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This presentation discusses usual localization, localitzation in supermanifolds and lie algebroids

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Section 1 - Initium..................................................1-7 Section 2 - Localization Formula..............................7-13 Section 3 - Superlocalization Formula.......................13-22 Section 4 - Localization on Lie Algebroids.................22-29

Initium In this presentation well cover the normal localization, superlocalization and localization formula on Lie algebroids. To get a fuller grasp of the second topic, it is necessary to know basic denitions from the theory of supermanifolds. In the rst section well informally review some notions from there. The concept of a graded manifold forms the basic building block of supermanifolds (and this structure is closely related to vector bundles on the manifold). Algebraic geometry supplies the necessary tools to do calculus on these structures rigorously. The proofs for the statements given in this initium can be found in [2-3] (in fact denitions are directly taken from there with some added comments and examples). Note that the concept of sheaf is a way to assign mathematical structures to open sets of topological spaces with restriction morphisms taking place of the transition functions one is used to seeing in dierential geometry. While a knowledge of vector bundles and how to work with graded algebras is more than sucient to do calculations on graded manifolds and in particular to understand these notes, more technical tools are needed to understand how to build up mathematical structures on supermanifolds and extend the theory to so called supersmooth supermanifolds. For a quick introduction to these see again [2].

2 Let k be a commutative eld and X a topological space. By (X, S), we denote a locally ringed space if S is a sheaf of graded-commutative kalgebras whose stalks Sx are local rings (which are rings that have unique graded maximal ideas). Since our gradation is Z2 , we will denote the even part of such algebras by S0 and odd parts by S1 , when necessary. While the next denition is some what technical, the example following it will hopefully clarify the denition. Denition 0.1. A graded space of odd dimension n with the underlying space (X, S) is a pair (X, A) where A is a sheaf of graded commutative k-algebras, such that: 1- There is an exact sheaf sequence 0

.................... .................... . . ..

.................... ................... . . ..

.. . .................... ................... .

.. . .................... .................... .

where is a surjective morphism of graded k-algebras, and A = A0 + A1 s.t A0 = A2 . 1 2- N /N 2 is a locally free module of rank n over S = A/N and A is locally isomorphic as a sheaf of graded commutative algebras to the exterior bundle S (N /N 2 ). Now at this point it is very instructive to draw an analogy to exterior algebras of dierential forms (the most commonly known type of exterior algebras). Given a rank n dual R vector space V with basis of 1-forms dxi , consider the exterior algebra (V ). Elements of this algebra are given as the wedge products of indivial forms and is spanned by dxI(k) = dxi0 ...dxik where I(k) : (i0 , i1 ...ik ) (0, 1..., n) k n is a non-repeating multindex of length k (we shall occasionally enjoy the usage of this notation with capital roman letters). Then this algebra can be seperated into even and odd parts (V ) = A0 + A1 where if required even part can be given the grade 0 and odd part can be given the grade 1, which makes it into a Z2 graded algebra. Note that A0 A2 so that (V ) = A1 + A2 . Moreover we = 1 1 may embed C (V ) (V ) as the 0-degree forms. Then we have the projection (V ) ................ C (V ) dened as the projection to the zero degree form in the usual sense. If we subtract C (V ) from (V ), then we obtain forms with no zero degree components, this is the N in the above denition. They are the forms (V ) s.t n+1 = 0 i.e N n+1 = 0. Finally if we quotient N by its square N 2 (which are all forms of degree two or higher) we obtain itself which the space spanned by 1-forms. Thus we have V (V ) = (N /N 2 ). This is just a special case of the above mentioned structure with the exact sequence:

.................... .................... . . .

. ............... ............. . ..

.. .. (V ) ............... C (V ) .............................. 0

3 V (U ) =< {dxI(1) }I(1) >C (U ) N (U ) =< {dxI(1) }I(1) , {dxI(2) }I(2) , ..., {dxI(n) }I(n) >C (U ) (V )(U ) =< 1, N (U ) >C (U )

Similarly from the deniton above, one can deduce N n+1 = 0 is valid also in the general case. Note that when S = C , then the unique maximal ideal of Cx is the equivalance class (under directed limit, which basically evaluates functions on smaller and smaller neighborhoods around x and sets them equal if they become identical on some neighborhood) of smooth functions vanishing at x. It corresponds to 0, the only maximal ideal or non invertible element of the real number eld R and in fact Cx is isomorphic to R. With this example in mind, it is easy to generalize this structure to graded manifolds. Denition 0.2. A graded manifold of dimension (m,n) is a graded locally ringed space of R algebras with even dimension m and odd dimension n whose underlying topological space is a m dimensional smooth manifold with its structure sheaf, i.e (M, S) = (M, C ). Note here that even dimensions means the dimension of even subspace and similiarly for odd. The exact sheaf sequence described above then induces, for an open subset U M the exact sequence of graded algebras: 0

............... .............. . . . . ... .. N (U ) ........................... A(U ) ................. C (V ) .............................. 0

In fact this structure is canonically associated to vector bundles and their exterior algebras over the manifold. Thus starting with a vector bundle and its graded exterior algebra over a Manifold, once can construct a graded manifold. Results in category theory also state that any graded manifold is globally isomorphic to such a graded manifold constructed from a vector bundle. We let E X denote the rank n-vector bundle dened by N /N 2 and for every point in X we have neighborhood U such that so A(U ) (U, E) as graded-commutative R algebras. And we dene a supermanifold M(M, (E)) as such a graded (n,m) manifold where n will denote the dimension of the vector bundle and m denote the dimension of the manifold. Note that generally, supermanifolds are introduced as smooth manifolds with some algebra structure attached to it such that the algebra is generated by odd elements. This exactly corresponds to the odd elements of the exterior algebra generating the algebra itself. The name usually given as Grassmann variables then corresponds to the fact the exterior algebras are also know by the name Grassmann algebras and that we are using its elements as coordinates. We will now give the concept of graded functions and splitting neigh-

4 borhoods which formalize the concepts used in the proof of superlocalization formula. Graded functions will be global sections f : U A. For example if A was the sheaf of dierential exterior algebras, then these functions would be sections of non-homogenous dierential forms (i.e sums of dierential forms of dierent degrees). Denition 0.3. A splitting neighborhood for a graded manifold is an open subset U M such that E(U ) is a trivial bundle and A(U ) C (U ) (N /N 2 ). In such a splitting neighborhood U, there is local basis of sections of E(U ) which we denote as (1 , 2 , ..., n ) and the above isomorphishm reduces to A(U ) (U, C (U ) E). Then any graded function can be expressed as f = I fI I . Here we view the smooth functions fI C (M ) as being embedded in the local algebra itself. Denition 0.4. If U is a splitting neighborhood, a family (x, ) = (x1 , ..., xn , 1 , ..., n ) of graded functions (where deg(xi ) = |xi | = 0 and deg(i ) = |i | = 1) is called a graded coordinate system if (1) (x1 , ..., xm ) are just ordinary coordinate manifold coordinate functions for U, viewed as embedded in the exterior algebra (2) 1 , ..., n ) is a ( basis of sections of E(U ), that is 1 , ..., n are elements of E such that n i = 0. i=1 One remark is in order here. Note that graded functions whose zeroth order term is zero, belong to N and are non-invertible, i.e they are nilpotent (since enough exterior products will take them to zero). If however the zeroth order term is some constant then the elements is invertible. In any algebra where an = 0, 1 + a is invertible whose inverse is given by 1 a + a2 ... an1 . More over, we can actually dene the tangent bundle of a graded manifold as a sheaf of derivations (much akin to tangent bundle of an ordinary manifold) and we also have partition of unities. Lemma 0.5. Let (M, A) be a graded manifold and W M an open set. Then if V = {Vj } is an open cover of W, there exists a locally nite renement {Ui } of V , and even elements fi A(W ) such that Suppfi Ui and 1 = i fi in A(W ). The choice of even functions lies in the fact that they do not change the degree of the elements of A so that they can be used to extend graded functions or vector elds much in the same way a normal partition of unity does, without changing its grade. If (X, A) is a graded ringed space and B is a subsheaf of A, we denote

5 by DerB A the B-linear graded derivations whose sections on U are derivations D : A(U ) A(U ). One example would be DerR C . In the case of graded real manifolds, we have the sheaf U DerR A(U ) which is also a sheaf of graded A modules. Proposition 0.6. Let U be a coordinate neighborhood of graded manifold (X, A) with graded coordinates (x1 , ..., xm , 1 , ..., n ). There exist even derivations x1 , ..., xm and odd derivations 1 , ..., m of A(U ) uniquely characterized by the conditions

xh xi xh

h = i ,

xi

=0

= 0,

i=1

D=

D(x) xi +

n

=1

D()

, ..., xm , 1 , ..., m . x1

This sheaf of derivations can be viewed as the tangent space of the graded manifold yielding the notion of super vector elds. Thus since i are linear maps on the vector bundle, one can infer that T M = T M E and T M = T M E These graded manifolds may be regarded as the most primitive type of supermanifolds. Just as in the passage from topological manifolds to smooth manifolds, one then dene what are so called supersmooth functions and adds an extra structure to supermanifold by requiring their coordinate transition functions to be supersmooth. These are called supersmooth supermanifolds. The correct denition of a supersmooth function turns out to be a subtle issue and in fact in literature there are dierent types of supersmooth functions yielding dierent categories of supersmooth manifolds. More details on these topics as well as, geometry and cohomology of these supermanifolds can be found in [3]. We shall simply be satised with the usage of graded manifolds in generalizing the localization theorem. We shall nally have a word to say about Berezin integration. If we accept that some notion of a integration exists on this structure then a simple restriction yields the Berezin integration rules. We shall bestow integrals

6 over the whole supermanifold with homogenous translation symmetry, that is (assume for the time being that volume element is normalized)

(M,A)

(M,A)

f (x + a, + b)dxI(m) dI(n)

where a and b are bosonic and fermionic constants and f is compactly supported. Noting that it is possible to expand super functions f (x, ) as polynomials of at most order 1 2 ...n (since i i = 0). For instance in one variable one would write on the righthand side (taking a=0), f (x, + b) = g(x)( + b) and for the lefthand side f (x, ) = g(x). Then one can carry out the necessary calculations to obtain (one may simply do it in dimension n=2 to convince his/her self) Berezin integration rules:

(M,A)

(M,A)

f (x)dxI(m)

(M,A)

In particular the rst observation be made while doing the above to calculations is that for any constant b, (M,A) bdi = 0. Then one requires for non-triviality of integration that (M,A) i di = 0 and normalize the integral since it is compactly supported. These local and suspicious constructions can be generalized to a global construction by what is so called the Berenzian Sheaf. We will not delve into details of this but the interested reader may look at [3]. However we note one thing about how the integral transforms. First we dene what is called a superdeterminant. Let M be a (n+m)()(n+m) matrix in block form:

A B C D

where A is mm and D is nm then Sdet(M ) = det(ABDC)det(D1 ). In particular when B=C=0 then Sdet(M ) = det(A) det(M ). Note that if is a global section in the exterior algebra,

(M,A)

dxI(m) d1 ...dn =

Now if we change coordinates to ( (), x (x)) then the trasformation rule becomes:

7

(M,A)

dxI(m) d1 ...dn =

which is precisely the superdeterminant of the whole Jacobian. This rule is also valid when = (x, ), x = x (x, ) and thus we see that the correct integration measure for the metric (h, H) on (M, E) is = Sdet(h, H) I dxJ which is called the Berenzian sheaf. Localization Formula Since the proof of superlocalization formula closely mimicks that of the usual localization formula, we rst give a detailed proof of the latter one. The proof lls in the calculational details of the proof given in [4]. For a review of equivariant cohomology once can also see [4], we do not repeat the review given there since it is already very compact. The idea of the proof is to enlarge the usual exterior algebra of forms by tensoring it with complex valued forms on the Lie algebra and dene what is called an equivariant cohomology on it. In the case where there are no xed points of the group action, such an extension resolves all the singularities i.e every closed form becomes exact in the new cohomology. In the case where there are xed points of the algebra, then every closed form is exact outside the xed points. This by use of Stokes theorem hints at a localization principle. Lemma 0.7. Given a Riemannian manifold M with metric <, > and a compact Lie group G that acts on M, there exists a left G-invariant Riemannian metric on M

Proof. Let <, > be the given Riemannian metric. Since G is a compact Lie group, there exists a right invariant Haar measure on G. We dene; l(v, u) =

G

G

(< g.(h.v), g.(h.u) > d(g)) (< g.(h.v), g.(h.u) > (h1 ) d(gh)) (< g.(h.v), g.(h.u) > d(gh))

= = =

Gh

8 This is a Riemannian metric because < g.u, g.u > 0, < g.u, g.v >=< g.v, g.u > and the integrand is bilinear in u and v and the integration is a linear map.

This G-invariant metric will be used to build a two form that is invariant under group action and whose equivariant derivative with respect to a vector eld (generated by some g) is invertible outside the zeros of the vector eld. This equivariant derivative will be denoted as d = d i(). Lemma 0.8. Let M and G be as above and g. Then there exists a 1-form on M such that L = 0 and d is an invertible element of the Grassmann algebra (T M ). Proof. Dene (X) = l(X, ) where l is the G-invariant metric on M and is the fundamental vector eld generated by some g and X (M ). We rst show that L = 0 which basically follows from G-invariance of l and . Let exp(t) be the action of the group elements generated by . Then; exp(t) (X) = (exp(t) X) = l(exp(t) X, ) = exp(t) l(exp(t) X, ) (by invariance of the metric) = l(X, exp(t) ) But exp(t) = + t[, ] +

t2 [, [, ]] 2

d | (exp(t) ) dt t=0

d | () dt t=0

=0

Now we have that d = d ||2 . This is a 2-form on M whose nonnilpotent part (i.e part of order zero) is non-zero when the vector eld is non-zero. Such an element is invertible as an element of the algebra whose inverse is given as d 1 = |1 (1 + |d2 + ( |d2 )2 + ... + ( |d2 )n/21 ). Note that |2 | | | at the zeros of the vector eld d = d which is not invertible since it is nilpotent i.e d(n/2) = 0 where n=dim(M) assumed to even (we will see that it is in fact a necessity for the existence of an action of a compact Lie group with xed points). Theorem 0.9. Let be an equivariantly closed dierential form. Then ()[n] is exact outside the zeros of g.

But d d 1 = 1, d () = 0, d (d 1 ) = d2 = d 2 = 0. Then we get d ( () d 1 ) = () and by comparing the homogenous terms of each side we have the result;

((d )2 )

d( () d 1 )[n1] = ()[n]

Here what makes the use of equivariant dierential necessary instead of the ordinary one is that one can not get an invertible element by simply taking an exterior derivative. Given a 1-form , d is never invertible. Before moving on to the nal result, we shall have a few things to say about the action of compact Lie groups on manifolds. Mainly we will be interested in the xed points of the action or equivalently the zeros of the fundamental vector elds. Proposition 0.10. Let G and M be as above and p M be a xed point of the action generated by g. Then the Lie derivative L induces a linear operator Lp, : Tp M Tp M . Moreover; (i) Lp, is invertible, (ii) Lp, is a skew-symmetric operator under the G-invariant metric l. [5]

Proof. Note that the action of exp(t) xes the point p and thus the pushforward exp(t) is a map from Tp M to Tp M . We can then identify Lp, with the innitesimal action of the pushforward on Tp M . In other words given X Tp M let X be any vector eld around p such that Xp = X. Such a vector eld can easily be built by bump functions. Then we dene Lp, X = (L X)p = (X)p X()p = X i (p) xi ()p . Thus we see that Lp, is well dened regardless of the choice of the extension X, since the rst factor is 0. This proves that such an operator exists, easily seen to be linear. Moreover, it can be treated as the Lie derivative of the fundamental vector eld acting on some extension of the vectors at Tp M before being evaluated at p. Although this seems like an unnecessary formality, Lie derivative on itself is an operation on vector elds and not on tangent spaces or vectors, so care must be given before interpreting it as an operator on Tp M . Particulary, if was not zero, the action of the operator dened above would be dierent for each dierent extension of X. Now we can move to

10 study its properties. (i) At p we have p = 0 (note that this does not imply Lp, |Tp M = 0 since Lie derivative is a local operation on vector elds and depends on derivations of as seen above). As a linear operator, it is non-invertible i it has non-trivial kernel. Suppose there exists a Y Tp M s.t Lp, Y = 0. Consider then the elements on the curve exp(tY ) which is the geodesic generated by Y with respect to G invariant metric l. Note that in geodesic coordinates, action of each element is an isometry so that it takes geodesics to geodesics (we will denote by exp the 1-parameter group in G and by exp(p,X) the geodesic with respect to l starting at p with tangent X), i.e for Y Tp M and p a xed point: exp(s)exp(p, tY ) = exp(p, exp(s) tY ). Then (exp(tY )) =

d (exp(s)exp(p, tY ds

))s=0 ))s=0

= =

d (exp(p, exp(s) tY ds

d (exp(p, tY0 ds

since [, Y ]0 = Lp, Y = 0. But this means fundamental vector eld induced by vanishes every where on exp(p, tY ) making it non-isolated so Y can not be in the kernel of the operator. (ii) For a general metric we have that L (l(v, u)) = (L l)(v, u) + l(L u, v) + l(u, L v). We note that now l is G-invariant and evaluate this equality at the point p where p = 0. In this case Lp, (f )=0 for any func tion, however the Lie derivatives of other vector elds with respect to are not zero as seen above. Thus we have; 0 = l(Lp, u, v) + l(u, Lp, v) prooving the skew-symmetry.

11 Proposition 0.11. Using the G-invariant metric, around p there is a choice of coordinates such that = 1 (x1 x2 x2 x1 ) + ... + l (xn1 xn xn x ) n1 Proof. Note that the eigenvalues of a skew-symmetric operator comes in conjugate pairs thus there is a choice of basis for Tp M such that Lp, takes the form: 0 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 . . . . 0 l l 0

with det(Lp, ) = 2 2 ...2 . An important remark is that in choos 1 2 l ing this basis at p, the metric here becomes identity (due to the reason that the transformation matrix that takes and skew-symmetric matrix to its canonical form is an orthogonal matrix), we will need this later on in superlocalization. Invertibility assures that this determinant is non-zero. Assumption of G-invariant metric is necessary since only under this metric is the operator skew-symmetric and can be given in the matrix form described above. For the second part we rst calculate in its general form. Note that d it is the fundamental vector eld induced by so that m = dt [exp(t) m]t=0 where m M . Then since G can be viewed as a map from M to M, we similarly can view m as a smooth map from G to M given as m(g) = gm. In fact restricting to g(t) = exp(t) then this map m becomes one to one in the isolated neighborhood of the critical point (except the critical point itself of course). Then near the identity, dm : Te G Tm M is well dened and we can write the above expression as;

d i = dm dt [exp(t) ]t=0 = dm() = T xi i where we denote T = dmi . With this formula it is easily seen that

i (Lp, )i = ( xj )p = T = i . j j xj

i which is nothing but the jacobian of the ows given by xi = T . Thus the idea will be to linearize the action of the Lie group. This can be done by choosing exponential coordinates (with respect to G-invariant metric). As computed in proposition 0.10 (1),

12 (exp(X)) =

d (exp(p, Y0 ds

i j T (0) X k exp xj v i xk

= (Lp, )i X k exp k v i

xj

In particular noting that the local coordinates in this basis is given by the tangent space itself (i.e a point in coordinates will be of the form X i vi ),

= 1 (X1 v2 X2 v1 ) + ... + l (Xn1 vn Xn vn1 )

As a result of this calculation we get the following interesting result: Corollary 0.12. If G is a compact,connected Lie group acting on a Manifold M such that it has xed points, then dimension of M must be even

Thus we see that in certain cases, xed points of Lie group actions can give rise to dierential characterization of manifolds, like the critical points of Morse functions. Note the compactness of G is required to dene the invariant metric, while connectedness is required for being able to write down every element of G as generated by the vectors in the Lie algebra. Finally we need one last ingredient, that is to dene the 1-form explicitly. Note that was constructed as a 1-form which satised L = 0. In particular evaluating this at the neighborhood around the point p dend 1 1 as above we nd = 1 (x1 dx2 x2 dx1 ) + ... + l (xn1 dxn xn dxn1 ) and 2 2 d = 1 (dx1 dx2 )+...+ l (dxn1 dxn ). Now we can prove the localization formula. Theorem 0.13. Let M be a compact, oriented, smooth manifold and G a compact, connected Lie group acting on M. Let be a equivariantly closed dierential form and g with its fundamental vector eld having nite isolated set of zeros M0 . Then

M

() = (2)l

where ()[0] (p) is the zeroth order part of () evaluated at the point p.

13 Proof. Let B (p) be balls of radius around each p and dene U = Then

1 M

pM0

B (p).

() =

()[n] =lim0

M \U

(X)[n] = lim0

M \U

d(()

pM0

lim0

B (p)

( () d 1 )[n1] .

x 2

1

At each ball we make the change of coordinates so that p = 0 and x = getting B (p) B1 (0). A generic dierential form f0 (x) + f1 (x)dx1 +

1 1 1 1

f2 (x)dx1 dx2 + ... scales as f0 ( 2 ) + f1 ( 2 ) 2 dx1 + f2 ( 2 )dx1 dx2 which goes to f0 (0) as goes to zero (unless fi (x) 1i , which is then not a x2 smooth dierential form at 0 however). Note that scales as (since it depends both on products of the form xj dxi linearly) while dX 1 = |1 (1+ |2

d ||2

1 d d d + ( |d2 )2 + ... + ( |d2 )n1 ) scales as ||2 (1 + ||2 + ( ||2 )2 + ... + ( ||2 )n/21 ) | | (as evident from the forms of d and given above) thus over all d 1 is invariant under scaling. Thus each integral on the ball is (using again stokess theorem, noting n = 2l and d is a 2-form)

( d 1 )[n1] = B1 (0)

(d d 1 )[n] = Bn

(2)l l! dx1 1 2 ...l

Bn

(d)l .

l l!

Superlocalization Formula Now we can start to translate this to the domain of supermanifolds. The reader not acquainted with supermanifolds can consult the appendix. We will follow the path given in [2] however at certain points we diverge from this paper and use an equation not given in the paper (namely 0.18 (b)) to make calculations simpler. As again, the key ingredients are a supermanifold and a Lie action with xed points. Let M = (M, A) be a (m,n) dimensional supermanifold with the underlying manifold M and A the sheaf of sections the exterior algebra bundle of rank n vector bundle E on M (see appendix for the denitions). We will assume that there is the action of a Lie group

.................... .................... . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . ... .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . ... .

.................... .................... . . .

In particular to dene the action in terms of fundamental vector elds on (M, A) we shall enjoy the existance of even and odd derivations xi , i (see Appendix). Lemma 0.14. In components, the fundamental vector eld of this action is given as

i A = T xi + B UB A

where the local coordinates of M are x1 , ..., xm and 1 , ..., n are a local basis of sections of the bundle A.

Proof. We had previously found the components of the fundamental vector eld on M and now wish to extend it to (M, A). by extending it linearly to the bundle E. Let (m, ) be a point in (M, E). Then as before,

i m, = dmi xi + d i

However we know that the second term in the above expression depends linearly on each A since the ows are linear. Then we can write it i as (also denoting dmi = T as before):

i i = T xi + A UA i

We now dene the equivariant cohomology of supermanifolds. Consider the algebra C[g]A(M ) where A(M ) are the algebra of global sections of the sheaf A. If P C[g] and f A(M ) then the grading on this algebra is again given as deg(P f ) = 2deg(P )+deg(f ). The gradation on the sheaf A is given by the even or odd gradation of the underlying exterior algebra of the vector bundle E (if the element is not homogenous, the degree of the highest rank elements is taken). We will denote the action of G on (M, A) again by , then the action of G on this algebra is given as

15 (g.)() = g ((Adg 1 )) We will denote by UG the subset of C[g] A(M ) formed by G invariant elements. Now we dene the analog of equivariant derivative for supermanifolds: Denition 0.15. A BRST operator is an odd derivation Q of C[g] A(M ) of Z-degree 1 such that 1. (Q2 F )() = (F ) for all F C[g] A(M ) and g 2. Q is equivariant i.e Q g = g Q g G; 3. There is an equivariant morphism Q : T M dened by Q (v)(f ) = iv (Q(f )) for all functions f on M, is injective (there is a further requirement on this morphism given below) Note that the rst two properties are analogous to the properties of equivariant derivative dg in the normal localization formula. In this case however since we are dealing with superfunctions, the innitesimal action is given by application of the odd supervector eld representing it (in the other case it was the Lie derivative with respect to the fundamental vector eld induced by an element of the lie algebra). We also have as before that Q2 |UG =0 so that an equivariant cohomology can be dened on UG . The third condition puts a restriction on the classes of supermanifolds that are available in this superlocalization formula. It turns out that N = 2 SUSY theory is one of the instances on which this can be applied. We A denote the linear map for the morphism in components as Q (A ) = i xi . This also denes a pull-back (which is actually the transpose of this map) i Q : T M as Q (dxi ) = A A . Denition 0.16. The odd vector eld Q is dened as Q (F ) = Q(F )() for g and F C[g] A(M ). We now derive a set of equations in components that will be useful in computing the superlocalization formula.

i i Lemma 0.17. In components if we set ai = Q (dxi ) = A A and bA A = i T then

Q = ai xi + bA A

i i Q (A )(f ) = iA (Q(f )) A xi f = ai xi f A = ai . A A

We have that Q2 (F ) = Q2 (F )() = (F ) i.e Q2 = . Now notice that since Q is a graded derivation of degree 1, deg(ai )=1 and deg(bi )=0 so that ai aj = aj ai . Then we calculate (keeping track of graded derivation rules etc)

Q Q (F ) = Q (ai xi F + bA A F ) a a = (ai aj xi xj +aj xj xi bA ai xi A +bA A xi +bA ai A xi +ai b i x

i i A i i A

)F A

a a = (aj xj xi + bA A xi + ai b i x

i

)F A

= (F ) F .

i

a (i)aj xj = 0.

i

a i (ii)bA A = T

A

i At a xed point p of the action we have that T , thus this denes an endomorphism L,p of p simply given as

Using the equalities above we derive the following: Lemma 0.18. Let p be a xed point of the the action. We have that

17

j A i (a)( UB A )p = (B T )p xi (b)Q Q = Q d where (M )

j

j bA A i x

j = ai b i A + ai xA bA = ai T . i x xi

j j A A i UB B A = ai T UB A = B T xi xi

j j

(b). For the second part we rst prove the equality for functions and 1forms. Let f be a smooth function on M, then

Q d f = Q df = f i A xi A = Q (f ) = Q (Q f )

i i i Q (Q ) = Q (i A A ) = ai xi (i A )A + i A bA

where bA and ai are as in lemma 0.17. Then using equation (i) in the same lemma one arrives at

Q (Q ) = Q (d + i( ))

Now let be an arbitrary k-form which can be written as i1 i2 ...ik dxi1 ... dxik . Since Q is a morphism of the algebra, it respects the wedge prod uct and acts on every basis 1-form. Q satises the graded Leibnitz rule on the algebra and acts on each basis element separately with a sum. Applying the previous result for that 1-form and keeping in mind of gradations, one arrives again at the same result.

The rst equality will later be of importance to us to understand the local structure of L,p and its eigenvalues while the second equality estab lishes an important relation between normal equivariant cohomology and

18 equivariant cohomology for supermanifolds which will ease the computations greatly. From this point we denote the matrix coecients of L,p as cA and B that of L,p as di . It is now time to dig some relations between these two. j

A Lemma 0.19. We have that di = T and cA = UB . j B xj

i

Proof. Note that the vector elds that generate the action are given as

i = T xi

while

A i = T xi + UB B A .

d( xj )i = xj ( ) = T xj

i

and

A c(A )B = (A ) = UB

Using this and 0.18a we arrive at, Corollary 0.20. If p is a xed point i.e a zero of then for g the following diagram commutes:

Q Tp M ..................................... p

L,p L,p Q Tp M ..................................... p where here L,p is by abuse of notation taken to be the transpose of the usual operator in localization theorem, in other words (Q )T d = c Q Note that in particular we can choose a basis that gives d the block diagonal form discussed in Proposition 0.11, that is d2k = k = d2k+1 and 2k+1 2k

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ... . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ... . .

19 0 for all others. More over the similarity transformation matrix that takes d to its block diagonal form is orthogonal thus in this choice of coordinates the metric becomes identity. Now we make some nal denitions, put one more restriction on the morphism Q and produce a Stokes theorem like theorem for supermanifolds. And following these we delve on superlocalization formula nally. Denition 0.21. The operator L,p on p induces and operator on the cotangent bundle of the supermanifold T M Tp M p given as L,p = (1, L,p ). We denote the metric on this cotangent bundle to the manifold as G=(h,H) which is block diagonal and therefore it follows from the property det1/2 h of superdeterminants that Sdet1/2 (G) = det1/2 H . The relation between the j i two is HAB = A hij B . Now we list the nal assumption about the morphism. Assumption. The morphism Q , regarded as a section of the bundle i T M has vanishing covariant divergence i.e local components i A = 1/2 i (Sdet (G)A ) = 0 for all A. xi This assumption is used in the proof of localization formula below. Now we move to the localization formula: Theorem 0.22. Let M and G be compact, let F UG be such that Q(F)=0, and assume g is such that only has isolated zeros given by the set M . Then,

M

F () =

Proof. The proof is quite similiar to the proof of the usual localization formula. The rst lemma is the analogue of lemma 0.8. Lemma 0.23. There exists a superfunction such that 1. () = 0 2. Q () is invertible outside M Proof. Let be the 1-form constructed in Lemma 0.8 (which was previously denoted by but we now denote it by ). Then we set = Q (). Remem ber that satised d2 = 0 (and also d2 = 0). We then have using lemma 0.18 b,

20

() = Q2 Q () = Q (d2 ) = 0.

Moreover we have that d is invertible outside of the xed points 1 . Then with inverse d

[Q Q ()][Q (d )1 ] = [Q (d )][Q (d 1 )] = 1

Just as equivariant dierential forms are d exact outside of xed points, equivariant superfunctions are Q exact outside of xed points (which we denote as M ): Lemma 0.24. Equivariant superfunctions F ()n are Q exact outside M , i.e there is a section of A on M \ M such that F ()n |M \M = Q () Proof. We simply set = (F ()Q ()1 ). Then Q = (Q )F ()Q ()1 +(Q F ())Q ()1 +F ()Q (Q ()1 ) = F () That the last term vanishes can be shown using the explicit form Q ()1 = Q (d 1 ) and again lemma 0.18b.

Note that Q : T M is surjective thus we can always nd a dierential form s.t F () = Q which enables us to write outside the 1 zeros: F () = Q ((d ) ). Let = (d )1 Now using these result we make the nal calculations which follows steps similar to the usual localization formula. The aim is to write the integral over the whole space as integrals over small balls concentrated at xed points using Stokes theorem for supermanifolds and carry out the appropriate scalings. We denote by S( )(p) small balls of radius concentrated at the xed points and B (p) their boundaries. Finally by M / M we denote the supermanifold/manifold minus these balls.

F () = lim0

F () = lim0

Q ()

M (Q d )[n]

= lim0 = lim0

Q (Q )[n] = lim0

21

Note that (d[n] )i1 ...in = xi1 i2 ,...,in . Then due to the fact that co variant divergence of Q vanishes and to 0.17 (i) (which basically says ij ik Ak xik (Aj ) = 0i, j, Ak , Aj ) we have :

M jm i2 in j1 ...jm dxj1 ...dxjm1 A1 ...An Am A2 ...An ([n1] )i2 ...in

Now we make the rescaling x 1/2x and 1/2 as before and noting that = ()(d )1 and that (d )1 scales homogenously of degree 0, we obtain (where F[0] = Q ([0] ) =

pM

F[0] (p)

S1 (p)

pM

F[0] (p)

B1 (p)

pM F[0] (p)

B1 (p)

p Q (p)d( (d )1 )(p)[n]

Note that d =

+ ... + dx

m1 dxm

and (d )1 =

In fact ij (p) = (Lp, 1 )ij = (1)n/2 (Lp, 1 )l hli (p). Note that each j xed point, we had chosen the basis so that metric is diagonal at p. We j i i j have using L1 Q = Q L1 and [A B] (p)dij = 2A B (p)dij : p, p,

M

F () =

j i F[0] (p)Sdet1/2 (G)(p)(2)n/2 (n/2)!P f ((Lp, 1 )l hli (p)A (p)B (p)) (m/2)! j

m/2

pM

22 where the required coecients for the Pfaan come from the graded derivatives of A through careful sign keeping and the last factor is the volume of the ball. Now note that at xed points the metric h is diagonal and i 1 i we have (Q (p))2 = i A (p)B (p) = HAB (p), Sdet1/2 (G)(p) = det1/2 H(p) = 1 l 1 ) hlj (p) i (p) j (p) = (L1 )D j (p) l (p)hlj (p) = (L1 )D HAD (p). 1/2 2 , (L

det (Q (p)) p, i A B p, A B D p, B

M

F () =

pM

n/2 (n/2!) m/2 F[0] (p)Sdet1/2 (Lp, ) (2) (m/2)!

Remark 0.25. In SUSY theories, one tries to calculate certain partition functions M dxdeS(x,) using certain symmetries of the system. Note that the action term, eS(x,) denes a superfunction i.e an element of (E). To apply equivariant cohomology to SUSY theories, one rst needs an anchor and an action of a Lie group on the manifold M. Then as done in the second section, every g (with non-degenerate action) denes a fundamental vector eld and BRST derivation Q in components. The nal ingredient that we need is that should be a supersymmetry of the system so that the S(x,) the action term e is invariant under this innitesimal transformation i.e it is an equivariantly closed element of the algebra. In reverse terms, we require the symmetry of a system to be derivable as a BRST operator coming from a group action. Then one can apply the equivariant localization formula. Localization Formula On Lie Algebroids The natural generalization of supermanifolds is a structure called Lie Algebroid. Infact we shall see that the two can be equivalent after various choices. In this part we completely follow what is presented in [1] and at the end we add some extra theorems and remarks that connect [1] and [2] together. Denition 0.26. An algebroid on M is a vector bundle on M together with a vector bundle morphism : T M (called an anchor) and a structure of Lie algebra on the space of global sections (A) with bracket {, } s.t (i) : (A) (M ) is a Lie algebra homomorphism (ii) The Leibniz rule {, f } = ()(f ) + f {, }

23 holds. The dierential operator is given in the usual way. Let ( ()) then ()(1 , ..., p+1 ) = p+1 +

i1 (i )((1 , ..., i , ..., p+1 )) i=0 (1)

One can check that 2 = 0 and we denote the resulting complex as We will now describe a twist of this complex by a line bundle. Let QA be the line bundle r ( ) m where m = dim(M), r=rnk( ). These M elements of top degree in the corresponding algebras. For s ( ) dene the map Ls : ( ( )) ( ( )).

(C , ).

Ls (s1 , ..., sn ) =

k

i=1

and dene the map D : (QA ) ( QA ) as D (s) = Ls (X) + X L(s) where X (QA ). Let CA = ( QA ) and CA = r ( k ). k=0 Then we dene the dierential operator on this complex as : CA CA ( ) = () + (1)|| D for CA and QA . One can again check that 2 = 0 so that we have a cohomology dened which is denoted as H (A, QA ). Now we dene a morphism p: CA r+m given by p( X ) = ( X) Theorem 0.27. The morphism p satises p = (1)k d p Proof. To prove this property we rst have to nd the relation of p with Lie derivative and contraction. Weve

24 L(s) (p( X )) = ( X) (L(s) ) + (L(s) (( X))) = ( X) (L(s) ) + (Ls X) ( ) which is precisely equal to p Ls if one uses Ls = is + is . Thus weve p Ls = L(s) p Now we nd its relation with contraction operator. i(s) p( X ) = i(s) ( X) = ((s) ( X)) = ((1)||1 ((is ) X)) . This implies i(s) p = (1)k1 p is . Now the proof follows by descending induction. For k=r we have for n both sides 0=0. Assume it is true up to some CA . For lesser degrees i.e n1 n c CA we can always write the element as is (c ) = c for some c CA . Then p (Ls )(c ) = p is (c ) + p (c) = (1)n i(s) p (c ) + p (c) = L(s) p(c ) = i(s) d(p(c )) + d(i(s) p(c )) If now we use the fact that the above equality is satised for c then we get p (c) = d(i(s) p(c )) = (1)n1 d p(c).

M

p c = 0

25 r1 for c CA .

k rk Corollary 0.29. If we dene the pairing on CA CA R as

( X )

( , X)

then the pairing descends to cohomology H (A) H r (A, QA ) R Now we describe the equivariant cohomology setting for Lie algebroids. The construction is basically the same as before. Suppose that we have a manifold M and a compact lie group G acting on the manifold with only isolated xed points M0 and a morphism b : g ( ) such that the following diagram commutes g #

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ... . . .. . ................ ................ .

( )

.. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ... ... ... ... .... .. ... .. ....

2 Setting U = kerg , then we obtain the complex (U , g ) which we denote by HG (A). We again twist this complex as before by considering U = U (QA ) where the dierential on this complex is

26 Finally let # : g (M ) represent the well dened operation taking an element of the lie algebra to the fundamental vector eld it generates. Theorem 0.30. Let M and G be as above and be a rank r Lie algebroid over M with anchor map . Assume further that a lie algebra homomorphism exists b : g ( ) such that the following diagram commutes g #

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . ... . .. . ................ ............... . .

( )

.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . ... ... .. ... ..... ... .. ... ...

M

p () = (2)m/2

Proof. We rst proove the identity p(g ()) = (1)k dg (p()). Let be the fundamental vector eld generated by . Then as in theorem 0.26 we have i p() = (1)k1 p(ib() ) where here the only dierence is we use ( ( X) ) = a(b() ( X)) due to the fact that a b = #. Moreover, p(g (P )()) = p(g (P )() + (1)|| P () D( )) = p(P ()(() (ib() ())) + (1)|| P () D( )) = P ()(p ( ) p ib() ) Now using the relations given above and theorem 0.25 we get p(g ()) = (1) dg (p()). Now if is equivariantly closed this means p() = 0 dg (p()) = 0 which means that p() is equivariantly closed and the result follows from usual localization formula.

k

Remark 0.31. Note that for r < m, p()0 =0 so the integral will be zero. Similarly for r m if rank of the morphism at a xed point is not maximal then p(())0 (x) = 0. Now we make a nal digression about the relation between localization on supermanifolds and localization on Lie Algebroids. We rst note that

27 the two structures are actually equivalent. Given a vector bundle over the manifold M, an anchor map : T M and a derivation of degree 1 on ( ) s.t 2 = 0 one can dene for , ( ), ( ): ()(f ) = (f )() (, ) = ()(()) ()(()) (, ) giving this vector bundle a Lie algebroid structure. Since supermanifolds have both the anchor map and the derivation (BRST operator) they can be given the structure of a Lie algebroid. Supermanifolds are equipped with a BRST operator Q, which is our equivariant derivation. Infact when evaulated on some basis element e of g we have Qe = ai xi + A A then b the commutativity condition on the diagram g #

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . ... . .. ................ ............... . . .

( )

. .. ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... . ... ... ... ... ... ..... ... ... ....

(M )

i i gives a b(e ) = bA A xi = T xi . Looking at Lemma 0.17 we see i that A A = Ti therefore A A = bA A and by injectivity of we have b i b i A = bA so the BRST operator uniquely denes the required Lie algebra b homomorphism.

Similiarly if we have a Lie algebroid over M, with derivation g (s)() = 2 ( ib() )s then g (s)() = ( ib() + ib() )s = Lb() s. More over it is equivariant and satises ()(f ) = i ((f )) so it automatically gives a BRST operator. Note that since localization on Lie algebroids makes no assumptions on the morphism a, such as being injective or with vanishing covariant derivative, then the results mentioned there should also hold when these assumptions are forced, i.e when the Lie algebroid satises every condition mentioned in the superlocalization paper. To compare the two results, we need to take into account the method of integration. In the following, we assume that we give the Lie algebroid a supermanifold structure with ( ) having the local basis { A } and () having the local basis {A } as before. Then note that QA =< 1 ... >C M < dx1 ... dxm >C M . It is thus quite similar to the r Berenzian sheaf except for the metric factor. Then let G(x) be a metric on the bundle, let = ( X ) and assume X and are normalized by carrying their factor over to . Then

28

M

p() =

p( X ) =

In initium, the correct volume element V ol(x) was introduced as Sdet1/2 G owing to the structure of Berenzian integration. The same structure here also applies (by enforcing invariance of integral under translations of coordinates of the vector bundle) thus the correct choice of volume eledet1/2 h ment is again V ol(x) = Sdet1/2 G = det1/2 H where H = h and G = (h, H). Thus the actual integration remains the same. What changes in the twisting procedure is p()[0] . Note that in this case p()[0] is proportional to [rm] unlike localization formula for supermanifolds. Indeed while integrating a superfunction () the factors that appeared in the summands were ()[0] (p) unlike above. The two are equivalent in the case r=m where both formulas reduce to the usual localization formula introduced in the rst section. In the case r < m there seems to be a contradiction between the two results as the second paper states that the integral should be zero while for the rst integral to be zero generally for any equivariantly closed superfunction one would require F[0] (p) = 0. This does not seem to be true, however there is another possibility, that in such a setup if the anchor map is injective, it must always be an isomorphism. This is the fact that we are going to prove now. Theorem 0.32. Let M = (M, (E)) be a supermanifold with a Lie group G acting on M . Suppose that g induces an action with vector eld which has only isolated zeros. Suppose further that there is an injective anchor map : E T M and a BRST operator Q s.t Q2 = L which is the fundamental vector eld denes an equivariant cohomology where of on M. Then must be an isomorphism. Proof. Note that if is injective then its pullback must be surjective. Moreover if is not an isomorphism then its pullback must have non-zero kernel. We will show that at the isolated zeros of the vector eld, its kernel is 0. Let ker( ). Then

i () = A i A = 0 i A i = 0A i i bA A i = T i

= i = 0 i.e kernel of nullies the fundamental vector eld. Around a critical point p there exists choice of coordinates such that p=0 and

= 1 (x1 x2 x2 x1 ) + 2 (x3 x4 x4 x3 ) + 3 (x5 x6 x6 x5 ) + ...

29 as discussed in the rst section proposition 0.11. Then the m linearly independent solutions to the equation i l = 0 are given in this region U by: 1 = x1 dx1 + x2 dx2 , ..., m/2 = xm1 dxm1 + xm dxm m/2+1 = 1 x1 dx3 + 2 x4 dx1 , ..., m = 1 x1 dxm1 + m/2 xm dx1 Thus must agree with one of these solutions on U, therefore (p) = 0 (which is valid in all charts since it is a (0,1) tensor). But this means kernel of is 0 at the critical points. being surjective at everypoint must therefore be an isomorphism at the critical points which means at the critical points, in a chosen basis, (p) is a m m matrix which should remain invariant on the manifold thus and therefore is a m m matrix everywhere but since is also injective, it must be an isomorphism.

Thus this resolves the contradiction between the two papers by making the rst paper inapplicable in the cases r < m. It also shows that if a BRST operator for such a system exists in r < m (which is always the case) then can not be injective. But as we have seen for Lie algebroids, we can automatically get a BRST derivation thus it shows that for Lie algebroids with r < m, the anchor map can not be an injection if there is an action of a Lie group with isolated critical points. References 1- Bruzzo, U., Cirio, L., Rossi, P., Rubtsov, V. Equivariant Cohomology and Localization for Lie Algebroids, Functional Analysis and Its Applications, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 18-29 2009 2- Bruzzo, U., Fucito, F. Superlocalization formulas and supersymmetric Yang-Mill theories, Nuclear Physics B, vol. 678, no.3, pp.638-655, 2004 3- Bartocci, C., Bruzzo, U., Hernandez-Ruiperez, D. The Geometry of Supermanifolds, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 1991 4- Berlin, N., Getzler, E., Vergene, M. Heat Kernels and Dirac Operators, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992. 5- Young, M. Graduate Student Seminar: Equivariant Cohomology and Localization, SUNY, 2009

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