Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8



Interpretation of Transformer FRA Responses Part II: Inuence of Transformer Structure

Dahlina M. Soan, Student Member, IEEE, Zhongdong Wang, Member, IEEE, and Jie Li, Student Member, IEEE
AbstractIn general, a transformer winding end-to-end frequency response analysis (FRA) response, usually measured between 10 Hz and 2 MHz, can be divided into three frequency regions of which from low to high frequencies, are dominated by the core, the windings, and the measurement setup correspondingly. The coupling interaction between windings may be originated either from nontested windings of the same phase with the winding-under-test or from nontested windings in the other phases. The latter is coupled to the winding-under-test through the three-phase delta winding connection. This paper addresses the issue of coupling between windings and how it affects the features of FRA responses. Using a 1000-MVA 400/275-kV autotransformer as an example, a double-peak feature is distinctively observed in the frequency band between 2 and 20 kHz on the series and common windings FRA responses. Through transformer modeling and simulation sensitivity studies, it is found that the coupling through the delta tertiary connection affects the rst resonance of the double-peak feature while the coupling between windings of the same phase, especially between the series and the common winding, inuences the anti-resonance and the second resonance of the double-peak feature. Index TermsAutotransformers, diagnosis, frequency response analysis (FRA), interpretation, mechanical winding movement.

I. INTRODUCTION HE interpretation of frequency response analysis (FRA) results, measured on transformer windings during on site periodical tests, has become a priority to ensure its effectiveness in identifying a mechanically faulty transformer well before failure and hence avoiding an unplanned outage. In analyzing an end-to-end FRA response, different types of winding deformations and displacements are reected as shifts of resonant frequencies when being compared to the baseline response. However, these must not be confused with the deviation caused by the measurement set-up, design and manufacture tolerance and noise disturbance during measurements. Also, the effective frequency range that is useful for detecting winding movement varies with transformer size and rating. A large transformer has a lower effective frequency range for FRA while the smaller ones may have an extensive FRA frequency range which goes to much higher frequencies [1], [2]. Nevertheless, the effective frequency range for FRA
Manuscript received December 06, 2009; revised March 08, 2010. Date of publication June 28, 2010; date of current version September 22, 2010. This work was supported by EPSRC and the National Grid, with technical support from AREVA T&D. Paper no. TPWRD-00901-2009. The authors are with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, U.K. (e-mail: zhongdong.wang@manchester.ac.uk). Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2050342

can be divided into frequency regions, from low to high frequencies, each of which is dominated by the core, the windings, and the measurement setup correspondingly [1]. In the companion paper [3], FRA responses of single windings, being typical of different winding structures, were given to indicate the inuence of winding structures on FRA responses. However, these FRA responses of single windings and their corresponding features are often distorted after winding set assembly and transformer making. Therefore, the measured FRA response of a winding in a three-phase transformer would be inuenced by the core, its own winding structure, and the interaction between itself and the nontested windings. The nontested windings whether of the same phase or from the other two phases, although without electric connections to the tested winding, would have an impact on the FRA response of the winding through mutual inductive and capacitive coupling. Thus, it is necessary to consider the complete three-phase transformer structure in order to obtain an accurate FRA response. In this paper, the understanding on FRA responses in relation to the couplings between three-phase windings was developed using a veried simulation model of a 400/275-kV, 1000-MVA autotransformer. This simulation model was manipulated by arbitrarily changing the values of the electrical parameters to facilitate the identication of the inuence of other windings on the tested winding. During FRA measurements, the condition of the delta tertiary connection and the termination status of the neutrals of the nontested phases affect the shape of the FRA response, and these different connection scenarios were simulated and the effects of such conditions on the FRA features were investigated. II. AUTOTRANSFORMERS AND END-TO-END FRA MEASUREMENTS A. Autotransformer Details The 400/275-kV 1000-MVA three-phase autotransformer used in the case study for this paper is one of the largest power

0885-8977/$26.00 2010 IEEE



Fig. 1. Arrangement of windings in B phase. Fig. 3. Windings per phase diagram with FRA measured on the series winding (HV-LV).

Fig. 2. Three-phase winding connection diagram.

transformers in the U.K. transmission system network. Further details on the transformer are outlined in Table I while the arrangement of the windings for one phase and the three-phase connection diagram are shown in Figs. 1 and 2 respectively. This transformer was manufactured and installed on-site in 1998 and has been in operation ever since. One peculiar note on this transformer is that all the neutral terminals of the three phases are individually brought out of the tank through neutral bushings and connected to the same earth point externally. This is the common practice for the U.K. transmission transformers and may not be the case worldwide. B. End-to-End FRA Measurement Results Three FRA measurement connections are widely employed in the industry today, namely: end-to-end voltage ratio, input admittance and transfer voltage ratio measurements [4]. In this paper, the FRA measurement on each phase of the autotransformer was made using the end-to-end voltage ratio connection, in which the sinusoidal signal is injected at one end of the winding while the output response is measured at the other end of the winding and the voltage ratio between the output to the input is plotted against frequency. The test was conducted by National Grid using HP4195 A Network Analyzer with the standard 50-Ohm BNC cables of about 20 meters length. During the measurements, other phases neutrals were earthed and the delta tertiary was closed and its three terminals were left potentially oating. The simplied single-phase diagram of the FRA measurement on the series winding is shown in Fig. 3 and the FRA measurement results for all the windings are presented in Fig. 4. Based on the knowledge developed in Part I of this series of paper [3], it is understood that all FRA responses begin with the from 10 Hz inductive trend of the magnetizing inductance, up to several hundred Hertz. This magnetizing inductance, is given by , where N is the number of turns of the winding and is the reluctance of the magnetic path [5].

Fig. 4. FRA measurement results in logarithmic scale.

Therefore, the common winding has the lowest response magnitude to begin with at low frequencies followed by the series and the tertiary winding respectively. Also, the FRA response of the middle-phase winding at low frequencies is different from those of the other two phases, since the magnetic path of the middle phase is slightly different from those of the lateral phases due to the unsymmetrical magnetic core paths. Whilst at high frequencies above 200 kHz up to 1 MHz, both series and common windings responses exhibit capacitive increasing magnitude trend as the windings behave as capacitive elements at these high frequencies. Beyond 1 MHz, the responses of both series and common windings differ between phases due to the inuence of the measurement setup; mainly the earthing lead, whereas the responses of the tertiary winding show discrepancies between phases at much lower frequencies around 500 kHz, where the winding terminal leads have significantly different length since the tertiary terminals are always brought out asymmetrically at one side of the tank. The frequency region dominated by the windings can be split into two bands. One is determined by the winding structure itself. In the case of the series and common windings, this lies at frequencies between 20 and 200 kHz. For this transformer, the



Fig. 5. Validation of simulation results with measurement results (a) Measurement results. (b) Simulation results.

series winding is of the interleaved disc type and the common winding is of the intershielded disc type. Both windings are type of winding with high or moderately high series capacitance due to their high-voltage ratings. For the series winding, the distinct anti-resonance at about 23 kHz followed by the smooth response with increasing magnitude clearly depicts the FRA feature of interleaved disc winding [3]. On the other hand, for the common winding, the fact that its shunt capacitance is made through the other two windings, seen in Fig. 1, makes it difcult to precisely show the intershielded disc winding features. Nevertheless, it has more anti-resonances and resonances than that of the interleaved disc type series winding. The tertiary winding is of a low voltage and low power rating (13 kV, 60 MVA) type and has a helical (single layer) winding structure. Therefore, the FRA response shows fairly at trend of magnitude with camel humps feature of a series of resonances with quasi-anti-resonances in between these resonances. These camel humps are accompanied by some sharp anti-resonances. These features of helical winding structure of its own start at higher frequency, say about 100 kHz, and extend up to the frequency of about 5 MHz. The other frequency band that is at much lower frequencies, between 2 and 20 kHz for both series and common windings and below 100 kHz for tertiary winding, is determined also by the windings, but by the coupling interactions between windings. This hypothesis however needs further studies in this paper to be proven true. From the authors experiences on the FRA database of U.K. transmission interconnecting transformers, the FRA responses in between 2 kHz and 20 kHz, taken on the series and common windings of autotransformers using the end-to-end voltage ratio measurement, always display a generic feature of two distinct resonances with an anti-resonance situated in between them [6][8] as circled in Fig. 4(a) and (b). Henceforth, these are known as the double-peak feature. A question arises in terms of what factor/factors governs/govern this feature? The answer to this question is crucial since they are the most distinguished features in these FRA responses and hold the key solution in

diagnosing some types of winding movement. As an example, FRA measurement results from a faulty autotransformer with broken axial clamping show deviations of the resonant frequencies within this region, while at the winding structure region (20200 kHz) only a small overall magnitude difference is shown [9], [10]. Changes in the number of resonances and shifts of resonant frequencies are regarded as key indicators of winding movement while magnitude difference is ambiguous at this stage of the authors understanding. For high-voltage high-power transmission transformers, which tend to be autotransformers and tend to use the design of windings with high series capacitance, it is essential to pay attentions on the resonant frequencies which are limited in number and to make maximum use of them for winding deformation diagnosis. III. FRA SIMULATION MODEL A. Three Phase Autotransformer FRA Model A complete three-phase autotransformer simulation model is built using the lumped element modelling technique. Each lumped unit is formed of double discs of disc-type winding or a turn of helical winding. The inductance and the capacitance of units are calculated using the winding geometry and material properties. The mutual capacitance and inductance between units are carefully considered for calculation accuracy. The inductance matrix (core and leakage inductances) and the capacitance matrix (shunt, series and inter-winding capacitances) are then set up followed by solving circuit equations at each node of network. The model however, does not consider the asymmetrical properties of core between the phases, i.e., being considered as no difference from the core of single-phase transformer although the transformer under simulation is with a three legged core, nor the lead effects from either the winding itself or from the measurement connection. B. Simulation Verication FRA measurement results for B-phase windings in Fig. 4 are compared with the corresponding simulation results as shown in



Fig. 5. It should be kept in mind that the purpose of transformer modeling and FRA simulation is never to provide exact matches with the measured results; instead, it is developed to aid the understanding and interpretation of the measured results, especially when used to identify the features which are indicative for winding displacement and deformation. From Fig. 5, it is evident that the simulation results of the series and the common winding capture the trend reasonably well as compared to the measurement results, in particular, the double-peak feature in the frequency range between 2 and 20 kHz of the series and common windings. In comparison to the measurement results, the simulated FRA responses are less damped due to lower losses estimated than the real case. For the common winding, the winding parameter calculation can still be improved since the simulated response in between 10 and 20 kHz exaggerates slightly from the measured response. Its position as the middle winding may have impacts which were not considered in the simulation. As for the tertiary winding, the parameter calculation, particularly the capacitances, can be improved further since increasing the capacitances would be sufcient to push the resonant frequencies to lower frequencies as in Fig. 4. For the series and common windings, the measurement results beyond 1 MHz are dominated by the winding capacitances and the inductance of the earthing lead. The simulation results, on the other hand, do not include the earthing lead and therefore, would always give lower magnitude response [7]. Despite the discrepancies, the simulation results prove that all transformer components (the core and the three-phase winding connection) need to be included to successfully reproduce the measurement results, and can now be used as the baseline to investigate the double-peak feature of the series and common winding. As mentioned earlier, this feature may occur due to the interaction i.e., the mutual inductive and capacitive couplings between windings. This can be categorized as interaction between windings either of the same phase or from one phase to other phases, i.e., inter-phases. IV. INTERACTION BETWEEN WINDINGS OF SAME PHASE The interaction between windings of the same phase was investigated through arbitrary parameters manipulations of the simulation model. A. Sensitivity Studies on Capacitive Coupling Any voltage applied to one winding can be transferred capacitively to the other winding [11]. The individual shunt capacitance, C and the interwinding capacitances, Ciw, are shown schematically in Fig. 6 and their inuences on FRA are investigated while the parameters are arbitrarily changed only for phase B with the parameters of the windings in other phases stayed the same. The baselines are always the FRA responses of B-phase windings with base values. Note that in all simulation results onwards, the FRA responses are shown in frequency range between 2 and 10 kHz only, since it is of interest to understand the peculiarity of the double-peak feature. The simulation results also include the response of the whole HV (N-HV) winding

Fig. 6. B-phase windings diagram with capacitances (C: individual shunt capacitance to ground, Ciw: interwinding capacitance).

Fig. 7. Sensitivity studies of winding shunt capacitance C.

with the signal injected at the neutral and the output measured at the HV terminal. The values of the individual shunt capacitance to ground are exaggerated by multiplying ten times or one tenth in each case study as outlined in Table II. The effect of these individual shunt capacitance changes on the whole (N-HV), series, common, and tertiary winding are shown in Fig. 7. Overall, it can be concluded that the changes in the shunt capacitance in the windings of the same phase do not affect the rst resonance at all as observed in Fig. 7(a), (b), and (c). However, the changes denitely affect the subsequent anti-resonance (for N-HV) and the second resonance of the double-peak feature of the series and the common winding. It is interesting to note that in Fig. 7(b), the second resonance of the series winding deviates most when the shunt capacitance of the common winding is multiplied ten times whereas that of the common winding deviates when the shunt capacitance of the series winding is either




Fig. 9. B-phase windings diagram with leakage inductances, inductances, M .

and mutual

Fig. 8. Sensitivity studies of interwinding capacitance C .

increased or reduced. On the other hand, the change of the tertiary windings shunt capacitance does not affect the second resonance of either series or the common winding despite having the largest value of all. The simulation results when changing the interwinding capacitance between the tertiary and the common winding ) and the interwinding capacitance between the (C ) individually by common and the series winding (C doubling or halving the values are as shown in Fig. 8. From Fig. 8(a) and (b), it is clear that the inter-winding capacitance mostly changes the position of the anti-resonance for the whole HV winding and both the anti-resonance together with the second resonance of the double-peak feature for the series winding. Although the tertiary is not connected to the series winding electrically, the electrical connection between the common and series windings in an autotransformer cause to affect the series winding as the changes in well. In Fig. 8(b), the rst resonance slightly deviates and the subsequent anti-resonance and the second resonance, shift proportionally with the doubling or halving of the inter-winding capacitances. Fig. 8(c) shows that the anti-resonance and the second resonance of the common windings response deviate is altered suggesting that only when does not inuence the response much. This might be due to that the weighing factor of the tertiary winding on the corresponding features being small.

Fig. 10. Sensitivity studies of leakage inductances, L .

In the responses of both series and common windings, the rst resonances are less dominated by the capacitive coupling; on the contrary the anti-resonance and the second resonance of the double-peak feature are particularly inuenced by the capacitive coupling between the windings in the same phase. B. Sensitivity Studies on Inductive Coupling The voltage applied is also transferred to other windings through mutual inductive coupling. The sensitivity studies caused by the change of the self-inductance of each winding, and the mutual inductances between the windings, on the double-peak feature as shown in Fig. 9, were carried out by arbitrarily changing these parameters. When the self-inductance of each winding is varied by doubling or halving the baseline value, the responses of the windings are shown in Fig. 10. The changes of self-inductances of , cause all windings, particularly that of the series winding, shift in the double-peak feature. This is understandable since



Fig. 11. Sensitivity studies of mutual inductances, M.

Fig. 12. Effect of tertiary winding connection.

the series winding has the largest self-inductance among all the windings. Therefore, change in affect most of the windings considerably. One particular observation in Fig. 10(c), the second resonance of the common winding is unaffected by eior the tertiary leakage inducther its own self-inductance, but affected signicantly by the self-inductance of tance, . the series winding, This simulation study is analogue to the deformation study which involves changes in the physical geometry of the winding which in turn affect the self-inductance. When the self-inductance is altered, the winding structure is modied and therefore, change in the overall FRA response is anticipated. However, in real situation, change of the self-inductance is less likely to occur except in the condition of severe or overall damage on the winding. Another sensitivity studies was carried out by doubling or halving the mutual inductances values and the FRA results are as shown in Fig. 11. As can be seen from Fig. 11, the mutual inductances affect the double-peak feature of each winding dramatically. However, an interesting point to note is that in Fig. 11(c), the second resonance of the common winding is barely affected by the mutual inductance between the tertiary and the common winding. However, this second resonance shifts signicantly when the mutual inductances between the tertiary and series, and between common and series, are altered. The double-peak feature of the series and common winding is dominated by the inductive coupling among the windings. The second resonance of the common winding is particularly vulnerable towards the inductive coupling with the series winding. V. INTERACTION OF WINDINGS IN DIFFERENT PHASES In a three-phase autotransformer, the windings are inductively and capacitively coupled through the delta connection of the tertiary winding. For FRA measurements, the way in which

the delta is connected as well as the neutral terminations would affect the FRA response since these would affect the inductive and capacitive couplings of the windings. Each physical change was simulated and the results are presented in this section. A. Inuence of Delta Connection of Tertiary Winding The FRA responses obtained from the simulation with closed tertiary delta connection as in normal practice are compared with the one with the tertiary delta connection opened. The comparison of FRA results in frequencies between 10 and 20 kHz are shown in Fig. 12. From Fig. 12, it is shown that when the delta connection is opened, changes in the responses are observed in all of the windings. For the whole HV winding (N-HV) in Fig. 12(a), the response only contains the inductive reducing trend of the magnitude which ends with an anti-resonance followed by the increasing trend of the capacitance up to l 20 kHz. The single resonance and anti-resonance which were present when the tertiary delta is closed have now dissolved completely. The double-peak feature in both series and common windings in Fig. 12(b) and (c) respectively, also disappears leaving only the second resonance. For the series winding, the second resonance appears at lower frequency while for the common winding, the second resonance does not move at all when compared to the case with the tertiary delta closed. In Fig. 12(d) of the tertiary windings responses, the anti-resonance in this frequency band has disappeared completely when the tertiary delta is opened. In the case of this autotransformer with tertiary, the delta tertiary provides a direct induced current ow which couples the three-phase windings together. When the corner of the delta connected tertiary winding is opened, the bulk shunt capacitance of the three phases is reduced as compared to the situation when the tertiary delta is closed. Most importantly, the direct induced current does not ow to the other two phases anymore. A simulation study of removing the tertiary winding completely from




Fig. 13. Effect of termination of other nontested windings in other phases.

the model showed similar results as the case with the opened tertiary delta in Fig. 12 [7]. Clearly, Fig. 12(b) and (c) prove that the rst resonance and the anti-resonance of the double-peak feature of the series and the common winding are signicantly affected by the couplings between phases through the delta connection. B. Effect of the Neutrals Termination in Other Phases For this autotransformer, the termination of the separated neutrals in other phases is important as it affects the bulk shunt capacitance of the three-phase system. Three conditions of termination were investigated namely; other neutrals earthed, other neutrals oating and all neutrals joined and oating. The simulation results showing the comparison of the three termination methods on the double peaks in the frequency range between 10 and 20 kHz on the windings are as shown in Fig. 13. As can be seen from Fig. 13, different terminations affect all responses. In the responses of the windings taken with other neutrals earthed (thick black trace), the resonant frequencies are clearly shifted to lower frequencies as compared to the case when the termination is changed into other neutrals oating (thick black dash trace). The bulk shunt capacitance is changed as different termination is employed. This is then coupled to the measured phase through the tertiary delta connection. The results clearly show that although most of the features are preserved, the changes in the bulk shunt capacitance of windings in other phases can still cause deviations especially on the rst resonance of the responses obtained with other neutrals earthed or oating. The responses obtained with all neutrals joined and oating differs from the others due to the fact that the common neutral is injected with the input signal during measurement and effectively, all three phases are energised through this common neutral. Therefore, this should not be compared to the others. In summary, the results of these studies suggest that the second resonance of the double-peak feature is less dominated by the coupling of the three phases. This is true especially

for the common winding of which the position of the second resonance does not deviate at all in any case. As long as the current ows in the delta tertiary connection, the windings of all three phases are strongly coupled which predominantly inuence the rst resonance of the double-peak feature of the series and the common winding. Any changes in the bulk shunt capacitance caused by different termination employed would be coupled to the measured winding, resulting deviations in the rst resonance. VI. SUMMARY OF SIMULATION RESULTS The coupling between windings will be inevitably shown on the FRA response measured on a winding in a three-phase transformer. Simulation studies have been focused on the double-peak feature in the frequency band between 2 to 20 kHz which is supposed to be affected by winding couplings in this 1000-MVA 400/275/13-kV transformer. Table III summarizes the inuencing factors on the double-peak feature from all the simulation studies carried out. VII. CONCLUSION In this paper, the double-peak feature exhibited on FRA of windings of an autotransformer was studied. The signicance of this double-peak feature, at the frequencies between 2 and 20 kHz, lies on the fact that it is the most prominent features for windings with high or moderate-high series capacitance in an autotransformer. The FRA measurement results were used to verify the simulation results produced by a complete three-phase transformer model. Sensitivity studies through simulations, using arbitrarily changed inductance and capacitance of windings, have shown that the rst resonance of the double-peak feature is mostly dependent on the three-phase coupling through the tertiary delta connection. Therefore, it would always appear in the end-to-end FRA response of a three-phase transformer having delta connected windings. Whilst in an autotransformer, the series and the common winding are strongly coupled due to their relatively



close turn ratio. This coupling, both capacitive and inductive, produces the anti resonance and the second resonance of the double-peak feature. It is of importance to note that for a FRA response measured on a winding of three-phase transformer, features may exist which are predominantly determined by winding interaction through inductive and capacitive couplings, after the core dominant region but before the frequency region which is dominated by its own features of the winding-under-test.

[9] J. A. Lapworth and P. N. Jarman, U.K. experience of the use of frequency response analysis (FRA) for detecting winding movement faults in large power transformers, CIGRE Transformers Colloq., Jun. 24, 2003. [10] D. M. Soan, Z. D. Wang, and P. N. Jarman, Interpretation of transformer FRA measurement results using winding equivalent circuit modelling technique, in Proc. Conf. Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP 2005), Nashville, TN, Oct. 1619, 2005. [11] B. Hochart, Power Transformer Handbook. London, U.K.: Butterworth, 1987.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Paul Jarman from National Grid and Alan Darwin from AREVA T&D Power Transformers for their invaluable technical input towards this project.

Dahlina M. Soan (S07) was born in Malaysia in 1979. She received the B.Eng. degree from the University of Southampton, Southampton, U.K., in 2001, the M.Sc. degree in electrical power engineering from UMIST, Manchester, U.K., in 2002, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and electronic engineering from from The University of Manchester in 2007. She is currently an R&D Engineer with AREVA T&D U.K., Stafford, U.K. Her research interests include condition monitoring and diagnosis techniques for power transformers.

[1] CIGRE A2.26 Technical Brochure: Mechanical-Condition Assessment of Transformer Windings Using Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) Apr. 2008. [2] P. T. M. Vaessen and E. Hanique, A new frequency response analysis method for power transformers, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 384391, Jan. 1992. [3] Z. D. Wang, J. Li, and D. M. Soan, Interpretation of transformer FRA responsesPart I: inuence of winding structure, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 703710, Apr. 2009. [4] J. A. S. B. Jayasinghe, Z. D. Wang, P. N. Jarman, and A. W. Darwin, Winding movement in power transformers: a comparison of FRA measurement connection methods, IEEE Trans. Dielect. Elect. Insul., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 13421349, Dec. 2006. [5] S. P. Ang, J. Li, and Z. D. Wang, FRA low frequency characteristic study using duality transformer core modeling, in Proc. Int. Conf. Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis (CMD 2008), Beijing, China, Apr. 2124, 2008. [6] S. A. Ryder, Diagnosing transformer faults using frequency response analysis, IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1622, Mar. Apr. 2003. [7] D. M. Soan, Transformer FRA interpretation for detection of winding movement, Ph.D. dissertation, The Univ. Manchester, Manchester, U.K., 2007. [8] R. K. Tiwari and J. M. Malik, Frequency response analysisA reliable condition monitoring and diagnostic tool for power transformers, in Proc. 14th Int. Symp. High Voltage Engineering (ISH2005), Beijing, China, Aug. 2529, 2005. Zhongdong Wang (M00) was born in China in 1969. She received the B.Eng. and M.Eng. degrees in high-voltage engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 1991 and 1993, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from UMIST, Manchester, U.K., in 1999. She is currently a Professor of High Voltage Engineering at the University of Manchester. Her research interests include transformer modeling, oil/paper insulation aging mechanisms, condition assessment, and transformer life management.

Jie Li (S07) was born in China in 1979. He received the B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering and automation from Xian Jiaotong University of China, Xian, in 2002, the M.Sc. degree in electrical power engineering from UMIST, Manchester, U.K., in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and electronic engineering from The University of Manchester, Manchester, U.K., in 2008. He is currently an Electrical System Engineer of Plant Business with ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden, Switzerland, where he mainly works on power transformers, power system analysis, and lightning and earthling protection.