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The Origins of ESP to learn English The demands of Brave New World o WW II-expansion of scientific, technical and economic

c activity o People wanted to learn English as a key to the international currencies of technology and commerce A revolution in Linguistics o Language varies considerably and in a number of different ways, from one context to another

Guiding principle of ESP- Tell me what you need English for and I will tell you the English that you need. Focus on the learner- development of courses in which relevance to the learners needs ad internt and paramount Factors of the growth of ESP 1. Expansion of demand for English to meet particular needs 2. Development in the field of linguistics 3. Development of psychology The development of ESP 1. The concept of special language Register Analysis-language at the sentence level Register- any of the varieties of a language that a speaker uses in a particular context Focus on sentence grammar Register analysis- to identify the grammatical ad lexical features of these registers 2. Beyond the sentence: Rhetorical or discourse analysis- how sentences are used in the performance of different communicative acts. -understanding how sentences were combined in discourse to produce meaning. 3. Target situation analysis- situation in which the learners will use the language they are learning Needs analysis-identify target situation, analysis of linguistic features 4. Skills and Strategies- considers not the language itself but the thinking process that underlie language usage -emphasis on reading and linking strategies -language learners are treated or thinking beings who can be asked to observe and verbalize the interpretative processes they employ in language use -focus on underlying interpretative strategies (guessing the meaning of words 5. A leaning-centered approach- understanding of the processes of language learning ESP: an approach not a product -not a particular kind of language or methodology -it is an approach to language learning based n learners need

Course Design Language description- syllabus (what) Theories of learning-methodologies (how) Needs analysis-target (who, why, where)

Language Description- the way in which language system us broken down and described for the purposes of learning. Structural, functional, notional, ways of analyzing and describing language Learning Theory-provides the theoretical basis for methodology by helping us understand how people learn not only confined to language learning but especially refers to learning any kind of knowledge Language Descriptions 1. Classical or Traditional Grammar-descriptions of English and other languages were based on the grammar of classical language-Greek and Latin -language description was based on analysis of the role played by each word in a sentence 2. Structural Linguistics- the grammar of a language is described in terms of syntagmatic structures which carry the fundamental proportions (statement, interrogative, interpretative) and notions (time, number, gender) 3. Transformational Generative Grammar A2 levels (Chomsky) a. Deep level- organization of thoughts b. Surface level- there thoughts are expressed through the syntax of the language -language must be viewed was a reflection of human thought pattern -the grammar of a language is not the surface structures themselves but the process that enables the language area to generate the surface structures from the deep level of meaning -subject is rule governed (Chomsky) -Performance-what we do with the language -Competence- the range of abilities and knowledge that made them to do it

4. Language variation and register analysis- varies according to the context of use that enables us to distinguish formal from informal, written from spoken, self-sufficient language from context dependent 5. Functional/Notional Grammar-its function is social behavior and its notion reflects the way in which the human mind thinks

6. Discourse Analysis-how meaning is generated in sentences in which utterance acquires meaning by virtue of what utterances it precedes or follows Theories of Learning 1. Behaviorism- learning as a habit formation by Pavlov and Skinner, learning is a mechanical process 2. Mentalism- thinking as a rule-governed activity and it is a psychological process 3. Coginitive Code-learners are active processors of information, the learner actively tries to make sense of data and learning can be said to be taken place when the learner has managed to impose some sort of meaningful interpretation or pattern of data, we learn by thinking about and trying to make sense of what we see, hear or feel. 4. The Affective Factor- learners as emotional beings. Instrumental motivation is not want but need while integrative motivation is need and not wants. 5. Learning and Acquisition Learning- a conscious process while Acquisition proceeds unconsciously NEEDS AANALYSIS ESP from General English o Awareness of the need Communicative Syllabus Design (John Munby) Communication Need Processor o Set of procedures fro discovering target situation needs Needs- the ability to comprehend and or produce the linguistic features of the target situation Target needs- what the learner needs o do in the target situation Learning needs- what the learner needs to do in order to learn o Target needs Necessities- type of need determined by the demands of the target situation o Lacks the gap between what the learner know and what he/she needs to know o Wants What the learner wishes to learn

Approaches to course design 1. Language-centered course design- aims to direc a connection as possible between the analysis of the target situation and the content of the ESP course, the nature of the target situation performance determines the ESP course 2. Skills-centered approach- approaches the learner as a user of language rather than as a learner of the language 3. Learning centered approach- looking beyond the competence that enables someone toperform SYLLABUS- a document which says what will be learnt

1. Evaluation syllabus- it put a records the basis on which success or failure will be evaluated 2. Organizational syllabus- it states the order which to be learnt 3. Material syllabus- it goes through a sense of interpretation and the first person to interpret the syllabus in the materials writer 4. Teacher syllabus- the interpretation of the syllabus comes from the teacher 5. Classroom syllabus- the classroom affects the nature both of what is taught and learnt 6. Learners Syllabus- intended syllabus, a retrospective record of what has been learnt rather than a prospective plan of what will be learnt Criteria of Syllabus Organization a. Topic syllabus b. Structural/situational syllabus c. Functional/notional syllabus d. Skills e. Situational f. Functional/task-based g. Discourse/skills syllabus h. Skills and strategies