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Schonfeld, P. Transportation Systems The Engineering Handbook. Ed. Richard C.

Dorf Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000

1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

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82
Transportation Systems
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82.1 82.2 82.3 82.4 82.5 82.6 82.7 Transportation System Components Evaluation Measures Air Transportation Railroad Transportation Highway Transportation Water Transportation Public Transportation

Paul Schonfeld
University of Maryland

The various forms of transportation that have been developed over time are called modes. The classification of modes may be very broad (e.g., highway transportation or air transportation) or more restrictive (e.g., chartered helicopter service). The major distinctions among transportation modes that help to classify them include: 1. Medium (e.g., air, space, surface, underground, water, underwater) 2. Users (e.g., passengers vs. cargo, general-purpose vs. special trips or commodities, common vs. private carrier) 3. Service type (scheduled vs. demand responsive, fixed vs. variable route, nonstop vs. express or local, mass vs. personal) 4. Right-of-way type (exclusive, semi-exclusive, shared) 5. Technology: a. Propulsion (e.g., electric motors, diesel engines, gas turbines, linear induction motors, powered cables) b. Energy sources (e.g., petroleum fuels, natural gas, electric batteries, electric power from conducting cables) c. Support (e.g., aerodynamic lift, flotation on water, steel wheels on two steel rails, monorails, air cushions, magnetic levitation, suspension from cables) d. Local control (e.g., lateral control by steering wheels, wheel flanges on railroad vehicles, rudders, longitudinal control by humans or automatic devices) e. Network guidance and control systems (with various degrees of automation and optimization) A mode may be defined by its combination of such features. The number of conceivable combinations greatly exceeds the number of modes that have been actually tried, which, in turn,

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exceeds the number of successful modes. Success may be limited to relatively narrow markets and applications (e.g., for helicopters or aerial cablecars) or may be quite general. Thus, automobiles are successful in a very broad range of applications and have become the basis for distinct transportation modes such as taxis, carpools, or ambulances. The relative success of various transportation modes depends on available technology and socio-economic conditions at any particular time, as well as on geographic factors. As technology or socio-economic conditions change, new transportation modes appear, develop, and may later decline as more effective competitors appear. For many centuries water transportation was considerably cheaper than overland transportation. Access to waterways was quite influential in the location of economic activities and cities. Access to good transportation is still very important to industries and communities. Technological developments have so drastically improved the relative effectiveness of air transportation that within a short period (approximately 1950 to 1965) aircraft almost totally replaced ships for transporting passengers across oceans. It is also notable that as economic prosperity grows, personal transportation tends to shift from the walking mode to bicycles, motorcycles, and then automobiles. Geography can significantly affect the relative attractiveness of transportation modes. Thus, natural waterways are highly valuable where they exist. Hilly terrain decreases the economic competitiveness of artificial waterways or conventional railroads while favoring highway modes. In very mountainous terrain even highways may become uncompetitive compared to alternatives such as helicopters, pipelines, and aerial cablecars. The relative shares of U.S. intercity passenger and freight traffic are shown in Table 82.1. The table shows the relative growth since 1929 of airlines, private automobiles, and trucks and the relative decline of railroad traffic.

Table 82.1 Volume of U.S. Intercity Freight and Passenger Traffic

82.1 Transportation System Components


The major components of transportation systems are: 1. Links 2. Terminals 3. Vehicles 4. Control systems Certain "continuous-flow" transportation systems such as pipelines, conveyor belts, and escalators have no discrete vehicles and, in effect, combine the vehicles with the link. Transportation systems may be developed into extensive networks. The networks may have a hierarchical structure. Thus, highway networks may include freeways, arterials, collector streets, local streets, and driveways. Links and networks may be shared by several transportation modes (e.g., cars, buses, trucks, taxis, bicycles, and pedestrians on local streets). Exclusive lanes may be provided for particular modes (e.g., pedestrian or bicycles) or groups of modes (e.g., buses and carpools).

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Transportation terminals provide interfaces among modes or among vehicles of the same mode. They may range from marked bus stops or truck loading zones on local streets to huge airports or ports.

82.2 Evaluation Measures


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Transportation systems are evaluated in terms of their effects on their suppliers, users, and environment. Both their costs and benefits may be classified into supplier, user, and external components. Private transportation companies normally seek to maximize their profits (i.e., total revenues minus total supplier costs). Publicly owned transportation agencies should normally maximize net benefits to their jurisdictions, possibly subject to financial constraints. From the supplier's perspective, the major indicators of performance include measures of capacity (maximum throughput), speed, utilization rate (i.e., fraction of time in use), load factor (i.e., fraction of maximum payload actually used), energy efficiency (e.g., Btu per ton-mile or per passenger mile), and labor productivity (e.g., worker hours per passenger mile or per ton-mile). Measures of environmental impact (e.g., noise decibels or parts of pollutant per million) are also increasingly relevant. To users, price and service quality measures, including travel time, wait time, access time, reliability, safety, comfort (ride quality, roominess), simplicity of use, and privacy are relevant in selecting modes, routes, travel times, and suppliers.

82.3 Air Transportation


Air transportation is relatively recent, having become practical for transporting mail and passengers in the early 1920s. Until the 1970s its growth was paced primarily by technological developments in propulsion, aerodynamics, materials, structures, and control systems. These developments have improved its speed, load capacity, energy efficiency, labor productivity, reliability, and safety, to the point where it now dominates long-distance mass transportation of passengers overland and practically monopolizes it over oceans. Airliners have put ocean passenger liners out of business because they are much faster and also, remarkably, more fuel efficient and labor efficient. However, despite this fast growth, the cargo share of air transportation is still small. For cargoes that are perishable, high in value, or urgently needed, air transportation is preferred over long distances. For other cargo types, ships, trucks, and railroads provide more economic alternatives. In the 1990s, the nearest competitors to air cargo are containerships over oceans and trucks over land. For passengers, air transportation competes with private cars, trains, and intercity buses over land, with practically no competitors over oceans. The growth of air transportation has been restricted to some extent by the availability of adequate airports, by environmental concerns (especially noise), and by the fear of flying of some passengers. There are approximately 10 000 commercial jet airliners in the world, of which the largest (as of 1995) are Boeing B-747 types, of approximately 800 000 lb gross takeoff weight, with a capacity of 550 passengers. The economic cruising speed of these and smaller "conventional" (i.e., subsonic) airliners has stayed at around 560 mph since the late 1950s. A few supersonic transports (SSTs) capable of cruising at approximately 1300 mph were built in the 1970s (the Anglo-French Concorde and the Soviet Tu-144) but, due to high capital and fuel costs, were not economically

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successful. About eight Concorde SSTs are still operating, with government subsidies. The distance that an aircraft can fly depends on its payload, according to the following equation: V L ln(WTO =WL ) R= 0 (82:1) c D where

This equation assumes that the difference between the takeoff weight and landing weight is the fuel consumed. For example, suppose that for a Boeing B-747 the maximum payload carried (based on internal fuselage volume and structural limits) is 260 000 lb, maximum WTO is 800 000 lb, WR = 15 000 lb, WE = 370 000, L=D = 17, V = 580 mph, and c0 = 0.65 lb/lb thrust h. The resulting weight ratio [WTO =WL = 800/(370 + 15 + 260)] is 1.24 and the range R is 3267 mi. Payloads below is 260 000 allow higher ranges. Most airline companies fly scheduled routes, although charter services are common. U.S. airlines are largely free to fly whatever routes (i.e., origin-destination pairs) they prefer in the U.S. In most of the rest of the world, authority to serve particular routes is regulated or negotiated by international agreements. The major components of airline costs are direct operating costs (e.g., aircraft depreciation or rentals, aircrews, fuel, and aircraft maintenance) and indirect operating costs (e.g., reservations, advertising and other marketing costs, in-flight service, ground processing of passengers and bags, and administration). The efficiency and competitiveness of airline service is heavily dependent on efficient operational planning. Airline scheduling is a complex problem in which demand at various times and places, route authority, aircraft availability and maintenance schedules, crew availability and flying restrictions, availability of airport gates and other facilities, and various other factors must all be considered. Airline management problems are discussed in [Wells, 1984]. Airports range from small unmarked grass strips to major facilities requiring many thousands of acres and billions of dollars. Strictly speaking, an airport consists of an airfield (or "airside") and terminal (or "landside"). Airports are designed to accommodate specified traffic loads carried by aircraft up to a "design aircraft," which is the most demanding aircraft to be accommodated. The design aircraft might determine such features as runway lengths, pavement strengths, or terminal gate dimensions at an airport. Detailed guidelines for most aspects of airport design (e.g., runway lengths and other airfield dimensions, pavement characteristics, drainage requirements, allowable noise and other environmental impacts, allowable obstruction heights, lighting, markings, and

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R= c' = (L/D) = WTO = WL = WE = WR = WF = P=

range (mi) specific fuel consumption (lb fuel/lb thrust h) lift-to-drag ratio (dimensionless) aircraft takeoff weight (lb) = WL + WF aircraft landing weight (lb) =WE + WR + P aircraft empty weight (lb) reserve fuel weight (lb) consumed fuel weight (lb) payload (lb)

signing) are specified by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in a series of circulars. Airport master plans are prepared to guide airport growth, usually in stages, toward ultimate development. These master plans: 1. Specify the airport's requirements. 2. Indicate a site if a new airport is considered. 3. Provide detailed plans for airport layout, land use around the airport, terminal areas, and access facilities. 4. Provide financial plans, including economic and financial feasibility analysis. Major new airports tend to be very expensive and very difficult to locate. Desirable airport sites must be reasonably close to the urban areas they serve yet far enough away to ensure affordable land and acceptable noise impacts. Many other factorsincluding airspace interference with other airports, obstructions (e.g., hills, buildings), topography, soil, winds, visibility, and utilitiesmust be reconciled. Hence, few major new airports are being built, and most airport engineering and planning work in the U.S. is devoted to improving existing airports. Governments sometimes develop multi-airport system plans for entire regions or countries. National agencies (such as the FAA in the U.S.) are responsible for traffic control and airspace management. Experienced traffic controllers, computers, and specialized sensors and communication systems are required for this function. Increasingly sophisticated equipment has been developed to maintain safe operations even for crowded airspace and poor visibility conditions. For the future we can expect increasing automation in air traffic control, relying on precise aircraft location with global positioning satellite (GPS) systems and fully automated landings. Improvements in the precision and reliability of control systems are increasing (slowly) the capacity of individual runways as well as the required separation among parallel runways, allowing capacity increases in restricted airport sites.

82.4 Railroad Transportation


The main advantages of railroad technology are low frictional resistance and automatic lateral guidance. The low friction reduces energy and power requirements but limits braking and hill-climbing abilities. The lateral guidance provided by wheel flanges allows railroad vehicles to be grouped into very long trains, yielding economies of scale and, with adequate control systems, high capacities per track. The potential energy efficiency and labor productivity of railroads is considerably higher than for highway modes, but is not necessarily realized, due to regulations, managerial decisions, demand characteristics, or terrain. The main competitors of railroads include automobiles, aircraft, and buses for passenger transportation, and trucks, ships, and pipelines for freight transportation. To take advantage of their scale economies, railroad operators usually seek to combine many shipments into large trains. Service frequency is thus necessarily reduced. Moreover, to concentrate many shipments, rail cars are frequently re-sorted into different trains, rather than moving directly from origin to destination, which results in long periods spent waiting in classification yards, long delivery times, and poor vehicle utilization. An alternative operational concept relying on direct nonstop "unit trains" is

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r = 1:3 + 29=w + bV + CAV 2 =wn + 20G + 0:8D


where G= D= r= w= n= b=

(82:2)

gradient (%) degree of curvature unit resistance (lb of force per ton of vehicle weight) weight (tons per axle of car or locomotive) number of axles coefficient of flange friction, swaying, and concussion (0.045 for freight cars and motor cars in trains, 0.03 for locomotives and passenger cars, and 0.09 for single-rail cars) C = drag coefficient of air [0.0025 for locomotives (0.0017 for streamlined locomotives) and single- or head-end-rail cars, 0.0005 for freight cars, and 0.000 34 for trailing passenger cars, including rapid transit] A = cross-sectional area of locomotives and cars (usually 105 to 120 ft2 for locomotives, 85 to 90 ft2 for freight cars, 110120 ft2 for multiple-unit and passenger cars, and 70 to 110 ft2 for single- or head-end-rail cars) V = speed (mph)

The coefficients shown for this equation reflect relatively old railroad technology and can be significantly reduced for modern equipment [Hay, 1982]. The equation provides the unit resistance in pounds of force per ton of vehicle weight. The total resistance of a railroad vehicle (in lb) is

Rv = rwn

(82:3)

The total resistance of a train R is the sum of resistances for individual cars and locomotives. The rated horsepower (hp) required for a train is:

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feasible only when demand is sufficiently large between an origin-destination pair. Substantial traffic is required to cover the relatively high fixed costs of railroad track. Moreover, U.S. railroads, which are privately owned, must pay property taxes on their tracks, unlike their highway competitors. By 1920 highway developments had rendered low-traffic railroad branch lines noncompetitive in the U.S. Abandonment of such lines has greatly reduced the U.S. railroad network, even though the process was retarded by political regulation. The alignment of railroad track is based on a compromise between initial costs and operating costs. The latter are reduced by a more straight and level alignment, which requires more expensive earthwork, bridges, or tunnels. Hay [1982] provides design guidelines for railroads. In general, trains are especially sensitive to gradients. Thus, compared to highways, railroad tracks are more likely to go around rather than over terrain obstacles, which increases the circuity factors for railroad transportation. The resistance for railroad vehicles may be computed using the Davis equation [Hay, 1982]:

hp =

RV 375

(82:4)

82.5 Highway Transportation


Highways provide very flexible and ubiquitous transportation for people and freight. A great variety of transportation modes, including automobiles, buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles, pedestrians, animal-drawn vehicles, taxis, and carpools, can share the same roads. From unpaved roads to multilane freeways, roads can vary enormously in their cost and performance. Some highway vehicles may even travel off the roads in some circumstances. The vehicles also range widely in cost and performance, and at their lower range (e.g., bicycles) are affordable for private use even in poor societies. Flexibility, ubiquity, and affordability account for the great success of highway modes. Personal vehicles from bicycles to private automobiles offer their users great freedom and access to many economic and social opportunities. Trucks increase the freedom and opportunities available to farmers and small businesses. Motor vehicles are so desirable and affordable that in the U.S. the number of registered cars and trucks approximates the number of people of driving age. Other developed countries are approaching the same state despite strenuous efforts to discourage motor vehicle use. The use of motor vehicles brings significant problems and costs. These include: 1. Road capacity and congestion. Motor vehicles require considerable road space, which is

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where = transmission efficiency (typically about 0.83 for a diesel electric locomotive). The hourly fuel consumption for a train may be computed by multiplying hp by a specific fuel consumption rate (approximately 0.32 lb/hp h for a diesel electric locomotive). Diesel electric locomotives with powers up to 5000 hp haul most trains in the U.S. Electric locomotion is widespread in other countries, especially those with low petroleum reserves. It is especially competitive on high-traffic routes (needed to amortize electrification costs) and for high-speed passenger trains. Steam engines have almost disappeared. The main types of freight rail cars are box cars, flat cars (often used to carry truck trailers or intermodal containers), open-top gondola cars, and tank cars. Passenger trains may include restaurant cars and sleeping cars. Rail cars have tended toward increasing specialization for different commodities carried, a trend that reduces opportunities for back hauls. Recently, many "double-stack" container cars have been built to carry two tiers of containers. Such cars require a vertical clearance of nearly 20 ft, as well as reduced superelevation (banking) on horizontal curves. In the U.S. standard freight rail cars with gross weights up to 315 000 lb are used. High-speed passenger trains have been developed intensively in Japan, France, Great Britain, Italy, Germany, and Sweden. The most advanced (in 1995) appear to be the latest French TGV versions, with cruising speeds of 186 mph and double-deck cars. At such high speeds, trains can climb long, steep grades (e.g., 3.5%) without slowing down much. Construction costs in hilly terrain can thus be significantly reduced. Even higher speeds are being tested in experimental railroad and magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains.

In the U.S. trucks have steadily increased their share of the freight transportation market, mostly at the expense of railroads, as shown in Table 82.1. They can usually provide more flexible, direct, and responsive service than railroads, but at higher unit cost. They are intermediate between rail and air transportation in both cost and service quality. With one driver required per truck, the labor productivity is much lower than for railroads, and there are strong economic incentives to maximize the load capacity for each driver. Hence, the tendency has been to increase the number, dimensions, and weights allowed for trailers in truck-trailer combinations, which requires increased vertical clearances (e.g., bridge overpasses), geometric standards for roads, and pavement costs. Various aspects of highway flow characteristics, design standards, and safety problems were presented in Chapters 7981. The main reference for highway design is the AASHTO manual [AASHTO, 1990]. For capacity, the main reference is the Transportation Research Board Highway Capacity Manual[TRB, 1985]. Extensive software packages have been developed for planning, capacity analysis, geometric design, and traffic control. Currently (1995), major research and development efforts are being devoted to exploiting advances in information technology to improve highway operations. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program of the U.S. Department of Transportation includes, among other activities, an Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) program to greatly improve the control of vehicles through congested road networks, an Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS) program to guide users through networks, and, most ambitiously, an Automated Highway System (AHS) program to replace human driving with hardware. Such automation, when it becomes feasible and safe, has the potential to drastically improve lane capacity at high speeds, by greatly reducing spacing between vehicles. Other potential benefits include reduced labor costs for trucks, buses, and taxis; higher and steadier speeds; improved routings through networks; remote self-parking vehicles; and use of vehicles by nondrivers such as children and handicapped persons. However, substantial technological, economical, and political problems will have to be surmounted.

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scarce in urban areas and costly elsewhere. Shortage of road capacity results in severe congestion and delays. 2. Parking availability and cost. 3. Fuel consumption. Motor vehicles consume vast amounts of petroleum fuels. Most countries have to import such fuels and are vulnerable to price increases and supply interruptions. 4. Safety. The numbers of people killed and injured and the property damages in motor vehicle accidents are very significant. 5. Air quality. Motor vehicles are major contributors to air pollution. 6. Regional development patterns. Many planners consider the low-density "sprawl" resulting from motor vehicle dominance to be inefficient and inferior to the more concentrated development produced by mass transportation and railroads.

82.6 Water Transportation


Water transportation may be classified into (1) marine transportation across seas and (2) inland waterway transportation; their characteristics differ very significantly. Inland waterways consist mostly of rivers, which may be substantially altered to aid transportation. Lakes and artificial canals may also be part of inland waterways. Rivers in their natural states are often too shallow, too fast, or too variable in their flows. All these problems may be alleviated by impounding water behind dams at various intervals. (This also helps generate electric power.) Boats can climb or descend across dams by using locks or other elevating systems [Hochstein, 1981]. In the U.S. inland waterway network there are well over 100 major lock structures, with chambers up to 1200 ft long and 110 ft wide. Such chambers allow up to 18 large barges (35 195 ft) to be raised or lowered simultaneously. In typical inland waterway operations, large diesel-powered "towboats" (which actually push barges) handle a rigidly tied group of barges (a "tow"). Tows with up to 48 barges (35 195 ft, or about 1300 tons/barge) are operated on the lower Mississippi, where there are no locks or dams. On other rivers, where locks are encountered at frequent intervals, tow sizes are adjusted to fit through locks. The locks constitute significant bottlenecks in the network, restricting capacity and causing significant delays. Table 82.1 indicates that the waterway share of U.S. freight transportation has increased substantially in recent years. This is largely attributable to extensive improvements to the inland waterway system undertaken by the responsible agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The main advantage of both inland waterway and marine transportation is low cost. The main disadvantage is relatively low speed. Provided that sufficiently deep water is available, ships and barges can be built in much larger sizes than ground vehicles. Ship costs increase less than proportionally with ship size, for ship construction, crew, and fuel. Energy efficiency is very good at low speeds [e.g., 1020 knots (nautical mi/h)]. However, at higher speeds the wave resistance of a conventional ship increases with the fourth power of speed (V 4 ). Hence, the fuel consumption increases with V 4 and the power required increases with V 5 . Therefore, conventional-displacement ships almost never exceed 30 knots in commercial operation. Higher practical speed may be obtained by lifting ships out of the water on hydrofoils or air cushions. However, such unconventional marine vehicles have relatively high costs and limited markets at this time. Over time, ships have increased in size and specialization. Crude oil tankers of up to 550 000 tons (of payload) have been built. Tankers carrying fluids are less restricted in size than other ships because they can pump their cargo from deep water offshore without entering harbors. Bulk carriers (e.g., for coal, minerals, or grains) have also been built in sizes exceeding 300 000 tons. They may also be loaded through conveyor belts built over long pier structures to reach deep water. General cargo ships and containerships are practically always handled at shoreline berths and require much storage space nearby. The use of intermodal containers has revolutionized the transportation of many cargoes. Such containers greatly reduce the time and cost required to load and unload ships. Up to 4500 standard 20-ft containers (20 8 8 ft) can be carried at a speed of about 24 knots on recently built containerships. Port facilities for ships should provide shelter from waves and sufficiently deep water, including approach channels to the ports. In addition, ports should provide adequate terminal facilities, including loading and unloading equipment, storage capacity, and suitable connections to other

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82.7 Public Transportation


Public transportation is the term for ground passenger transportation modes available to the general public. It connotes public availability rather than ownership. "Conventional" public transportation modes have fixed routes and fixed schedules and include most bus and rail transit services. "Unconventional" modes (also labeled "paratransit") include taxis, carpools and van pools, rented cars, dial-a-ride services, and subscription services. The main purposes of public transportation services, especially conventional mass transportation services in developed countries, are to provide mobility for persons without automobiles (e.g., children, poor, nondrivers); to improve the efficiency of transportation in urban areas; to reduce congestion effects, pollution, accidents, and other negative impacts of automobiles; and to foster preferred urban development patterns (e.g., strong downtowns and concentrated rather than sprawled development). Conventional services (i.e., bus and rail transit networks) are quite sensitive to demand density. Higher densities support higher service frequencies and higher network densities, which decrease user wait times and access times, respectively. Compared to automobile users, bus or rail transit users must spend extra time in access to and from stations and in waiting at stations (including transfer stations). Direct routes are much less likely to be available, and one or more transfers (with possible reliability problems) may be required. Thus, mass transit services tend to be slower than automobiles unless exclusive rights-of-way (e.g., bus lanes, rail tunnels) can favor them. Such exclusive rights-of-way can be quite expensive if placed on elevated structures or in tunnels. Even when unhindered by traffic, average speeds may be limited by frequent stops and allowable acceleration limits for standing passengers. Prices usually favor mass transit, especially if parking for automobiles is scarce and expensive. The capacity of a transit route can be expressed as:

C = F LP
where

(82:5)

C = one-way capacity (passengers/hour) past a certain point F = service frequency (e.g., trains/hour)

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transportation networks. Ports often compete strenuously with other ports and strive to have facilities that are at least equal to those of competitors. Since ports generate substantial employment and economic activities, they often receive financial and other support from governments. Geography limits the availability of inland waterways and the directness of ship paths across oceans. Major expensive canals (e.g., Suez, Panama, Kiel) have been built to provide shortcuts in shipping routes. These canals may be so valuable that ship dimensions are sometimes compromised (i.e., reduced) to fit through these canals. In some parts of the world (e.g., Baltic, North Sea, most U.S. coasts) the waters are too shallow for the largest ships in existence. Less efficient, smaller ships must be used there. The dredging of deeper access channels and ports can increase the allowable ship size, if the costs and environmental impacts are considered acceptable.

L = train length (cars/train) P = passenger capacity of cars (spaces/car) For rail transit lines where high capacity is needed in peak periods, C can reach 100000 passengers/hour (i.e., 40 trains/hour 10 cars/train 250 passenger spaces/car). There are few places in the world where such capacities are required. For a bus line the train length L would usually be 1.0. If no on-line stops are allowed, an exclusive bus lane also has a large capacity (e.g., 1000 buses/hour 90 passenger spaces/bus), but such demand levels for bus lanes have not been observed. The average wait time of passengers on a rail or bus line depends on the headway, which is the interval between successive buses or trains. This can be approximated by:

W = H=2 + var(H)=2H
where

(82:6)

W = average wait time (e.g., minutes) H = average headway (e.g., minutes) var(H) = variance of headway (e.g., minutes2)
It should be noted that the headway is the inverse of the service frequency. The number of vehicles N required to serve a route is:

N = RF L

(82:7)

where R = vehicle round trip time on route (e.g., hours). The effectiveness of a public transportation system depends on many factors, including demand distribution and density, network configuration, routing and scheduling of vehicles, fleet management, personnel management, pricing policies, and service reliability. Demand and economic viability of services also depend on how good and uncongested the road system is for automobile users. Engineers can choose from a great variety of options for propulsion, support, guidance and control, vehicle configurations, facility designs, construction methods, and operating concepts. New information and control technology can significantly improve public transportation systems. It will probably foster increased automation and a trend toward more personalized (i.e., taxilike) service rather than mass transportation.

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THE GOTTHARD PASS


B. van Gelder, Purdue University

St. Gotthard is a pass in the Central Alps connecting Switzerland and Italy, 2108 m above sea level. Road and railroad bridges and eventually the Gotthard tunnel greatly facilitate traffic between the Swiss canton Uri to the north and the canton of Ticino to the south. On a larger scale, these roads form the Central Traffic Route between Northern Europe and Italy. The roads and railroads to the north cut through the valley of the Reuss River, where the city of Wassen is situated. Over the St. Gotthard pass or through the St. Gotthard tunnel the roads and railroads finally reach, to the south, the Leventina valley with the Ticino River and the city of Faido. Near the latter city the depicted modern traffic bridge and the older railroad bridge are situated. (Photo courtesy of the Swiss National Tourist Office.)

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Defining Terms
Capacity: The maximum flow rate that can be expected on a transportation facility. "Practical" capacity is sometimes limited by "acceptable" delay levels, utilization rates, and load factors. Circuity factor: Ratio of actual distance on network to shortest airline distance. Delay: Increase in service time due to congestion or service interruptions. Demand-responsive: A mode whose schedule or route is adjusted in the short term as demand varies, such as taxis, charter airlines, and "TRAMP" ships. Load factor: Fraction of available space or weight-carrying capability that is used. Lock: A structure with gates at both ends which is used to lift or lower ships or other vessels. Mode: A distinct form of transportation. Subsonic: Flying below the speed of sound (Mach 1), which is approximately 700 mph at cruising altitudes of approximately 33 000 ft. Utilization rate: Fraction of time that a vehicle, facility, or equipment unit is in productive use.

References
AASHTO (American Society of State Highway and Transportation Officials). 1990. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC. Brun, E. 1981. Port Engineering. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston. Hay, W. W. 1982. Railroad Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Hochstein, A. 1981. Waterways Science and Technology, Final Report DACW 72-79-C-0003. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, August. Homburger, W. S. 1982. Transportation and Traffic Engineering Handbook. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Horonjeff, R. and McKelvey, F. 1994. Planning and Design of Airports. McGraw-Hill, New York. Morlok, E. K. 1976. Introduction to Transportation Engineering and Planning. McGraw-Hill, New York. TRB (Transportation Research Board). 1985. Highway Capacity Manual. Special Report 209. TRB, Washington, DC. Vuchic, V. 1981. Urban Public Transportation. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Wells, A. T. 1984. Air Transportation. Wadsworth Publishing Co., Belmont, CA. Wright, P. H. and Paquette, R. J. 1987. Highway Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Further Information
The ITE Handbook [Homburger, 1992] and Morlok [1978] cover most transportation modes. Horonjeff and McKelvey [1994], Hay [1982], Wright and Paquette [1987], Brun [1981], and Vuchic [1981] are more specialized textbooks covering airports, railroads, highways, ports, and urban public transportation systems, respectively. Periodicals such as Aviation Week & Space Technology, Railway Age, Motor Ship, and Mass Transit cover recent developments in their subject areas.

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