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TOTALITARIANISM (OR TOTALITARIAN RULE) It is a political system where the state holds total authority over society and

seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever feasible. A simple definition of totalitarianism can be taken to be a system of rule, driven by an ideology, that seeks direction of all aspects of public activity, political, economic and social, and uses to that end, at least to a degree, propaganda and terror. This definition, through brevity, is incomplete. To move toward a more complete understanding, a look at the history of its use can be helpful. This will indicate that initially it was not used as a critical judgment on a government.

CONCEPT OF TOTALITARIANISM The concept of totalitarianism was first developed in a positive sense in the 1920s by the Italian fascists. The concept became prominent in Western anti-communist political discourse during the Cold War era To highlight perceived similarities between Nazi Germany and other fascist regimes on the one hand, and Soviet communism on the other. Aside from fascist and Stalinist movements, there have been other movements that are totalitarian.

HISTORY OF CONCEPT OF TOTALITARIANISM The concept gained wider currency and became prominent in schoolbooks during the post1945 Cold War period. It was at that time that it was defined more fully, notably by US historians Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinski in Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy (1956). Friedrich and Brzezinskis theoretical model, derived from the history of the twentieth century, had six key features.

An official ideology to which general adherence was demanded, the ideology intended to achieve a perfect final stage of mankind. A single mass party, hierarchically organised, closely interwoven with the state bureaucracy and typically led by one man. Monopolistic control of the armed forces. A similar monopoly of the means of effective mass communication. A system of terroristic police control. Central control and direction of the entire economy.

The leader of the historic Spanish reactionary conservative movement called the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right declared his intention to "give Spain a true unity, a new spirit, a totalitarian policy..." and went on to say "Democracy is not an end but a means to the conquest of the new state. When the time comes, either parliament submits or we will eliminate it.

Giovanni Amendola Formulate the notion of "totalitarianism" a "total" political power by state in 1923. Italian Fascism Italys most prominent philosopher and leading theorist of fascism. He used the term totalitario to refer to the structure and goals of the new state. The new state was to provide the total representation of the nation and total guidance of national goals.

He described totalitarianism as a society in which the ideology of the state had influence, if not power, over most of its citizens. According to Benito Mussolini, this system politicizes everything spiritual and human:

Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.

As an example, he stated that "We must finish once and for all with the neutrality of chess. We must condemn once and for all the formula 'chess for the sake of chess', like the formula 'art for art's sake'. We must organize shock brigades of chess-players, and begin immediate realization of a Five-Year Plan for chess. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AUTHORITARIAN AND TOTALITARIAN REGIME The term 'an authoritarian regime' denotes a state in which the single power holder - an individual 'dictator', a committee or a junta or an otherwise small group of political elite monopolizes political power. However, a totalitarian regime attempts to control virtually all aspects of the social life including economy, education, art, science, private life and morals of citizens.

"The officially proclaimed ideology penetrates into the deepest reaches of societal structure and the totalitarian government seeks to completely control the thoughts and actions of its citizens ." Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism. Authoritarianism primarily differs from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist that are not under governmental control. Building on the work of Yale political scientist Juan Linz, Paul C. Sondrol of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs has examined the characteristics of authoritarian and totalitarian dictators and organized them in a chart:

Totalitarianism Charisma Role conception Ends of power Corruption Official ideology Limited pluralism Legitimacy High Leader as function Public Low Yes No Yes

Authoritarianism Low Leader as individual Private High No Yes No