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This is to certify that SAURABH SUMAN student of class XII C of GURU TEGH BAHADUR PUBLIC SCHOOL Model Town has completed this project titled:

During academic year 2011 2012 towards partial fulfillment of credit for the chemistry practical evaluation under my supervision

Mr. Pradeep Loyalka Guru Tegh Bahadur Public School Model Town

I express my deep sense of gratitude to GURU TEGH BAHADUR PUBLIC SCHOOL MODEL TOWN for providing an opportunity in fulfilling my most cherished desire for reaching my goal.

I express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry teacher MR. PRADEEP LOYALKA who protonised me in completing this project successfully.

Finally, I wished to express my thanks to lab assistant MISS KAMANI who helps me in materializing this project.

Serial no. Contents 1 2. 3. 4. 5. (i). (ii). (iii). (iv). 6. Introduction Environment and environmental pollutants Soil pollution Water pollution Some experiments to detect water pollution To estimate chloride in water To estimate pH of water To check hardness of water To determine the alkalinity of water. Bibliography

Page no. 4 5 8 9 11 11 13 14 16 20

The term ENVIRONMENT literally means SURROUNDINGS. Environmental studies deals with the sum of social, economical, biological, physical and chemical interrelations with our surroundings.

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY deals with the study of the origin, transport, reaction, effects and fates of chemical species in the environment.

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY is a multidisciplinary science that involves chemistry, physics, life science, medical science, public health, chemical engineering and waste management.


The term ENVIRONMENT literally means SURROUNDINGS. It comprises of the following four components. 1. ATMOSPHERE: ATMOSPHERE is a cover of gases that extends to a height of about 1600 km above the surface of the earth and protects the life on earth from the harmful radiations (cosmic rays) coming from the sun or the outer space. 2. HYDROSPHERE: HYDROSPHERE forms that part of the environment which contains water in the form of sea, oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds etc. about 75% of the earths surface is covered by hydrosphere. Most of it is in the oceans and contains about 8.5% of the dissolved salt. Fresh water is present in lakes or rivers or ponds which flows into them from rain or melting of snow. 3. LITHOSPHERE: LITHOSPHERE is the solid components of the earth consisting of soil, rocks, mountains etc. outermost (8km 40km) thick solid part of the earth is called the crust. The uppermost part of the earths crust contains weathered rocks as well as organic matter and is called soil. This is the most important part of lithosphere because we grow plants on this part. It is also a store house of minerals. 4. BIOSPHERE: BIOSPHERE is the part of the lithosphere where hydrosphere and atmosphere and living organisms interact with these parts and thus live together. For example green plants during photosynthesis give out oxygen which is added into the atmosphere, animal inhale oxygen and give out carbon dioxide which is used by plants for photosynthesis.

The addition of any undesirable material in air , water and soil by a natural source or due to human activity to such a level of concentration which adversely affects the quality of environment is called ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. The undesirable material thus added to the environment is called a POLLUTANT. TYPES OF POLLUTANTS Pollutants can be classified in two different ways as follows: 1. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY POLLUTANTS Primary pollutants are those which after their formation enter the environment and remains as such. For example, nitric oxide (NO) formed by bacterial decay or by lightning flashes (resulting into combination of N2 and O2 of the air) becomes a pollutant if present in excessive amount. Similarly, SO2, NO2 etc are Primary pollutants. Secondary pollutants are those harmful materials which are formed by chemical reaction between the primary pollutants in the atmosphere or hydrosphere. For example, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen which are primary pollutants react together in the presence of sunlight to form certain compounds (e.g. PAN) which are also harmful. The compounds thus formed are called Secondary pollutants.

2. BIODEGRADABLE AND NON- BIODEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS BIODEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS are materials such as domestic sewage, cow dung etc, which are easily decomposed by the microorganisms either by the nature itself or by suitable treatment and thus are not harmful but if these are present in excess in the environment, they do not undergo degradation completely and thus become pollutants.

NON- BIODEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS are materials such as Hg, Al, DDT etc, which do not undergo degradation or degrade very slowly but their presence even in very small amount in the environment is very harmful for the humans as well as plants. They may react with other compounds present in the environment and produce even more toxic compounds.

Soil is the uppermost part of the earths crust and is believed to have been formed as a result of decomposition and disintegration of surface rocks due to weathering over a very long period of time.

Composition of soil
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mineral matter Organic matter Biological system Soil water Soil air


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Industrial waste Fertilizers Pesticides Agricultural pollutants Urban waste

Water pollution is defined as the contamination of water by foreign substances which make it harmful for health of animals or plants or aquatic life and make it unfit for domestic, industrial and agricultural use.

Types of water pollution

1. Ground water pollution : Water below the surface of the earth is called ground water. A number of harmful soluble substances dissolve into ground water and pass through the soil and enter into ground water and result in pollution.

2. Surface water pollution: Water present on the surface of earth in any form is called surface water. As it is in direct contact with the atmosphere gases, a number of gases like CO2, CO, SO2, H2S, NO2 etc, present in the air as pollutants dissolve into it, thereby polluting it.

3. Sea water pollution: Ocean cover about 70% of the earths surface. The pollution of sea water due to discharge of wastes from different sources into it, thereby making it harmful for human health and aquatic like fishes, etc is called marine pollution.

Sources and causes of water pollution

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sewage and domestic wastes Industrial effluents Agricultural discharge Thermal pollutants Radioactive discharge

Harmful effects
1. Spread of diseases and epidemics or illness like dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, jaundice etc. 2. Flurosis disease caused due to excess of fluorine in ground water. 3. Skin and stomach disease due to industrial chemicals. 4. Mercury contains of water finally reached human due consumption of fishes and other sea food.

Steps for preventing the water pollution

1. Location of industrial and municipal disposal sites should be decided keeping view of the ground water levels and flow pattern in the area. 2. Waste water disposal and sewage disposal in urban areas must be planned very carefully keeping in the view the flow pattern.



Aim: to estimate chloride in water (H2O). Material required: conical flask, measuring cylinder, beaker (100 cm3), sample bottles, pipette. Reagents: Potassium chromate, silver nitrate. Theory: Cl- ion is generally present in natural water due to dissolution of salt deposits. Pollution of water bodies may occur due to discharge of effluents from chemical industries. Cl- ion is not strictly a pollutant but concentration above 100mg/l harms agriculture plants. Chloride estimation is based on Mohr titration principle where Cl- reacts with silver nitrate and after all of it has precipitates as silver chloride. Potassium chromate reacts with silver nitrate to produce orange red silver chromate. Reaction involved : Ag+ + Cl- AgCl 2Ag+ + CrO42- Ag2CrO4 Procedure : Place of 20 ml of each water sample in three labeled conical flask (1,2,3). Add 2 ml of potassium chromate solution and 10 ml of AgNO3 solution. The solution was shaken and colour in each case note the observation. Observation : Samples Sample 1 (tap water) Sample 2 (underground water) Sample 3 (canal water) Colors


Result : 1. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

2. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________


Aim: To estimate pH of water. Material required: Test tubes, beaker (100 cm3), sample bottles, glass dropper. Reagents: Standard pH paper, water samples. Theory: The pH scale serves as a measure of acidity or alkalinity of water. The scale ranges from 0 to 14 with reading above 7 considered alkaline and those below 7 acidic. The pH is 7 it means water neutral. Procedure: Place 10 ml of water samples in well labeled test tubes (1, 2,3). Dip a strip of colour chart provided standard pH paper, and notes the observations. Observation: Sample Sample 1 (tap water) Sample 2 (underground water) Sample 3 (canal water) pH

Result: 1. _______________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________


Aim: To check the hardness of water. Material required: 5 Measuring cylinders (10 cm3), Conical flask (100 cm3), Small funnel, Burette and burette stand, Bung, to fit the conical flask, Soap solution, distilled water, 3 samples of water taken from different sites. Theory: Hard water contains dissolved calcium or magnesium salt that react with soap solution to form insoluble scum. calcium salt(aq) + sodium stearate (soap)(aq) calcium stearate (scum)(s) + sodium salt(aq) Only when all the calcium ions have been precipitated out as scum will the water lather. Thus the volume of soap solution measures the amount of hardness. Temporarily hard water is defined as that which can be softened The reactions by which it is made here are:: Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) (Calcium carbonate is the milkiness that forms when lime water is reacted with carbon dioxide) CaCO3(s) +CO2(g) + H2O(l) Ca(HCO3)2(aq) (calciumhydrogencarbonate) This reaction also occurs when rain water (containing dissolved carbon dioxide) flows over limestone rocks. On boiling, the reaction is reversed, softening the water: Ca(HCO3)2(aq) CaCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Permanently hard water contains calcium or magnesium salts other than the hydrogencarbonates. These are unaffected by boiling. Procedure: 1. Collect about 75 cm3 of soap solution in a small beaker. 2. Set up a burette and, using the small funnel, fill it with soap solution. 3. Use a measuring cylinder to measure out 10 cm3 of one of the samples of water from the list below into a conical flask.

4. Read the burette. Add 1 cm3 of soap solution to the water in the conical flask. Stopper the flask and shake it. If lather appears that lasts for 30 seconds, stop and read the burette. 5. If no lather forms, add another 1 cm3 of soap solution. Shake the flask. Repeat the process until a lather form that lasts for 30 seconds. Read the burette. 6. Rinse out the flask with distilled water. Repeat the experiment with 10 cm3 of another water sample, until you have tested them all. Make a note of the volumes of soap solution that were needed in each case to produce lather. Observations: Samples Sample 1 (tap water) Sample 2(underground water) Sample 3 (canal water)

Produces lather

Result: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


EXPERIMENT - 4 Aim: To determine the alkalinity of water. Material required: Burette, pipette, conical flask, measuring cylinders, standard flask, beakers, wash bottle. Chemical involved: Standard sulphuric acid (0.02N), sodium carbonate, phenolphthalein, bromocresol green, methyl red. Procedure: 1. Using a measuring cylinder exactly measure 100 ml of sample and pour it in a 250 ml of conical flask. 2. Fill the burette with 0.02N sulphuric acid. 3. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator to conical flask, if the contents in the conical flask turn pink then titrate it against 0.02N sulphuric acid till the pink color disappears. 4. To the same solution in the conical flask add few drops of mixed indicator and the solution turns blue. 5. Continue the titration from the point where stopped. Titrate till the solution becomes red. 6. Note down the titter value (V) volume of sulphuric acid. 7. Repeat the titration for concordant values.

Observations: Table for alkalinity for sample 1 (tap water) S. no. 1. 2. 3.


Volume of samples(ml)

Burette reading(ml) Initial Final(V)

Volume of 0.02N sulphuric acid(ml)

Table for alkalinity for sample 2 (underground water) S.no. Volume of samples(ml) 1. 2. 3. Burette reading(ml) Initial Final(V) Volume of 0.02N sulphuric acid(ml)

Table for alkalinity for sample 3 (canal water) S.no. Volume of samples(ml) 1. 2. 3. Burette reading(ml) Initial Final(V) Volume of 0.02N sulphuric acid(ml)

Calculations: Calculation of Alkalinity for sample 1 (tap water)

Total Alkalinity = Total Alkalinity =

Total Alkalinity = __________ mg/l


For calculation of Alkalinity for sample 2 (underground)

Total Alkalinity = Total Alkalinity =

Total Alkalinity = __________ mg/l

For calculation of Alkalinity for sample 3 (canal water)

Total Alkalinity = Total Alkalinity =

Total Alkalinity = __________ mg/l

Result : ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________



Serial Parameters Acceptable no. limits Sample 1 (tap water) Sample 2 (canal water) Sample 3 (underground water)


Chloride ion Ph



7 to 8.5



Absence of ions 20 100g/ml




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Experiment 1 Observation : Samples Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Colors Red Red yellow

Result : 1. 2. Red colour indicates that chloride ion concentration is below the permissible limit. Yellow colour indicates that chloride ion concentration is above the permissible limit.

Experiment 2 Observation : Sample Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 pH 6.8 7.1 7.9

Result : 1. 2. 3. Sample 1 is acidic in nature. Sample 2 is neutral in nature. Sample 3 is basic in nature.

Serial no. 1. 2.

Parameters Chloride ion pH

Acceptable limits 200 7 to 8.5

Sample 1 (tap water) Under permissible limit 6.8

Sample 2 Under permissible limit 7.1

Sample 3 (under ground water) Above permissible limit 6.9

Experiment 4 based on the testing it is found that the alkalinity of the sample is 83 mg/l. as per the provisional code, alkalinity should not exceed 200 mg/l for portable water. For the fresh water alkalinity ranges b/w 20 100mg/l. alkalinity of tested sample is within the limits specified in the standards. Hence the water sample is fit for drinking.