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Basic Hydrographic Surveying Course for FUGRO Co-Tidal Charts

Co-Tidal Charts
If the sounding area extends a fair distance from the reference port the reductions from the gauge will no longer apply. A method of extending the reductions to the sounding area is necessary. A co-tidal chart is used in an area that is so large and where the tide has amplitude so great that one tide gauge is insufficient to give accurate tide reductions throughout the whole sounding area.

Co-Tidal Charts
A co-tidal chart is simply a graphical method of predicting the tide by using the reference gauge readings for use at locations away from the reference gauge. It must be assumed that the mean water level at various locations on the chart are the same and that the times of both high and low water at a point will differ from the times at the reference gauge by the same amount.

Co-Tidal Charts
The co-tidal chart consists of: Co-tidal lines Lines joining points of simultaneously equal water level. Co-range lines Lines joining points of equal maximum tidal range. The end product is a chart of zones of time and range corrections.

Co-Tidal Charts
Example: A +20 for a time correction means that the tide occurs 20 minutes later in that zone than it does at the reference gauge. A 0.90 for a range correction means that the range in that zone is 0.90 times what it is at the reference gauge.

Co-Tidal Charts
To reduce soundings by means of a co-tidal chart one must first find the time the soundings were taken and the zone the soundings were taken in. This enables you to find the reduction for that particular time from the reference gauge and then correct that prediction for the right zone. Always correct for time before correcting for range.

Co-Tidal Charts
Example: A depth is measured at 1300 hours to be 71.7 metres. The zone the depth was in has co-tidal corrections of time 20 and range 0.80. The gauge readings from the reference gauge include: Time 1220 1230 1240 1250 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 Height 10.1 10.4 10.7 11.0 11.3 11.5 11.8 12.0 12.3

What is the reduction to be applied and what is the corrected sounding of the measured depth?

Co-Tidal Charts
Time correction: The tide arrives in the zone 20 minutes before it does at the reference gauge and therefore the corrected graph time used is 1320. Range correction: At 1320 the reduction is 11.8m at the reference gauge therefore the zone reduction will be (0.80) * (11.18) = 9.4 metres With this reduction of 9.4m the reduced sounding is (71.7) - (9.4) = 62.3 metres

Construction
First step:
To use as many stations where the tidal characteristics are known. (Tidal ranges and times of high or low water) The more stations used the more accurate should be the final result.

Second step:
To choose a reference port where you will have access to water level reductions correct to sounding datum during the course of the actual sounding.

Third step:
To use the range for all of the stations used and the time difference between HAT at the secondary and at the reference gauge.

Final step:
To interpolate between the stations the values required for the proper correction increment.

Construction
Example: Data for construction of co-tidal chart:
a b c d e Range 2.4 0.5 1.9 1.1 1.4 Time 1422 1423 1451 1431 1442

With the reference gauge to be at (d).

Construction
Co-tide lines 1422 a 1426
1426

1423

tes 10 minu +
1426

1426

1436

0m
1446 1451 c
14

inut es
d 1431

46

-10
1446

min utes

1436

1436 1442

-20

min utes

Construction
Co-range lines
2.0 0.8

1.8

2.4 a

2.31

2.31 2.31

1.6

1.2

2.09

1.4

1.87 2.09 2.09 1.87 1.65 1.43

1.0

1.21

0.99

1.9 c

1.43 1.65

1.65

1.21

1.1 d

1.65

1.4

1.21

0.6

2.09

1.87

1.65

1.43

1.21

0.99

0.77

0.5 b

0.77