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Definition of terms and basic development concepts:

Development Many scholars have attempted to explain the concept development. Several meanings have been attached to this understanding: i) According to Wolfgang Sachs (1992:4), development stands like a ruin in the intellectual landscapes, the outdated monument to an immodest era. ii) Bayart (1991:52) berates development as a disastrous notion; one built on colonial fantasy and possibly with roots in an even older philosophical tradition. iii) Goulet (992) says that development is a two-edged sword which brings benefits, but also produces losses and generates value conflicts, e.g. technological gains, misguided interventions, poor results in practice.

Approaches to development
1. Development as Modernity and an Evolutionary Process Ideas of development for many are linked to concepts of modernity meaning being new or up to date. So the idea of modernity situates people in time. (Ogborn 1999:153) because of social, economic political and cultural dynamism, What is modern will change over time and also spatially. So what is modern in one place may be old fashioned elsewhere. Modernization then means attempting to transform from an existing poorer condition to a better state.

The classical sociologists who saw development in terms of becoming modern. They defined it as an evolutionary movement in the up-ward and forward direction. Scholars such as Parsons, Smelser, Eirsenstadt saw development as social differentiation, integration and adaptive upgrading. The current themes of modernization were strongly European oriented and other societies were regarded as superstitious, uninformed and backward. 2. Development as Improvement: Others have defined development as improvement over time and on a sustainable basis of the level and distribution of income and the physical and human resource base. Walt Rostow (1960) constructed a five stage process starting from traditional societies to modern western type of societies enjoying mass consumption. He stated that all societies could be categorized in terms of development reached in these stages. Even Karl Marx devised a similar but different three stage model where development progresses from primitive communism and feudalism, capitalism and finally to socialism. 3. Development as Social Progress Development has also been described as the total progress of a society. To attain sustainable development, the beliefs, cultural norms, traditions and perceptions of the society must change

in order to receive new ideas that are compatible with its policies and strategies. Here development is seen as a multi-phenomena which involves process and conditions conducive to bring about structural change for and the pre-determined objectives acceptable to all and for the betterment of all. Development as progress is therefore any change or adaptation to an existent environment that makes it easier for a persons or group of persons or other organized forms of life to live (Burgess). Progress roughly denotes any change that assists in the life of an individual, group, institution. The change should be life giving. 4. Development as a Biological process Development has also been described as resembling a life process, more like a biological process. Lievegoed likened development to the biological process which unfolds as maturation. So development is a process in time. It requires patience, time and cannot be forced, imposed or created. It can only be influenced or facilitated. And it is irreversible. 5. Development as Economic growth: To classical economists saw development as economic growth. But later, this definition was improved to include changes in the social and political structures, equity and self reliance. Presently, it implies a paradigm shift in the way of seeing the world and that science has progressed through a series of revolutions, not some orderly or continuous fashion. A whole cluster of beliefs, values, theories and techniques and a prelude to a new set of efforts is involved (Kuhn). 6. Development as Freedom Amartya Sen 1999 viewed development is achieved when people are freed from obstacles that affect their ability to develop their own lives and communities. This definition emphasizes the need for achieving empowerment for poor and people leading marginal lives. The scholar envisions development as local people controlling and planning for own lives and expressing their own demands and identifying own solutions to the problems that affect them.

Development today
Development is today regarded as an economic component dealing with the creation of wealth and improved conditions of material life, equitably distributed. It is also referred to as a social ingredient measured as well-being in health, education, housing and employment. The concept of development is somehow problematic to define. The term development has been given many meanings, which are not always clearly specified in practice or in research. Phillips (1990:6) states that these meanings can include: general improvement in progress economic growth increased labour productivity satisfaction of basic human needs modernization including education

social change. The above stated view of development ends up giving the features, goals and process of development.

Let me also introduce you to a qualitative view of development where, the process and the end-state of development are important. People are seen as both the ends and means of development. Note what Walter Rodney says. Rodney (1989:9) states that development at the individual level implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well being. In talking of development of human beings, then what we are talking about is human development. Since human beings and their needs keep on evolving as time moves on, then development should be defined as a dynamic process that involves positive change in the total life of a society. It is in this light we adopt the Gender Issues Awareness Trainers 1994 definition of development which opens the scope of what development ought to be: - a continuous process of positive change, collectively defined and aimed at optimum distributive justice, economic growth and individual and collective self-reliance in politics, economics and culture through the participation of that community and of related communities.

The Core Values of Development


There are three core values of development, namely: Sustenance , Self-esteem and Freedom.

Sustenance is the ability to meet basic needs of food, shelter, health and protection. Economic progress is the necessary but not sufficient conditions for development. Human choices extend far beyond economic wellbeing or wealth.

Self-esteem is a sense of worth and self respect a person may feel. The feeling of not being used as a tool by others for their own ends. The Third World seeks development to gain the esteem which is denied to societies living in a state of disgraceful underdevelopment. Freedom from servitude: means being able to choose. Freedom in the sense of emancipation from alienating material condition of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs. This means an expanded range of choices in life.

Underdevelopment Let us now define the concept of underdevelopment. Jhingan (1986:11) observes that there is not a single definition, which is so comprehensive as to incorporate all the features of an underdeveloped country. It is, however important to note that underdevelopment does not denote absence of development. This is because, as Rodney (1989:21) notes, every people have developed in one way or another and to a greater or lesser extent. So underdevelopment is a relative phenomenon. It therefore can best be explained in terms of comparison of levels of development. This is actually in noting that different societies have different needs as well as capacities and capabilities as well as different levels of resource endowment. Thus, there are more developed societies and less developed or underdeveloped societies. However, underdevelopment as a concept has largely been associated with economic backwardness, which is characterized by low incomes, poverty, low labour productivity, and "backward" technology. Generally, we can conclude that an underdeveloped society can be said to be developed, but only to the extent that most material and welfare needs of the people are largely, partly or wholly unmet. At the international level, an underdeveloped country may have the following as some of its basic characteristics: a relatively low per capita production a relatively higher proportion of the population working in agriculture relatively high unemployment and underemployment a relatively higher rate of population growth a relatively lower life expectancy a higher rate of infant mortality a relatively lower rate of literacy and a smaller percentage of young people in schooling and training at all level relatively few doctors per head of population and less access to basic health care and services and sanitation

Let us caution that the processes of development and underdevelopment should however not be seen as mutually exclusive, such that if a society or an economy is developing aspects of underdevelopment may not be found. Economic growth This is growth in per capita income. It is growth in economy or increase. It is measured in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (monetary value of all goods/services produced in an economy at a given period of time. GDP is captured through national accounts (managed by treasury). It is a subject of economic development. GDP Population size It is growth in size of economy. GNP = Gross National Product = GDP + remittances + Profits of national companies that have invested abroad. Economic development This is a wider concept. It is to do with improving peoples living standards. It is about expanding opportunities in education, healthcare, employment, environmental conservation, democracy, good governance. It is the development of economic wealth of a country-aimed at the overall well-being of the citizens of a country. It also implies increase in per capita income of citizens of a country. Per capita income =

Economic development Education


ECONOMIC GROWTH

security
Income distributio n

Employment

democracy Health

Sustainable development

democracy

The term sustainable development came into popular use after the 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Brundtland Report and the Brundtland Commission, respectively. The report was largely a response to the growing

international environmental and ecological lobby. It defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED 1987, p. 43). According to Donald Brooks (1990), the paradigm, or worldview, emerging around this concept recognized the need to ensure and facilitate the following: Integration of conservation and development; Maintenance of ecological integrity; Satisfaction of basic human needs (see Chapter 3); Achievement of equity and social justice; and Provision of social self-determination and cultural diversity.

This comprehensive approach does not reflect all approaches to sustainable development. Some economists, for example, speak of sustainable growth. Critics agree, however, that economic growth (that is, continuous increase in the quantity of economic production) cannot be sustained indefinitely, given the renewable and non-renewable resources of the planet. Nevertheless, a more equitable distribution of existing resources could lead to improvements in the quality of life. Sustainable development is measured in terms of: Sustainable Net National Product (SNNP) = GNP-Dm-Dn Where GNP Dm Dn = Gross National Product = Depreciation on manufactured capital = Depreciation on natural capital

Manufactured capital = infrastructural facilities Natural capital = forests, rivers and land Human capita = people, what they use, make, etc Note: the above three forms of capital complement and substitute each other.

Goals of development
i) Development seeks to enable people grow and change according to their own

needs/priorities, and at their own pace without oppressing them. ii) It should seek to develop structures tat enable the involvement of people from disadvantaged groups and in particular people from marginalised communities

iii) It is about the active involvement of people in issues which affect their lives. It is a process based o sharing of power, skills, knowledge and experience. iv) To bring about change in society (national-rural) i.e. all-round development of the people v) Education of the people empowerment vi) Improving peoples living standards