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Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language ANNE EDIGER

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I.

READING AS A COMPLEX, INTERACTIVE PROCESS Reading -is an interactive, socio-cognitive process, involving text, a reader and a social context within in which the activity of reading takes place. EXPECTATION and INTENT: to make meaning and comprehend what we read.

Six General Component Skills and Knowledge in the Reading Process by Grabe
1. Automatic recognition skills ~

2. Vocabulary and structural knowledge ~

3. Formal discourse structure knowledge ~

4. Content/world background knowledge ~

5. Synthesis and evaluation skills/strategies ~

6. Metacognitive knowledge and skills monitoring ~

Maricelle C. Vinoya BSE IV-A

Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language ANNE EDIGER

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Process in Reading by Fluent Readers

Fluent readers will

Recognize and get meaning from prints using their knowledge of the structure of language to form a mental notion of the topic.

Then, the use of semantic and syntactic information from the text will be mixed with their personal experiences to form their hypothesis or predictions about what they are reading.

Confirm or reject their predictions through asking, Does this make sense? Does what Im seeing on the page fit the ideas in my head?

Move in to sampling text, making hypothesis and confirming.

II.

BECOMING LITERATE IN A SECOND LANGUAGE A. Oral Language Skills and Academic Literacy Skills Differences in terms of Language Background Native English Speakers English Language Learners (NES) (ELL)

Fairly fluent in speaking and understanding the target language when they begin school, and can build on the oral language they already have. Words that they are learning to read are already present in their oral language vocabularies.

They do not necessarily have oral ability in the L2 yet and generally cannot fall back on an oral knowledge of what they are learning to read or write. The language or vocabulary they encounter in reading is completely new to them.

Maricelle C. Vinoya BSE IV-A

Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language ANNE EDIGER

_____________________________________________________________________________________ B. The Role of the First Language in Literacy Development There is a clear evidence of a strong relationship between childrens prior native knowledge and their development of English literacy. If children already understand the symbolic role of characters or letters familiar with some of the functions of print in society, this awareness can help them move to the next stages in their literacy development.

Teachers Corner! Even if the teachers cannot speak the L1 of their students, their acceptance of the childs L1 and support of its use can greatly benefit students learning the L2.

C. Varied Experiences, Background Knowledge and Culture of ESL students Things to consider: 1. Teachers need to incorporate responsive teaching. 2. Use various methods to activate students schemata. 3. Choose or having the children choose reading material on topics that are familiar to them. D. First Language Literacy

Teachers Corner!

Teachers need to be careful, though, not to assume that children with low literacy backgrounds will come with the same understandings about literacy or print as they do. Children learning to read and write for the first time may need assistance with developing an understanding of notions.

III.

IS THERE AN OPTIMAL WAY TO TEACH READING AND WRITING? 1. Part-Centered (Code Emphasis) Methods A. Phonics Approach ~ teaches children to match individual letters of the alphabet with their specific English pronunciations, with the idea that if children

Maricelle C. Vinoya BSE IV-A

Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language ANNE EDIGER

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sound out or decode new words, they will be able to read independently. Basic concepts involved in teaching phonics: Consonants (C) single sound b,d,f,j,k,l,m,n,p,r,s,t,v,z more than one sound c,g,h,w,y occur in two-letter combinations, or blends with l: bl,cl,fl,gl,pl,sl with r: br,cr,dr,fr,gr,pr,tr with s: sc,sk,sm,sn,sp,st,sw occur in three-letter blends scr,spr,str,squ combine to form a new sound or digraph ch,sh,wh,gh,-nk,-ng Vowels (V)
long vowels CV CVe CVVC VC or CVC Vr or CVr VV be ate, like, rote paid, boat it, hot art, car,her saw, book/boil, out

short vowels r-controlled vowela digraph/ diphthong

Phonemic awareness ~ involves a students understanding that speech is made up of individual sounds, ability to tell if two words begin or end with the same sound and to focus on the form of speech apart from focusing on its meaning or content. B. Linguistic Approach ~ utilizes knowledge of language and exposes children to certain carefully selected words containing regular spelling patterns so that they can infer th letter-sound relationships in those words. e.g. similar looking word groups My Example 1. take-bake-lake-cake 1. spell-well-dwell-swell 2. might-tight-right-fight Your Example

Maricelle C. Vinoya BSE IV-A

Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language ANNE EDIGER

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Initial Teaching Alphabet or I.T.A. ~ uses a special alphabet containing 44 unique letters to represent the approximately 44 individual phonemes of the English language.

C.

Sight Word or Look-Say Method ~ teaches children recognize whole words, commonly using flash cards or other techniques to help children quickly identify such common words. Basal Reader Approach ~ children should be taught to read through careful control and sequencing of the language and the sounds they are exposed to.

D.

2. Socio-Psycholinguistic (Meaning Emphasis) Approaches A. Language Experience Approach (LEA) ~ if children are given material to read they are already familiar with, it will help them read to learn. Since it involves stories that are first dictated, the LEA allows children to see a direct link between oral and written language. B. Literature-based Approach ~ uses childrens literature with the intention of focusing on meaning, interest and enjoyment, while addressing individual childrens needs in teaching them to read. Some proponents of this approach maintain that individual skills should not be taughtthey will emerge as the child reads. Over-all focus: the childs understanding of the story.

Teachers Corner!

Teachers who use this approach can greatly facilitate their students success and skill development by helping them find books which best fit their interests and is either at or just slightly above their reading level.

Maricelle C. Vinoya BSE IV-A

Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language ANNE EDIGER

_____________________________________________________________________________________ C. Whole Language Approach ~ the proponents of this approach believes that they are not just teaching reading; rather, they are guiding and assisting learners to develop as independent readers, writers and learners.

Seven Developmental Stages as a Child Create his own Written Texts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The use of authentic texts from various genres is vital. IV. STANDARDS AND SECOND LANGUAGE LITERACY DEVELOPMENT

TESOLs Pre-K-12 ESOL Standards Goals for ESOL Learners GOAL 1: TO USE ENGLISH TO COMMUNICATE IN SOCIAL SETTINGS STANDARDS Students will: 1. use English to participate in social interaction; 2. interact in, through, and with spoken and written English for personal expression and enjoyment; and 3. use learning strategies to extend their communicative competence.

Maricelle C. Vinoya BSE IV-A

Teaching Children Literacy Skills in a Second Language ANNE EDIGER

_____________________________________________________________________________________ GOAL 2: TO USE ENGLISH TO ACHIEVE ACADEMICALLY IN ALL CONTENT AREAS STANDARDS Students will: 1. use English to interact in the classroom; 2. use English to obtain, process, construct and provide subject matter information in spoken and written form; and 3. use appropriate learning strategies to construct and apply academic knowledge. GOAL 3: TO USE ENGLISH IN SOCIALLY AND CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE WAYS STANDARDS Students will: 1. use the appropriate language variety, register and genre according to audience, purpose and setting; 2. use non-verbal communication appropriate to audience, purpose and setting; and 3. use appropriate learning strategies to extend their sociolinguistic and socio-cultural competence. V. STRATEGIES TO FACILITATE SECOND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND HELP STUDENTS ACHIEVE STANDARDS LITERACY

1. Expose students to the many uses of print around them. Label items in the room. Focus attention on the print around the classroom, school or neighborhood. Manage aspects of classroom business writing. Establish a regular place to post announcements or messages. Record class discussions on chart paper; keep these posted as long as theme is being studied. Create areas in the room for specific literacy purposes. Display different genres of reading and writing materials or books. 2. Provide opportunities for children to read more extensively. 3. Provide authentic purposes for reading and writing. 4. Provide scaffolding for learning. 5. Use oral skills to support reading and writing development. 6. Focus students attention on reading and writing strategies.

Maricelle C. Vinoya BSE IV-A