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VELAMMAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING


PR2304 MACHINE ELEMENTS DESIGN
Unit IV
1.What is meant by mechanical drives? Classify them.
The drives, which transmit power by means of contact forces, are called as mechanical drive.
They can be classified based on
a) Way of power transmission.
i) Friction drives (E.g. Belt drive)
ii) Toothed drives (E.g. Gear drives, chain drives)
b) Centre distance between power shafts
i) Long distance drives
ii) Short distance drives
c) Intermediate link between driving and driven members
i) No Intermediate link (Eg.Gear drives)
ii) With Intermediate link (Eg.Belt drives,rope drives,chain drives)
2. State the law of belting.
Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt when it approaches the pulley must lie in the mid
plane of that pulley which should be perpendicular to the axis of the pulley.other wise the belt will run
off the pulley.
3. Explain the term crowning of pulley
Pulley are provided a slight conical shapes (or) convex shapes in their rims outer surface in order to
prevent the belt from running off the pulley due to centrifugal force. This is known as crowning of
pulley. Usually the crowning height may be 1/96 of pulley face width.
4. Briefly explain about friction and its applications.
Friction is said to be a resisting force that is developed between two relatively moving surfaces. For
some machines this frictional force may be an unwanted force and hence it is to be reduced to the
maximum level. For some other machines, this is considered to be essential force with out which the
machine can not be operated properely.bearing are the good examples for the first category and,
brakes, clutch are the notable examples for the second category.
5. What are the types of belts?
(a) Flat belts
(b) V-belts
i) Single V-belts
ii) Multiple V-belt
iii) Ribbed belt
iv) Toothed or timing Belt.
6. Indicate some merits and demerits of belt - drives.
Merits:
1. Belt drives are used for long distance power transmission
2. Their operations are smooth and flexible.
3. They have simple design and their manufacturing cost is lower.
Demerits:
1. They need large space.
2. Loss of power due to friction is more.

7. Why tight side of the belt should be at the bottom side of the pulley.
If the tight side of belt is at the bottom side of the pulley, and the slack side is at the top side,
then the sag caused by the self weight of belt, for long centre distance drive will increase the are
of contact of belt with pulley and hence the effect of power transmission in increased. This is the
reason.
8. What is belt rating?
Flat belts are made of different sizes such as 3 ply, 4 ply and V belts are made of different grades
such as A, B, C, D and E grade belts. Belt rating is defined as the power transmitting capacity of unit
size flat belt or a particular grade singles V belt.
9. Fill in the blanks of the following.
a) For long distance drive, . Belts are employed.
b) When the axes of driving and driven shafts are arranged in 90, . Belt drive is operated.
Answer: a) Flat b) Quarter turn
10. Why are thin wide flat belts preferred than thick narrow belts?
Since thin wide belt possess more surface area with pulley than thick narrow belt, thin belt can
transmit more power than thick belt for a constant weight. Hence thin belts are preferred.
11. Name of four types of belts used for transmission of power.
1. Flat Belt.
2. V belt
3. Toothed or timing belt.
4. Round belt.
12. Specify the application of round belt.
Round belt is applied in sewing machine.
13. State the significance of centrifugal tension on the power transmitted by a belt- drive.
The centrifugal tension has no effect on the power transmitted. This can be proved as follows.
Power transmitted, P = ( T
1
- T
1
) v when there is no centrifugal tension.
If the centrifugal tension is considered, then the power P = [ (T
1
- C) (( T
2
+ C)] v= ( T
1
- T
1
) v
Where T
1
T
2
Tension in tight side and slack side
C Centrifugal tension
V Speed of belt.
Since the power transmitted in both conditions is equal, it is said that centrifugal tension has no
effect on the transmitted power.
14. Briefly explain about initial tension in belts.
The motion of belt and pulleys is governed by a firm grip between the belt and pulley. In order to
increase this grip for proper power transmission, the belt is tightened up. At this stage, even the
pulleys are not running i.e. ., at rest, the belt is subjected to some tensions called as initial tension.
15. What is the value of tight side tension with respect to slack side tension?
Let T
1
= Tight side tension in N
T
2
= Slack side tension in n
= Coefficient of friction
= Angle of contact of driving pulley in radians
Then
u

e T T or e
T
T
= =
2 1
2
1
) (
16. Specify the purpose of crowning of flat pulley.
The purpose of crowing of flat pulley is to avoid the belt to slip from the pulley due to centrifugal
force during running.


17. What factors should be considered during the selection of a belt drive?
a) Amount of power to be transmitted
b) Peripheral and angular speeds.
c) Speed ratio.
d) Efficiency
e) Centre distance between staffs
f) Space available
g) Working environment.
18. What are the commercial types of flat belts.
The commercial types of flat belts areHI- SPEED and b) FORT of various plies such as 3 ply, 4 ply 5
ply, 6 ply and 8 ply belts.
19. What are the factors on which the co efficient of friction between the belt and pulley depends?
a) Material of belt
b) Material of pulley
c) Slip of belt
d) Speed of belt
e) Smoothness of contact surface.
20. Explain briefly about creep in belts.
Since, the tension produced by the belt on the two sides of the pulley are not equal, the belt moves
with a very negligible velocity, due to the difference of two tensions. This slow movement of the belt
over the pulley is known as creep of belt and it is generally neglected.
21. Shortly narrate the method of developing initial tension inn flat belts.
In the case of flat- belts, certain amount of length of belt is cut from its correct size and then this
shortened belt is jointed. In this way, the initial tension is developed in flat belts, when this reduced
length of belt is placed over the pulleys.
22. How is a V- Belt designated?
V belt is designated by a grade letter followed by its inside length in mm, code number, year of
coding. For example D 3048: IS 2494 : 1964 Mostly belts are designated by the grade letter and
inside length only such as D 3048. Sometimes the inside length may be denoted in inches as D
120.In what ways, timing belts are superior to ordinary V belts?
Since the timing belts posses toothed shape in their inner side, their engagement with toothed
pulley will provide positive drive without any belt- slip where as in the case of ordinary V belts,
chances of slip are more and hence positive drive is not possible at all times. Hence toothed belts.
(i.e., timing belts ) are superior to ordinary V belts.
23. Fill in the blanks of the following
a) The uneven extension and contractions due to varying tensions in the belt is known as .
b) The V - belt transmits power by its . Surface
c) The included angle for V belt is usually between .. and degrees.
d) The tension on the slack side of the belt is ---------- than the tension on the tight side of the belt.
Ans. : a) Creep b) inclined c) 30,40 d) less
24. When do we prefer a V belt to a flat belt?
V- belts are preferred in the following occasions.
a) For getting higher velocity ratio ( up to 10)
b) For smooth and noiseless operation
c) For small centre distance
d) For obtaining positive drive (i.e. without belt slip)
25. State true or false.
a) V belts are made into endless type
b) The B grade V- belt is stronger than C grade V- belt for same inside length
c) The cross section of the pulley rim is elliptical.
Ans.: a) True b) False c) true
36. Fill in the blanks of the following
a) The ratio of driving tensions for flat belt drive is .
b) The ratio of driving tensions for V belt drive is .
Ans.: a)
u
e
T
T
2
1
b)
) 2 / sin( /
2
1 o u
e
T
T
=
37.What is gear drive?
a gear drive is a mechanical drive which transmit power from one shaft to another through toothed
wheels called as gears.
38.Mention some application of gear drives.
Gear drives are employed in many fields such as from smaller watches and instrument to the
heaviest and most power full machineries like cranes, crushers etc,some of the common applications of
gears are in automobiles,hoisting machinery etc,
39.Why are gear drives superior to belt drives or chain drives? (or) What are the advantages of gear
drives?
The gear drives posses high load carrying capacity, high efficiency and compact layout.
They can transmit power from very small values to thousands of kilowatts.
40.How are gears classified?
Gears are classified based on
Axes of gear shafts as
Parallel Eg. Spur, helical, herring - bone gears.
Intersecting Eg. Bevel gears.
Non- parallel and non-intersecting Eg Worm gears, skew gears.
Profile of gear tooth
Involute gears.
Cycloidal gears.
c) Position of teeth on wheel rim
Tooth parallel to axis of gear- Eg Spur gears.
Tooth inclined to axis of gear -Eg. Helical gears.
Pressure angle
1. Gears with 20-pressure angle.
2. Gears with 14 pressure angle.
5.Illustrate the materials for making gears.
1. Ferrous metals such as carbon steels, alloy steels of nickel, chromium and
vanadium.
2. Cast iron of different grades.
3. Non- ferrous metals such as brass, bronze, etc.
4. Non- metals like phenoloc resins, nylon, bakelite etc.
Among them, steel with proper heat treatment is extensively employed in many of the
engineering applications.
41.Specify the types of gears failure.
a) Tooth breakage
b) Pitting of tooth surface.
c) Abrasive wears.
d) Seizing of teeth etc.
42.At what occasions non- metallic gears are employed?
Non- metallic gears are employed where we require silent operation and low power
transmission. For example, in instruments like pressure gauge and so on.

43.Fill in the blanks of the following:
a) In a gear pair, the smaller gear is called as . And the bigger one is called as
b) When the gear and pinion are made of different materials, their design is based on
Answers:
a) Pinion wheel or gear.
b) Weaker material.
44.What is meant by spur gear?
Spur gear is the gear in which teeth are cut at the circumference of a circular slab called as gear-
blank such that the teeth are parallel to gear axis.
45.Define the following terms.
a) Tip circle
b) Root circle
c) Pitch circle
d) Base circle.
a) .Tip circle: or addendum circle is the circle, which coincides with the crests or topes of all teeth.
b).Root circle or addendum circle is the circle which coincides with the roots or bottoms of teeth
c. Pitch circle. Is the imaginary circle is which the pair of gears roll one over the other. This circle can be
visible when the pair of gears are fastly rotating. This will lie between tip circle and root circle.
d. Base circle is the circle of gear from which the gear profile is derived.
How are the following terms defined?
a) Pressure angle.
b) Module.
a) Pressure angle. (o ) is the angle making by the line of action with the common tangent to the pitch
circles of mating gears. For inviolate system of gears, the pressure angle is constant and it may be
14or 20.
b) Module (m) is the ratio of pitch circle diameter to the number of teeth of gear, and is usually
represented in millimeters i.e m = d/z where d = pitch circle diameter z. =Number of teeth.
Specify the following terms.
a) Circular pitch
b) Diameteral pitch
a) Circular pitch (P
c
) is the distance along the pitch circle between corresponding profiles of adjacent
teeth. i..e P
c
=
z
d t

b) Diametrical pitch (P
d
) is the ratio number of teeth on the gear to the unit length of pitch circle
diameter. This is the reverse of module.
i.e ., pd = where
m d
z 1
= m = module
46.Define the following.
a) Back lash difference between tooth thickness and the space into which it meshes, measured
along the pitch circle. If we assume the tooth thickness as t
1
and space width as t
2
then backlash
= t
2
- t
1

b) Gear ratio (i) is the ratio of number of teeth of larger gear to that of smaller gear. It is also
defined as the ratio of high speed to the low speed in a gear drive.

Let Z
1
, n
1
= Number of teeth and speed of small gear.
Z
2
, n
2
= Number of teeth and speed of large gear.
Then for constant peripheral velocity, we have. Z
1
n
1
= Z
2
n
2
(or) i
z
z
n
n
= =
1
2
2
1
(Gear ratio)Usually, the
gear ratio should always be greater than one.

47 .Fill in the blanks of the following
a) The difference between tip circle radius and pitch circle radius is.
b) The difference between pitch circle radius and root circle radius is
Answer:
a) Addendum, b) dedendum
48. What factors influence backlash?
The factors like errors in tooth thickness, pitch tooth spacing, profile, mounting misalignment, etc
influence the backlash.
49. What preliminary design considerations should be adopted when selecting a gear drive?
All kinds of gear can not be useful for all kinds of work. Hence the following factors should be
considered for selecting a specific type of gear drive.
i) The amount of power to be transmitted.
ii) space availability
iii) Amount of gear ratio for single step.
iv) Causes for gear failures and their preventing methods.
v) Proper material.
vi) Life of gears required, usually 10,000 hours.
50. What conditions must be satisfied for the pair of spur gears to have a constant velocity ratio? (or)
State the Law of gearing.
For the spur gear pair to have a constant velocity ratio, the common normal at the point of contact
between a pair of teeth, must always pass through the pitch point. This is also called law of
gearing:
51.What is interference in gears? How can you overcome it?
Gear profile usually starts from base circle and ends with tip circle. Gear teeth are made in such in
such a way that their contact is along the profile. Since the top surface of teeth is made flat, the tip
of the teeth of one gear tends to dig into the bottom flank of mating gear. This action is called as
interference.
This interference will be overcomed by undercutting the teeth of gears which is nothing but the
removal of some material at the root of gear tooth., opposite to the direction of gear profile.
52.On what basis gear cutters are selected?
Gear cutters are selected based on the following conditions.
1. Properties of materials for workpiece and tools.
2. Production rate.
3. Cost of production.
4. Structure of gears such as spur gear, helical gears and so on.
5. Module of the gear.
53.How do gears fail?
Gears may fail due to
Tooth breakage by overload and misalignment of shafts.
Corrosion of teeth by improper Lubricants.
Tooth wear because of insufficient lubrication.
Interference because of no under- cut.
54.Fill in the blanks of the following.
a) The size of gears are usually specified by their
b) The commonly used gear tooth profile is
Answers:
a) Outer diameter, module, number of teeth
b) Involute profile.
55.What stresses are induced in gear tooth?
Surface compressive stress.
Bending stress.
56.What is meant by a corrected gear?
In normal gear, there may be an undercut between base circle and root circle which weakens the
teeth. This undercutting can be avoided by making some modifications on the gear profile. This
modification is called as addendum modification or profile correction or profile shift. The gear
which has this correction is called as corrected gear.
57.Give a brief account about quality of gears.
Since it is practically impossible to produce any engineering component including gears without
manufacturing errors in all the time, slight deviation from correct dimensions are allowed. With
these allowances gears are produced in different grades. According to Indian standard
specifications, gears can be classified into 10 quality or accuracy grades from 3 ( high precision to
12 ( coarse quality)) Qualities 1 and 2 are used for denoting master gears which are manufactured
by extremely sophisticated machines.
58.Briefly explain about contact ratio is gears.
Contact ratio is a measure of the average number of teeth in contact during the period in which a
tooth comes in and goes out of contact with mating gear. A contact ratio of 1 means that only one
pair (one tooth from each gear) is engaged at all times during the course of action. Contact ratio 1.6
means that one pair of gear teeth mesh for 100% of time and the next pair of teeth for 60% of
time during the period of engagement.
Contact ratio may also be specified as
Contact ratio ( c ) = Angle of action / Pitch angle.
59.Write short notes on backlash of gears.
Backlash can be defined as the play between a mating pair of gear teeth in assembled condition. It is
the amount, by which the width of tooth space exceeds the thickness of meshing tooth, measured
on the pitch circle. Proper amount of backlash is to prevent jamming and to ensure that no contact
is made on both sides of teeth simultaneously.
60.What are the effects of little backlash and excessive backlash on gears?
Too little backlash may lead to over loading, overheating, jamming and ultimately seizure resulting
eventual failure of the system. On the other hand, excessive backlash may cause non uniform
transmission of motion. Excessive backlash may also cause noise and impact loads.
61.What is form factor?
Form factor is a constant, employed in the design of gear, which depends on the shape and the
number of teeth. For example, the form factor (Y),
i) For 14 involute, full depth, Y = 0.124 0.684 / Z.
ii) For 20 involute, full depth, Y = 0.154 0.912/Z
iii) For 20, involute, stub tooth, Y = 0.175 0.841/Z
Where Z = number of teeth.
62.Specify the types of gear tooth.
The types of gear tooth are
a) Full depth, 20 involute.
i) Full depth, 14 involute
ii) Full depth 15 involute.
b) Stub tooth system.
i) Standard stub-tooth.
ii) Fellows stub tooth. iii) Nuttall stub tooth.
63. What is a helical gear?
A helical gear is a cylindrical gear similar to spur gear except that the teeth are cut at an angle,
known as helix angle, to the axis of the gear shaft, whereas in spur gear, teeth are cut parallel
to the axis.

64. In what ways helical gears are differed from spur gears.

S.No Spur gears Helical gears
1.
Teeth are cut parallel
to the axis.
Teeth are cut inclined to the axis
2.
Entire width of tooth
is simultaneously
engaged with full
width of mating gear.
Gradual engagement is obtained since
their teeth are inclined to axis
3.
Rough and noisy
operation
Smooth and silent operation
4.
Less power is
transmitted
More power can be transmitted

65. What are the advantages of helical gears?
Helical gears.
Transmit more power
ii) Provide smooth and soundless operation
iii) Used for high speed and high velocity ratio processes.
66. Fill in the blanks of the following.
a) The helix angles for single helical gear varying from.
b) The helix angles for double helical gear ranging from.
Answers:
8 to 25
25 to 40
67. Elucidate the meritorious features of double helical gears.
In single helical gears during power transmission some axial thrust will be produced between the
teeth which reduces the life of teeth are cut in the opposite direction so as to look like mirror
images of one to another, the thrust produced in one gear is nullified by the thrust produced in
another gear and hence the resulting axial thrust will become zero which results more life than
single helical gear. Also double helical gear transmits more power than single helical gear.
68. What is helix angle? How this angle differentiate helical gear from spur gear?
Helix angle is the angle between the axis of the gear and the line passing through tooth face. For
helical gear, teeth are cut at an inclined angle with axis, specified as helix angle and its value ranges
from 8 to 25 whereas in the case of spur gear, tooth are cut parallel to the axis, the helical angle of
spur gear is zero.
69. Fill in the blanks of the following.
a) Double helical gears are otherwise called as
b) Crossed helical gears are known as
Answers:
a) Herringbone gears.
b) Skew gears.
70. Expound the structure of herringbone gear (or) What is a herring bone gear?
A herring bone gear is made of two single helical gears attracted with each other hence as double
helical gear in which the teeth of one gear will be set in the opposite direction to the teeth of
another gear. By this arrangement the axial thrust produced in one gear will be nullified by the
thrust produced in another gear, and the resultant thrust is zero which improves the life of the gear.
Sometimes, a single cylindrical block is employed for making herring bone gear.
71. Write any two applications of a slew gear drive. (or) Where do we use skew gears?
The skew gears or crossed helical gears are employed in instruments, distributor drive of automobile
engine etc. where small loads are applied.
72. Give a brief account for skew gears.
Skew gears are the helical gears in which the helix angles are more than that of ordinary helical
gears and the axes of pinion and wheel are arranged in such a way that their axes are non parallel
and also non- intersecting and hence skew gear drive is called as crossed helical gear drive. They
can be used for small power transmission such as in instruments and distributor drive of automobile
engine etc.
73. What does virtual number of teeth mean?
In order to simplify the design of helical gear, an equivalent spur gear is formed whose teeth will
produce same effect as that produced by the helical gear. Those teeth of equivalent spur gear are
called as virtual teeth and it is calculated as
Virtual number of teeth, Z
v
= Z / cos |
Where Z = Number of teeth of helical gear.
| = Helix angle.
74. Differentiate axial pitch and normal pitch of the helical gear.
Axial pitch is the distance, parallel tot eh axis, between similar faces of adjacent teeth. It is also
defined as the circular pitch in the plane of rotation and is denoted as p
a
.
Normal pitch is the distance between similar faces of adjacent teeth along a helix on the pitch
cylinders normal to the teeth, and is denoted as p
n
.
Mathematically, p
n
= p
c
cos | =helix angle.
75. What is a bevel gear?
Bevel gear is the type of gear for which the teeth are cut on conical surface in contrast with spur and
helical gears for which the teeth are cut on cylindrical surface. The structure of bevel gear is similar
to a uniformly serrated frustum of a cone.
76. When do we use bevel gears?
When the power is to be transmitted in an angular direction, i.e. between the shafts whose axes
intersecting at an angle bevel gears are employed.
77. How are bevel gears classified?
1. Bevel gears are classified in two ways.
Straight bevel gears.
Spiral bevel gears.
2. Based on the included angle between the shaft axes called as shaft angle |
a) External gears (| <90)
b) Internal gears (| <90)
c) Crown gears (| = 90)

78. What is a crown gear?
A crown gear is a type of bevel gear whose shaft angle is 90 and the pitch angle of pinion is not
equal to the pitch angle of gear
Let | = Shaft angle
1
o = Pitch angle of pinion
2
o = Pitch angles of gear
Then

| =
1
o +
2
o =90 and
1
o =
2
o

79. What is the specific feature of meter gear?
Meter gear is the special type of crown gear in which the shaft angle is 90 and the pitch angles of
pinion angles of pinion and gear are equal and each angle is equal to 45.
That is | =90 and
1
o =
2
o = 45.
80. Fill in the blanks of the following:
Bevel gears having shaft angle of 90 are known as.
When the spiral of a bevel gear is zero, it is called as..
Answers:
a) Crown gears
b) Zerol bevel gear.
81 . Specify the materials used for the production of bevel gears.
Cast iron of different grades.
1. Carbon or alloy steels.
2. Plastics like nylon, mica
3. Brass, Bronze and so on.
Among them cast iron and steel gears are mostly employed.
82. Define the following terms.
Pitch angle
Shaft angle
Pitch angle is the half of the cone angle subtended by a bevel gear at its apex
Shaft angle is the sum of the pitch angles of pinion and gear of a bevel gear pair. For example
Let
1
o = Pitch angle of pinion.
2
o = pitch angle of gear
| = shaft angle
then | =
1
o +
2
o
83. . Discuss about the following parameters.
a) Addendum angle
b) Dedendum angle
c) Tip angle
d) Root angle
Addendum angle is the angle between the line of cone distance and the line passing through the top
surface of tooth.
Dedendum angle is the angle between the line of cone distance and line passing through the root
surface of tooth.
Tip angle is the angle between the axis of gear and the line passing through the top surface of tooth.
Root angle is the angle between the axis of gear an the line passing through the root surface of tooth.
84. . Define the following terms.
a) Cone distance or pitch cone radius
b) Face angle
a) Cone distance or pitch cone radius is the slant length of pitch cone, i.e., distance between
the apex and the extreme point of tooth of bevel gear.
b) Face angle is the angle subtended by the face of the teeth at the cone centre. It is equal to
the pitch angle plus addendum angle. It is also called as tip angle.

85. .What is a worm gear drive?
Worm gear drive is a type of gear drive in which pinion is made as lead screw shape and the wheel
is made as helical gear structure and it is employed for transmitting power between the shaft whose
axes at right angle to each other. Also this gear drive is used for high velocity ratio of about 100,
sometimes upto 500
86. What kind of contact occurred between worm and wheel? How does this differ from other
gears?
In worm gear drive, sliding contact is occurred between the worm and wheel whereas other such as
spur, helical and bevel gears transmits power by rolling contact.
87. .In which gear drive self locking is available?
Self locking is available in worm gear drive.
88. When do we use worm gear drive.
When we require to transmit power between non intersecting shaft and very high velocity ratio of
about 100, worm gears can be employed. Also worm gears provide self licking facility.
89. .Write some applications of worm gear drive.
Worm gear drive find wide applications like hoisting equipment, milling machine indexing head,
table fan steering rod of automobile and so on.

PART B
1. Design a pair of helical gears to transmit 30kW power at a speed reduction ratio of 4:1. The
input shaft rotates at 2000 rpm. Take helix and pressure angles equal to 25and
20respectively. The number of teeth on the pinion may be taken as 30. (16)

2. Design a straight spur gear drive to transmit 8 kW. The pinion speed is 720 rpm and the
speed ratio is 2. Both the gears are made of the same surface hardened carbon steel with 55RC
and core hardness less than 350 BHN. Ultimate strength is 720 N/mm2and yield strength is 360
N/ mm2.(16)
3. A motor shaft rotating at 1500 rpm has to transmit 15kW to a low speed shaft with a
speed reduction of 3:1. Assume starting torque to be 25% higher than the running torque. The
teeth are 20involutes with 25 teeth on the pinion. Both the pinion and gear are made of C45
steel. Design a spurgear drive to suit the above conditions and check for compressive and
bending stresses and plastic deformations. Also sketch the spur gear drive. (16)

4. A helical gear with 300helix angle has to transmit 35kW at 1500 rpm. With a speed reduction
ratio 2.5. If the pinion has 24 teeth, determine the necessary module, pitch diameter and face
width for 20full depths the teeth. Assume 15Ni 2Cr 1 Mo 15 material for both pinion and wheel.
(16)

5. A pair of helical gears subjected to moderate shock loading is to transmit 37.5kW at 1750
r.p.m. of the pinion. The speed reduction ratio is 4.25 and the helix angle is 15The service is
continuous and the teeth are 200FD in the normal plane. Design the gears, assuming a life f
10,000 hours. (16)
6. A compressor running at 300 rpm is driven by a15 Kw, 1200 rpm motor through a 14 full
depth spur gears .The centre distance is 375 mm .The motor pinion is to be of C30 forged steel
hardened and tempered, and the driven gear is to be of cast iron. Assuming medium shock
condition, design the gear drive.
7. Design a pair of bevel gears for two shafts whose axes are at right angles. The power
transmitted is 25kW. The speed of the pinion is 300 rpm and the gear is 120 rpm.

8. A 2 kW power is applied to a worm shaft at 720 rpm. The worm is of quadruple start with
50mm as pitch circle diameter. The worm is of quadruple start type with 50mm as pitch circle
diameter. The worm gear has 40 teeth with 5mm module. The pressure angle in the diametral
plane is 200.Determine (i) the lead angle of the worm, (ii) velocity ratio, and (ii) centre distance.
Also, calculate efficiency of the worm gear drive, and power lost in friction. (16)

9 . A pair of straight tooth bevel gears has a velocity ratio of 4/3. The pitch diameter of the pinion
is 150 mm. The face width is 50mm. The pinion rotates at 240 rev/min. The teeth are 5mm
module, 14 1involutes. If 6 kW is transmitted, determine (i) the tangential force at the Mean
radius (ii) the pinion thrust force (iii) the gear thrust force. Draw the free body diagrams
indicating the forces. (16)

10.. A 90 degree straight bevel gear set is needed to give a 3:1 reduction. Determine the pitch
cone angle, pitch diameter, and gear forces if the, 25 degree pressure angle pinion ahs 15 teeth
of pitch circle diameter, 4, and the transmitted power is 8 HP at 550 pinion rpm. (16) 5. Design a
worm gear drive to transmit 22.5 kW at a worm speed of 1440 rpm. Velocity ratio is 24:1. An
efficiency of at least 85% is desired. The temperature rise should be restricted to 400C.
Determine the required cooling area. (16)

11. Design a bevel gear drive to transmit 3.5 kW with the following specifications: speed ratio =
4; driving shaft speed = 200 r.p.m.; drive is non-reversible; material for pinion is steel; material
for wheel is cast iron; and life 25000 hours. (16)

12. Design a worm gear drive to transmit a power of 22.5 kW. The worm speed is 1440 r.p.m.
and the speed of the wheel is 60 r.p.m. The drive should have a minimum efficiency of 80% and
above. Select suitable materials for worm and wheel and decide upon the dimensions of the
drive.

13. Design a V-belt drive and calculate the actual belt tension and average stress for the
followingdata. Driven pulley diameter, D= 500 mm, driver pulley diameter, d=150 mm, center
distance c=925 mm, speed n1 = 1000 rpm, n2 = 300 rpm and power, P = 7.5 kW. (16)













UNIT 5
1. What is a spring?
A spring is an elastic member, which deflects, or distorts under the actionof load and regains its
original shape after the load is removed.
2. State any two functions of springs.
i. To measure forces in spring balance, meters and engine indicators.
ii. To store energy.
3. What are the various types of springs?
i. Helical springs
ii. Spiral springs
iii. Leaf springs
iv. Disc spring or Belleville springs
4. Classify the helical springs.
a. Close coiled or tension helical spring.
b. Open coiled or compression helical spring.
5. Define : Leaf springs
A leaf spring consists of flat bars of varying lengths clamped together andsupported at both ends,
thus acting as a simply supported beam.
6. Define : Belleville SpringsThey are made in the form of a cone disc to carry a high
compressiveforce. In order to improve their load carrying capacity, they may be stacked up
together. The major stresses are tensile and compressive.
7. What is spring index (C)?
The ratio of mean or pitch diameter to the diameter of wire for the springis called the spring
index.
8. What is pitch?
The axial distance between adjacent coils in uncompressed state.
9. What is solid length?
The length of a spring under the maximum compression is called its solid length. It is the product
of total number of coils and the diameter of wire.
Ls = nt x d Where, nt = total number of coils.
10. What are the requirements of spring while designing?
a. Spring must carry the service load without the stress exceeding thesafe value.
b. The spring rate must be satisfactory for the given application.
11 What are the end conditions of spring?
a. Plain end.
b. Plain and ground end
c. Squared end
d. Squared and ground end.
12. What is buckling of springs?
The helical compression spring behaves like a column and buckles at a comparative small load
when the length of the spring is more than 4 times the mean coil diameter.
13. What is surge in springs?
The material is subjected to higher stresses, which may cause early fatigue failure. This effect is
called as spring surge.
14. What is a laminated leaf spring?
In order to increase, the load carrying capacity, number of flat plates areplaced and below the
other.
15. What semi elliptical leaf springs?
The spring consists of number of leaves, which are held together by Uclips. The long leaf
fastened to the supported is called master leaf. Remaining leaves are called as graduated leaves.
16. What is nipping of laminated leaf spring?
Prestressing of leaf springs is obtained by a difference of radii of curvature known as nipping.
17. What are the various application of springs?
The springs are used in various applications, they are
a. Used to absorb energy or shocks (e.g. shock absorbers, buffers, e.t.c.)
b. To apply forces as in brakes clutches, spring-loaded valves, e.t.c.
c. To measure forces as in spring balances and engine indicators
d. To store energy as in watches
18. Define free length.
Free length of the spring is the length of the spring when it is free or unloaded condition. It is
equal to the solid length plus the maximum deflection orcompression plus clash allowance.
Lf = solid length + Ymax + 0.15 Ymax
19. Define spring index.
Spring index (C) is defined as the ratio of the mean diameter of the coil tothe diameter of the
wire. C =D/d
20. Define spring rate (stiffness).
The spring stiffness or spring constant is defined as the load required per unit deflection of the
spring.K= W/y, Where W-load,y-deflection
21. Define pitch.
Pitch of the spring is defined as the axial distance between the adjacentcoils in uncompressed
state. Mathematically Pitch=free length / n-1
22. What are the points to be taken into consideration while selecting the pitch of the spring?
The points taken into consideration of selecting the pitch of the springs are
a. The pitch of the coil should be such that if the spring is accidentally compressed the stress
does not increase the yield point stress in torsion.
b. The spring should not be close up before the maximum service load is reached.
23. Define active turns.
Active turns of the spring are defined as the number of turns, which impart spring action while
loaded. As load increases the no of active coils decreases.
24. Define inactive turns.
Inactive turns of the spring is defined as the number of turns which does not contribute to the
spring action while loaded. As load increases number of inactive coils increases from 0.5 to 1
turn.
25. What are the different kinds of end connections for compression helical springs?
The different kinds of end connection for compression helical springs are
a. Plain ends
b. Ground ends
c. Squared ends
d. Ground & square ends
26. Write about the eccentric loading of springs?
If the load acting on the spring does not coincide with the axis of the spring, then spring is said to
be have eccentric load. In eccentric loading the safe load of the spring decreases and the stiffness
of the spring is also affected.
27. Explain about surge in springs?
When one end of the spring is resting on a rigid support and the other end is loaded suddenly, all
the coils of spring does not deflect equally, because some time is required for the propagation of
stress along the wire. Thus a wave of compression propagates to the fixed end from where it is
reflected back to the deflected end this wave passes through the spring indefinitely. If the time
interval between the load application and that of the wave to propagate are equal, then resonance
will occur. This will result in very high stresses and cause failure. This phenomenon is called
surge.
28. What are the methods used for eliminating surge in springs?
The methods used for eliminating surge are
a. By using dampers on the center coil so that the wave propagation dies out
b. By using springs having high natural frequency.
29. What are the disadvantages of using helical spring of non-circular wires?
a. The quality of the spring is not good
b. The shape of the wire does not remain constant while forming the helix. It reduces the energy
absorbing capacity of the spring.
c. The stress distribution is not favorable as in circular wires. But this effect is negligible where
loading is of static nature.
30 Why concentric springs are used?
a. To get greater spring force with in a given space
b. To insure the operation of a mechanism in the event of failure of one of
the spring
31. What is the advantage of leaf spring over helical spring?
The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the end of the spring may be guided along
a definite path as it deflects to act a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device.
32. Write notes on the master leaf & graduated leaf?
The longest leaf of the spring is known as main leaf or master leaf has its ends in the form of an
eye through which bolts are passed to secure the spring.
The leaf of the spring other than master leaf is called the graduated leaves.
33. What is meant by nip in leaf springs?
By giving greater radius of curvature to the full length leaves than the graduated leaves, before
the leaves are assembled to form a spring thus a gap or clearance will be left between the leaves.
This initial gap is called nip.
34. What is the application of leaf spring?
The leaf springs are used in automobiles as shock absorbers for giving suspension to the
automobile and it gives support to the structure.
35. Define flat spiral spring.
A flat spiral spring is a long thin strip of elastic material wound like a spiral. These springs are
frequently used in watch springs, gramophones, e.t.c
36. What are the differences between helical torsion spring and tension helical springs?
Helical torsion springs are wound similar to that of tension springs but the ends are shaped to
transmit torque. The primary stress in helical torsion spring is bending stress whereas in tension
springs the stresses are torsional shear stresses.
37. Define helical springs.
The helical springs are made up of a wire coiled in the form of a helix and is primarily intended
for compressive or tensile load.
38. What are the different types of helical springs?
The different types of helical springs are
a. Open coil helical spring
b Closed coil helical spring
39. What are the differences between closed coil & open coil helical springs?

Closed coil helical spring Open coil helical spring
The spring wires are coiled very
closely, each turn is nearly at right
angles to the axis of helix
The wires are coiled such that there
is a gap between the two consecutive
turns.
Helix angle is less than 10o Helix angle is large (>10o)



40. What is bearing?
Bearing is a stationery machine element which supports a rotating shafts or axles and confines its
motion.
41. Classify the types of bearings.
i. Depending upon the type of load coming upon the shaft:
a. Radial bearing
b. Thrust bearings.
ii. Depending upon the nature of contact:
a. Sliding contact
b. Rolling contact bearings or Antifriction bearings.
42. What are the required properties of bearing materials?
Bearing material should have the following properties.
i. High compressive strength
ii. Low coefficient of friction
iii. High thermal conductivity
iv. High resistance to corrosion
v. Sufficient fatigue strength
vi. It should be soft with a low modulus of elasticity
vii. Bearing materials should not get weld easily to the journal material.
43. What is a journal bearing?
A journal bearing is a sliding contact bearing which gives lateral support to the rotating shaft.
5. What are the types of journal bearings depending upon the nature of contact?
1. Full journal bearing
2. Partial bearing
3. Fitted bearing.
44. What are the types of journal bearing depending upon the nature of lubrication?
1. Thick film type
2. Thin film type
3. Hydrostatic bearings
4. Hydrodynamic bearing.
45. What is known as self acting bearing?
The pressure is created within the system due to rotation of the shaft, this type of bearing is
known as self acting bearing.

PART-B
1. A helical valve spring is to be designed for an operating load range of 90N to 135N.The
deflection of the spring for this load range is 7.5mm.Assuming a spring index of 10, a
permissible shear stress of480N/mm2 and a modulus of rigidity of 0.8Xl 05 N/mm2for the
material, determine the dimensions of
the spring. (16)
2. A gas engine valve spring is to have a mean diameter 37.5mm.The maximum load will have to
sustain is 450N with a corresponding deflection of 12.5mm.The spring is to be subjected to
repeated loading and fatigue must be considered a low working stress of 300N/mm2 will be
used. Find the size for the wire and number of coil used. Take rigidity of modulus as 0.8XI05
N/mm2 (16)
13. A compressive helical spring is required to exert a minimum force 250N and maximum force
of600N and the deflection for this change in load to be 15mm. The spring must fit in a hole of
30mmdiameter. The load is static. Ultimate tensile stress is 1393N/mm2 and shear stress is
606Mpa. (16)
4. A closely coil helical spring is made of 10mm diameter steel wire, the coil consisting of 10
complete turns with a mean diameter of 120mm.The springs carries an axial pull of
200N.Determine also deflection in the spring, its stiffness and strain energy stored by it if the
modulus of rigidity of the material is 80KN/mm2 (16)
5. A helical compression of spring made of oil tempered carbon steel is subjected to a load which
varies from 400N to 1000N. The spring index is 6 and the design factor of safety is 1.25.If the
yield stress in shear is 770Mpa ,and endurance stress in shear is 350Mpa,find,(1) Size of the
spring wire (2) Diameter of the spring wire (3) Number of turns of the spring (4) Free length of
the spring. The compression of the spring at the maximum load is 30mm.The modulus of rigidity
for the spring material may be taken as 80KN/mm2. (16)
6. A semi-elliptical leaf spring of 1m long and is required to resist a load of 50KN.The spring has
15 leaves of which three are full length leaves. The width of central band is 100mm. All the
leaves are to be stressed to 420MPa.The ratio of total depth to width is 3.Take,
=2.1Xl05MPa.Determine,(i) The thickness and width of the leaves.(ii)The initial gap that should
be provided between the full lengths and graduated leaves before
assembly.(iii)The load exerted on the band for the assembly. (16)
7. A leaf spring for a small trailer is to support a load of 8KN. The spring has 8 graduated leaves
and 2 free full length leaves of spring steel of safe stress 380MPa.The over all length 1m and the
central band is 80mm wide. Taking ratio of total depth of leaves as 3.Design the spring and also
determine the deflection of the spring. Take, E=2.1XI05MPa. (16)
8. Design of leaf spring for a truck to the following specifications: Maximum load on the spring
= 140KN No of spring = 4
Material for spring chromium vanadium steel Permissible tensile stress = 600N/mm2
Maximum number of leaves =10
Span of spring = 1000mm
Permissible deflection = 80mm
Young's modulus of the spring = 200N/mm2 (16)
9. Design a cantilever leaf spring to absorb 600N-m energy without exceeding a deflection of
150mmand a stress of 800N/mm2 The length of the spring is 600mm. The material of the spring
is steel. Take, E=200KN/mm2 (16)
10. Design a journal bearing for a centrifugal pump with the following data:
Diameter of the journal = 150mm
Load on bearing = 40KN
Speed of journal = 900rpm (16)
12. Design a journal bearing for a centrifugal pump from the following data:Load on the
journal=20000N, Speed of the journal=900rpm, Type of oil is SAElO, for which the absolute
viscosity at 55C=0.017kg/m-s, Ambient temperature of oil = 15.50C, Maximum bearing
pressure for the pump=1.5N/mm2.Calculate also mass of the lubricating oil required for artificial
cooling, If the rise of temperature, if the rise of temperature of oil be limited to lOoC heat
dissipationcoefficient=1232W/m2/oC (16)

13. A full journal bearing of 50mm diameter and 100mm long has a bearing pressure of
l.4N/mm2 Thespeed of the journal is 900rpm and the ratio of journal diameter to the diametric
clearance is 1000. Thebearing is lubricated with oil, whose absolute viscosity at the operating
temperature of 75C may betaken as 0.011 kg/m-s. The room temperature is 350C.Find,
(1) The amount of artificial cooling required.
(2)The mass of lubricating oil required, if the difference between the outlet and inlet temperature
of the oil is 10C. Take specific heat of oil as 1850J/Kg/0C. (16)