meal Poultry fat According to the FAO report rice products lard The State of World Fisheries and Poultry meal Aquaculture 2012, aquaculture is set Feather meal to remain one of the fastest grow Marine origin ing feed sectors. Having doubled in Blood meal the past decade to almost 60 million Meat and Bone Vegetable raw tonnes globally, it is expected to grow meal materials by up to 50 percent in the next. This Microbial Animal makes identifying alternative, sustainable protein by-products sources of protein and energy a major Insect meal Other raw priority. Researchers are looking for Worm meal materials alternatives that will provide low feed conversion ratios, maintain high fish

Rising demand

22 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012


Recent advance
Research progress to date means fishmeal levels in feeds for species such as Atlantic salmon have been reduced. Until recently 25 percent appeared to be the limit below which performance suffered, in terms of growth rate and feed conversion ratio. In 2010 researchers at Skretting ARC finalised a new concept known as MicroBalance. MicroBalance technology is based on the identification of several essential micro-nutrients in fishmeal that were shown to be the limiting factors, not the amount of fishmeal. Supplementing the diet with the right balance of essential micro-nutrients and other functional micro-ingredients helped reduce fishmeal content in fish feed. Applying the concept enabled Skretting companies to produce commercially successful feeds with as little as 15 percent fishmeal without detracting from feed performance, fish welfare or end product quality. A key advantage of MicroBalance is the flexibility to adapt the raw material combination in response to prices, lessening for farmers the impacts of price volatility. Today Skretting can formulate fish feed with levels of fishmeal as low as 510 percent. Fishmeal can be replaced solely by vegetable raw materials or by a combination of vegetable raw materials and non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs). It should be noted that PAPs are widely used in countries outside the EU and provide extremely good quality, safe nutrition to supplement fishmeal. Typical examples include blood meal also known as haemoglobin meal, poultry meal, and feather meal. PAPs were banned from animal feed and fish feed in the EU following the BSE crisis in the 1990s. Recently a proposal for the reintroduction of PAPs in

fish feed was approved by a qualified majority of EU member states, meaning that nonruminant PAPs will be authorised for fish feed from June 1, 2013.

Trial results
A 22-month trial with Atlantic salmon in a commercial scale farm in Norway demonstrated the practicality of MicroBalance. It followed a complete generation of salmon from smolt to harvest. The trial was jointly organised by Marine Harvest and Skretting and conducted at the Centre for Aquaculture Competence (CAC) in Norway from May 2009 to February 2011 inclusive. CAC is a commercialscale R&D farm managed by Marine Harvest and is equipped to measure all operational parameters just as precisely as in a small-scale research station. A total of 780,000

Atlantic salmon provided were divided and fed on one of three feeds: Conventional grower feed (pre MicroBalance): 25 percent fishmeal and 13 percent fish oil with EPA + DHA comprising about 10 percent of total fatty acids. OptiLine from Skretting Norway (using MicroBalance): 15 percent fishmeal and 13

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 23

FEATURE example, following the introduction of the MicroBalance concept, the fish oil will certainly be the determining factor for the FFDR. The dependency on wild forage fish resources should be calculated for both FM and FO using the following formulae. FFDRm = (% fishmeal in feed from forage fisheries) x (eFCR) / 22.2 FFDRo = (% fish oil in feed from forage fisheries) x (eFCR) / 5.0 Where: eFCR is the Economic Feed Conversion Ratio; the quantity of feed used to produce the quantity of fish harvested. Only fishmeal and fish oil that is derived directly from a pelagic fishery (e.g. anchoveta) is to be included in the calculation of FFDR. The amount of fishmeal in the diet is calculated back to live fish weight by using a yield of 22.2%. This is an assumed average yield. If the yield is known to be different that figure should be used. The amount of fish oil in the diet is calculated back to live fish weight by using a yield of five percent This is an assumed average yield.

Figure 2: Supply and use of fish oil (Source IFFO and Skretting)

percent fish oil with EPA + DHA comprising about 10 percent of total fatty acids. Experimental OptiLine (using MicroBalance): 15 percent fishmeal and nine percent fish oil with EPA + DHA comprising about eight percent of total fatty acids. The parameters monitored were growth, FCR, quality, health, sustainability and food safety. The total harvest weight was 3,517 tonnes. After the harvest the taste, smell and texture of the fillets were tested by a panel of professional tasters. The results showed that both low fishmeal feeds gave the same growth and FCR as the control diet. There were no observed differences in fish health, or in the quality parameters. The salmon fed with the lowest proportion of marine products (15% fishmeal, 9% fish oil) only needed 1.07 kg of fish in their feed to produce 1 kg at harvest. Calculating protein alone showed a positive ratio, with fish out exceeding fish in. MicroBalance is now applied in the diets of several other commercial species, including sea bass, sea bream, rainbow trout, turbot and yellowtail.

Fish oil
Research to date has enabled producers of fish feed to supplement fish oil with vegetable oils in the diets of carnivorous species by as much as 50 percent. Lower levels have been tested in experimental diets with no negative effects. Much of the progress results from the EU RAFOA project. RAFOA stands for Researching Alternatives to Fish Oil in Aquaculture and the project focused on four species; Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, sea bass and sea bream. Led by the Institute of Aquaculture at the University of Stirling, partners include NIFES (the National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research) and Skretting ARC, in Norway, the INRA (National Institute for Agronomic Research) in France and the University of Las Palmas, in the Canary Islands (Spain). The main challenge is to maintain adequate levels of EPA

and DHA, both for the fish and for the health benefits of fish as food. Secondly the EU AquaMax project, coordinated by NIFES in Norway with 32 international partners around the world including Skretting ARC, addressed this issue directly, developing diets with low levels of both fishmeal and fish oil and thus reducing the fish-in fish-out ratios. This complements work table 1: total production of fed species in 2000, 2005, 2010, with total at Skretting ARC feed used, total fishmeal and total fish oil (x 1,000 tonnes). to develop the Year total production total of feeds total fishmeal total fish oil LipoBalance of fed species used used used concept, which allows combina1995 4,028 7,612 1,870 463 tions of oils to 2000 7,684 14,150 2,823 608 be prepared that 2010 21,201 35,371 3,670 764 will provide the correct balance Source: Tacon et al. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Paper 564 of energy and nutrients, including EPA and DHA, at lowest If the yield is known to be different that figure should be used. cost. Using these formulae it can be seen that the FFDRs for Atlantic salmon, for example, Performance ratios Feed conversion ratios (FCRs) have were halved between 2004 and 2011. The advanced significantly over the past three FFDRm was reduced from 1.24 to 0.56 and decades. In Atlantic salmon, for example, the the FFDRo from 4.28 to 2.05. This doubles FCR has decreased from 1.30 in the 1980s the quantity of salmon produced from a given to slightly above 1.00 today, mainly due to quantity of fishmeal and fish oil. the development of high-nutrient-dense diets and to improvements in feed management Health benefits (reducing feed waste). This represents more As mentioned, maintaining health benefits efficient use of feed raw materials; especially is a key objective when reducing dependency as fishmeal and fish oil contents were reduced on marine raw materials. It is being addressed in the same period (Table 1). in several ways. The first is to determine the Another contributor here is the emer- minimum levels of EPA and DHA that the fish gence of functional diets that maintain or even require. The feeds with high levels of marine improve performance in adverse conditions ingredients produced fish with high levels of such as high or low water temperatures and long chain (LC) poly-unsaturated fatty acids outbreaks of disease. Better growth, reduced (PUFAs); more than needed by the fish so FCR and higher survival will all contribute to that a proportion was metabolised for energy. improve the utilisation of feed resources. At lower inclusion levels the use of these limFeed Fish Dependency Ratio (FFDR) is ited nutrients can be optimised, since a higher the quantity of wild fish used per quantity of proportion will be retained in the muscle. At cultured fish produced. This measure can be even lower levels (close to nutritional requireweighted for fishmeal or fish oil, whichever ment) the fish can maximise its capacity to component creates a larger burden of wild elongate and desaturate, and could become a fish in feed. In the case of Atlantic salmon for net producer of LC PUFAs.

24 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

FEATURE On average 100 g of salmon fillet has around 16 g of fat of which at least four to five percent is omega-3 EPA and DHA (DHA being the main fatty acid in the phospholipid fraction). Thus a 130 g portion would provide around 930 mg of EPA and DHA. That is equivalent to several supplement capsules. Two portions a week adequately provide the recommended dietary levels of LC PUFAs and important vitamins and minerals in an easily assimilated form. A second approach is to explore ways of formulating feed so that the LC PUFAs are retained in the fillet flesh. Further research at Skretting ARC into the functions of microingredients recently led to a new salmon feed that significantly improves the feed conversion ratio and fillet yield. Fillet analysis revealed the micro-nutrients also raised the proportion of EPA and DHA in the muscle. The third approach is to identify alternative resources. There are two major contenders: genetic modifications to crop plants and micro-algae. Progress is being monitored by feed producers keen to reduce their dependence on marine ingredients. Some plants produce PUFAs, for example rape (canola) or soya, but the carbon chains are too short. The EPA carbon chain has 20 carbon atoms and DHA 22. The ambition is to introduce genes to extend 18-carbon chains already present. Limited progress has been with EPA. DHA is a greater challenge. Some micro-algae species are natural synthesisers of the longer chain fatty acids. The challenge here is economic; to grow them in bulk, either by sea farming or in vats on land, in sufficient volumes to make them competitive as a feed ingredient. There are also reports of extracting LC PUFAs from yeast cultures and these would face the same economic challenge.

Aqua feed producers must find alternatives to the marine ingredients fishmeal and fish oil while maintaining fish welfare and aquaculture performance as a highly efficient means of producing nutritious protein. Eating quality and health benefits are equally important. However, although the supply of marine ingredients from the wild catch is limited, with appropriate controls they will continue to be available. A key task for the industry is to ensure they are used in a manner that spreads the benefits through a combination of supplementation, feed formulation and feed management on farm. This way the growing demand for fish can be met and the benefits shared sustainably for generations to come.

Alex Obach has held the position of Managing Director at Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre since May 1, 2007. Originally from Barcelona, Spain, he is a veterinarian with a Master in Aquaculture from the University of Girona (Spain) and a PhD in fish pathology and immunology from the University of West Brittany (France). He started working at Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre in 1993 as a researcher, initially within fish health then as a nutritionist. He He previously was Manager of ARCs Fish Health department. Between 1993-1995, he was also engaged as lecturer at the University of Barcelona, and worked for two years as Manager of the Marine Harvest Technical Centre.

About the author

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 25


Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre

Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre

Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre (ARC) is the central R&D unit for Nutrecos global fish feed company Skretting. Skretting ARC's main objective is to provide research and technical support regarding feed for both fish and shrimp. The research centre is based in Stavanger, Norway, and has further research units in Italy, Spain, China and Japan. Skretting ARC employs an international team of highly skilled specialists, with in total 70 employees from 20 nationalities, including 30 researchers. Skretting ARC collaborates with several institutes and private companies across the globe. Its core competencies are within fish and shrimp nutrition and health, feed raw materials, feed safety and quality, analysis and modelling technology and feed production processes.

26 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

1: ARC research 2: Ariel view of the main ARC building in Stavanger 3: Lerang is a fish trials station belonging to ARC, located on the side of a fjord, separate from the main building. 4: ARC Lerang fish trials station 5: ARC NIR analysis 6: ARC assessing pigmentation Background image: The Skretting Centre for Aquaculture Competence (The CAC) is the location for the large-scale long-term trial mentioned on the previous pages.

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 27


Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how it's feed is managed.
28 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012



Vietnamese Stakeholders discuss early mortality shrimp disease

by Adrien Louyer, Technical Supervisor Aquaculture, Olmix, Vietnam
n August 6, 2012, Olmix was the sponsor of a dinner for Shrimp Vietnamese Stakeholders to discuss the newly emerging disease early mortality in shrimp (EMS) or more descriptively, the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome (AHPNS). The disease is significant to China and Southeast Asian shrimp farming countries including Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. In Vietnam alone, EMS caused direct losses of over $250 million in 2011. Prof. Donald V. Lightner, from University of Arizona, was invited as a key speaker. He is a prominent expert of aquaculture pathology, especially in penaeid shrimp diseases. He has been involved in penaeid shrimp diseases for over 40 years and currently being the

Director of the OIE reference Laboratory of Aquaculture Pathology at the University of Arizona. His current research area is on EMS disease. The dinner was an opportunity for Vietnamese feed millers and research institutes to have an open discussion with Dr. Lightner on EMS disease. On the side of this discussion, shrimp sensitivity to mycotoxins was presented including a presentation of MTX+, the Olmix answer based on activated clay with seaweeds to deal with it. After extensive research from Dr Lightner

and his team, the causative agent of EMS remains unknown. The EMS research team at the University of Arizona is putting strong effort to determine the cause of this disease based on different approaches. To find an answer to the common EMS threat, shrimp stakeholders should group their effort to tackle the issue. Research will be carried out to get more knowledge on the disease and try to identify the responsible microorganism and/or possible toxicants in the environment that may be associated with this disease. The further step of EMS research to be carried out by the Arizona team is to find viable solutions to prevent or reduce the risk of EMS in shrimp farming. To fully achieve program objectives, quick and strong financial support is needed. The following companies were present at the dinner CP, Minh Phu Sea food, Proconco, Sunjin vina feed, Huy Thuan, Skretting and Evialis. I would like to thank Dr Lightner and Mr. Loc Tran to have joined our dinner and helped me to write the article.

More inforMation:
To help fund the EMS project Dr. Donald V. Lightner dvl@u.arizona.edu Mr. Loc Tran thuuloc@email.arizona.edu Website: www.olmix.com

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 29


Production of shrimp in an indoor farming system with bioflocs

all feed pellets interact with shrimp moving around in the tank.

Shrimp are filter feeders and are able to benefit from bioflocs in the water. In a shrimp farming system with bioflocs, several strategies are possible. Utilization of a low protein feed and addition of a carbon source results in very low levels of ammonia, because they are assimilated by the bioflocs and converted into proteins. Typically, these systems have a carbon: nitrogen ratio of over 20. However, the conversion of ammonia and other nitrogen

by Eric De Muylder, CreveTec, belgium eed management in extensive and semi-intensive shrimp farming systems is not optimal to obtain the best results. Feeding frequency is limited to four or six times per day. The feed is spread over the whole pond which is labor-intensive. There is an important period between feeding and actual consumption by the shrimp, which results in leaching of important nutrients and feed quality loss. This is caused by the low density of shrimp in the ponds and the shrimp can only find the fed by chemical attraction, which take time. The feeding affects the water quality parameters in the ponds. An oxygen drop is observed after feeding. A continuous feeding will result in a more continuous water quality and less stress for the shrimp. Often shrimp are not fed at night to avoid low oxygen, which results in important loss of potential growth. In intensive farming, the natural production of the tank is represented by bioflocs. These bioflocs directly interfere with the water quality. Intensive farming also allows the mechanization of feeding without extra labor. Feed consumption is facilitated because

sources and a carbon source into biofloc protein requires a lot of oxygen and results in a build-up of bioflocs because of poor conversion of those biofloc proteins into shrimp biomass. Then bioflocs have to removed from the system. Another strategy is to use a normal protein feed, which corresponds with the protein requirement of shrimp. When using a feed with a protein content of 30 percent, the carbon: nitrogen ratio is around 10. With a feed conversion of 1,5, around 35 percent of proteins are converted into shrimp biomass and 20 of the Carbon. This means that the faeces of shrimp, fed with a diet containing 38 percent proteins, will result in a carbon: ration of 10.

C100: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at normal feeding gift C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %) C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %) Water quality for C100, C80 and C60 was maintained by continuously changing water which was filtered with a protein skimmer and biofilter C60: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (60 %) and bioflocs are added to maintain water quality C80: Shrimp were fed a commercial diet at a reduced feeding gift (80 %) and bioflocs are added to maintain water quality

30 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

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EXPERT TPIC The excess ammonia will then be converted into nitrite and nitrate by nitrifying bacteria present in the bioflocs. But these nitrates will accumulate into the culture tanks and reduces the possibility to re-use this water for future production cycles. This nitrification also decreases the pH, which makes it necessary to adjust pH regularly. To solve this problem, a new system was developed with two additions: a meiofauna-protecting substrate to favor the conversion of bacterial biofloc into digestible meiofauna and a central bioreactor with the possibility of denitrification. The denitrification can use the carbon present in the shrimp faeces as energy source to remove nitrate and produce alkalinity. This way, the nitrate level can be controlled.

Influence of biofloc presence on growth

The positive influence of biofloc presence in the water column has been shown. A trial was set up to evaluate if bioflocs could replace some of the feeds. The results show that C100 was the optimal feeding gift. C80 showed a slight reduced growth while C60 had a reduced growth. However, the best results were clearly obtained in the presence of bioflocs. There was no difference at 60 or 80 percent feeding. This means that the presence of bioflocs can reduce the feeding gift by 40 percent and still result in better growth. A growth trial with vannamei and monodon confirmed that a fast growth could be obtained in an intensive system. Based on these results a pilot scale farm was installed in Italy. This system is based on the following principles: There is no exchange of water but removal of a limited quantity of bioflocs is necessary Water is recuperated for the next cycle Control of biofloc density for optimal growth and optimal nutrient composition Efficient aeration Continuous, automatic feeding Phase growing for optimal utilization of culture water volume Possibility for partial harvesting

The combination of shrimp farming and bioflocs makes it possible to grow shrimp in an indoor farm, without water exchange. Even though this farming system is more intensive, it doesn't not have the disadvantages that could be expected. On the contrary, intensive farming enables more efficient feeding, keeping the optimal temperature and oxygen level. The presence of bioflocs can replace the natural production based on an algal system that is found in open ponds.
A growth trial with vannamei and monodon confirmed that a fast growth could be obtained in an intensive system.

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32 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012



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September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 33


Alternatives to natural food?

by Dr Sagiv Kolkovski & Judith Kolkovski, ND of fresh and frozen marine organisms usually results in high reproductive performances for both domesticated and wild caught broodstock shrimp. However, this practice is far from ideal, exposing the cultured animals to several major issues Biosecurity: Fresh and frozen food organisms can, potentially, become transferring vector for different pathogens and diseases. This is more so when crustaceans are been used (Coman et al., 2006). Although, recognised for their contribution to the maturation process through supplementing maturation hormones and other nutrients, the importation of crustaceans such as Artemia was banned in several countries in an attempt to reduce the risk of disease transfer. Similarly, in many countries the use of shrimp heads or shrimp meal in maturation diets was banned.. It is not known if non-crustacean organisms can transmit shrimp viruses such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) or others but due to their origin, post harvest methods and storage, they are all prone to become a vector for other pathogens. Nutritional profile: Due to the fact that fresh/frozen food organisms are been caught in the wild, their nutritional profile varied. Season, location, life cycle, pre and post harvesting methods can and will affect their nutritional profile. This inconsistency in the quality and nutritional profile makes it hard to standardise protocols even within the same company. Different countries and even regions within a country will have different access to fresh/frozen food organisms and will used them differently resulting in high fluctuation in FCRs and performances between farmers, regions and countries culturing the same species. Water quality: In many cases high water flow is needed following feeding of fresh/ frozen food organisms. In many cases daily (or even few times during the day) siphoning is essential to keep good water quality and tank hygiene. This is obviously labourintensive task that might also affect the brood animals. Domestication: It is commonly accepted that wild broodstock shrimp needs fresh/frozen food organisms. For example, Conan et al., 2006 raised the hypotheseis whether the removal of crustacean component from the maturation diet for domesticated P. monodon broodstock has contributed to the broodstock low performances. Considering the cost of broodstock (especially SPF), these are serious risks and in many cases resulting in high mortality and/ or reduced productivity, leading to significant financial loss. Until now, shrimp broodstock fed maturation-formulated diet, pelleted or extruded did not match the performances of animals fed on fresh/frozen food (Wouters et al., 2002. Braga et al., 2010). Formulated diets tend to break down due to the unique feeding behaviour of the animals, resulting in polluted water and very high FCR. Moreover, palatability and ingestion rates are usually low. Even using the same food organisms as dry meals in formu-

- Maturation diets for shrimp

n recent years, shrimp culture has become one of the most important aquaculture industries in the world. Current production levels reach over three million tonnes per year, corresponding to a market volume of over US$10 billion (FAO 2008). However, even with this expansion in the production there are some unknowns. One of the problems with shrimp (and other crustacean) culture is broodstock diets and nutrition. Currently, most, if not all, hatcheries around the world use fresh or frozen, unprocessed marine organisms as food items. These include squid, various molluscs (mussels, oysters or clams), marine polychates, crustaceans such as shrimp (Peixoto et al., 2004; Preston et al., 2004, Coman et al., 2006) and Artemia biomass (Anh et al., 2008, Gandy et al., 2007). These feeds are usually topped up with nutritional additives such as vitamins, minerals and fatty acids (Hoa et al., 2009). Maturation diets based on the combination

table 1: Comparison between traditional (control) fresh/frozen food and formulated semi-moist diet

Control nutraFeed Difference

124 124

0.09 0.05 44.4%

avg. Sr/day total spawns egg/Female

3.34% 4.74 29.5% 602 849 29.1% 179,364 186,266 3.7%

nauplii/ Female
154,364 160,188 3.7%

% Hatch
86 86 0%

total nauplii
92,860,000 136,000,000 46.5%

34 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

EXPERT TPIC lated diets didnt result in similar performances as when fresh/frozen organisms were given. Recently, a new maturation diet (NutraFeed) for crustaceans that can completely replace the use of fresh/frozen feed was developed. The diet is semi-moist (around 30-35% moist) and manufactured as short pellets at any length and diameter needed. The diet is stable in the water for 24 hours and will not break down when the shrimp is holding and chewing it. NutraFeed diets are based solely on dry meals without any fresh or frozen products. They are certified as pathogen free (all ingredients pass Gamma radiation) with a shelf life of six months (refrigerated) or 12 months (frozen). To boost the hormonal cycle, herbal extracts (NutraGreen products) are incorporated into the diets. These are 100 percent natural additives aimed at improving broodstock performance including; enhancing egg and larvae quality, sperm mortality, vitellogenesis, as well as immune system and digestive system support. Initially these natural herbal additives were developed as natural hormonal replacements for woman during IVF treatments and during menopause period.

The diet was also used with domesticated P. monodon broodstock in Australia with remarkable results. This is a significant achievement since it is known that P. monodon are particularly picky with their diet and feeding them solely on formulated diet used to be challenging, not to mention, achieving similar or better performances. Currently the diet is been used in several commercial hatcheries in Thailand, India and Malaysia and the company is up-scaling the production.

Anh, N. T. N., Hoa, N. V., Van Stappen, G., and Sorgeloos, P 2008. Effect of different supplemental feeds on . proximate composition and Artemia biomass production in salt ponds. Aquaculture, 286, 217-225. Braga, A. L., Nakayama, C. L., Martins, J. G., Colares, E. P., and Wasielesky, W. Jr. 2010. Spermatophore quality of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata) broodstock fed with different maturation diets. Aquaculture, 307, 44-48. Coman, G. J., Arnold, S. J., Callaghan, T. R., and Preston, N. P. 2006. Effect of two maturation diet combinations on reproductive performance of domesticated Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 263, 75-83. Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Peixoto, S., Coman, F.E., Crocos, P.J., Preston, N.P., 2006. Reproductive performance of reciprocally crossed wild-caught and tank reared Penaeus monodon broodstock. Aquaculture 252, 372384. Gandy, R. L., Samocha, T. M., Masser, M. P., Fox, J. M., Ali, S. A. M., Gatlin III, D. M., and Speed, M. 2007. The effect of unilateral eyestalk ablation and diet on the reproductive performance of wild-caught Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) using a closed recirculating maturation system. Aquac. Res. 38, 580587.

Hoa, N. D., Wouters, R., Wille, R., Thanh, V., Dong, T. K., Hao, N. V., and Sorgeloos, P. 2009. A freshfood maturation diet with an adequate HUFA composition for broodstock nutrition studies in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798). Aquaculture, 297, 116-121. Peixoto, S., Coman, G.J., Arnold, S.J., Crocos, P.J., Preston, N.P., 2005. Histological examination of final oocyte maturation and atresia in wild and domesticated Penaeus monodon broodstock. Aquac. Res. 36, 666673. Preston, N.P., Crocos, P.J., Keys, S.J, Coman, G.J., Koenig, R., 2004. Comparative growth of selected and non-selected Kuruma shrimp Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus in commercial farm ponds. Aquaculture 231, 7382.

Large experiment
To compare the performances of the maturation diet against traditional fresh/frozen food organism, a large experiment was conducted independently by one of the biggest shrimp producers in the world. The results (see Table 1) showed significant performance improvements when the broodstock fed on NutraFeed semi-moist diet. Moreover, using the semi-moist diet also proved to be cost effective compared to traditional diets. Two hundred white shrimp L. vannamei were fed control diet (squid, polychates and nutritional booster) or NutraFeed SM diet. The broodstock were kept in identical tanks and under the same environmental conditions. Growth, mortalities, spawning events, fecundity, hatching rates and number of nauplii were determined over 124 days.

About the authors

Dr Sagiv Kolkovski is the Principal scientist, marine aquaculture, at the Department of Fisheries, western Australia. He is also the R&D director at Nutrakol Pty Ltd. Judith Kolkovski, ND is a nutritionist and herbalist and the general manager of Nutrakol Pty Ltd. Nutrakol Pty Ltd is specialized in developing and manufacturing nutritional and natural health solutions for aquaculture.

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 35


Pierre Erwes Chairman BioMarine CEO BioMarine Organization Ltd


he BioMarine Business Convention is the only international business convention dedicated to marine bioresources, addressing key issues in marine biotechnology, marine biomaterials, algae and seagrass, marine environment, marine cosmetics, nutraceuticals, food and feed, aquaculture and aquafeed, marine renewable energy, clean shipping and harbor management. Every two years, the BioMarine Business Convention visits a different continent: 2011 Europe, 2013 Nor th America and 2015 Asia. The next 2013 Nor th America Business Convention in Halifax Canada comprises of a full discovery day with two tracks (marine energy and marine bioresources), conferences, thinktanks, VIP lunches, an innovation forum and an expo. In between, BioMarine summits bring together 200 CEOs and executives. The 2012 BioMarine L o n d o n s u m m i t i s organised around six thematic think-tanks. The recommendations and proposals will ser ve as a base for the elaboration of the Nor th Amer ica Business Convention in Halifax.

tion for the 2013 North America Business convention. This year in London youll meet side by side the Canadian delegation, the Portuguese Secretary of State for the sea, the Director General for Fisheries and Coastal affairs from Norway, the Director of Atlantic regions at European Commission Maritime Affairs and Fisheries and key industry players such as Novus, Pronova BioPharma, Olmix Group, Sofiproteol, MG4U European network, JPI Oceans, Eurofins, and many more. Over two days the BioMarine community will share, debate and elaborate on recommendations regarding important issues.

growth will also actively par ticipate: Por tugal, Ireland, UK, Norway, and France. Every summit tends to be different, but in the end the outcomes are the most impor tant it always surprising what we can achieve within the BioMarine community!

human and animal nutrition, but also environment and energy. 2. Marine biotech for health will explore the ways in which marine genomics can help us understand the industrial potential of marine organisms. 3. Nutr aceuticals: The r aw material fish oil for the processing of the omega-3 products may contain various amounts of contaminants such as environmental pollutants. How could we approach the consumer with relevant and understandable information about these issues? 4. 2 0 3 0 : T h e a q u a c u l t u r e platform. Human nutrition is the basis of our health, wellbeing and intelligence and the development of our food production and distr ibution systems will be one of most cr itical c h a l l e n g e s . A q u a c u l t u r e will be one of the predominant food production systems at the global scale. 5. Marine biotech for environment will explore the world of bacteria and their benefit to society. 6. Microalgae and nutrition will dive into the fantastic opportunities that micro algae represent to feed the world. The application of microalgae biomass and/or metabolites is an interesting and innovative approach for the development of healthier food products.

What are the focuses this year in London?

Every year BioMarine organises a minimum of two debates. The first one is dedicated to women executives in marine bio-resources. Our BioMarine community is for tunate to have amazing and talented women, so lets learn from them! The second debate is also of importance as it will bring together government advisors, and recognized experts in aquaculture and fisheries. We will tr y to understand what milestones Europe, North America, Asia, Africa and South America have developed to achieve a global sustainable aquaculture by 2030. BioMarine London is also structured around six thematic thinktanks: 1. Macro Algae valorization: The amazing potential of this bioresource opened-up a world of possibilities, especially to respond to challenges of both

Tell us about the audience

Usually a BioMarine summit brings together 200 executives. Mostly they are CEOs and top scientists who share common ground. The finance and investors community, government agencies, are also ver y well represented. It is a unique event to debate, exchange and do business. This year we will host a Canadian delegation made of SMEs, research organisations, development agencies and government officials. The leading European countries for the blue

Whats happening this year?

What do you expect this year?

Its always a difficult question, but 2012 will bring for sure some clear recommendations in preparation of

In October 2012, the BioMarine summit visits London. It is a ver y crucial milestone with regards to prepara-



done and open doors for the next step forward.

Why is BioMarine is expanding so fast?

BioMarine is a unique tr ansver sal platfor m that addresses the e n t i r e t r a n s v e r s a l sector from marine to maritime. There are several others shows but none has such potential to connect people. We think different and we act different. We do not wish to become a gigantic convention but we wish to preser ve the aim of our BioMarine community, providing tailor made services such as our new BioMarine Resources Director y, created with our par tner International Aquafeed, which helps to connect all biomarine related businesses. It is a very practical mobile web appli-

the 2013 North America Business convention. I know from the inside that our industry par tners have great expectations and they have prepared the think-tanks to get the most of the exchanges and the discussions. On the side, several deals will be initiated during the summit and the two days of meetings will be the occasion for new business endeavor and relationships. I feel really excited as I know all the participants and I will spend my time running to connect people. My personal wish is that every attendee will feel satisfied as we will help him to get business

cation. The directory will be officially launched in London during BioMarine, and a printed version will be distributed to the participants. We also provide some of our clients with specific services: open new market abroad, finds the right partner in the next country where he plans to go etc. Our BioMarine community is

growing fast. It is a unique exchange place where we do business, we learn a lot and we enjoy doing so. Its not only the place to be but its a world of business opportunities at your hand. I look forward to seeing you in London More inforMation:
Website: www.biomarine.org

Our solutions focus on providing health through nutrition. Our complete portfolio of gut environment modiers together with our extensive R&D and application expertise, have positioned our technologies as successful tools across the world and the industry.

take a

at Novus Aquaculture


is a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITY is a trademark of Novus International, Inc. 2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 37



Novus creates animal and nutrition solution based on science. Grounded in lab research and tested in practical field studies, Novus products have long provided innovative solutions for the poultry, swine, dairy, beef and aqua industries. Over 2,500 clients in nearly 100 countries trust Novus to be an integral part of their daily animal agriculture operations. Now that tradition of innovation continues with solutions for aquaculture. Novus monitors the evolving needs of the industry on a daily basis. Novus understands its many pressures, for which the talented researchers and developers are continuously working to create solutions. Driven by customer feedback, this team is focused on providing the industry with sustainable and cost-efficient solutions. Novus is dedicated to anticipating today what the industry will need tomorrow. Aquaculture will soon become the worlds leading source of animal protein, providing wholesome nutrition to an ever-growing population. To produce the food thats needed in a profitable, sustainable manner, the industry faces many significant challenges. Now and in the future, the industry can count on Novus as their partner in overcoming these challenges.

Take a Closer Look at Novus Aquaculture

Novus is committed to making Aquaculture production more efficient and profitable. The Novus staff, which includes nearly 80 research and development experts, dedicates itself to this mission every day. And by supporting graduate scholarships at leading aquaculture research institutions worldwide, Novus is also investing in the future of the industry. Novuss goal is to provide innovative total management solutions that optimize aquaculture production. Novus is dedicated to providing customized solutions that enhance the health and performance of your animals. To learn more about our aquaculture solutions, contact your local Novus Sales Representative or Novus Customer Service. Outside of the U.S., call +1.314.576.8886, within the U.S., call 1.800.568.0088 or send an e-mail to aqua@novusint.com.

Novus: Investing in the Future of Aquaculture

Our solutions focus on providing health through nutrition. Our complete portfolio of gut environment modiers together with our extensive R&D and application expertise, have positioned our technologies as successful tools across the world and the industry.

take a

at Novus Aquaculture


is a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITY is a trademark of Novus International, Inc. 2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978



Founded in 1995 by Herv Balusson, Olmix Group was born at the core of Brittany, in Brhan (Morbihan) from the will to find natural alternatives to additives used in agriculture. Its business is specially based on the development of natural additives based on seaweeds, traceelements and clays towards Animal and Vegetal Nutrition and Health. With its famous Amadite, 100% natural biomaterial, Olmix has become one of the worldwide main specialists of green tech. One of the first green refineries in the world, the ULVANS Project, will soon be established in Brittany (France), and will industrially process products from algae. For 15 years, Olmix is involved in algae valorisation, and its philosophy is based on the belief that they are the new Green Gold. Olmix logo is by the way built with algae, more than a symbol, for a better life! Olmix is present in 60 countries throughout the world, has 250 employees and makes a turnover of 53,4 million Euros, of which 80 % of sales exported. Listed on the Paris Stock Exchange, Olmix has 7 production sites in Europe and its natural innovations lead the group to become a main reference in sustainable development with significant growth perspectives. Olmix Groups strategy is in phase with regulations and environmental evolutions in the world.

Olmix Group

Eco-concept range

Trace elements and natural solutions for the hygiene and nutrition of animals and vegetals

MTX+ MEcopiglet MFeed MSoup Mistral MMite

Trace elements ranges

Ferrous Copper Zinc Manganese Sepiolite (Sepiolsa exclusive distributor) ...


September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 39




About Pronova BioPharma

Pronova is a global leader in research, development and manufacture of lipid therapies derived from nature. The group's first commercialised product, Omacor/Lovaza, is branded in a number of countries (57) throughout Europe, Asia and in the USA. End-user sales has grown rapidly in all international markets and the annual run rate at 31 December 2011 reached USD 1 380 million, according to IMS Health. The product is the first EU- and FDA-approved omega 3-derived prescription drug. Marketing and distribution of Pronova's key product is currently licensed to both local and global pharmaceutical companies. The company is in the process of developing several new, patentable lipid derivatives. The most advanced lipid derived pharmaceutical programme is in the area of combined dyslipidemia, the abnormal concentration of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood, for which the company has a product, PRC-4016, in clinical trials. Pronova has also announced plans to enter the consumer healthcare and clinical nutrition markets, enabling the company to further leverage its position as the world's largest manufacturer of high grade omega-3 derived products. Pronova's headquarters are located at Lysaker in Norway, while production takes place at state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities at Sandefjord in Norway and in Kalundborg, Denmark. The company's shares are listed on Oslo Brs with the ticker code PRON. Additional information is available on www.pronova.com.


40 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012



Sofiprotol was formed in 1983 at the initiative of the French federation of oilseed and protein crop producers : the Fop, the ONIDOL and UNIP. Originally a financial establishment for the French vegetable oil and protein subsidiary, Prola, Sofiprotols investments and acquisitions have made it a major agri-food group in France today. Sofiprotol relies on an original economic model characterized by : a solid base of agricultural shareholders, representing each region of France, an active presence in every aspect of the industry, a strong commitment in the field of sustainable development. Sofiprotols mission is to develop the French vegetable oil and protein industry, open up new markets, and ensure an equal distribution of value among its members. In order to succeed in its mission, Sofiprotol is involved in every aspect of the industry : research, marketing, processing, adding value to products.

The Groups strategy involves maintaining a balanced presence in key fields related to nutrition and the environment : human and animal nutrition, renewable energy and renewable chemistry development.

International Aquafeed is also available to view online free of charge, with a complete archive of back issues, cover over two years of the magazines history. The magazine is available as a full online magazine, or as individual features, that can be separately downloaded, free of charge. For more information please visit the website.

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 41



Z2O discovers, develops and formulates natural microbial products to improve performance in many industries globally. We have a proven track record of creating and delivering transformational value through focused development in three thematic disciplines: Energy, Food, and food security. Our Technology is unique in that it combines groups of naturally occurring bacteria that work together to help nature restore the balance lost with intensive human activities and their impact on the environment. Z2O has firmly put Environmental biotechnology at the service of food security. All our products are formulated to come together to secure better availability and accessibility to food for Billions. Our strategy is multidirectional and addresses the growth in supplies and accessibility to food as well as the reduction in the demand factors. The story of Z2O is about being pioneers and partners. We aim to build material positions in advanced microbial technologies whilst working with the communities in which we operate. Our values of building respect, nurturing relationships and acting responsibly are at the core of all we do. People are our key asset and our teamwork, innovation, and ability to combine technical and commercial expertise give us our edge.

42 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

You can now find IAF content on your mobile phone, including full feature articles (not to mention a whole host of other Perendale content - including The International Milling Directory) Simply visit www.perendale.com on your mobile to launch the our app - its all free.

Our Events register contains all the information that you need about all of the up-coming industry events , and forms an essential part of our app for all industry professionals


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Try our online demo of the app on your desktop at http://www.aquafeed.co.uk/pplapp

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i i i i i i i i i

eA Ph e APP her re re

i i i i i i i i i

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10th - 13th October 12
Aqua Sur 2012, Puerto Montt Contact: Mara Paz Fernndez, Lado Poniente Km 1.018 Ruta 5 SurPuerto Montt- Chile Tel: +56 2 7565402 Email: mpfernandez@aqua.cl Web: www.aqua-sur.cl

24th - 24th October 12

Institute of Aquaculture, PhD Research Conference, Innovation towards enhanced aquatic food security, Institute of Aquaculture, Pathfoot Building, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK Contact: Dr Andy Shinn; Dr Darren Green, Institute of Aquaculture, Pathfoot Building, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK Tel: +44 1786 467883 Fax: +44 (0) 1786 472133 Email: aps1@stir.ac.uk Web: www.aqua.stir.ac.uk/

13th - 16th November 12

EuroTier 2012 including BioEnergy, Hannover / Germany Contact: DLG Service GmbH, DLG, Eschborner Landstrasse 122, 60489 Frankfurt/Main, Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6924788- 265 Fax: +49 69 24788-113 Email: expo@DLG.org Web: www.DLG.org

5th - 7th December 12

Algae Technology Platform Europe Day 1: Investors meet Developers Day 2-3: 3rd Practical Short Course on Algae Harvesting and Processing for Value Added Applications, NH Hotel, Ghent, Belgium Contact: Ignace Debruyne, Smart Short Courses, Haverhuisstraat 28, B-8870 Izegem (Belgium) Tel: +32 51 31 12 74 Fax: +32 51 31 56 75 Email: algaeprocessing @smartshortcourses.com Web: www.smartshortcourses.com

10th - 13th October 12

World Nutrition Forum 2012, Marina Bay Sands, 9 Raffles Place, 45-01 Republic Plaza, Singapore Contact: Herbert Kneissl, Industriestr. 21, 3130 Herzogenburg, Austria Tel: +43 2782 803 0 Fax: +43 2782 803 0 Email: organisation @worldnutritionforum. info Web: www.worldnutritionforum.info

20th - 23rd November 12

XII International Symposium on Aquaculture Nutrition, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mxico Contact: Dr. Alfonso Alvarez and M.C. Otilio Mndez Marn, Av Universidad s/n, Zona Cultura, Col. Magisterial, Vhsa. Centro, Tabasco, Mex. C.P. 86040, Mexico Tel: +52 993 358 1500 Email: sinaXII@ujat.mx Web: www.ujat.mx

25th - 26th October 12

The Protein Summit 2012, Amsterdam, Netherlands Contact: Bridge2Food, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 225 2060 Email: info@bridge2food.com Web: www.bridge2food.com/ProteinSummit-Bridge2Food-2012.asp

7th - 9th December 12

Shanghai International Fisheries & Seafood Exposition 2012, Shanghai Everbright Convention& Exhibition Center, No.88 Caobao Rd, Shanghai, China Contact: Shelly Zhou, 11F,Xiuseng Building, No.129 South Laiting Rd, Jiuting Town, Songjiang District, Shanghai, 201615, China Tel: +86 21 34140187 Fax: +86-21-64516467 Email: shelly.zhou@gehuaexpo.com Web: www.sifse.com/en

17th - 19th October 12

Offshore Mariculture Conference 2012, Hilton Hotel, Izmir, Turkey Contact: Isobel Roberts, Mercator Media Ltd, The Old Mill, Lower Quay, Fareham, Hampshire, PO16 0RA, UK Tel: +44 1329 825 335 Fax: +44 1329 825 330 Email: conferences@offshoremariculture.com Web: www.offshoremariculture.com

3rd - 4th December 12

Aquafeed Platform Europe - 12th Practical Short Course Trends and Markets in Aquaculture Feed Ingredients, Nutrition, Formulation and Optimized Production and Product Quality, NH Hotel, Ghent, Belgium Contact: Ignace Debruyne, Smart Short Courses, Haverhuisstraat 28, B-8870 Izegem (Belgium) Tel: +32 51 31 12 74 Fax: +32 51 31 56 75 Email: aquafeed@smartshortcourses.com Web: www.smartshortcourses.com

6th - 8th November 12

GLOBALG.A.P. SUMMIT 2012, Madrid, Spain Contact: Nina Kretschmer, GLOBALG.A.P. c/o FoodPLUS GmbH, Spichernstr. 55, 50672 Koeln, Germany Tel: +49 2 21-5 79 93-693 Fax: +49 2 21-5 79 93 89 Email: kretschmer@globalgap.org Web: www.summit2012.org

13th - 15th December 12

IAI Expo and ISRMAX Expo, IARI Ground, PUSA, New Delhi, India Contact: Prachi Arora, # 923, Sector 9, U.E. Karnal, Haryana, 132001, India Tel: +91-9991705621 Fax: +91-184-2231050 Email: marketing@pixie.co.in Web: www.isrmaxriceandgrainexpo.co.in

17th - 19th October 12

FIGAP/VIV Mexico 2012, Expo Guadalajara - Halls Jalisco A & B. Av. Mariano Otero No. 1499 Col. Verde Valle - Guadalajara -Jalisco - Mxico Contact: Patricia Jazo, Palermo 3001 Col. Prados Providencia. Guadalajara, Jalisco. CP.44670 Tel: +52 3336 418119 Fax: +52 33 36 411604 Email: pjazo@figap.com Web: www.figap.com


7th - 9th November 12

5th Algae World Asia, Novotel Singapore Clarke Quay, Singapore Contact: Ms Fu Huiyan, 80 Parway Parade, Singapore Tel: + 65 63469113 Fax: +65 6345 5928 Email: huiyan@cmtsp.com.sg Web: www.cmtevents.com/main. aspx?ev=121141&pu=215128

4th - 5th December 12

6th International Algae Congress, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Tessa de Boer, Stationsplein Noord 4, 3445 AD WOERDEN, The Netherlands Tel: +31 348 484 002 Fax: +31 348 484 009 Email: Tessa.deboer@dlg-benelux.com Web: www.algaecongress.com

21st - 25th February 13

Aquaculture 2013, Nashville Tennessee, USA Contact: Mario Stael, Begijnengracht 40, 9000 Gent, Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Email: mario@marevent.com Web: www.was.org

22nd - 24th October 12

The 11th CFFA China Fish & Fishmeal Annual Conference, Shanghai Fujian Hotel, China Contact: Charles Wang, 15F, Radio City, 505, Hennessy Road, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2871 0708 Fax: +852 2871 0950 Email: cffa@me.com Web: www.cffa.me

13th - 15th March 13

Aquatic Asia 2013, BITEC, Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre, Bangkok, Thailand Contact: Guus van Ham, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 295 2302 Fax: +31 30 295 2809 Email: aquatic.asia@vnuexhibitions.com Web: www.aquatic-asia.net

24th - 25th October 12

BioMarine Business Convention 2012, Fishmongers Hall, London UK Contact: Veronique Erwes Email: veronique.erwes@biomarine.org Web: www.biomarine.org/

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is now a resounding body of evidence of no significant environmental impact usually no measureable signature from operations at all. At the conference, FAO is going to be reporting on a soon-to-be-published study from a group of experts that have collated the global offshore culture experiences to date, considered all the available data, and reached this same conclusion. Norwegian developments in offshore technology. I am also eager to see the level of operational efficiency that the d u c i n g a r e s o l u t i o n f o r adoption by the Conference plenar y calling for cognizant international agencies to

Neil Anthony Sims Co-Founder, CEO, Kampachi Farms, LLC and President of the Ocean Stewards Institute

What is your role at Offshore Mariculture?

As Chairman, I hope to stimulate discussion. But I am also very much there to listen and learn, as well. I will ask the dumb questions, to save others from the embarrassment.

Who is Offshore Mariculture aimed at?

Industr y those who aspire to grow their aquaculture operations, and to expand fur ther offshore, into deeper water. And isnt that all of us?

What can participants expect to see and do?

They can get updates on significant new advances in numerous t e c h n o l o g y a r e a s : mooring systems for deep water, new netting materials, new submersible pen systems, and new feeds development that reduces the reliance on forage fisheries.

What are the themes of Offshore Mariculture?

The expansion offshore is star ting now. More correctly, it has started. We have the capability, we have the incentives, and we have shown we can do this in an environmentally responsible way. The technology that allows offshore farming is now refined to a new level of operational efficiency in Kona, Panama, Chile, Canada, Norway farms in more and more exposed sites are able to operate with greater efficiently and profitably. There is also exciting research out of Australia and Kona that suggests that offshore culture systems may actually offer improved biological performance of the fish, with faster fish growth, higher survival, better FCRs and lower stress. And the environmental data is overwhelmingly positive. With over a decade of operation in the offshore environment, there

Turkish aquaculture industry has been able to achieve on exposed farm sites. How far offshore, how deep, and what sea conditions?

With so many industry shows, why should people attend Offshore Mariculture?
It focuses exclusively on the challenges and opportunities of offshore culture.

How does this event compare to previous ones?

There is growing recognition from NGOs and international development agencies that the much-vaunted Blue Revolution has to happen. We must make it happen! It is the only way that we can feed nine billion increasingly affluent, health-conscious consumers with the seafood that they crave and need, without further impacting already heavily exploited wild stocks. And there is growing recognition that the offshore pioneers are making this vision becoming reality. And that reality is happening right now!

What are you most excited about for Offshore Mariculture?

What was once aspirational is now demonstrably achievable. The conference offers an opportunity to clarify the commercial opportunities for expansion into the truly offshore realm over the next decade to separate the clever research from the commercially rewarding.

What are you going to make sure you see/do at Offshore Mariculture?
I am keen to see more of the

Any other news or things you would like to discuss?

We a l s o p l a n i n i n t r o -

provide clarity on the regulator y framewor k for aquaculture in international water s, and to advise on any steps that must be taken to allow responsible, managed growth of aquaculture beyond EEZs or Territorial Water s (where there is no EEZ). There are already genuine commercial interests exploring the potential for aquaculture on the High Seas. In the Mediterranean, where no countr y has yet declared an EEZ, International Waters start at the end of the Territorial Waters 12 nautical miles offshore. In the next decade, we can expect to see aquaculture moving into these waters, so now is the time that we should begin to prepare for this eventuality. The US has demonstrated over the last 10 years how not to develop an offshore aquaculture industry. The responsible, sustainable growth of aquaculture in the rest of the ocean realm should not be hobbled by similar ineffectuality.

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 45


10th - 13th October 12, Puerto Montt, Chile
Margarita Vergara, General Manager, TechnoPress S.A

What can participants expect to see and do?

Interests are diverse, but in every edition participants are seeking for new business opportunities, interested on new trends and technologies, genetic advances, etc., but the show is also an excellent spot for meeting clients and prospects, and looking for new suppliers.

Who is AquaSur 2012 aimed at?

AquaSur is aim at every person, companies, suppliers and professionals of the aquaculture industry. In fact, AquaSur is not only focused on salmon, but in every cultured species. Wholesalers, retailers, transportation service companies and all those companies involved in the industry are also invited. Our main goal is exchanging experiences, showing new technologies and put the new trends on the hands of professionals and farmers.

What is your role at AquaSur 2012?

My main role is to guarantee a successful event where businessmen, investors, authorities, bankers, executives, professionals, foreign delegations, researchers, academics, and the media meet to learn about the latest developments in equipment, services, and technologies designed for this important sector of the economy.

to all the services available during the show, intended for both exhibitors and visitors, as well as for the quality of its lecturers and professionals. The logistic and location is another important aspect to take into account by the people.

With so many industry shows, why should people attend AquaSur 2012?
AquaSur is an event of international connotation and one of the most comprehensive events of the aquaculture industry. AquaSur has positioned itself that way thanks

What are your expectations about AquaSur 2012?

It will be doubtless a great success just like previous editions if all goes as weve planned and we dont face any natural event in the region. AquaSur in expected figures: 40 countries 18,000 visitors 1,000 exhibitors 20 lecturers

How does AquaSur 2012 compare to previous ones?

When comparing AquaSur 2012 with previous editions I would say weve gained in experience and organisation taking into consideration this is our seventh edition. Taking into account we dont have state of the art infrastructure, we have to put more effort and work harder in order to meet the needs of the aquaculture sector with all the requirements involved, thus logistic plays an important role.

The worlds top event for animal production


How has AquaSur changed and developed?

At the first version (2002) AquaSur had 4,400 m2 of surface area and representatives from 20 countries. In the fifth version (2008), the surface increased to 9,930 m2 with 40 countries represented, which shows that the surface has been more than double, and the presence of countries has increased one hundred percent.

Your Business Driven by Innovations

Hanover / Germany 13 16 November 2012
Tel.: +49 69/24788-265, E-Mail: expo@dlg.org

What have been the biggest successes of previous events?

The biggest success of AquaSur was to boost and promote aquaculture in the whole South American region, mainly in Chile after the outbreak of ISA virus which affected us some years ago. Today we count with unexpected production and expor t levels of salmon, and were sure that AquaSur has contributed in great extend to this success.




September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 46

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ming Upco r 2013 ts fo Even World Aquaculture

The international triennial conference & exposition of World Aquaculture Society

February 21 - 25, 2013 Nashville, Tennessee USA

For all info contact us on www.was.com worldaqua@aol.com

Aquaculture Europe
August 9 - 12, 2013 Trondheim, Norway
Organised by European Aquaculture Society

Making Sense of Science

For all info contact us on www.easonline.org

Asia Pacific Aquaculture December 10-13th, 2013 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
For all info contact us on www.was.com worldaqua@aol.com

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 47


With so many industry shows, why should people attend Figap/ VIV 2012? Figap/VIV is different from the other events. It takes place in a venue specifically set up for events of this type, and brings together the entire production chain for both agriculture and livestock. In addition to being an expo, it also includes a Feed Technology Production School that takes place two days before the main event. Its an inclusive event open to anyone who wants to exhibit or visit. The expo attracts exhibitors from Europe, Asia, the United States, Canada and Latin America. All these factors qualify Figap/VIV as the only high level livestock event in Mexico. vations. When they leave the show theyll have the same level of knowledge as producers from other par ts of the world. Theyll have a different, more modern vision.

Patricia Jazo, Event Organiser

What is the objective of holding Figap/VIV 2012?

Figap/VIV is an event focused on the livestock industr y with the intention of helping Mexicos livestock producers raise their productivity and revenues by helping them learn about the most modern production techniques. Our intention is that the livestock industr y will discover the production methods used in other par ts of the world, make business contacts and apply them in Mexico. What industr y sector s will benefit from the event? It is an expo with a very wide range of possibilities. The goal is that any industry related to livestock and the raising and breeding of any animal species will find something of interest. Some examples include: Balanced feed producers Any t y p e o f l i ve s t o c k producer Companies specialised in animal health and genetics Pet food manufacturers Aquaculture operations Distributors of ingredients and additives

How does FIGAP/VIV compare to previous ones?

When FIGAP/VIV first began the show was focused on machinery. The new FIGAP/VIV 2012 combines all the strategic areas of the industry as well as the leading innovations. Well be the cuttingedge forum for many companies to present their products and do more business. Also, Figaps association with VIV offers visitors the opportunity to meet new companies coming from Asia and Europe with innovative visions. Figap and VIV complement each other strongly, creating synergies that range from the beginning of the livestock chain such as feed production and machinery through to slaughter and packing services. What has been the most important accomplishment of the previous editions of FIGAP? The global geographic origin of visitor s to the show has been greatly expanded, the nu m b e r o f e x h i b i t o r s a n d visitors has grown considerably and Mexican business people have done substantial business, as have the rest of the par ticipants.

Nigel Garbutt, Chairman GLOBALG.A.P.

What are the main themes for the SUMMIT 2012?

The SUMMIT 2012 comes at a time of major importance for the agrifood industry; with threats and opportunities in equal measure. Increased competition, climate change and growing pressure on land, water and other scarce resources are making it harder to deliver safe and responsibility managed products within a profitable business model. Equally, demographic, sociopolitical and economic changes - on a truly global scale present the possibility of access to new markets and the need to more precisely meet the needs of consumers who are increasingly aware of safety, health and sustainability issues.

What are you most excited about for Figap/ VIV 2012?
This year Figap/VIV will receive the largest number of participants in its history, for both exhibitors as well as attendees. It will continue establishing itself as Mexicos most important livestock event and one of the top three events of its kind in Latin America. Were confident that this year will result in more business deals closed, more joint ventures formed and more satisfied customers than ever before. Our goal is that both exhibitors and attendees will depar t the event with the date of the next Figap/VIV show noted in their agendas as an event not to be missed.


What can participants expect to see and do?

Par ticipants will find a betterstructured Figap/VIV. This event will be divided into business units: Animal health Nutrition Technology Innovation Genetics Reproduction Knowledge Handling With these areas Figap/VIV covers the great majority of needs of event attendees and makes their visit more productive and better focused.

In your opinion, what will participants find at the event?

Par ticipants will find the most moder n of ever ything in all areas of the industr y. And by modern I mean the innovations, product launches and technology happening in the developed world. When they leave Figap/VIV, par ticipants will have learned about the latest generation of equipment and inno-

Can you give us an idea of what new challenges FIGAP/VIV 2014 will take on?
FIGAP / VIV Mxico 2012 covers eight units and for 2014 those eight units will be developed into 360 coverage that will reach the entire spectrum of the livestock industry, leaving no stone unturned. As a result FIGAP/VIV Mxico 2014 will grow in size and reach, crossing borders to bring in countries that are not currently participating.

Whats new at GLObALG.A.P.?

Delegates can hear how GLOBALG.A.Ps new entry level program localg.a.p. will help meet the needs of producers, retailers and consumers in expanding global markets. Emerging producers, many who are small sized, are facing increasing challenges to meet food safety targets from regulators and buyers alike in their national (home) markets. www.summit2012.org

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 48



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September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 49

The aquafeed interview

George Marco, Director, Aquativ

The aquafeed interview

eorge Marco has 25 years experience in business management and leadership in a global environment, with a double expertise in the food ingredients industry and the B2B business. Based in the United States for the last seven years, he has also lived and/or worked in Australia, Brazil, Japan, Thailand and France. Most of his career so far has been dedicated to the French Diana group, within which he was SPF Australia General Manager and SPF North America CEO, prior his current position of Aquativ Director worldwide. Today, George Marco applies his expertise to an ever-widening scope of activities supporting DIANA Group in its strategic move to the Aquafeed industry and strives to develop global R&D, know-how and industrial partnerships.

What are the greatest challenges the aquaculture industry is facing at the moment?
The first challenge is to be able to follow the market demand for fish, which is around seven percent per year and is expected to follow at least this trend in the future. This demand will be boosted even more by the middleclass increase the Asian markets. To meet this demand the aquaculture industry will have to increase production as well as improve productivity and work on 3 dimensions: genetics; better production practices including environmental considerations and; better feed performance. For this last point, the challenge will be to find a way for fish meal/ fish oil reduction and/or removal in the formulations since fish meal/fish oil are and will be limited in terms of production. Besides the production matter, the market has been driving the industry toward more standards (traceability, quality, sustainability) requiring raw material meeting these expectations.

How does it affect feed performance?

Thank to these bioactive compounds, the functional Hydrolyzate will bring to the feed formulation: a better physiological status of the animal; a higher digestibility and; a better feed consumption (taste perception). Therefore, a better growth and lower mortality along the production cycle. A concentrate of feed performance which allows the feed manufacturer either to increase the performance of its existing feed or to keep the same performance while the feed formulation will be poor in fishmeal.

What others areas does Aquativ work in?

Regarding the functional Hydrolyzate, the next move is to select these bioactive peptides and produce purified fractions which could be used in specific diets. As indicated the understanding of the physiological effect of our bioactive peptides assume being able to identify them as well as demonstrate their activity on the animal. For this purpose we have PhD and partnership with universities.

Can you tell us a bit more about your use of Hydrolyzate?

First of all a Hydrolyzate is by definition a digested raw material meaning it will improve naturally the feed digestibility (meaning the FCR). A functional Hydrolyzate will contain bioactive peptides able to improve the overall physiological status of the animal by acting directly on some key physiological mechanism such as stress, guts performance, growth factors and taste perception. As per my R&D engineer says, Hydrolysis is the process which yields the maximum of bioactive peptides out of native proteins. These bioactive peptides will be produced only under the following conditions: selected raw material (not a mixed of different species); fresh raw material (temperature controlled) and; selected enzyme bioprocess controlled (temperature, time & pH).

How DIANA Group is part of the blue revolution supporting the aquaculture industry?
Anticipating the needs of valuable protein and supported by AQUATIV development, DIANA Group, has invested a lot in the last few years in marine sourcing by establishing new operations worldwide and strategic partnerships. DIANA Groups branding, R&D, performance demonstration and international network brings a go to the market dimension to partnerships. DIANA, through AQUATIV and its strategic partnerships, offers a unique diversified marine range of functional Hydrolyzate becoming a key procurement partner for the industry and is therefore part of the blue revolution.

50 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 51


Nutreco retiring CEO Wout Dekker made Officer of the Order of Oranje-Nassau

t a farewell symposium and reception on September 19, 2012, Mr Henk Bleker, the Dutch State Secretary for Agriculture, stepped forward to appoint retiring Nutreco Chief Executive Officer Wout Dekker as an Officer of the Order of Oranje-Nassau. The honour, which is granted by the Royal Household of the Netherlands, is given in recognition of special merit in society in the way the recipient has carried out his or her activities. Presenting the honour, Henk Bleker commented that what makes Wout Dekker truly exceptional are his qualities as an inspirer, a pioneer and a visionary. He added that Dekker is a role model for the modern Chief Executive Officer, ensuring his business performs excellently while also fully embracing its social responsibility. Speaking after the event, Wout Dekker said: "I am sincerely proud to receive this honour. While it recognises the development of Nutreco and its role in agriculture and aquaculture as a means of feeding the global population, in that context it also reflects the combined contributions of the thousands of Nutreco men and women around the world; contributions that will continue through the work of Nutreco."

Novus receives 2012 new product innovation award in prebiotics

ovus International, Inc. has been selected to receive the 2012 North American New Product Innovation Award in Prebiotics for PREVIDA. The award is presented by Frost & Sullivan, a 50-year old global market research organisation of 1,800 analysts and consultants who monitor more than 300 industries and 250,000 companies. Novus is proud to receive the New Product Innovation award from Frost & Sullivan, stated Thad Simons, President and CEO, at Novus. Were equally humbled by this recognition because our mission is not to seek awards for what we do; rather it is to focus on sustainably meeting the growing global need for health and nutrition. Were excited about offering our customers the health and nutrition solutions associated with feeding PREVIDA. Frost & Sullivans selection of PREVIDA was the result of a decision support matrix (DSM) comprised of five criteria, including 1) Innovative Element of the Product, 2) Leverage of Leading-Edge Technologies, 3) Value Added Features/Benefits, 4) Increased Customer ROI and 5) Customer Acquisition/Penetration Potential. Frost & Sullivan concluded that PREVIDA was truly an innovative product with immense market penetration potential. PREVIDA is a unique prebiotic comprised of an all-natural, hemicellulose extract that promotes intestinal health for a variety of aquatic species. The product contains a high level of soluble dietary fiber in the form of specific oligosaccharides, which have been shown to provide compelling digestive health benefits. Studies suggest PREVIDA impacts gut microflora and optimizes immune response leading to healthier, more resilient shrimp and fish. PREVIDA was discovered by research scientists at Temple-Inland, a wood products company. After Temple-Inland assessed the nutritional profile and health benefits of the product, they reached out to Novus for its expertise in developing animal health and nutrition solutions. Novus has the exclusive global marketing and distribution rights for PREVIDA. PREVIDA is the first real alternative to MOS, said Dr. Francisco S. Gomes, Executive Manager Aqua Business Unit, at Novus. For years the industry has consistently reduced the inclusion rates of MOS looking for a cost benefit. PREVIDA offers this cost benefit because it is a holistic solution. www.novusint.com

Lallemand Aquaculture Seminar 2012: Intestinal health in aquaculture

allemand Animal Nutrition was pleased to host its main aquaculture technical event for the first time in South East Asia. This highly technical event dedicated to fish and shrimp intestinal health gathered more than 200 participants from South East Asia, central Asia and Middle East over a 2-day conference. A total of 13 eminent speakers and experts from all over the world gave more than 15 scientific and technical presentations in the areas of microbiology, immunity, nutrition, fish and shrimp health. Particular attention was paid to highlighting the recent advances and knowledge on intestinal health in aquatic species and the importance of gut management when developing innovative and sustainable solutions to optimize the performance of aquaculture systems. Academic speakers and Lallemands product manager also delivered the state of the science about the mechanisms of action and benefits of the unique, scientific based and field supported probiotic strain Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M (Bactocell). Key industrial companies, farmers, scientists and nutritionists attended this event, and positively received the highly technical scope of this seminar, making it, as expressed by the participants, a unique event at the crossroads of science and industry. www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com

52 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012

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