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URANIUM MINING IN TANZANIA:

Are We Ready?
Community Scoping Study in the Exploration Areas
and the Legal Framework
URANIUM MINING IN TANZANIA: ARE WE READY?
Community Scoping Study in the Exploration Areas
and the Legal Framework
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
iv v
URANIUM MINING IN TANZANIA: ARE WE READY?
Community Scoping Study in the Exploration Areas and the Legal Framework
First Edition, August 2012
Photos by: Evans Rubara
Design, Layout and Printing: Jamana Printers Limited
Jointly Published by:
Tanzania Episcopal Conference (TEC)
National Muslim Council of Tanzania (BAKWATA) and
Christian Council of Tanzania (CCT)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Foreward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
CHAPTER ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Background Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
What is Uranium? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Uses of Uranium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Uranium and Environmental Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Health Effects from Uranium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CHAPTER TWO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Uranium in the Tanzanian Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Issuing Prospective Licences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Issues Raised by Community Members on Exploration Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
CHAPTER THREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Institutional, Policy and Legislative Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
The Ministry of State, Vice Presidents Ofce (Environment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
The National Environmental Council (NEMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
The Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Policy Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The Energy Policy of Tanzania 1992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The National Energy Policy 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The National Environmental Policy 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
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The Mineral Policy 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The National Investment Policy 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Legal Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania 1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
The Atomic Energy Act 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
The Mining Act 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
The Environmental Management Act No. 20 of 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
International Standards on Uranium Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
CHAPTER FOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Lessons, Challenges and Practices from Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Niger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
CHAPTER FIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Conclusion and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
The Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
National Environmental Management Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
CSOs and the Interfaith Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation
ASX Australian Stock Exchange
BP British Petroleum
CESOPE Civil Education is the Solution for Poverty, Tanzania
CNSC Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
CRIIRAD Research and Independent Information on Radioactivity Commission
EIA Environment Impact Assessment
EMA Environmental Management Act
ESIA Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
FEMAPO Foundation for Environmental Management and Campaign Against Poverty
GoT Government of Tanzania
GST Geological Survey of Tanzania
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
MEM Ministry of Energy and Minerals
MRP Mkuju River Project
MRTL Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited
NEMC National Environmental Management Council
NEP National Energy Policy
PL Prospecting Licence
RAB Rotary Air Blast
SGR Selous Game Reserve
TAEC Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission
TRA Tanzania Revenue Authority
UGF Undendeule Game Reserve
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Organisation
UTL Uranex Tanzania Limited
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The report has been commissioned by the Interfaith Standing Committee for Economic Justice and the
Integrity of Creation, comprising of the Christian Council of Tanzania, the National Muslim Council of
Tanzania (BAKWATA) and the Tanzania Episcopal Council (TEC). The main objective of the Interfaith
Standing Committee is to work on all issues related and incidental to justice and integrity of creation.
We are grateful to individuals/community members, groups and organizations who contributed to the
production of this research. Their contribution is highly valued for it provided the insights which were
needed at that appropriate time.
This report has been researched and written by Evans Rubara. We also acknowledge with gratitude the
contributions from Ms. Gloria Mafole and Mr. Stephen Msechu on the legal components of this report.
Our appreciation could not be complete without acknowledging the assistance received from Norwegian
Church-Aid Tanzania..
It is our hope and prayer that this report gives a glimpse of what is happening in Tanzania with respect
to uranium mining in the Tanzanian context. In this report we have attempted to highlight some areas of
concern. We call for constructive yet inclusive action from all development stakeholders as we venture into this
area of mining. Most of the information contained herein was generated from the eld and some collaborated
through desk research. All pictures were taken during eld trips where uranium mining is explored.
Thank you ALL so very much for your support as we move together in pursuit of justice.
The Most Rev. Paul R. Ruzoka
Chairperson ISC
Disclaimer: The views contained in this report do not necessarily reect the views of the Interfaith Standing Committee or the religious
leaders. A signicant degree of due diligence has been exercised in preparing this report but the Interfaith Standing Committee cannot
be held liable for any factual errors or misrepresentation of data or otherwise which may be contained in the report.
This report has been published with the support of Norwegian Church Aid
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
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FOREWORD
This report comes at a time when the demand for energy in the world has reached its highest peak and
most countries are looking for alternative sources of energy. Tanzania is not left out in this pursuit for
sustainable energy. Reports of Tanzanias new-found venture on Uranium mining are not just one of the
most talked about adventure but also the most debated. Our interest as Interfaith Committee has not just
risen from what is being discussed now, but the dangers we have also read about Uranium Mining.
This report draws our attention to two important factors. First, it highlights negative impacts of uranium
mining and related health hazards on human and livestock, and its long lasting impact on the environment.
Secondly, the report highlights the gaps and weaknesses in the mining policy and legal framework in
relation to uranium mining. Tanzanians have been made to believe, and are motivated to accept Uranium
extraction as the solution to our power problems and a way to foster our economic gains. However, we
nd this to be a shallow way of handling this mineral classied as the Worlds deadliest. The trend of
mining industry [extractive industry] in Tanzania has taught us that we are not yet ready even for the
well generalised mining, namely Gold mining and other metallic minerals. We are still struggling with the
environmental protection issues, just as much as we are struggling as a nation on policy formulation that
would create a win-win situation from the mining sector. But this is seldom realised due to high levels of
politicising everything including the lives and well-being of Tanzanians.
Religious Leaders role is in holding human rights, promoting human dignity and encouraging peaceful
co-existence of all creation and this extends to the ecology around us. In protection of the environment;
results in the protection of all living creatures on earth, under the water bodies and other living creatures
that are sheltered by the ecosystem. Human life and that of all living creatures depends by and large on
a clean environment. This will not be achievable with the glaring weaknesses in our policies against the
governments urgency on Uranium Mining.
In our understanding Uranium mining is the top ranking polluters of the environment and the impacts
thereof takes billions of years to clean. But even if it was to be passed to be a golden opportunity to drain
all the troubles of the people of Tanzania; we suspect that this will only concentrate wealth in the hands
of a few in the society. It should be remembered that the health of eco-systems is essential to our survival
and that of all creatures that are supported by it. Uranium Mining in Tanzania will not be the solution to the
problems of the people of Tanzania and visitors sojourning here, but rather will amplify them.
This report comes with important recommendations to the governing authorities to reconsider the move
to allow Uranium mining to be carried out in Tanzania, but instead look at the long term impacts that will
come from this activity.
Christian Council of Tanzania
Tanzania Episcopal Conference
The National Muslim Council of Tanzania
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
xii xiii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Background
Uranium mining in Tanzania has attracted a lot of interest from stakeholders in the religious and civil
society circles dealing with social, economic and environmental issues with regard to safety, as mining of
this worlds deadliest mineral is imminent in the country.

Safety of the local community members, the added value of uranium mining activities to the national
economic grid, and the environmental impacts that would result from this activity has raised concerns.
These facilitated the call for this study by the Interfaith Committee on Economic Justice and Integrity of
Creation, to shed light on this new mining activity in Tanzania.
The study is an attempt to start a discussion on the following concerns:
i. The level of involvement of the local community members in various discussions related to uranium
mining development agreements, and
ii. The existence of policies to govern the uranium mining, which would safeguard the welfare of the
citizens in the mining areas and scale up national economy.
The methodology of study included desk review which involved identication and documentary review
and a look at the policies related to uranium mining. It also involved eld trips in the study pilot areas
earmarked for uranium mining preparatory activities in Tanzania: Namtumbo District; Njombe in Makete
District; Dodoma in Bahi District and Singida in Manyoni Districts.
The ndings of the study revealed that the local communities have not been consulted in the exploration
activities in their area, and that there are many complaints around that. There are issues of food security,
environmental pollution, human rights violations, water pollution and health hazards reported in the areas
where exploration activities are taking place.
The analysis of institutional, policy and legal frameworks shows that there are many gaps that need to be
addressed before proper mining of the uranium starts. The gaps include the low professional capacity of
the institutions like the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC), the Tanzania Atomic Energy
Commission (TAEC) and the Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST). Policies and laws are also silent about
disposal of radioactive materials since they lack social impact assessment, and the Constitution does not
provide in the bill of rights the right to a clean environment. Lastly, there is no specic law that regulates
the mining of uranium in Tanzania.
Recommendations
Since the United Republic of Tanzania does not have a specic act to regulate uranium mining activities,
this study recommends the following:
1. GOVERNMENT
1o deve|op o spec|uc po||cy ond |ow lor uron|um ex|roc||on.
1o corelu||y use ||e curren| |ows ond |eg|s|o||ve lromewor|s |o oddress ||e |ssues ro|sed by ||e
communities during this exploration stage before signing the mining contracts.
1o ensure |ronsporency w||| ||e pub||c ond s|o|e|o|ders on ||e uron|um oc||v|||es.
1o |nves| |n ||e deve|opmen| ol 1onzon|on |umon resources lor proper odm|n|s|ro||on ol uron|um
mining activities.
1o proper|y enlorce ||e emp|oymen| ond |obour |ows on ||e m|n|ng compon|es.
1o ensure peop|ecen|red corporo|e soc|o| occoun|ob||||y ond respons|b||||y progrommes ore corr|ed ou|.
2. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT COUNCIL
1o mo|e sure ||o| odequo|e env|ronmen|o| |mpoc| ossessmen| |s done.
1o v|s|| ||e oreo ol prev|ous exp|oro||on wos done |n Mo|e|e, w|ere uron|um |s s|ored open|y neor ||e
District Commissioners ofce, and in Bahi and Manyoni to establish the extent of radioactive pollution
and take measures to prevent further effects.
1o con||nuous|y mon||or ||e exp|oro||on ond ex|roc||on process |n m|n|ng oreos.
3. CSOs and INTERFAITH STANDING COMMITTEE
/dvoco|e lor ||e enoc|men| ol uron|um |ow, ond lormu|o||on ol po||cy, ru|es ond regu|o||ons.
Oonduc| educo||on ond oworeness progrommes.
/dvoco|e lor peop|ecen|red corporo|e soc|o| respons|b||||y oc||v|||es.
/dvoco|e lor |ronsporency |n ||e process ol ex|roc||on ol uron|um.
/dvoco|e lor respec| ond pro|ec||on ol |umon r|g||s.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
xiv 1
CHAPTER 1:
Background Information
What is Uranium?
Uranium is the heaviest naturally occurring element on earth. When rened, it is a silvery white,
weakly radioactive metal, which is harder than most chemical elements. It is malleable, ductile, slightly
paramagnetic, and strongly electropositive and is a poor electrical conductor. Uranium metal has very high
density, approximately 70% denser than lead but slightly less dense than gold.
1

Uranium is found at low levels in virtually all rock, soil and water. As the uranium atoms slowly split-up over
time, a multitude of radioactive by-products are formed thorium-230, radium-226, radon-222 and the
infamous radon daughters, including lead-210 and polonium-210. Uranium in ores can be extracted and
chemically converted into dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry. Sometimes uranium can be
enriched to be produced in power reactors and for making nuclear weapons.
Uses of Uranium
i. Military use
Uranium metal is very dense and heavy. When it is depleted, it is used for military purposes such as
shielding to protect army tanks, and also in parts of bullets and missiles. The military also uses enriched
uranium to power nuclear propelled navy ships and submarine and in nuclear weapons.
ii. Civilian use
The main use of uranium in the civilian sector is to fuel commercial nuclear plants where fuel is typically
being enriched in U-235 to 2-3% to produce electricity. Depleted uranium is used in helicopters and air
planes as counter weights on certain wing part.
Other uses of uranium include ceramic glazes where uranium adds colour. It is used in some lighting
xtures and as a photograph developing chemical. Phosphate fertilizers often contain amounts of natural
uranium because the mineral material in which they are made is typically high in uranium. It is also used
in cancer therapy in hospitals.
__________________________________________________________________________________
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
2 3
Uranium and Environmental Changes
Naturally occurring uranium is composed of three major isotopes (variants of a chemical element). While
all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons, each isotope differs from the others in
its number of neutrons. The three isotopes of uranium are uranium-238, uranium-235 and uranium-234.
2

All uranium isotopes are radioactive, and they undergo radioactive decay by emissions of alpha () and
accompanied by weak gamma () radiation. The dominant isotopes, U-238 form a long series of decay
products that includes the key radio nuclides radium -226 and -222. The decay process continues until a
stable, non-radioactive decay product is formed. The release of radiation during the decay process raises
health concerns.
A person can be exposed to uranium by inhaling dust in air or ingesting water and food contaminated
by uranium. When uranium gets inside the body it can lead to cancer or kidney damage. About 99% of
uranium ingested in food or water will leave a persons body through faeces and the remaining will enter
blood. Absorbed uranium is removed by the kidneys through the urine a few days after exposure. Small
amounts that remain are deposited in a persons bones where it remains for years.
Health Effects from Uranium
3

There are many harmful effects to human health caused by uranium:
1. All solid tumours as a group
2. Cancers of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, ovary, bladder, thyroid
3. For non-melanoma skin cancers
4. Most types of leukaemia
5. It interferes with human reproductive system
6. Causes mental retardation by radiation exposure in the womb
7. Causes cancer of the sinuses, and
8. It can be used for mass destruction of cities in the form of nuclear weapons
Herds drinking dirty water in Chikopelo village in Bahi district. The water as seen in this pond is the same used by human beings
with fears of radioactive elements as uranium is explored. __________________________________________________________________________________
2. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_uranium
3. Dr. Dave Sweeney, Nuclear Free Campaigner - Australian Conservation Foundation
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
4 5
Even though Tanzania was
identied to have the potential
for uranium or radioactive
minerals mining ve decades
ago, it wasnt until late 1990s
that the commercial interest to
explore became evident and
the investors started arriving
for discussions with the
government authorities. Since
then, an inux of multinational
investors has been carrying out
exploration activities in villages
all over Tanzania.
Issuing of Prospective Licences
The Ministry of Energy and Minerals opened its doors to issue prospecting licences (PL) in 2005.
3ubsequen||y, 70 prospec||ng/exp|oro||on ||cences |ove been |ssued |o compon|es ond |nd|v|duo|s.
Among those companies which have received these licences from the Commissioner of Minerals at the
Ministry of Energy and Minerals, several are subsidiaries of same foreign company registered under
different names. Of the 70 or more
5
licences issued, 50% are for exploration activities in Namtumbos
Mkuju area and adjacent Bahi and Manyoni areas.
Lven ||oug| mony o||er compon|es |ove ocqu|red ||e prospec||ng ||cences ond some |ove s|or|ed
pushing for mining licences so to begin processing activities, only two names are prominent in the
CHAPTER TWO
Uranium in the Tanzanian Context
Introduction
Uranium and radioactive mineralization in Tanzania was identied in the pre-independence era and a
number of uranium occurrences are known in Tanzania.
4
As long ago as the 1950s uranium mineralization
occurrences were identied in the Bahi swamp. In early post-independence era (1961 1970s) the country
was subjected to a systematic airborne survey for radioactive occurrences. In this period it was evident that
four geological areas in Tanzania contain potentially signicant uranium deposits viable for commercial
mining activities.

These uranium occurrences are found in;
i. Sandstones, mainly of the Karoo Super group and Bukoban Super group. These are the Sandstone
uranium, model 30c of Cox and Singer (1986);
ii. Carbonatite complexes of Mesozoic to Recent age. These are the carbonatite, model 10 of Cox and
Singer (1986);
iii. Calcrete related secondary environments in Quaternary deposits; e.g. Ndala, Itigi and Iseke; and
iv. At the unconformity between the Karagwe-Ankolean and Bukoban Supergroup for vein-like type of
uranium mineralisation: also part of the Ubendian/Bukoban unconformity.
In addition, minor occurrence of uranium and thorium are known in pegmatites and river and beach
sands. None of these are likely to become economic, although small amounts of hand-sorted uraninite
were recovered from pegmatites of the Uluguru Mountains before 1955. Geological survey reports in
Tanzania carried out on different occasions indicated that uranium and or radioactive occurrences have
been identied in a number of areas [see gure 1 below] yet until now only four areas show occurrences
which are considered to be viable for commercial exploitation.
Figure 1: Geological Map of Tanzania
showing areas where uranium
radioactive occurrences are found,
Source: MEM
__________________________________________________________________________________
4. The best references to radioactive minerals in the country are in Harris (1961), Uranerzberbau GmbH (1979) and Geosurvey (1981, 1982) and in various unpublished reports in the Geological
Survey les in Dodoma. The Geo-Survey International (1982, p 56-58) present a summary inventory of radioactive mineral occurrences in Tanzania, based on group follow-up of the Geo-Surveys
airborne of potential exploration interest are in sandstones of the Karoo Supergroup in the southwest, or in carbonatites. The latter are described briey above in the section on carbonatites.
__________________________________________________________________________________
5. Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited and Uranex Tanzania Limited are accused of mining uranium already in Namtumbo and Manyoni respectively. Already The East African of Monday, 14
September 2009 reported that uranium mining company Mantra Resources Ltd (Mantra) of South Africa and Uranex have been given the go ahead by the Tanzania government to mine uranium
after they met all environmental conditions as mandated by the National Environment Management Council.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
6 7
uranium mining preparatory activities. Activities carried out by Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited
(MRTL) are described as close to production and only waiting for the licence to be awarded after the
Environmental Impact Assessment report gets approval from the National Environmental Management
Council NEMC Ally Semaje, Assistant Commissioner for Licensing and Mineral Rights Management
MEM. Uranex Tanzania Limited UTL activities are described as close to maturity by the same authority.
A. Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited
Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited - MRTL is currently developing and making nal preparations for the
uranium mining, milling and processing to begin soon. Their designated site located at Mkuju River Project
(MRP) within the Undendeule Game Reserve (UGF) and comprises part of the Selous Game Reserve
(SGR), located 470km north-east (in straight line) south-west of Dar es Salaam but can also be accessed by
road along the Dar es Salaam to Songea Highway which covers a total of 980km and 180km from Songea
town. The distance between the
project site and the neighbouring
villages is approximately 55km.
The host rocks are the Upper
Carboniferous to Lower Jurassic
Karroo 22 System [See gure 2].
Exploration activities for uranium have mainly been carried out within the Nyota Prospect of the Project area
subjec| |o Prospec||ng L|cence PL No. 4700/2007. 1||s covers opprox|mo|e|y 197.94 squore |||ome|res.
Mining in this area will be carried out through the traditional open pit mining using mechanical excavators.
According to the information from Mantras ofcial website, other mining works will follow, including
clearing, removal and stockpiling of any usable soil. (TPDC)
Successful test work conducted at both the Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organization -
ANSTO in Sydney and at SGS Laboratories in Perth conrmed that there is viable uranium/radioactive
mineralisation for commercial exploitation.
Uranium exploration activities began in the Mkuju River escarpment in 2005. Since then a number of
concerns have surfaced. One of the concerns associated with the imminent processing of uranium
products in this location is that it is within the Selous Game Reserve, a World Heritage Site under
the care of the Tanzanian Government and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO). Besides, there are fears of the ecological damage and a bleak future to
the wildlife in the reserve.
Irrespective of the challenges this project may face, MRTL has carried out an environmental impact
assessment which has been presented to the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) for
consideration and widely shared with the regional and district authorities in Ruvuma region and Namtumbo
District.
According to their production projection, MRTL predicts extracting up to 3.7 million pounds of uranium
per year by mining 4.5 million tons of ore at their Nyota prospect for 12 years. MRTL was bought out by
Rosatom Corp., Russias nuclear holding company, through its ARMZ Uranium Holding Co. subsidiary.
6

This same company, Rosatom Corporation was reported to have pulled out
7
of the deal after the 2011
nuclear reactor explosion in Fukushima, Japan.
In June 2011 Uranium One (a Canadian uranium mining giant) was declared to be the operator at the
Mkuju River Project, formerly owned and operated by Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited. This followed
Figure 2: Mantra Resources Tanzania
Limiteds location, showing Mkuju river
project and Nyota Prospect, Source: MRTL
__________________________________________________________________________________
6. http://mantraresources.com.au/upload/documents/releases/asx/20101215_101215-ARMZALL-CASHOFFERRELEASE_Final2.pdf
7. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/Russian+nuclear+rm+suspends+uranium+mining+deal+in+Tanzania/-/2558/1129432/-/item/1/-/14ufnu0/-/index.html
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
8 9
ol|er ||e M|P 51 s|ore|o|der, /|omredme|zo|o|o (/|MZ), c|osed ||s ocqu|s|||on ol Mon|ro |esources.
Pursuant to an Operating Agreement between Uranium One and ARMZ, Uranium One is currently the
operator of Mantras Mkuju River Project (MRP).
8

With this development, it is assumed that capital gains were realized by Mantra Resources Tanzania
Limited: for the general market outlook in the 2011 scal year, a 15% capital gain was common. With this
factor in the picture; the Government of Tanzania (GoT) through the Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA)
should have recorded 15% capital gain taxes (revenues) from this seemingly lucrative sale.
Another concern is that Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited is now defunct as far as the operations of
the Mkuju River Project are concerned. But Uranium One is still operating under the agship of Mantra
Resources Tanzania Limited which will make it challenging for regulating authorities to hold the rightful
operator of the MRP accountable in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR) in any event of accident or harm.
B. Uranex Tanzania Limited - UTL
UTL activities are found mainly in three different areas. They have projects in Itigi, Manyoni, Bahi and
Mkuju areas. The company recently announced nding uranium prospects in Manyoni and Itigi that are
viable for commercial exploitation. Located about 80km west of the capital Dodoma, the proposed area
for uranium mining in central Tanzania is known as the Bahi-Manyoni-Uranium-Province [see gure 3],
which is part of the East African Rift Valley with the landscape characterized by at plains broken by single
rocky hills. The life-line of the area is the River Bubu which crosses the area from north-east to south-west
towards the Bahi Swamp.
Uranex Tanzania Limited (UTL) commenced their exploration activities in the central part of Tanzania in
2005 ond |os s|nce ocqu|red prospec||ve ||cences |n o||er por|s ol ||e coun|ry w|ere ||ere ore po|en||o|
uranium occurrences for commercial exploitation.
__________________________________________________________________________________
8. http://www.miningweekly.com/article/uranium-one-takes-the-wheel-at-mkuju-river-2011-06-07
Figure 3: A Geosurvey map showing Uranex Tanzania Limiteds uranium exploration and exploitation threshold in Bahi District
and Manyoni including Itigi area respectively. Source: Uranex homepage.
C. Lake Bahi Project
Exploration work commenced in Tanzania at the Lake Bahi Project within two weeks in November 2005.
A programme of pitting and rotary air blast (RAB) drilling was carried out. The programme received early
encouragement with visible uranium and counts of up to 10x uranium mineralisation background. Fifty-
lour ro|ory o|r b|os| (|/E) dr||||o|es were comp|e|ed lor o |o|o| ol 1,292 squore me|res ond 126 somp|e
pits were excavated for a total of 341 metres. The RAB drilling encountered channels up to 30m deep
regarded as highly prospective for roll front style uranium mineralization.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
10 11
D. Itigi Prospect
The Itigi Prospect contains prospective playa (dry lake) depositional environments, coincident with a series
of radiometric anomalies stretching for some 40km, and is considered to have high potential to add further
uranium resources in the vicinity of UTLs Manyoni Project.
E. The Manyoni Project
This project covers an area of approximately 4,000km
2
. The project area is linked by road and rail to
Tanzanias designated capital of Dodoma, located 70kms to the east.
The region incorporates an extensive natural closed draining system developed over weathered uranium
rich granites. This drainage captures dissolved uranium leaked from underlying rocks and transports
it to suitable precipitation trap sites (playa lakes) along the drainages, and ultimately into the enormous
40x30km Bahi Playa Lake. UTL holds the rights to approximately 400km2 (or approximately one-third) of
the head waters entry in the northwest area of Lake Bahi.
Within a prefeasibility study in the beginning of 2010, UTL introduced its Multiple-Source-One-Plant
concept to exploit the resources in the area. They propose the uranium mining activity should start at the
Manyoni Playa C deposit which has reached the highest status of exploration so far.
Uranex is proposing to use the heap-leaching-method
9
on site and then the loaded solution will be
brought to a central processing plant where Triuranium octoxide - U3O8 is recovered and packed. This
method enables the investor to have large harvests at minimal cost. However, heap leaching is known as
the most problematic method of mining: the consumption of water is extreme and the leached stockpiles
are a permanent source of pollution.
It is worth noting that Uranex Tanzania Limited listed on the Australian Stock Exchange on 25 October
2006 after raising USD 6.56m and the offer was substantially oversubscribed. The funds raised leave Uranex
in a sound cash position to pursue its planned aggressive exploration programmes in Tanzania and Australia.
Increased demand and high uranium prices continue to enhance the value of the UTLs uranium assets.
10

__________________________________________________________________________________
9. Where ore is stacked on site and rinsed with extractive solutions, the loaded seepage has to be collected from the bottom of heaps
10. Until now, the three areas discussed briey in this section seem to be Uranexs threshold in Tanzania as far as uranium mining preparation activities are concerned
Issues Raised by Community Members on Exploration Activities
(Field visits conducted in 2011 between April 1
st
and May 18
th
)
A. Community participation in the negotiation process
The right to information is guaranteed by article 18 (2) of the 1977 Constitution of United Republic of
Tanzania. The article says,
Every citizen has the right to be informed at all times of various events in the country and in the
world at large which are of importance to the lives and activities of the people and also of issues of
importance to the society
In uranium exploration areas, local community members in the areas covered in this study revealed
that they were not consulted on the introduction of exploration and are not sufciently informed about
the effects of uranium. There is substantial outcry and fear amongst communities on potential forcible
relocation to areas away from mining activities, which threatens their livelihood.
In Namtumbo, communities were not involved in the process and they are afraid that they will be relocated
as they are close to the mining sites.
In Makete, local community members said that the mining company personnel came with the District
Commissioner and other ofcials. These visitors arrived unannounced and were not introduced to the
villagers, nor did they inform them about the work that was about to be carried out.
Villagers were left ...only to see heavy machines coming in and drilling activities already starting. They had
a small gadget in their hand and wherever this phone-like machine made an alarm sound; they brought the
machines, drilled using pipes of varying sizes, then took some round rocks from the holes and went away.
In Ujuni and Mkenja villages, villagers resisted these activities and the exploring company, whose name
was not given, moved from the site. The uranium ore from these two villages was moved to a small yard on
o pr|vo|e p|o|, c|ose |o ||e D|s|r|c| Oounc|| oluce |n Mo|e|e D|s|r|c| |eodquor|ers, w||c| |s |oco|ed obou|
600 metres from the District Commissioners ofce.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
12 13
Radioactive pit drilled in a compound at Nkenja village Makete district
Like their counterparts in the Namtumbo District, Bahi dwellers are also concerned about their livelihood
and where they will go in case they are told to vacate their homes to pave the way for uranium mining
activities. This happened in exploration activities in Manyoni District.
One overall aspect shared in all locations is the discontent at being side-lined by the government,
||reo|ened' by ||e d|s|r|c| ou||or|||es, s||enced lrom os||ng ony ques||ons ond |nvoded by peop|e ||ey do
not know, all in the name of exploring for uranium.

It is also unanimously conrmed by representatives in central and local government authorities that
awareness on uranium mining activities in the areas covered in this study has only been imparted to
representatives of the Central Government at the Regional and District levels, including those from the
local government authorities. Besides this disclosure, the District Commissioners and their colleagues at
||e D|s|r|c| |eodquor|ers (Nom|umbo, Eo|| ond Monyon|) oc|now|edged ||o| ||ere |ove never been ony
deliberate measures by the government through the central governing portals at the regional and district
levels, down to the local government administrations to create awareness on uranium mining activities.
B. Right to clean and safe water
The right to clean and safe water is among the basic human rights to which every state has to guarantee to
its people. Following the exploration activities of uranium in different sites, the communities around those
areas are concerned about water pollution and are at threat because they have no clean and safe water
for domestic use. This is because uranium processing uses a lot of water.
For example in Namtumbo district (Likuyi Sekamaganga, Likuyi Mandela & Mtonya Vilages) the exploration
activities are located 60 km from the Mkuju, Lwengu and Mbalangandu rivers which are the main sources
of water in these villages and many parts of the district. The villagers concern is that the water is polluted
by exploration for uranium and that with time, a struggle to nd clean water will take place.
It was reported by Likuyi Mandela residents that Mantra Resources Tanzania Limited personnel visited the
village and placed notices in village blackboards warning against drilling new water wells until tests were
done to prove the safety of the local water for human consumption.
A similar concern about water pollution and access to water was heard in Makete where a South African
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
14 15
company was exploring (the villagers could not recall the name). The villagers also complained about
the way the exploration team carried out their sampling tasks. These people came here and when they
started doing the sampling, they drew water from the river and mixed the water with chemicals they called
easy core and easy mix which were used to lubricate the drilling pipes. The most surprising thing is that
after using the water which was stored in locally made wells
11
they drained the same water back into the
river where we draw our water for domestic and livestock consumption.
In Bahi District, water pollution is also a concern among the communities. Bahi Swamp is topographically
described as a closed depression. Geological faults divert as well as supercial underground water ows
off the Bahi drainage basin into the swamp. Inhabitants have indentied 8 major and 10 smaller perennial
swamps. Information from trusted sources
12
indicates that lab tests on water samples taken along the
Bahi swamp stretch and from the surrounding area show uranium concentration greatly exceeds the
international recommended safe levels.
C. Health issues
As discussed earlier, health effects of uranium takes a long time to be discovered as it goes through inhaling
of dust contaminated by uranium through air and wind and through eating food or water contaminated
with uranium. In areas like Manyoni, community members interviewed during the eld visits narrated
stories of death and harmful health effect. For example, in Muhalala village, villagers reported sickness
and one death among the young men who worked with the explorers from Uranex Tanzania Limited. The
cause of this death remains under unknown as there have not been any investigations conducted. The
deceased young man, Severin Eveli Mdede
13
is said to have died after working for a number of months as
a casual worker digging holes and trenches for uranium samples.
In Bahi issues of food security and health arise in the event of active open cast uranium mining starts in
the Bahi swamp area. While such life threatening activities are planned in the Bahi area; information on
potential effects of uranium are concealed from the local population. Intensive rice-farming, sunower
growing, salt- harvesting and other large scale farming activities are taking place around the Bahi Swamp
and these farming activities play an important role in food security in the region and beyond. Salt harvest,
rice, sunowers and other grains harvested here are not only used by Bahi dwellers but are also supplied
elsewhere in the country. With time, there is the potential for many people to be affected through consuming
foods from the polluted areas.
D. Land issues
In Namtumbo, MRTL has attempted to obtain signicant tracts of land from villagers, asking the Village
Council in Likuyi Sekamaganga for 100 acres to build their operations camp on. This is a large piece of
land, and if proper procedures are not followed then land disputes can arise. The same perceptions of
invasions of peoples land and digging holes for exploration without permission have been recorded in
Bahi and Manyoni.
E. Employment and labour related issues
During exploration activities, companies use labour from the communities surrounding the areas.
Concerns raised include working without employment contracts and on a temporary basis and people
working as cooks, trench diggers and engineers are poorly paid. These issues were found in Bahi, Bahi Swamp
__________________________________________________________________________________
11. The exploring team dug simple chemical ponds during the activity
12. Names and source of identication is not given for their security
__________________________________________________________________________________
13. It is reported that local work force executed the tasks assigned without any protective gears. With the high level of uranium concentration one would assume that after working for a month
digging out possible uranium ore, ones life could possibly be at stake
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
16 17
Manyoni and Namtumbo Districts.
Furthermore, protective gears, especially instruments that detect high radiation areas, are not given to the
emp|oyees (w||| ||e excep||on ol Nom|umbo w|ere emp|oyees |ove ||e equ|pmen|). ln Mu|o|o|o v|||oge,
Bahi District sickness and one death were reported among the young men who worked with the explorers
from Uranex Tanzania Limited.
CHAPTER THREE:
Institutional, Policy And Legislative Framework
Introduction
The administration and regulation of all mining activities in Tanzania are the portfolio responsibility of the
Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM). Other institutions include:
The Ministry of State, Vice Presidents Ofce (Environment)
1|e M|n|s|ry |s respons|b|e |n deve|op|ng regu|o||ons ond gu|de||nes |n occordonce w||| ||e requ|remen|s
of the Environmental Management Act, 2004 (EMA 2004). As far as uranium mining is concerned,
the Ministry is responsible for reviewing, approving or disapproving project applications, reviewing
reports by the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) on proposed projects as well as
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) project reports (as a final stage of an EIA process according
to the Environmental Management Act 2004 and the Environmental Impact Assessment and Audit
|egu|o||ons ol 2005). lo||ow|ng |||s opprovo| requ|remen|, ||e M|n|s|er con opprove ||e Ll/ ol
uranium mining with or without conditions.
In enforcing the EMA 2004 the Minister is given the mandate to issue a conservation order so as to
preserve, among other things, wildlife resources, fauna and ora. However, despite the obvious danger
posed by uranium prospecting activities inside the Selous Game Reserve, the Minister has so far not
invoked a conservation order.
The National Environmental Management Council (NEMC)
NEMC is an institution under the Vice-Presidents Office that provides advice on all matters pertaining
to environmental conservation and management. It is the leading advisory, coordinating, and regulatory
agency responsible for the protection of the environment and the sustainable use of natural resources
in Tanzania.
NEMC has the mandate of undertaking enforcement, compliance, review, and monitoring of environmental
impact assessment and in that regard; NEMC is obliged to facilitate public participation in environmental
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
18 19
decision making and to exercise general supervision and coordination over all matters relating to the
environment.
NEMC has been ineffective due to the following constraints:
NLMO |os been c|oroc|er|zed by |nodequo|e |ns|||u||ono| copoc|||es |o co||ec|, mon||or, ono|yze
and disseminate information/data relevant to the implementation of the comprehensive Environmental
Monogemen| /c| (LM/) 2004. l| |os on|y one oluce |oco|ed |n Dor es 3o|oom w||| |nodequo|e s|oll |o
oversee environmental management and compliance of the law all over the country.
Weo| enlorcemen| ol |ows, po||c|es ond by|ows re|o||ng |o monogemen| ol ||e env|ronmen| ow|ng
to lack of independence, overlapping roles and irresponsibility. Various environmental incidents have
occurred in the country, especially in the mining sector, such as an alleged toxic spill into River Tigithe,
North Mara on a number of occasions between 2009 and 2011. Surrounding villages alleged that up to
40 people and between 700 to 1,000 domestic animals died from the contaminated water and the
nearby community is still experiencing health problems.
Despite these serious allegations and the enormous powers of NEMC under the EMA 2004, there has
been no remarkable intervention by the Council. Under the EMA 2004, NEMC is mandated with restoration
powers and/or orders which is the basis to hold a mining company operating nearby an incident of pollution
responsible for the effects regardless of the cause of the pollution. The United States of America invoked
the same type of restoration order to hold British Petroleum (BP) accountable for the 2010 petroleum spill
in the Gulf of Mexico.
Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC)
This institution is established under the Atomic Energy Act, No. 7 of 2003 and its basic responsibility is to:
Lnsure o sole ond peocelu| use ol o|om|c energy, ond
Promo|e ond expond ||e con|r|bu||on ol o|om|c energy ond nuc|eor |ec|no|ogy |o '|eo||| ond prosper||y.'
With respect to uranium mining, TAEC is responsible for all matters relating to safe and peaceful use of
atomic energy and nuclear technology including radio-active materials and radioactive devices, with a
view of ensuring promotion of their applications and the protection of workers, patients and the general
public from harm resulting from radiation. It is also responsible for adopting and supervising standards
of safety for protection in all undertakings involving the use of atomic energy and radioactive materials
including raw uranium.
Another important function of TAEC is to establish and implement a system for the control and authorization,
through registration and licensing, of the importation, exportation, transportation, possession or use of
atomic energy and radioactive materials. (It should be clearly noted that the registration and licensing by
TAEC does not cover the registration and licensing of uranium mining companies. Uranium exploration
companies are licensed and registered by MEM.)
The Commission is also responsible for approving applications for projects involving research, development
and peaceful utilization of atomic energy and nuclear technology with its own resources. In reaching
a decision to approve a project or not the TAEC is obliged to take into account how radiation safety
and radioactive waste management issues have been addressed in the project plans. Unfortunately, this
role does not extend to uranium extraction projects, therefore excluding such a critical oversight role in
uranium extraction projects.
The Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST)
The Geological Survey of Tanzania (GST) was established as a Government Executive Agency in October
2005.
14
One ol ||e ro|es ol ||e O31 |s |o ocqu|re geosc|en||uc do|o ond |nlormo||on lrom new oreos ond
mineral prospects in order to encourage further evaluation by the private sector.
GST also provides condential and customized expert services to exploration, mining companies and small-
scale miners. These include all aspects and scale of mineral exploration and prospect evaluation, from
planning and implementing regional exploration programmes (geological, geochemical and geophysical),
to detailed mineralogical studies and deposit modelling.
Unfortunately, despite having such a useful agency, most discoveries and prospects, especially on
uranium, are developed by the private sector through licensing by the Ministry of Energy and Minerals. It
is the authors view that it is time this agency took a proactive operational approach, instead of operating
like private investors with a prot-driven vision and mission for geological surveys.
__________________________________________________________________________________
14.The Executive Agency Act No. 30, [CAP 245] of 1997, establishment order, 2005, Government notice no: 418 published on 9/12/2005
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
20 21
Policy Framework
A. The Energy Policy of Tanzania 1992
|ecogn|z|ng energy os ||e prerequ|s||e lor proper lunc||on|ng ol o|| subsec|ors ol ||e economy, |||s
policy promotes and encourages development of natural gas resources at Songo Songo and Mnazi
Bay to substitute for expensive imported petroleum fuel. The Policy also expresses government support
on investment in transportation of natural gas to Dar es Salaam for use in industries, transport; power
generation and in the commercial sectors. There is also a mentioning of establishment of standards and
regulations on transportation and use of natural gas to ensure safety. (Para 2 & 60)
Shortcomings/ Challenges:
1||s po||cy wos no| |rons|o|ed |n|o |ow, ond one ol ||e reosons wos due |o ||e c|ong|ng ol ||e po||||co|
system from one party to a multiparty system while the policy expressly stated its main objective was to
execute the manifesto of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (the Revolutionary Party).
1|e po||cy wos norrow ond s|or|s|g||ed, prov|d|ng lor no|uro| gos resources o| 3ongo 3ongo ond
Mnazi Bay only. No specic provisions or mentions were made of uranium, solar, wind, and geothermal
energy as alternative sources of energy worthy investing in.
B. The National Energy Policy 2003
Due to policy framework dynamics that have occurred since 1992 and the numerous developments
in the energy sector, the National Energy Policy (NEP) was formulated in 2003. The 2003 policy takes
into account the structural changes that had occurred in terms of changes in the economy and political
transformations at national and international levels. The NEP spells clearly the vision and mission of the
energy sector.
The vision of the sector is to contribute to the growth of the national economy and thereby improve the
standard of living for the entire nation in a sustainable and environmentally sound manner. It seeks to
create conditions for the provision of safe, reliable, efcient, cost-effective and environmentally appropriate
energy services to all sectors on a sustainable basis.
This policy includes uranium under other abundant, but so far not fully tapped, indigenous energy sources
w||c|, occord|ng |o ||e po||cy, cou|d be |ornessed |o mee| grow|ng energy requ|remen|s.
The policy seeks to address the environmental impacts of energy exploration, production, distribution and
consumption. According to the policy, environmental impacts and hazards shall be addressed by rigorous
environmental management regimes. This is aimed at discouraging the use of environmentally unsound
energy technologies.
Shortcomings and Challenges
1|e Po||cy |s s||en| on rod|ooc||ve wos|e monogemen| w||c| |s o v||o| por| ol bes| proc||ce |n uron|um
mining, where peaceful extraction and uses of atomic energy can be attained.
C. The National Environmental Policy (NEP) 1997
With respect to energy, the National Environmental Policy (NEP) stipulates its objective as to ensure
sound management of the impacts of energy development and use in order to minimize environmental
degradation.
The policy objectives to be pursued are, inter alia:
M|n|m|zo||on ol wood lue| consump||on ||roug| ||e deve|opmen| ol o||erno||ve energy sources ond
wood-fuel energy efciency;
Promo||ng ||e use ol renewob|e energy resources,
/ssessmen| ond con|ro| ol deve|opmen| ond use ol energy, ond energy eluc|ency ond conservo||on.
This policy indirectly provides for the prevention, reduction, control and elimination of damage, and
minimization of the risk thereof from the generation, management, transportation, handling and disposal
of hazardous wastes, other wastes and emissions which can include (but not limited to) uranium
radioactive waste.
The policy also recognizes the importance of tackling immediate environmental problems, advocating
precautionary, anticipatory and preventive approaches as the most effective and economical measures
in achieving environmentally sound development. Therefore an EIA is mandatorily recommended for any
mining project. The policy also provides for public consultations and public hearings in the EIA procedures.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
22 23
The policy also articulates the importance of public participation in environmental management: something
which is relevant in uranium mining. With regard to public participation the policy stipulates that it is the
responsibility of government institutions and non-governmental organizations to assist local communities
to become aware of their own situation and to support them to become responsible for their own destiny.
This is in recognition that local communities will participate if they can be persuaded that it is right and
necessory |o do so, w|en ||ey |ove suluc|en| |ncen||ve, ond ||e requ|red |now|edge ond s||||s.
Shortcomings and Challenges:
1|e po||cy does no| |nc|ude ||e ospec| ol 'soc|o| |mpoc|s ossessmen|' o|ongs|de Ll/. l| |os been
established that immediate impacts of most projects carried out in Tanzania are social, such as
reallocation which in most cases deprives the affected community of its means of livelihood, and causes
soc|ocu||uro| |n|erlerence ond urbon|zo||on. Ees| proc||ce requ|res ||e under|o||ng ol on env|ronmen|o|
and social impact assessment (ESIA).
/|||oug| ||e po||cy express|y recommends pub||c por||c|po||on |n Ll/ ond env|ronmen|o| monogemen|
in general, in practice this has never been the case in Tanzania. Different studies and reports [Maro et
al] have concluded that even communities living around uranium sites in Tanzania such as Manyoni,
Eo|| ond Nom|umbo ore |nodequo|e|y |nvo|ved ond |nlormed on uron|um exp|oro||on ond ||s |mpoc| on
the environment despite the possible negative implications for these communities.
NLMO |os no| lu||y d|sc|orged ||s ro|e ol educo||ng |oco| commun|||es on uron|um ond ||s env|ronmen|o|
ellec| os requ|red by ||e po||cy. 1||s |eods |o |oc| ol copoc||y by ||e |oco| commun|||es |n presen||ng
informed opinions in cases where the community is consulted. In Tanzania, non-governmental
organizations have been executing this duty but due to limitations on resources, few communities have
beneted from these services.
D. The Mineral Policy of 2009
The Mineral Policy is primary concerned with promoting economic integration between the mineral sector
and other sectors of the economy, so as to maximize the contribution of the mineral sector. The vision of
the policy is to have a safe, environmentally-sound and benecial mineral sector.
Harvesting of salt is one of the entrepreneurial engagement for a number of females in the Bahi Swamp area. If they have to be
relocated, they have fears of losing their livelihood.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
24 25
The wording of the Mineral Policy of 2009 suggests that the Government envisaged a mandatory
mechanism or system that will make sure that mining companies are forced to set aside a rehabilitation
bond that will be used to reclaim the land after mining operations cease. However, the Mining Act of 2010
that implements the policy has deviated and instead it has made asking for the bond from a company at
the discretion of the Minister responsible, . Considering the serious environmental damages that are likely
to be caused by mining activities, especially uranium mining; a mandatory and prepaid rehabilitation bond
is important provided that the responsible Ministry can design a simple means of assessing the deposit
amount and ensuring it is used exclusively for the intended purposes.
ln oddress|ng ||e ques||on ol reo||oco||on ond |ond ocqu|s|||on lor m|n|ng purposes ||e po||cy oc|now|edges
||s|or|co| |njus||ces done by ||e governmen| |n ocqu|r|ng |ond ond |mposes o du|y on bo|| ||e governmen|
and the investor to cover compensation costs and actual relocation. The policy suggests legislative
reforms to some existing laws such as the Land Act of 1999 which recognizes the government as the sole
compenso|or w|en |ond |s ocqu|red lrom ||s r|g|| |o|der.
E. The National Investment Policy 1996
The National Investment Policy acknowledges the existence of substantial proven natural gas reserves
that can be exploited for industrial use and power generation. The Policy promotes reducing national
dependence of bio-mass fuel by developing possible sources of energy, uranium and nuclear included,
with the emphasis on utilization of domestic resources so as to ensure security and continuity of supplies.
It also seeks to ensure that production, distribution and use of energy is not detrimental to the environment.
Legal Framework
A. The Constitution of United Republic of Tanzania of 1977
The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, 1977 is the fundamental law in Tanzania, overriding all
other legislation. The right to life is guaranteed under Article 14, and the judiciary in Tanzania interpreted
this right in the case of JOSEPH KESSY and OTHERS vs DAR ES SALAAM CITY COUNCIL to include
the right to a safe, clean and decent environment. The right to life is very relevant in uranium exploration
and mining operations considering the radioactive and ssionable features of uranium which, if not well
managed, can seriously impede the right to life.
However the Constitution does not expressly provide for environmental protection and this is a serious gap
that ought to be addressed in the forthcoming constitutional process: this has been elaborately expressed
and made enforceable in the 1995 Uganda Constitution and the new Constitution of Kenya, 2010.
B. The Atomic Energy Act 2003
This law establishes the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) and tasks it with controlling the
use of radioactive material and the promotion of safe and peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear
technology. This Act also repealed the Protection from Radiation Act of 1983.
The Act generally prohibits using, possessing, exporting, importing, storing and transporting of ionizing
radiation sources, unless registered and licenced under this Act, ranging from radiation protection, physical
protection, nuclear safety, radioactive waste management and emergency preparedness. Specically it
prohibits unless licenced the importation of any nuclear installation, material, plant or any other source of
radiation.
In relation to radioactivity the law covers only food stuffs in that it empowers the TAEC in consultation with
the Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority to establish a system for control of radioactivity in foodstuffs.
The law establishes the Central Radioactive Waste Management Facility which serves as the national
centre for collection, characterization, conditioning, segregation and generally safe management of
radioactive wastes.
Owing to low awareness about uranium exploration in the country in the early 2000s when the law was
enacted, this Act gave extra attention to upstream uranium and radioactive operations at the expense of
downstream operations. This has made this Act and TAEC toothless in regulating uranium exploration
and development.
C. The Mining Act 2010
The Mining Act 2010 generally regulate matters relating to prospecting for minerals, mining, processing
and dealing in minerals, to granting, renewal and termination of mineral rights, payment of royalties, fees
and other charges and any other relevant matter. Uranium mining is therefore also governed by the scope
and applicability of this law. The Act repealed the Mining Act of 1998, however all subsidiary legislation
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
26 27
made under the 1998 Act continue to be in force until new rules are made by the Minister or the old
rules are revoked. (This is by virtue of Section 116 (2) of the Mining Act, 2010.) Because of this saving
provision, regulations made under the Mining Act, 1998 such as Mining (Environmental Management and
Protection), GN. No. 218 of 1998; and Mining (Safe Working and Occupational Health), 1999; and Mining
(Dispute Resolutions) Rules, 1999, are still operative.
The Mining Act 2010 amends the method by which Government of Tanzania (GOT) royalties are calculated
so that they are now be levied on the gross value of minerals, rather than the present method of calculation
which refers to the net value. The rate of royalties now levied by the GOT on uranium is 5%.
In respect of environmental management, the Mining Act, 2010 provides that the Minister for Energy and
Minerals may enter into a development agreement in which environmental issues are to be addressed.
In addition the Act states that the development agreement will be reviewed every ve years to evaluate
comp||once w||| ||e requ|remen|s con|o|ned ||ere|n. /||ow|ng ||e M|n|s|er |o o||er |eg|s|o|ed mo||ers
such as environmental protection and scal charges is a signicant aw that creates the potential for
abuse. The authors call for an immediate amendment of the Act to ensure consistency with existing and
comprehensive environment and scal laws in place.
Another concern is the discretionary nature of the rehabilitation bond for the protection of the environment.
1o do|e, no m|n|ng compony |os been |nown |o |ove been requ|red by ||e M|n|s|er |o depos|| |||s bond.
The Buhemba mine abandonment in 2004 and its aftermath is one case where such a bond may have
protected the community. The community members in Buhemba area are now faced with skin diseases,
abnormal livestock births and lack of safe water for use including lack of food.
The Act prohibits any licensing authority, including TAEC as explained earlier, to issue a dealers or
brokerage licence for uranium.
15
3urpr|s|ng|y, ||e /c| recogn|zes ||e ou|do|ed ond |nodequo|e no|ure
of the Atomic Energy Act of 2003, but still leaves its control in the hands of TAEC
16
while at the same
time depriving TAEC the power to issue permits to export and import radioactive minerals.
17
Instead, this
role rests with the Commissioner of Minerals, an ofce that has no expertise and capacity to deal with
radioactive materials.
D. The Environmental Management Act (EMA), Act No. 20 of 2004
The EMA 2004 provides the legal and institutional framework for sustainable management of the
environment. This law outlines principles for management, impact and risk assessment, prevention and
con|ro| ol po||u||on, wos|e monogemen|, env|ronmen|o| quo|||y s|ondords, ond pub||c por||c|po||on |n
decisions involving environmental issues, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy (NEP).
It is this law that repeals the National Environmental Management Act, 1983 and establishes the continued
existence of the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC).
An important tool under EMA 2004 is the environmental impact assessment (EIA) which is a scientic
assessment of the possible positive or negative impacts that a proposed project may have on the
Uranium ore as captured within the timber-fenced compound in Makete town __________________________________________________________________________________
15. Section 86 16. Section 108(1) 17. Section 108(2)
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
28 29
environment. Section 53 articulates the conditions which must be attached to a mining licence, including
||e requ|remen| lor on Ll/: o|| uron|um projec|s mus| be preceded by on Ll/.
Uranium mining activities are likely to produce hazardous radioactive waste in the course of exploration
and extraction, once the radioactive ores are exposed to bare earth surface. The EMA 2004 provides for
management of hazardous waste, including radioactive waste, especially in exportation in that where such
materials are to be exported from Tanzania, it is a precondition that the exporter obtain a written permit
issued by a competent authority from a receiving country.
Lastly, but not in any case least, the EMA 2004 has adopted a bio-centric approach and provides for an
expanded legal standing for environmental litigation, in that it covers affected individuals; individuals in
interest or on behalf of another person where that person is unable to bring the matter; representatives suit,
suits for public interest even if one is not affected directly; and interestingly, in the interest of environment or
habitat. This means, according to EMA 2004 that even the environment has legal standing [locus standi].
This provision is fundamental as far as uranium mining in Tanzania is concerned in the sense that there is a
legal backing for environmentalists and other interested members of the community to intervene wherever
there is a violation of environmental law in uranium mining operations.
Shortcomings and Challenges:
LM/ 2004, w|||e see||ng |o ensure Ll/s ore under|o|en, p|oces ||e 'du|y |o under|o|e or couse Ll/
to be undertaken on the project applicant or developer, at his own cost. This provision has been the
subject of critical debate as to whether an EIA conducted by a rm hired by the project applicant will
be transparent and unbiased. Considering the weak institutional capacity and multiplicity of activities of
supervisory authorities such as the National Environmental Management Council, it is recommended
that an independent body be established to be responsible for monitoring and supervising EIAs carried
out by representative of the project applicant or developer.
W||| regords |o Ll/, ||e |ow requ|res m|n|ng compon|es |o under|o|e Ll/ belore |ozordous wos|e
is disposed into the soil, air or body of water. However in practice, this is not being done and there are
reported cases of uranium exploration sites where it is alleged that a considerable amount of radioactive
ore has been disposed on land without meeting the precondition of EIA.
/ccess|b||||y ol Ll/ repor|s |o ||e pub||c |s prov|ded lor by bo|| ||e LM/ 2004 ond ||e Lnv|ronmen|o|
Impact Assessment and Audit Regulations, 2005 which regards all documents relating to EIA as public
documents. However in practice this is not the case, especially for uranium mining projects.
/|||oug| |oco| governmen|s ore gron|ed powers lor monogemen| ol wos|e, mos| oc||v|||es concern|ng
uranium mining in Tanzania are conducted while remaining undisclosed to the local government
authorities, or with the intervention of the central government that makes it impossible for local
government to exercise their supervisory powers.
Water source used by local community members at Chali Isanga in Bahi District. Uranium mining is water intensive,
if mined, miled and processed in this area there will be water based conict between locals and the investors.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
30 31
International Standards On Uranium Mining
1. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was opened for signature on 3 March 1980,
pursuant to Article 18 of the convention. The Convention recognises the right of all States to develop and
apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benets to be
derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy. It calls for the need for facilitating international
co-operation in the peaceful application of nuclear energy to avert the potential dangers posed by the
unlawful taking and use of nuclear material and also the importance of international co-operation to
establish, in conformity with the national law of each State Party and the Convention, effective measures
for the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport.
Article 3 specically calls for States to take appropriate steps within the framework of their national law and
consistent with international law to ensure as far as practicable that, during international nuclear transport,
nuclear material within its territory, or on board a ship or aircraft under its jurisdiction insofar as such ship
or aircraft is engaged in the transport to or from that State.
Shortcomings and Challenges:
Looked at critically, it is unlikely that a country like Tanzania will strictly adhere to these standards,
considering the level of its economy and technology. There are consistent cases of lapses in checking
cargo vessels that are originating from or transiting through the country, looked as potential to weapon
smuggling weapons into the Great Lakes Region. It is therefore difcult to see the proper application of
Article 3 when it comes to the stage where the country is engaged in full uranium production.
2. United Nations Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Article 1
Art. 1 of the Covenant clearly states the rights of self-determination; people have the right to pursue their
economic, social and cultural development. The current activities of uranium exploration carried out by
uranium mining companies have already posed a threat to these rights. The tendency of the companies to
perform exploration activities on village land, elds and agricultural areas without prior consultation with
the people is disturbing the people in pursuing their economic activities.
Shortcomings and Challenges:
In the Bahi area, drilling activities were performed on agricultural land (rice, sunower, and millet elds)
for uranium exploration with neither prior information to nor the consent of the local people. In one case,
people were told that the drilling was performed in order to build a tower for cell phone communication.
People who opposed drilling activities on their land were intimidated: police ofcers were sent to tell
people that they had to allow drilling activities in their elds/on their village land. If uranium mining projects
are approved to proceed, the mining activities will lead to the relocation of people and appropriation for
land, depriving the people of their means of existence. Compensation paid to people in similar cases is
minimal and does not remunerate properly for the loss of land as a means of existence.
Article 11
/r||c|e 11 ol ||e Oonven||on emp|os|zes ||e r|g|| ol peop|e |o o good s|ondord ol ||v|ng, odequo|e lood,
clothing and housing and continuous improvement of the living conditions. Article 11 also recognizes the
right of everyone to be free from hunger.
Shortcomings and Challenges:
The Bahi area - as explained above - is a signicant food production area which the communities in Bahi
and Tanzania at large depend on for food security. Uranium mining will endanger this area signicantly;
this may result in food shortages which will be a clear violation of Article 11 of the Convention.
Uranium mining will not guarantee a good living standard and improved living conditions for the people
in the Bahi area. The experience from other countries that have gone through uranium mining and the
experience of gold mining in Tanzania have shown that governments have little control over multinational
companies and communities are left at the mercy of these companies whose priorities are prot making
rather than protecting human rights. The study that was done by CESOPE in 2010
18
found that the economic
value of the Bahi wetland is of high importance to the communities in Bahi and adjacent areas, and people
are beneting more from the services of the Bahi wetland than they will benet from the planned uranium
mining activities.
Article 12
Art. 12 of the UN Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognize the right of everyone to the
enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.
__________________________________________________________________________________
18. Summary Report on Human Rights under Threat due to Uranium Exploitation in Tanzania FEMAPO + CESOPE, Tanzania - UN CESCR - December 2011 2 / 7
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
32 33
Shortcomings and Challenges:
Uranium mining poses a serious threat to this right, due to the negative health impacts that result from
these activities. There have already been concerns as a result of uranium exploration in Bahi.
Companies are neglecting the best practices of uranium exploration, for example in Bahi, Ilindi village,
the communities complained of companies digging deep exploration pits which were then left without
covering. People from the community who are hired for short-term support to uranium exploration activities
are not given protective safety gear and not educated of the dangers of uranium mining.
FEMAPO and CESOPE investigations in these areas conrmed these complaints: there are people already
affected as a result of uranium exploration. There is ample scientic evidence and experience on the
detrimental effect of uranium mining on the health of miners, workers and people in the areas of the
mines, in African countries and worldwide.
A nished Uranium Trench
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
34 35
CHAPTER FOUR:
Lessons, Challenges and Practices from
countries with Uranium Mining
Introduction
Uranium mining must be carried out carefully, as the effects of uranium on human beings and habitats
will last for generations. Tanzania has to make sure that it has a specic and protective policy and
|eg|s|o||on lromewor| belore || embor|s on uron|um m|n|ng oc||v|||es. /dequo|e env|ronmen|o| |mpoc|
assessments MUST be conducted. The government must establish proper regulatory authorities and
develop local capacities in different departments of the sector to support and enhance efcient and
effective implementation of uranium mining activities.
Alongside regulation and capacity, political will for the proper enforcement of laws governing uranium
mining activities is essential to prevent harm to the people of Tanzania.
It is imperative that the Government move forward to implement the laws with a special focus on the gaps
identied in this report. Otherwise, the resource curse that has been experienced in the gold mining sector
will likewise be experienced in areas earmarked for uranium mining.
If these concerns are repeatedly ignored, Tanzania will continue to experience unstable economic input
from the mining, lack of strategies for rural development, potential clashes between companies and
communities, environmental degradation, land issues and health hazards. Social unrest could potentially rise.
The lessons from different countries show that there is a need to develop a strong legislative and
regulatory framework, establish of regulatory authorities with skilled staff, and conduct environmental
impact assessment and plan for proper disposal of waste materials. The following countries mine uranium,
their experience is presented here.
A. Niger
Uranium mines in Niger are operated by the state-owned French nuclear giant AREVA and continue to
create a radioactive hazard for the people living nearby.
19
Greenpeace carried out soil, water and air tests
in Arlit and Akokan, located a few kilometres from the mines. The samples were studied in collaboration
with the France-based Research and Independent Information on Radioactivity Commission (CRIIRAD).
Analysis showed uranium contamination exceeded World Health Organisation safety limits in four out of
ve water samples. They found evidence of chemical elements and radon, a radioactive gas dissolved in
water. Despite this, water is still being distributed to the population and AREVAs workers for consumption.
Local environmental and human rights organizations say that radioactivity increases poverty because it
creates more victims. With each day passes they are exposed to radiation and continue to be surrounded
by poisoned air, polluted water and land while AREVA makes hundreds of millions of dollars from their
natural resources.
Half of AREVAs uranium comes from two mines in Niger, one of Africas poorest countries and the worlds
third largest uranium producer for more than 40 years. AREVA has also signed a deal to start tapping
a third mine in the desert nation from 2013 or 2014. AREVA claim that it is an environmentally friendly
company; however stakeholders such as Greenpeace are disputing this claim and call for an independent
study around the mines and mining towns in Niger followed by a thorough clean up and decontamination.
The shocking levels of contamination in Niger reveal the lies behind AREVAs claims. Stakeholders
are calling for AREVA to take immediate action to end the routine radioactive contamination of villages
surrounding their Nigerien mines. They call for AREVA to take responsibility for its actions not only in
Niger, but worldwide and also to put in place long-term health monitoring of the local population.
B. Australia
The presence of a uranium resource in Australia had been known since the 1890s. The rst uranium
mining activity was reported in Radium Hill, South of Australia in 1906.
20
3ubsequen||y, ||ere wos o
successive roll-out of other mining sites between 1911 and 1944, with offers of tax concessions in 1948.
21

This development paved way for mining operations run by the Commonwealth in 1954.
22

__________________________________________________________________________________
19. A report released by Greenpeace reveals contamination levels in the air, water and soil above internationally accepted limits.
20. Australian Map - Radium Hill former uranium-radium mine: http://australianmap.net/radium-hill/; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium_Hill
21. Smith, Julie: Essay Tax policy (Analysis/Planning) - June, 1997 Source Volume: 8 Source Issue: 1 - http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Economic-Labour-Relations-Review/237940766.
html; Economic and labour Relations: 1997 Centre for Applied Economic Research and Industrial Relations Research Centre ISSN: 1035-3046
22. Gavin M. Mudd: An analysis of historic production trends in Australian base metal mining
Ore Geology Reviews - Volume 32, Issues 12, September 2007, Pages 227261
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
36 37
Oblivious of the awaiting dangers, this child is playing on the ground which would pose unknown future health hazards with the
mining of uranium
With such a background, Australia claims the longest experience in uranium mining in the world. But even
in the face of such experience; there has been opposition against uranium mining citing environmental
damage, indigenous land access and nuclear proliferation as reasons for ending mining or restricting the
industry. The debate has resulted in limitations on mining and export activities, with Federal and State
governments occasionally debating on public policy. In the meantime, mining companies have pursued
exploration activities, and in some instances stockpiled mined ore with an expectation that the eventual
removal of restrictions and uncertainties will occur due to the scale of economic benets on offer.
It is also reported that by December 2005 in Australia, on average, each tonne of uranium extracted has
led to the production of 848 tonnes of mill tailings and 1,152 tonnes
23
of combined low-grade ore and
wos|e roc| (exc|ud|ng |n s||u |eoc| produc||on). 1|e |o|o| quon|||y ol |o|||ngs |s opprox|mo|e|y 128 m||||on
tonnes (grading about 0.03% of Triuranium octoxide - U3O8) with roughly 175 million tonnes of combined
low-grade ore and waste rock. In comparison to the volumes of radioactive waste in the nuclear fuel chain,
||e |orges| quon|||y |s eos||y produced |n ||e m|n|ng ond m||||ng ol uron|um.
/us|ro||o's mos| recen| exper|ence ol opero||ng uron|um m|nes demons|ro|es ||e d|s||nc| ond un|que
challenges involved in uranium mining. There have been numerous incidents at the now closed Nabarlek
mine and the operating Ranger, Olympic Dam and Beverley projects. The most common examples include
mismanagement of water, sometimes leading to unauthorised releases to adjacent creeks, signicant risks
to mine/mill workers, waste rock leaching, and ongoing seepage impacts from tailings.
1|e exper|ence ol re|ob||||o||ng uron|um m|nes |o do|e |n /us|ro||o |s ques||onob|e. 1|e urs| genero||on
of uranium mines from the Cold War, namely Rum Jungle, Radium Hill, Mary Kathleen and the South
Alligator group of mines, all still present environmental and radiological management problems and
requ|re cons|on| v|g||once ond mo|n|enonce:
|um Jung|e - Desp||e ex|ens|ve remed|o||on/re|ob||||o||on wor|s |n ||e eor|y 1980s, |nc|ud|ng excovo||ng
remnant tailings and disposal into former pits, re-contouring and engineering soil covers over low grade
ore and waste rock dumps, acid mine drainage continues to pollute the Finiss River, and the complete
s||e s|||| urgen||y requ|res more remed|o||on/re|ob||||o||on wor|s.
__________________________________________________________________________________
23. SRK Consulting: MOL004 NI43-101 Technical Report Spinifex Ridge July 2008 (appendix 16 & 17) -
http://www.aspectnancial.com.au/asxdata/20080821/pdf/00871856.pdf;
http://antinuclear.net/2010/01/07/can-uranium-mines-be-operated-safely/
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
38 39
|od|um ||| - /l|er be|ng obondoned |n eor|y 1962
24
, minimal earth works were undertaken in the early
1980s, mainly only engineering soil covers over the tailings piles. Erosion is a continual problem and
|o|||ngs requ|re ongo|ng mo|n|enonce.
C. Namibia
According to a report by the Namibian Press Agency (NAMPA) of 29 February 2008, the Namibian
Chamber of Mines had decided to establish a Uranium Stewardship Committee
25
to safeguard the interest
of the uranium industry in the country. The Chairperson of the Uranium Stewardship Committee was
Michael Leech, who was the Managing Director of Rssing Uranium.
The committee was to develop minimum standards for environmental health and environmental
management for uranium mines and to assist with a regional Strategic Environmental Management Plan
(SEMP). This was done with the participation of public and private stakeholders and also in conjunction
with the Southern African Institute for Environmental Assessment (SAIEA), the World Nuclear Association
(WNA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
The Chamber of Mines of Namibia also established a committee that would deal with radiation protection
issues in the uranium industry. In addition, the chamber has appointed a medical practitioner as a principal
adviser to help with the development of minimum standards for occupational health and environmental
management for uranium mines.
/| ||o| ||me, Nom|b|o |od odequo|e |eg|s|o||on |o ellec||ve|y deo| w||| rod|o||on pro|ec||on, occupo||ono|
health, and environmental management.
D. Canada
Canada is the worlds largest producer and exporter of uranium, but despite its extensive experience in
uranium mining, Canada is still struggling with the regulatory and administrative needs of the industry.
On 14 February 2003
26
, the Government of Saskatchewan and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
__________________________________________________________________________________
24. Australias First Atom Age Ghost Town Documentary Chinese Sound review: Radium Hill Is Now A Ghost Town 1962: http://www.britishpathe.com/video/radium-hill-is-now-a-ghost-town/
query/||||
25. Namibian News Agency News report (February 29, 2008): Chamber of Mines Decides to Establish Uranium Stewardship Committee; http://www.redorbit.com/news/business/1274814/
namibia_chamber_of_mines_decides_to_establish_uranium_stewardship_committee/
26. http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=bc2463c6-a300-4b6a-9519-d0375d965817
(CNSC) announced the signing of an agreement that will lead to greater administrative efciency in
regulating the uranium industry. This initiative was in response to a recommendation that was made by the
Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining developments in Northern Saskatchewan, and which
laid a foundation for the two groups to coordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes.
27
According to a report that was prepared by a consultant for the Saskatchewan Environment Ministry and
released by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) on 7 April 2009, the Ministry has a massive
capability and capacity decit
28
in the uranium mining sector. The report states that the Saskatchewan
Environment Ministry is falling behind critical work, especially in the uranium mining sector, and should
undergo a complete re-organization.
The report found that, despite the Provinces long uranium mining history, the ministry does not have the
necessory s||||s ond exper||se |o oversee ||e uron|um |ndus|ry. 3os|o|c|ewon does no| |ove odequo|e
staff or capability to monitor and regulate the current industry, the report found. It said that only a handful
of people have the appropriate expertise and experience to perform the Ministrys oversight functions.
The report states that the ministry is in a massive capability and capacity decit when considering new
mining and milling projects, let alone support, the value-added activities the province has announced
it intends to pursue. The environmental consultant suggested Saskatchewan could contract a private
sector expert to support its uranium regulation work.
In New Brunswick the Government was seriously criticized by the public for not doing enough to protect
the environment and health of residents. The critics wondered why the government would introduce
guidelines that arent mandatory. They also argued that the guidelines are standard conditions that are
applied to various development projects.
Therefore despite their long experiences in uranium mining, environment issues, land issues, regulatory
issues, policy and legal framework and human resource capacities are important lessons before establishing
uranium mining. The Government of Tanzania has to learn from others before extraction of uranium.
__________________________________________________________________________________
27. CNSC-Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of health, safety and the environment at Saskatchewan uranium mines and mills: http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/pdfs/Sask_e.pdf
28. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Media Report (Tuesday, April 7, 2009) http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/saskatchewan/story/2009/04/07/environment-overhaul-uranium-123.html
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
40 41
CHAPTER FIVE:
Conclusion and Recommendations
Conclusion
The United Republic of Tanzania does not have specic policies and laws to efciently and effectively
regulate uranium mining. The latter should be the benchmark of all pre- and post-operational activities in the
uranium mining industry, which is just beginning to take root in the country. At the present, the laws and policies
in place leave communities in proposed mining areas at risk. The negative effects are already visible at the
exploration stage and the Government needs to take serious measures to protect life and the environment.
It is also clear that local community members in the areas earmarked for uranium mining activities are
absolutely unaware of what dangers they would be facing once mining activities are underway. The benets
that could be accrued to the local community members when these operations begin are also unclear.
Under current legal, regulatory and policy frameworks, the people of Tanzania experienced pain and
m|sery s|nce ||e go|d boom |n 1onzon|o. W||| |||s new deve|opmen| |n ||e m|n|ng sec|or, || |s ques||onob|e
whether things can be better with uranium under the same policy framework.
Recommendations
To address issues raised and highlighted in this report, the following has to be done:
GOVERNMENT
Deve|op spec|uc po||cy ond |ow lor uron|um ex|roc||on.
Oorelu||y use ||e curren| |ows ond |eg|s|o||ve lromewor| |o oddress ||e |ssues ro|sed by ||e commun||y
during the uranium exploration stage before signing the mining contracts.
Promo|e |ronsporency w||| ||e pub||c ond s|o|e|o|ders on ||e uron|um oc||v|||es.
lnves| |n ||e deve|opmen| ol 1onzon|on |umon resources lor proper odm|n|s|ro||on ol ||e uron|um
mining activities.
Proper|y enlorce emp|oymen| ond |obour |ows w||| m|n|ng compon|es.
Lnsure peop|ecen|red corporo|e soc|o| occoun|ob||||y progrommes lor commun|||es
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT COUNCIL
Lnsure odequo|e env|ronmen|o| |mpoc| ossessmen|s ore done.
lnspec| oreos w|ere exp|oro||on |s done (|.e Mo|e|e w|ere uron|um |s s|ored open|y neor ||e DO's
ofce, Bahi and Manyoni) and establish the extent of pollution, take measures to prevent further
damaging effects.
Oon||nuous|y mon||or ||e exp|oro||on ond ex|roc||on process |n ||e m|n|ng oreos.
CSOs and INTERFAITH COMMITTEE
/dvoco|e lor ||e enoc|men| ol uron|um |ow ond po||cy
Oonduc| educo||on ond oworeness progrommes
/dvoco|e lor peop|ecen|red corporo|e soc|o| respons|b||||y oc||v|||es
/dvoco|e lor |ronsporency |n ||e w|o|e process ol ex|roc||on ol uron|um
/dvoco|e lor respec| ond pro|ec||on ol |umon r|g||s.
Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready? Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
42 43
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Uranium Mining in Tanzania: Are We Ready?
45
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