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Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

9.1 Objectives
To verify Ohms law on diode

9.2 Equipments and components


a) Resistors : 1k b) Diode NI 4001 c) Breadboard d) DC Voltage Supply e) Multimeter f) Connecting wires

9.3 Theory
Diode is a semiconductor component consists of p and n semiconductor material attached as shown in Figure 9.1.

Figure 9.1 : pn-junction diode

Schematic diagram of pn-junction diode is shown in Figure 9.2. The anode terminal is made of p type material and cathode terminal is from n type material.

Figure 9.2 : Diode symbol 1

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

When anode of a diode is connected to positive terminal of a power supply and the cathode connected to negative terminal as shown in Figure 9.3, the diode is in forward-biased condition.

Figure 9.3 : Forward-biased diode

When anode of a diode is connected to negative terminal of a power supply and the cathode connected to positive terminal as shown in Figure 9.3, the diode is in reverse-biased condition.

Figure 9.4 : Reverse-biased diode

Current-voltage relationship of a pn-junction diode is showed in Figure 9.5.

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

Figure 9.5 : I-V characteristic of a pn-junction diode

The ON voltage is known as threshold voltage, V0. the positive voltage value must be bigger than this threshold voltage to make the diode works in forward-bias condition. The threshold voltage of silicon (Si) is between 0.6 V - 0.7 V, germanium (Ge) is between 0.2 V 0.3 V. The reverse current, IS is very small and it approaches to 0A.

9.4 Procedures
To verify Ohms Law in non-linear device (A) Forward-bias diode 1. The circuit is assembled on a breadboard as in Figure 9.6. 2. The voltage power supply, E is switched on and is set to 0.2V. 3. The voltage value across pn-junction diode is measured using a voltmeter. 4. The current value, Is is measured using an ammeter. 5. The resistance value of the pn-junction diode, Rdiode is calculated. 6. Steps 2-5 are repeated with different sets of value. 7. Graph of I versus V for Vmeasured and Imeasured is plotted.

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

Figure 9.6 : Circuit connection

(B) Reverse-bias diode 1. Circuit as in Figure 9.7 is assembled on breadboard. 2. The voltage power supply, E is switched on and is set to 0.2 V. 3. The voltage value across pn-junction diode is measured using a voltmeter. 4. The current value, Is is measured using an ammeter. 5. The resistance of a pn-junction diode, Rdiode is calculated. 6. Steps 2-5 are repeated by setting the voltage power supply, E using different sets of values. 7. Graph of I versus V for Vmeasured (in V) and Imeasured (in mA).

Figure 9.7 : Circuit connection

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

9.5 Results
(A) Forward-bias diode

Table 9.1: Experimental results for forward-bias diode E (V) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Sample calculation: V measured (V) 0.176 0.401 0.565 0.680 0.757 1.012 1.452 1.964 2.444 2.986 3.469 3.957 4.454 4.951 I measured (mA) 0.001 0.015 0.089 0.267 0.273 0.446 0.903 1.485 1.925 2.376 2.882 3.408 3.777 4.433 R diode (k) 176.00 26.73 6.35 2.55 2.77 2.27 1.61 1.32 1.27 1.26 1.20 1.16 1.18 1.12

Let E = 0.8,

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

Graph 1: Graph of Imeasured against Vmeasured for forward-bias diode

Graph of I measured against V measured


5 4.5 4

I measured (mA)

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

V measured (V)

(B) Reverse-bias diode

Table 9.2: Experimental results for reverse-bias diode E (V) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 V measured (V) 0.159 0.419 0.582 0.659 0.793 0.953 1.482 2.002 2.532 I measured (mA) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R diode (k)

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

Graph 2: Graph of Imeasured against Vmeasured for reverse-bias diode

Graph of Imeasured against Vmeasured


1 0.9 0.8 0.7

Imeasured (mA)

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00

Vmeasured (V)

9.6 Discussion
(A) Forward-bias diode From Table 9.1 and Graph 1, we can see that the Imeasured is zero when the Vmeasured is small, that is from 0.20V to about 0.50V. Then, the Imeasured increases with each increment in Vmeasured. There is current flowing in the diode only when the Vmeasured is about 0.55V and the voltage from the power supply is 0.60V. This means that a minimum voltage value of 0.60V must be supplied by the power supply to the diode in order for it to work. This is known as the threshold voltage.

(B) Reverse-bias diode From Table 9.2 and Graph 2, we can see that for all values of Vmeasured, the value of Imeasured is zero. This means that no current is flowing through the diode no matter what is the voltage flowing across it. The zero current reading has proven that diode has polarity, where one side of this component is anode while the other side is cathode. The anode must be connected to the positive terminal of the power supply while the cathode to the negative terminal in order for the current to flow through diode 7

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

in the correct direction. There is no current flow in this case because the diode has been connected in the opposite direction to the positive and negative terminals of the power supply. A reverse-bias occurs.

9.7 Conclusion
A diode must be connected in the correct direction to the power supply where the anode of the diode is to be connected to the positive terminal of the power supply and the cathode to be connected to the negative terminal of the power supply. It is called to be in forward-biased. When it is in the correct orientation, there must also be a minimum voltage called the threshold voltage supplied to the diode in order for current to flow through it. If the diode is connected wrongly to the power supply, then it is in reverse-biased and no current will flow through it.

9.8 References
1) Lab manual 2) Edward Hughes Electrical and Electronic Technology Ninth Edition (Publisher PEARSON Prentice Hall, Year 2005, Page 222-241) 3) J.J DeFrance Electrical Fundamental (PRENTICE HALL INC, Year 1996, Page465-485) 4) Giorgio Rizzoni, Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering, 3rd edition, McGrawHill Higher Education, 2000 5) http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diode

9.9 Exercises
1. Explain theoretically what caused threshold voltage to exist? A diode consists of a junction between a p-type material and another n-type material. Even with no external applied voltage, an electric-field barrier appears naturally at the pn junction. This barrier holds the free electrons on the n-side and the holes on the p-side. If an external voltage is applied with positive polarity, that is when the diode is forward biased, the barrier is enhanced and the charge carriers cannot cross the junction. The barrier can only be

Lab 9 Verification Of Ohms Law On Diode EEE 3100 Electrical & Electronics Technology

overcome with certain minimum amount of voltage to provide sufficient energy to the electrons. This voltage is called the threshold voltage.

2. Explain how diode functioning and give one example on its usage. Diode functions by allowing current to flow in one direction only in the circuit. It can take in ac power supply and changes it to dc voltage to load such as computer circuits. An example on its usage is in the half-wave rectifier circuit used to charge a battery.

3. What will happen to the sinusoidal waveform in Figure 9.9 after it passed through a diode? Sketch your answer in Figure 9.10. Explain how this phenomenon happens. I

Figure 9.9 : Sinusoidal waveform I

Figure 9.10 : Output waveform after passing through a diode

When the source in the sinusoidal waveform is negative, the diode is reverse biased and no current flows through it. Thus, only the positive half cycle of the sinusoidal waveform appears across the diode 9