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ii i` -i--i -i i` -i-ii t -iii i`i-iii -iiiiii i`-ii 27 i`-i-i-i, 2011 ii -ii-i-iii
i-iii`-i :ii. iii-i--ii i`iiiai -i iii -i i`iii ii:
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x ix
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--ii ~iii -icii ii ii-ii ii ciii, --ii -iicii-ii i ii--ii i`-iiii
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-iiit ~iii zii t: :-i -ii i i`-i( -i i-i-i -i-ii -i >i-i ii ~iiii t ii`-i
-i-iz -ii`-iii ~ii -i-ii~ii ii tii`i -itiii ii ~ii-izii t: ~i-i: -i --ii
:ii`-i ~i-iii ci-i -ii-i -iii -irii -i :-i ii-i i -iii-i -i i`-i-i-i i-ii
-iit-ii t i`i --ii -ii`-i--i, -i--ii, ii`-i--i ~ii --iii -i-iiii -i -i-ii`-i-i
ii ii -ii-iiii --ii ii-i ti --i iiii -ii -i-ii ii(, --i -i i`iiiiii -i
i-i -iii`i --i-i -i :iiizi-iit -ii-iiii ii :iiii`zi-i ii -i-i-i--i-ii`-i ii
:-i -it-iii ~ii ~ii-ii-i i`-iii`-i ii ii-ii iii i -i-ii -iiii ~ii iii-ii-i
ii i -i :i--i-i i`iii ii -ii:
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ii-i.i iia--iziii-i -i i ii`ii ii ~i-izi ti tiii: ~i-i: (-ii -iii ii` -iii
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~i-i: i-i-i-ii-:iiizi-i i i-i -i -i-i:ii-i -i i:i-i >izi ~ii-iii i`-ii i
-i-ii -i-i-i--ii t iiii`i --ti i ~iizii-ii -i -ii >izi-i-i-i -i-ii`i-i i-i i
iii i-iiii: -i -ii-i-iii i-iii`-i, :ii. iii-i--ii i`iiiai, ii`i -i-i-i -i-ii-i,
i`--ii i :ii`-i i`-iii-ii i-i-i-ii -iii`i-i i-ii t i`i-ti-i -iiii`:ii ii-i-ii-ii i
~i--ii-i :-i ii-i i :iiizi-i ii ii`i--i ti -iti i`-iii ii`-i ~ii-ii ii`-i-ii -i ii
:-i ii-i ii ii-i iiii t: -i.-i. :ii. ii-i- iii-i, i. i`zi-i-i zi-ii
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:ii i-ii t i`i-ti-i -i-i-i ii-i-iii -i ~ii-iii i`-ii ii >izizii`-i i t:
ii`-iii iiaiizii ii zii`z -i ii` -i ~ii-iii -ii:i-ii i`-ii (-i-ii-i-i
ii`-i, :-ii`-i :iii-i), :ii. rizi-i zi-ii (i-i ~iii, -i i`-iiii) ~ii
i. i`zi-ii-i zi-ii (-ii-izii-i i`-iiii, -ii-i (-i -i~-ii-ii -iii) iizii
i`t- i`-iii`-i<ii-ii -i -iri-iii-ii -itiii i`iii, (-ii -i :-ii :ii`-i i-i-i-ii
-iii`i-i i-ii t: :-ii :iii i. ~i-iii`-iii i`-it (ziii ~ii`iiii, iiz ~iii-i
i-:, ~iii -ii`t-ii ii.ii. ii-ii), i. -ii-ii -izii (i`-iii`-i<ii-ii ~i-ii-i
~iiiii ii -ii` i`-i-i .i-ii) -i i. >izi (-ii` iii, i-i (-i zi-i i`-iiii,
ii.i`t.i`-i.i`-i.) -i -ii-iiii ii -i-i-ii`-i-i i-i (-i iia--iziii-i -i -ii -itiii
i`iii, ~i-i: i -iii ii -i tii`i ~iizii-ii i iii t: i-i-iii i i`-i(
>ii iizi i`i- -iii >ii izi-i i-ii i`-it ii i-i-ii -ii -ii i-i-i t i`i-ti-i
i`-i-iii-ii -i -iii i`-izii ii iiii`-i-i ii-i-i i`iii: i-izi: i-i-i i`t i-i-i-i-ii
i` -ii-i :
-i-i--iizi-ii, -s- trrtrrrrrr rrtr
xi xii
Deeeee& jeceev efJesoer
rrrrr-r
(i) r`rrtrr >ii ii:i-ii i`-ii :
(ii) rrr trrr -i (-ii`-iti-i) :
i`i-i-ii-i- -ii-ii: i`.i-ii, iciiii, --i :izi :
(iii) rrrr`trr`r 15 i-i, 1935
(iv) rrr`trrt i--ii- (--i.) i. i-i-ii i`-ii :
ii- :ii. ti i`-ii (-i-:ii`-i i`-izii,iici :ii-i-
-i-ii-i, ii-ii-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii, iii) :
iii- i. -ii i`i-ii :
(v) trrtr`r+rrr r`rrorr (i-ii-i- -i-i-i i`-i<ii-ii, -i-iii (--i :izi):
(vi) s--r r`rrorr -i-iii-i- -i-i-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii, -iiii-ii (-i
-ici-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii :
(vii) r -i.-i. i.-iiiiiziiii i`ci--i, -i.-i. i. ii-iiizii-ii
i`ci--i, :ii. ii. ~i. -iit-ii-i ~ii,:ii. iii`--i-i-:
iii :
(viii) trrr ci-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii, 1957-1961 :
i`--ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii (-ii-i -itii`-i<ii-ii),
1961-1966 :
-iit-i-ii-i -iciii`ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii, -ii,
1966-1978 :
ii-ii-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii, iii, 1978-1993 :
(ix) r`rrr-trrrr 27 i`-i-i-i, 1993 :
rrr`trtr
(i) rrrr-r`rarrr ziii-:ii-i (-i -ii ziii-i`-ii-i :
(ii) rr ttrrr
z Selections from Brahamanas and Upanishads. (original,
Traslation and Bhasya (Editor), Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, 1965.
z ~i-ii-ii-ii-ii, -ii-ii-ii-i i-ii-iii-i, i`--ii, 1965 :
z ii-ii-ii-ii ((-i.~ii. i i -iii ~i-i-ii (-i -i-ii-i), -ii-ii-ii-i
i-ii-iii-i, i`--ii, 1966:
z :i:i-ii`i-iii`-i-ii`zi-ii (iii I - III)(-i-ii-i), -ii-ii-ii-i i-ii-iii-i,
i`--ii, 1968 :
z Principles of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit (editor), Motilal
Banarasidass, Delhi, 1969.
z ~i-iii-ii (i. i`-izi -iii i -iii -i-ii-i), -ii-ii-ii-i i-ii-ii
i-i, 1963-1973 :
z The Poetic Light, (Kvyapraka -I, II), (Translation), Motilal
Banarasidass, Delhi, 1966, 1970, 1976.
z Contribution of Jainism to Indian Culture, (Editor), Motilal
Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1975.
z i-ii`-i<ii ii -ii-ii`-ii ~i-ii-i (i. :i-i-i-i-i i-i i -iii -i-ii-i),
~iizi -iii`t-i -ii, -i, ii-ii-i, 1976 :
z ~i-ii-i-i--i--i~ii-i-ii (~i-i-ii (-i -i-ii-i), -ii-ii-ii-i i-ii-iii-i,
i`--ii, :ii-i -i-ii - 1965, i`-iii -i-ii-1977 :
z ~i-ii-i-i --i-i (~i-i -ii (-i -iicii), -ii -ii -ii-i i-ii-ii i-i, i` --ii , 1977:
z Jain Art and Architecture (Editing), Centre for Jain Studies,
Univsity of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 1980.
z Summary of Papers (Editing), Jaipur, 1982.
z Outline of History of aivism (Genral Editing), 1986.
z Doctrine of Divine Recognition Vol 1-3, (Genral Editing), 1986.
z. -i-ii-ii i (iii 1-8) (i. -i-iii-i-i --iiii i -iii -i-ii-i), -ii-ii-ii-i
i-ii-iii-i, i`--ii, 1987 :
xiv
+rr rrrr` rrrr
trrrrrarrrr v
+rr-rrr trrr-r r`rar xi
-ii-i-i-i-i
-ii`-i--i
-i-ii (-i -i--ii-i
+rrrrrr`rrrr xiv
trrrr rrr`t-a . rarr`a 1 - 26
1. Jra in the gveda 1
2. ~i-i ii-i : ii-i 6
3. Atharvaveda (AV) and Tantricism 8
4. iii-ii ii it-ii --ii-ii : ~ii-i-iii ii`i-ii--i-i 9
5. i`-i-iiiii`--i ii -iii-ii ii : -ii`-ii ii-i 10
6. >ii-iii-iii-ii 13
7. iiii -i -ii`i-i -i-ii-ii-i :i`-iti-i ~ii -i-iii 16
8. itiiii : ~iii -i-ii`-i ii i`-iiiii 19
9. i-i-i--ii`-i-izi: 22
r`trrr rrr`t-a . arrrrrrtr 27 - 62
1. Presidential Address in the Religion and ... 27
2. Philosophical Writings in Modern Sanskrit 34
3. -i-i-i i`-ii-ii ii -i- zi-i i ii -i 35
4. -ii-i: 38
5. Introduction to Mims studies 43
z iiz-ii ii zi-i-i-ii, -izi-i-i ii`-ii`zii ti--i, -i: i`--ii, 1989 :
z -i-ii--ii (i. i`zi-i-iii i`iiiai i -iii -i-ii-i), ii-ii-i -i-i-i
~iii-ii, iii, 1990 :
z -i-ii (:ii. iiii, :ii. (-i.ii. i, (-i :ii. -ii- -ii i -iii
-i-ii-i), ii-iii zi-i ~i-i-i-ii-i ii`i (-i -ii-ii-ii-i i-ii-iii-i,
i`--ii, 1991:
z i-i ti` ii -iii iii i (~i-i -ii),ii-ii-i i`t-i ii-i ~iii-ii, iii,
1982, 1992 :
z -iiii-i-ii~ii`-ii`-iii-i (-i-ii-i), i-:ii -i-i-i i`-i<iiiia, iii,
1992 :
z i`iizi-i-i, -i-iii-i- -i-i-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii, -iiii-ii, 1992 :
z Studies in Mimamsa (Editing), Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, 1992.
;. rrttrrrt qr trrrrrr
(i) rtrtr r(r`rr rrttrrrt -itiiii -i-ii ii--zi-i, -ii, 1985:
(ii) trrrrr`tr-rrttrrrt -ii-i-i--i-iii-i i`-iii-i-i-ii-ii, i`ziii i`-iiii,
-i: i`--ii, 19 -ii-i, 1988:
(iii) trr`trr`ratr rrarrr -ii-ii-ii-i i-ii-iii-i, i`--ii, 1988 :
-rrttrrrt
(iv) trrtrrr trtrrtr iii, 1989 :
+rrrrarrr rrttrrrt
(v) trr`rr trrrrrrrr i`-iii`-i<ii-ii ~i-ii-i ~iiiii, i`--ii, 1989:
-rrttrrrt
(vi) trrrrrr >ii -ii`i -i-ii`-i :i-iii -ii, iii, 1987:
(vii) trrrrrr ii~-ii ~ii iji i zii-iiii ii :
xv
6. :i--ii-i-ii 48
7. ~iii`zi 59
trtrrr rrr`t-a . rrrrrrrt rrrarrr 63 - 141
1. zi-iii-izi-ii i-i--i-i i`-i-izi: 63
2. iiz-ii ii i`zi-ii-i (-i :i-ii`i-ii 68
3. iva : A symbol of Self-critical and Active ... 74
4. Yoga According to the Kashmir aivism 79
5. Kashmir aivism and Tantric Buddhism 84
6. Bharthari and Kashmir aivism 91
7. i-iti` ~ii iiz-ii zi-izi-i 106
8. Kashmir aivism (KS) and the Vednta of akara 108
9. Genral Editors Note in the vara-pratyabhij ... 115
10. Editors note 121
11. >iiiizi 123
12. ~ii-ici-i 125
13. :i--ii-i-ii 127
14. iiz-ii ii zi-i :ii`-i-ii( 131
15. iiz-ii ii -iii`-ii i-ii -i -i--iii 133
16. >ii ~i-i-i-iii-ii-iii -i iizii -i -iiii-ii 137
17. -ii-i 139
-rtrr rrr`t-a . rr r`rcrr 142 - 173
1. i-i i`-i<ii : (i ~i-izii-i-i 142
2. Contribution of Jainism to Indian Culture 147
3. Social Significance of Jain Ethics 150
4. Jain Definition of the Prama 160
rr&rrr rrr`t-a . rrq r`rcrr 174 - 222
1. The Origin of Buddhism : A Tale From ... 174
2. Introduction to Jtakaml 182
3. Buddhist Mysticism 201
rr rrr`t-a . rrrr qr rrrrrrrtr 223 - 388
1. -i-i-i i ~iii`ii`-i -ii--iii`i 223
2. -ii--iii`ii-iiii -ii-i-iii-i-i-ii 227
3. The World of Vlmkis and Klidsas Poetry 232
4. ~ii-iii ~ii-i--ii-i 245
5. -i-i-i -iii`t-i -i -i-iiii ii -ii-ii ii-i -iiii`-iiii`-i-i 250
6. A Critique of the Anumana-theory of Mahima ... 256
7. ii-i:iiiziii ~ii-iii -i--i ii iii`-i 264
8. Mammaas originality as revealed in ... 274
9. :iiiii-i 285
10. ~i-iiiziii-i zi-i-ii`i: 287
11. Percept- like experience in Bhvika 290
12. iii`-ii :i-iiii-iii--i-i 297
13. The Theory of Kvyapka with special reference ... 302
14. M. Hiriyannas Views on Theories of Poetry 315
15. Sanskrit Criticism and Contemporary Literature 321
16. Philosophical Consideration and Independence ... 323
17. Concept of Obscenity (allat) in Sanskrit Poetics 327
18. Nature of obscenity in Sanskrit Drama (Bha) 349
xvii xviii
19. Women is Classical Sanskrit Literature 352
20. iii`-ii-i i ~ii`i-i-i ~iiii-i 360
21. ii`-i-:ii`-iii 366
22. -iii`t-i -i zi ii -i-ii-i 371
23. -i-ii iii`-ii-i-i 376
24. -ii-:ii`-ii -i-i-i-i 380
25. -i-i-i ii`-iii i -i-ii-i 386
trrtrrr rrr`t-a . r`rr`rr r`rrrr 389 - 463
1. ii-iii -i-ii`-i : i`-i--i-iii 389
2. Concept of the stra 397
3. Suggestions for Indo-German Co-Operation ... 416
4. Influence of Sanskrit on the Rajasthani language ... 422
5. -i-ii i`-ii-i-i-i-i--i-i-i-i 441
6. The life of Ramkrishna as viewed by Romain ... 447
7. M.M. Pandit P.N. Pabhirma str 454
8. ii-i ii (i-ii ~ii ~ici-ii i :ii`-i-ii-i ii`-i ... 456
9. ii-iii i-ii i -i-i --i : i. iii`-i-:-i-: iii 458
+rrr rrr`t-a . trtrrtr rrr`rtrrq 464 - 473
1. ~ii`i-i-i-ii`-i-i-it: 464
2. iiii`-i-i-i -i -iii -i-i-i 465
3. -i-ii-:iii 467
4. :iiiiz-iiii: 470
rrr`tr`rr 474 - 486
1. i-i-i-:--ii`-i: 474
~ii-iiiiii-i--ii: i`iiiai
2. iii`-ii-i-ii: >iii-i-i-:i`-ii`-i: 475
i. ii--iiiiiiii:
3. -i i-i--i-i 475
~ii-iiii`zi-i-izi-i-i-i-ii`-i:
4. :iii-iizii` -i 484
:ii. i`zi-i-iii: i`iiiai
5. >iii-i-i-: ri` ii-iiii`-i 485
i. i`zi-ii-i: zi-ii
6. i--ii -ii ..... 486
:ii. ii-i- iii-i

xx xix
trrrr rrr`t-a . rarr`a
1. Jra in the gveda
The word Jra is derived from j by adding gha suffix in the
sense of agent.
1
It means becoming old (gveda = RV, X. 106.7 ), a
consumer (Nirukta, V.10; Pini, III. 3.20, vrttika 4), a paramour or a
lover. An identical root j (= g) stands for to call out to, address,
invoke and to praise.
2
This word occurs a number of times in the RV
3
in the hymns addressed to Agni, Avins, Uas, Pan, Mitrvarua and
Soma Pavamna. Agni and Pan are directly described as jra. The
former is spoken of as jra of (i) waters
4
(I.46.4), (ii) maidens (I.66.4),
(iii) dawns (VII. 9.1), (iv) his sister (X.3.3) who is obviously Uas, and
finally of (v) the sacrifice (X.7.5). Agnis association with the Waters is
prominent throughout the Vedas.
5
The legend of Agni hiding in the waters
and plants and being found out by the gods occurs in some of the later
hymns of RV (X. 51-3,124). More importantly than this is the conception
of waters as females (II. 35.13) which is responsible for describing Agni
as their paramour. His description as the lover of maidens (jra kannm)
and the lord of married women (patir jannm) gave rise to a marital
myth, which, according to Syaa, is contained in the RV, (X.85.41.)
The preceding mantra (X.85.40) very clearly states the myth:
trrrr. trrrrr r`rr`ra rrrr r`rr`ra s-rt.+
trtrrrr +rr`r rrr`trttrtrrttr rrrrrrr.++
Soma is the first, Gandharva the second and Agni the third
husband who, according to the next mantra, gives away the bride to the
human husband. It is at this stage that a girl becomes wife.
6
In this
marital myth of the RV one can discern recognition of pre-marital and
free love. Gandharvas represent free love in the post-Vedic Sanskrit
literature and the marriage through mutual love, known as gndharva, is
sanctioned by the Smtis. Acceptance of love-marriage by the family
elders and the society is very succinctly stated by Klidsa in his
Abhijnakuntala (III. 20). In many cases free love may not end up in
marriage and this possibility is recognised and accepted in the gvedic
myth by formulating that before a girl is married to a human being she
has had three divine husbands, namely, Soma, Gandharva and Agni.
Descriptions in the Upaniads of females being possessed by Gandharvas
may in certain cases suggest the effect of free love on them. Agni is
produced and kindled for the sacrifice at every dawn and is, therefore,
very naturally associated with the Uas. Both are described paradoxically
as young and ancient. Uas causes sacrificial fire to be kindled (I. 113.9).
Agni goes to meet the refulgent Uas as she appears in the sky, asking
her for fair riches (III. 61.6). The fire being kindled at dawn is described
as waking at dawn (uarbudha). The brightness of both, Uas and
Agni is described in great detail. As a young maiden dressed in gay
attire, like a dancer, Uas displays her bosom (I.92.4), shows her form
(I.123). and unveils her charms (I.124.3-4). This makes Uas a perfect
model of young beauty whom an equally bright and young lover, Agni,
perpetually seeks for making love. Uas is repeatedly called the daughter
of heaven (I.30.22). Agni is similarly described as the child of heaven
(IV.15.6; VI.49.2) who generated fire (X.45.3). This makes him the
lover of his svas (X.3.3), Uas, both being the progeny of heaven. Uas
is svayasri. Who, like the abhisrik of classical Sanskrit literature,
moves freely to meet her lover. In a similar description of Pan as the
lover of svas (VI.55.4-5), the same meaning is intended to be conveyed
by the seer. He is, like Agni, the lover of maidens and dawns (I. 152.4),
and is described as such by way of a simile (Uo na jra) in the RV, I.
69.1; 5; and VII. 10.1.
Besides Agni and Pan
7
, Soma Pavamna is also likened to a
paramour (VII. 32.5; 76.3; IX. 38.4; 56.3; 96.23 101.14).
The popular notion of a jra (lover, paramour) and his beloved
(jri) can be gleaned from the gvedic references. The beloved was
conceived as kan or unmarried young girl with resplendence (Syaa on
1.66.4; 152.4) and the lover as daring and gallant, as is evidenced by the
character of jrva (I.117.18) who cut into pieces hundred and a one
rams in order to please she-wolf. He inspired the imagination of his
beloved and enkindled her spritis (I.134.3) through his message. He was
2 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
lauded, addressed (VI. 55.4) and sung (IX. 32.5; 56.3). he was the most
sapient (kavitama, VII.9.1) who gleamed with refulgence (VII. 10.1).
His beloved was not known, i.e. expected, to forsake him (VII. 76.3).
Conquering all obstacles he approached his love who was glad to accord
him welcome (IX. 56.3; 96.23; 101.14) in her home. His beloved was
known as svas (a sister, free in love) by perhaps an intentional play on
the word because she moved freely to a rendezvous (X.3.3). The jra
delighted his parents whom he inspired for creativity (X. 11.6). The
lover who took away the maidenhood (I. 66.4) was known doing his
religious duty of feeding with oblations. He is associated with spread of
light (I. 69.1; 69.5) and advancement without a downward fall (I. 152.4).
He woke up his sleeping beauty and enkindled love in her (I. 134.3).
Such was the gvedic notion of a lover and a beloved.
Jra is always explained as upapati (paramour) by Syaa. There
is hardly any reference in the RV which might suggest that a lover was
looked down upon or was considered morally wrong or corrupt. Syaa
also does not consider loving sinful. Mythically speaking, Agni, Pan
and Vyu are the cosmic paramours. Waters and dawns are the cosmic
beloveds. Various sex symbols pervade the hymns of the RV.
8
Heaven
and Earth are represented as cosmic sex partners. Agni is invoked to stir
up these parents through sexual imagery (X.11.6). Besides normal sex
symbols, RV also presents seemingly abnormal sex relationship. For
example, Agni (II. 35.13) and Soma (X 30.5) are represented as child-
seeders (iu-van) who impregnate the waters described as sisters who
invoke their brother-husbands (X. 65.1). Yama and Yam represent the
same seemingly abnormal sex-relationship. The gvedic concept of jra
also involves some kind of abnormal sex symbolism. This explains the
occurrence of the term svas in the case of a beloved, Uas. The sense of
illicit love implied by the term svas (sister) gradually gives way to the
sense of abhisrik, beloved, going to meet her lover. In the post-Vedic
tradition the normal cosmic partnership is conceived variously, such as,
by the union of iva and akti in aivism or by the union of Praj
andUpya in Buddhism. Even the philosophical schools were led to explain
the origin of the world in terms of real or imaginary interaction of two
entities, such as Purua and Prakti in the Skhya or Brahman and
inexplicable My in the Vednta system.
However, the relationship of free love epitomised in the RV by
the jra and his beloved finds its similarity in the concept of Ka and
Rdh. Their playful love-making aesthetically leads to the delineation
of madhura rasa. Ka, for the Gops, is the supreme lover, a jra
(Bhgvata, X.1.11-12). His love for the maidens in general and for Rdh
in particular is devoutly praised in the esoteric Vaiavism. Rdh reminds
us of Uas and her lover resembles the descriptions of fire, sun and the
wind. All esoteric schools, aiva, Bauddha or Vaiava, abound in clear
sex symbols. Sex images seem to be indispensable to communicate the
relationship of the Supreme being with the world of men. The relation of
lover and the beloved between the Supreme Soul and the individual soul
is often described by the mystics of all shades. In the Bhadrayaka
Upanid (IV. 3.21), union with the self is compared with the loving and
deep embrace of a beloved. Close affinity and intimate association between
the emotions of love and religion is widely recognised. Havelock Ellis
observes, early religious rites were largely sexual and orgiastic because
they are largely an appeal to the generative forces of nature to exhibit
a benefical productiveness
9
.
There exists a close connection between mystic ideas and
erotic ideas, and most often these two orders of conception are
associated in insanity,
10
says Regis. Indian tradition did not find anything
immoral, insane or absurd about this empirical relation of a lover and his
beloved being extended to the mystical realm.
Mystics like Mr, who conceived herself as the bride of Lord
Ka, Soeur Jeanne des Anges
11
and Marguerite-Marie
12
express their
love for God in sexual terms. The Hebrews used a common word for
empirical and divine love.
Thus, the RV has a wholesome attitude towards lovers. It looks
upon them respectfully and finds nothing morally degrading in the act of
love-making. This healthy attitude of the Aryans is later on manifested
:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 3 4 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
in giving pre-eminence to the erotic sentiment and in divinising the playful
dalliance of Rdh and Ka with no sense of inhibition or puritanic
reproach.
Notes:
1. See, Rmram comm. on the Amarakoa, (Varanasi, 1970).
2. See, Monier-Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary.
3. I. 46.4; 66.4; 69.1; 5; 117.18; 134.3; 152.4; VI. 55 4; 5;VII. 9.1; 10.1;
76.3; IX. 32.5; 38.4; 56.3; 96.23; 101.14; X. 3.3; 7.5; 11.6; 34.5; 42.2;
106.7; 162.5.
4. Syaa considers Sun, instead of Agni, to be lover of Waters. This is
evidently wrong on account of the context of feeding with obligations
and the patent description of Agni as the Lord or Guardian of the
family dwilling ghapati, here as elsewhere (see, VIII. 15.2; VIII. 49.19).
5. See, A.A. Macdonell, The Vedic Mythology, (Delhi, 1961), p. 92.
6. In his explanation of RV I. 66.4, Syaa states the different stages of a
maiden when the three divinities including fire become her loves, and
gives the reason why they are so described:
rrrrrr rrrrrrrr rrtr rrtr`rtrr+ rtrr r`rrrtrrrr:rr rrrrrr`arrrr trr`tr
trrtrr rrrrtr r`rrtrtr +rtrr rrtr`rtrtr-rtr+ trrr rrrrr rrrrrr rrtrr`rrrrrr
rrr`tr+rtrr+ trrr -rrarrrtr- +rrrrrrtrrrrrtr+rrr-rrtrr r`rr trrrrr rr+r x
trr rr rrarrrrtr+rr r -r trr r` r+rrrtrr rrrr r trrartr + tr -r rrrr
r`rrrtrrrr:rr traar+ +rr`r;r rrrrrr +rr rrrrr. trr`trrr`rrrrr trrr-r`ar`tr+
A liberal interpretation of this legend in simple English would mean
that a girl, before she is given away in marriage, has three kinds of sex
experience: first yearnings for love with no real sex, romance and
actual love-making which takes away (consumes) her maidenhood. It
is very significantly represented by Soma, Gandharva and fire.
7. Syaa has construed all references occurring by way of upamna in
favour of Srya of ditya and none in favour of Pan. He has done
this obviously on the basis of similarity between the two and their
complete identification in the post-Vedic literature. If some distinction
is maintained between Pan and Srya, then, all indirect descriptions
should refer to the former.
8. For sex-symbolism in RV, see, S.A. Danges paper, Cosmo-sexualism
in the Vedic Ritual, in Charudev Shastri Felicitation Volume, Delhi,
1974.
9. Studies in the Psychology of Sex (Random House, New York), Vol. I,
Pt, I, p. 311.
10. As quoted ibid, p. 314.
11. See, ibid, p. 322.
11. Ibid, pp. 324-5.
(Recent studies in Sanskrit and Indology,
Ed. Dr. D.K. Gupta, Ajanta Publications, Delhi)

2. +rrrt rrr . rrra


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ii-i -i -iti i`-i-i-i t-
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trrrr r`rr`atrrr`tr rrtrrrr`tr rrr. rrrr r`rcrtr:rrrr++
~iii -i-ii iti ii iti ii -ii-ii ti ii-ii t i`i-iii :iii`-i -ii`-i it-ii-ii t: -iti
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:-ii zii-i ii-i i ; -i ~iiii -i i`zi-i-ii-i-i-i ii t i`i-i-i -i-i i zii-ii-ii
-i -iii ti-i ii i`-iiiiiiii :iii-ii ii-ii ii iii t-
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ii --i -ii-i, i`-i-i ~ii ii t, ii :iii~ii ii ~ii--i ~i-i-i :iiizi t, i`i-ii i`i-ii
ii: i-i -iti i`iii ii-ii, -ii -it -i-i i`zi-i-ii-i ti-
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ti-ii~ii -ii-ii iii -iiii`-i ti-ii t -ii -it -i-i i`zi-i-ii-i -ii-ii ti-
r r a +r tr +r rr +rr` rrrtrrr` tr r trrrrr tr r trr rr +
rr r;rttrrrtr trrtr rtrr trrr rrr. r`rrrtrrrrrrrrttr++
~ii ii-
tr rrrtr` rt+rrr` rr rrrr rrrr rr rtr :rrr rr r` +rrr r` rr r+
ttrr`tr rar`rt rr`r trrr rrr. r`rrrtrrrrrrrrttr++
(ttrr`rrr`artr, +rrrrrrrrrrr sarrrt, rrtrr, -.~.{

3. Atharvaveda (AV) and Tantricism


One of the various designations of the AV is Atharvangrasa,
that is, the text containing mantras: beneficial (atharvan) and maleficent
(angiras). This clearly shows predominently tantric character of the AV
which is corroborated by its popular concerns and beliefs: blessing of
men and cattle, banishment of devils and diseases, love charms, marriage
customs and other domestic rites. Tantra encompasses the popular
primitive and tribal forms of religion and ritualistic practice. In its popular
contents the AV is older than the Rgveda. Attharvan also stands for a
worshiper of agni and soma which constitute the cosmos
(agnsomtmakam Jagat) according to later Tantric explanation. Constant
union of Mitra (God of day) and Varua (God of night ) is reflected in
the pairing of the two ultimates, importance of Purohita develops with
the significance of guru in the Tantric tradition.
:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 7 8 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The AV with its ritual prescribed in the Kausikastra (and the
Vaitanastra) is an inexhaustible oldest document of Trantric rites and
rituals although the Abhicrakalpa a work on incantation is based on the
use of AV as its source, yet spells expressed in a number of mantras e.g.
x. 1.i.8.18; IV 185; V. 14.31, XIV.2.65. deserves special mention.
Special attention is invited in this paper not merely to texts bearing
an incantation (abhicra), e.g. I 7; I. 16.4; III. 6, 10.6; VI. 134; II-12; V.
31; V. 14 but also to those which promote welfare (paustika-karmas) or
peace (nti) expressed in III. 17; VI. 142; VI. 50; IV. 15; VI. 59; III.
15; IV. 384 1-4; III. 21; VI. 70; VI. 46; VI. 110 so that a comprehensive
contribution of the AV to the Tantric tradition of India may be underlined.
Typed copy

4. rrrr rtr rrr rrrrr attrrr r . +rrr r ar r rr r` rrr -tr -r


i`--ii -i ~iii, ii -i-ii -iiii -i :i--i-i iit i`-ii-ii,
ii ~ii-i-i i ii`i-ii -i-i i -ii`t-iiiia (-i iiia -iii -ii-i-i-ii, ~iii-i zi-ii
-iii i`-i i ~i-i-ii i -iii ii-ii--ii i<ii-i-ii ~ii -iii ti -i-i-ii-ii ii -i-ii,
ii`i-ii -i-i i -iiii`i-i (-i - i`-izi i -iii -i-ii-i i i`-i( i`-iii -i-iii`ii ii
:ii--i :izi-i-iii t: --ii --ii i -ici ((i i`t-i -i ~ii -ii ~iii.ii -i) :-i-i
-ii`--ii`-i-i t: -ii`t-iiiia i -iii iiia -i -i (-i --ii --ii-i -i i`i-ii -ici ii
ii: i`-i-i-i-i -i-ii`-i-i -iti t ~ii -i -it -iiiii iiai i i`-i( -iiiii t: ~iii-i
zi-ii ii i`t-i ~i-i-ii, rrr`orrrrtrrr rrr`orrrrrrrtr. :i-ii-i ti-ii t iiii`i --i-i -i-i
-i-i i zii ii ti :iiii--i -i ci i`ii iii t: ~i-i: --i-i ~iiiii -iii t: :-i
-icii i ii` -i-ii t: ii -ii --iii ---ici i-ii ii ~ii-izii ii: i. -i-iit-ii-i
i-i, -i-i-iit-iii-i -i-i-ii -iii i. -izi -ii -i :-i -ii`i -i-i i i`i-i i`-i-ii-i ii
-i-ii ~ii-i -icii -i ii t, -it -i i-i-i i-i i`ii t ~ii`i-i -it (-i-ii) -i-ii -i-i
i -iii -ii`-i ii -i -iti i-ii: -iii i-i ii ~i-ii i-ii( t: --i-i :-i -ii-i-i
-i --ii-ii ii-i- -i--i-ii ii i` ii :iii-i-ii t:
ii`i-ii -i-i ii -i-ii ii`i-ii ii -i--ii -ii-i-ii ~ii`ii -ii-i t: :-ii
~ii`i:iii -i it -i-i-i -iiii t i`i ii`-i -ii t ~ii -i i-ii ii ii t - rrrtrr +rr`rr.
rrrr: rrr`rrr.+ ~i-i: :-i -iii -ii-iii`-i ii -i--ii -i -iii`-i-i i-ii ii iii-i -ii-i
-i-ii, i-ii i`i i. i-it i`-it i -ici ii -iii -ii-i-i-ii i ~i-i-ii ii -i--i-i t,
-i`-i-i :i-ii-i -iti ti-ii: ii`i-ii ii -ii-ii ~ii ii-i ii i`i-ii it-i ii ~ii`i:iii i.
ii-ii-i -i -i i`iii t ii i`-ii`i-i ti i`-i--iizii-i (-i -ii-izii-i :iii`-i ii ~i-iiiii
ii -i-i i-ii t i`i-i i-ii i i`-i-i-i-ii--ii i`-i-i-i-i ii -ii`i-i -i-ii -i :ii`-iiii`-i
i`iii t: zii ii ii`i-ii ii :i-iii -ii-i-ii (i t i-i-ii t i`i-iii :ii`-iii-i -i-iit
i`-i<ii-ii -i i`iii t: -ii-: -iii -i :-i -i-i i i-iii -i-ii ii ~ii`ii i`-ii-i-iii
i` -i-i -i-i i` iii t : ~ii iiii ii :ii` -iiii` -i -i -iii` -ii t-i ii ~i-i zii -i-i ~i-izi ~ii i` i-i t :
-i--i-i: ~ii-i-i ii ii`i-ii -i-i -i-ii, :iii`-i ~ii itii, --ii iii-ii
~ii ii`-izi i ~ii--iii ~i--i:-i-i-i ii ~iii -iii-i t: i`i-iiii-iii i, -i`-i-ii
--iiii ~ii -izi -ii i -ici --i ~ii i`zii--i-i t: :-i i`-ii ii iii-ii-
-i-i-ii i`-i--i-i ii it-ii --ii-ii iti iii -ii ~i-ii`-i -i tiii: ziii`--iiia i -iii
~ii -ii -i ~i-ii :iii`-i -i -i-ii`-i-i ~i-ii -i-ii ~ii -i-ii i -iii :-i ~ii-i-iii
-i-i ii it-i -i-i-ii--ii i`-i-i-i-i ~i-i--i -iii tiii: it ii-i --iii :ii-i -iiii-i t,
~i-i: --iii-iiii t: ........
(trrtrrr rrr` rrrr, - rr , {; rr tr a rr rrt r rtr trrrrrr` atr rr ttrrr rrrr rtr
rrr rrrrr attrrr r. +rrr r ar r rr r` rrr tr -r (rrr` tr` r trrrrrrr r` arrrr rrr trrrr orr

5. r`r-rrtrrr`tr rrr trrrrrrrr rr . srrr`rrra rrrrr


ii-iii i`-i-iiiii i :i`-iti-i -i -ii-i -it--iii i-ii iitii-ii -i
-ii`-ii -i -ii-ii t: -ii`i -i-ii -i i`-iii-ii, i`tiii, it-ii`-i -iii ii ii
iiii -ii`-iii i ~ii--i-i--i -iii iti -i :-i ~ii -i i`-i-ii--i i`ii ii i`i -i -iii -ii`
-i ~i-ii ti --ii -ii ~ii i`-ii--ii i: -ii`-iii -i i`i-i ~ii--ii ii i`-i-i-i-i i`iii
-it ~ii--i -i--i t: -i-iii -ii` -i -ii-i -i ~ii-i-:ii-i i`i-i-i -i i -iii-ii t -i i`i-i
i-iii -i, ~ii-iii ii --iiii`-ii`z i i`-ii :iii-ii~ii -i :i-ii i`iii ii -ii-ii t:
-i--i-iii i` i i`-iii-i it ~ii--i-iii i` ii-iii i`-i--i-i i ii -i -iti-i iii`--i ii:
:-i iii`--i i -iiii iitii ti -iti ~ii`i-i ii`ii ~ii -ii`t-ii( ii ii i-iii`i
:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 9 10 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
ii-iii`i, iii (-i ~iii-izii, i-ii-i (-i ~iiii`-i iii ii iii~ii -iii iiii,
-iiii, iii-ii ~iii` i -i-iii`i iiii-i -i :i-ii-i ti-ii t:
:zii-i-iiii`-ii --i iit :i-ici -ii`-iii -i ziii`-i-i t i`i-iii -i-ii ii-ii-i
iz i ~iii`-iii-i -i i-i ti -iii ii -iii i`i-ii ~ii-iii zi -i ~ii-ii iii i`-icii t:
:-i-i i -i -i-i t : zi i -i ii -i ii ii-i ziicii ii s-ii ~iiii ti : zii-ii-ii ii` -ii
t: :-iii :ii-i :zii-ii-i -i ti-ii t --ii i ~iiii i :-ii i -ii-i :ziiii`-ii
-iii :zii-ii-iiii`-ii :i-ii`-i-i t: :-i -ii`-ii ii :ii-i -i-i -i:ii`-iz t: :-i-i :i
i -iii -ii-i iii`-i -i -ii-i ti-i ii -i-ii t, -iii ii -izi t -iii ~ii--iii i
ii`-iii ii :iii t-
rrrrrtrr`rra trr rtr r`rr&r rrtrr rrtr+
tr r tr-r r +r =rr rr. rrr r r. rrtrr` trqrrr ++
:ii-i -i-i ii iii`-i i`-iii -i-i ii ~i-i--i :ii`-iz (-i -ziii t: :-i-i -i-ii i
zi-iii ti-i ii --iiii`-i i -iii --i i`-i-i-i i-i -i -ii t-i ii :iii i i: t -iii
it ~iiii-i-i i`ii iii t i`i i-iiiii iii-ii i-i -i ii-ii -iti t-
rr r r r rrrrr r` r r` rrr r` rrr -tr trrrr.+
qr trr`r rrrrtrr:r`ttr r rrrr r`rrrrtr rt++
i -i-ii -i -ii-i (-i i-i ii, :i-ii`-i (-i i`-i-ii`-i ii i`i-ii -i-ii-i (-i it-i i i-ii -i
-i-i--ii ii -ii i`iiii t~ii t: ii-iii -i-ii`-i i-i-i -ii-i-i-ii ii -i-ii-i-i-ii ti
-iti t ~ii`i-i --iii ~ii-ii i-i -i ii -i-ii-i i -i t: :-iii`-ii --i-i -rtrr`tr,
-rtrr`tr i ii i`-i--i ii`-izii-i-ii ii -izi i`ii ii: i`iiii`-iii ii -iiii-ii i
i`-ii ti it -ii`i :iii-ii ii i: ii i`i t-i rrrrr rrta. rrtr, rrrrrr rrta.
rrtr, +rarrr trrrr rrta. rrtr: -ii`-iii i :-i i-iiii ii i-i-i i iii ti t-i
i-i-ii (-i i`:-ii i i`ziii t( t: i`i-iii i`iiii`-iii -i-ii-i ti ii-ii t, ii i-i i
>ii-i -iii -i t ii-i t -i ~ii--iii-ii t --iii :t-iii ii i`ii ii-ii t ~ii -i-i
i ii --i ~i-i -iii -i ii-ii i-ii t ii it ~i-iii -i ii t~ii t: -i-iii -i-i
ii iti -ii-ii t:
-iii (-i ii-i-i -i-i -i --i -i--i ii :ii`-iii-i t ii ~i-i-i t i -i-i -i ii
~ii`ii ii`-i-ii-i t ii -i-ii~ii ~ii-ii :i`-:ii -i ~i:iii t; -it ii -iii ii -iii
ii-ii t ~ii -iii --ii -i i-i i-ii t ~iii-i -it -iii i-ii ii ~ii>ii t: -it
-i--izii-i t -iii ti -i-zi-i t, -it ii t ~ii ii-i ii, -it -iii i ii-i t
~ii -iii i iit ii: i-i -i-i i i`-i-i-i-i -i iiii: ~i-ii-ii i iii i`-iii ici
i-ii ~i-i--i --iiiii`-ii t: ii -i-ii--ii ii i`-ii-ii tii ii --i-i i t, -iii
tii ii i`-iii t --ii i`-ii i`-iiii ~ii`i-ii`-i ti (i-iii i--ii t: :ii-i -i-i -i
rrrrrtrr`rra trr ii ii iiiii ii i: ii --ii ii -iicii-i tratrttr trrtr tra
trrtrrtr rrrtr. -i i`-i-i-ii t:
-i-ii -i ~iii-ii -i, iii ii i ii -i-i iii ~ii-ii-iiiii-i t: ii -iii
:iii`iii ii ~ii--ii -i ~ii ~ii--ii ii -iii :iii`iii -i ci -ii-ii t --i iii ~ii i
-iti tiii: i`-ii i`-ii i i`-ii`-ii :iii`iii i -iii (i-ii ~ii ~ii-ii-i ii ii-i-ii i`i-i
~ii--ii--ii`-i-ii-i iti iii t, ti ii-i i -i-ii ii ziii ~ii-ii -iit iii`i -iti ti
-ii-ii: :-i ii-i-ii ii i`-i-ii-i ii ~ii`i-i-i i-i -ii-i :ziiii`-ii i a -iii -ii-i-i
-i-i ii ---ici-iii t-
rttr trrrr`r +rtrrr`r +rrtrrrrrrrrrrr`tr+
trr+rtrrr -rrtrrrr trtrr r r`rrrrtrtr++
rr` trrtrrr r` r +r trrrrtrr rr+r a r` rrrrtr.+
trr rrr rrr . rr. rrr rr. qrrtrrrr rrrrtr.++
-ii`-ii ii it (i--i-zi-i -ii--izi-i i ~i-i-ii ii ~iiiii`zi-ii t:
~iia-i -i-i -i :i ii ~ii--ii ii ii`-i (ii--izii) -i-iiii (-i-i-i) ii`i (-iiii)
(-i --iii iii`i-i i`iii iii t ii -i-ii ii`-i-ii-i, ii`-i-ii-i, ~izii, ii`-ii (-i iiii -i
~i-ii t: -iti iiii-i: :-i -i-ii ii ~i-iii` ii-i -i i`-i-ii-ii t:-
rrr`rrrrrrrr rrr`t+r. trrr+rrrrrtrrtrr:rrr rarr-rrrtrr+r. trrrr+r.+
~iii -i-ii ii t-i-ii zi-ii -i iti iii t i`i ~ii`-i<ii ii -ii-i-ii i-i
-ii-i ii ~i-iii -i i-i t -ii i`-i<ii -i i-i-i -iii --i-i ii ii ~i-iii -i ii
i-i t: iti ~ii`-i<ii ii ~ii`i:iii i-i ii ~i-ii-i -i t ~ii i`-i<ii ii ziiiii -ii-i -i
i`i-i ~i-ii ~iii i`-i<ii iti iii t: ii ii t -i -iti it-i t i`i -i-i i`-i<ii (-i
~ii`-i<ii ii -iii`ii iii`ii -i i t: i ii :-i i-ii iii`ii ii zii`-i ~ii -ii-ii ii
it-ii-i -i-ii t -it ~ii`-i<ii -i -i-i ii -i -i-ii t ~ii i`-i<ii -i ~i-i-i--i :ii-i i -i-ii
t: i`-i-iii -ii`-i ii -i iii i`-iii-i-ii ~ii -ii-i -i i`-i-ii ii -i-ii`i i-ii
ii-i-ii t: -ii-i -i-ii -i i`-i<ii (-i ~ii`-i<ii ii -i-ii i ii ~iii -ii-i -i-ii -i -iiii
--ii -iti -i ~i-iii`-i (~i-i-i :iii`-i ~ii-ii ~ii`-i<ii) -iii -iii`-i (iii iti) ii
:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 11 12 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-i-ii i i`-iii-i: iti -ii-ii iii t i`i :i -iii`-i ~ii ~i-iii`-i, -ii-i ~ii ~i-ii-i
i-ii -i i t i-i i`i -it i`-i<ii ~ii ~ii`-i<ii i-ii -i i`ii i-iiii iii ii:
-i-i ii -iiii -i-ii-ii -ii`-i --i -i-i ii -iiii-ii iii -iti i ii-ii
iiii`i --iii -ici -i-ii-ii iii -i ii t~ii t, --i ti-i i i`-ii iii (itiiiiii
-ii-i-ii) ii :iii-ii ii`i i-ii t-
r` trrr r rrrr r trtrtrrr` rrr` tr rr arrr +
tr-r rrrrrrrrrr trtrrrrrr r++
r-i -i-i -i ii`i i-i, -ii, :iiiii`-i i -iii -ii--ii iii i i-iii-i-i i i zi-i
ii iiiii i-ii t, ci-ii t- -iii ~i--i -i iiiii i-ii t i`i -ii-i-i -i i`-i<i-ii-i
ii -i ti t- rr:trrrtrr rrrr trr:rrr`trr+ trr:rrr`trr ii -i-i-ii i`-ii ii i
-iii -i-ii i -iii--i ii zici-ii t: :-ii i-i -ii`i -i-ii -i -ii, ii-i, i-i,
:iiiii`-i ii :iii-ii ii ii-ii ii- --t ~ii-i -i i`ii -ii-ii, i -ii`-ii i ii`i -i
-i-iii`i iii`--i i -ii iti- trr:rrr`trr:
-i-ii ii -ii`i-ii ii i`-ii ii ii`-ii :ii-i i-ii- :i ii -iiii-ii -i
-i-ii, ziii-i trr:rrr`trr -i --i -i-ii-i i-ii -ii-i-i-ii ii iiiii t:
:ziiii`-ii i ~ii`--i-i -i-i -i ii`i -i-i-i-i-i ~ii`-i -i :iii-ii i-ii t i`i
-it -i-iii -i i-iii i-i ii ~ii -i ii( -iii`i iti (-ii -i ti i`i i`-i-iii tii
-i-ii i-iii i -i-ii ii( ~ii :-i :iii-ii i -iii ii-ii -i-i-ii i-ii t-
+rr rr tr rrrr trr +rtrrrr r` r+rrr` r a r rr rrr` r r` rrr +
rrrrtrrrtrrrrrr +rr`rr tr rrr sr`-r r`rrrr++
(ttrr`rrr`artr, +rrrrrrrrrrr sarrrt, rrtrr, -- rrrtr, {{

6. >rr rra +rrra rr trr


i-iii`-ii ii-i ii :i-ici i`-izii-ii --iii zi-zii`-i t ii ~ii-i -i-ii ~ii
-i-i ii ii i t ii ~ii -i-i ii -iiii`i-i i-ii t: t -ii`-i ii -ii-ii t i`i
--ii :iz-i ii -i-iiii-i --i ii-i -i i`ii t~ii t: ii-ii i ii -i it i`-iziii -i
-ii`-iii t: i-iii i i`-i-ii i -i-ii -i-iii`-ii -i ii-ii -i :-ii --ii ii -iiii-ii
i`iii-(i i`-ii ~i-i--i ii: ii ii t-izii- ~i-i--i --i iii i i`-i( ziz
i-i-iii`z i iii -ii-i i -ii i -iti-iii i i -i -iiiii-i -i ii t i, -ii
--t ii-ii ii -it ~i-i-i-iiii ii ~iiii-rrrrrrrr`rrrrtttr rrr rrrrrr rrar-rr
(ii-ii--iii`-iii, ):
ii-i -i ii --ii-i-i -iii -ii -ii i`-i-ii, iiii -i ii-ii ii -itii i`-iii:
--iii -iii -iicii :i--i-i ii : -iiii-i-: ii-i ~ii i-iit -ii-i -it i-i -i-iii`-iii
ii --i-i ~ii-i :iii i: iti -iti, --i-i-i-ii ii -i-i i ii ii i i ~iii`ii
--ii-i ii :iz-i -ai -ii --iii -i-iiii-i i`-i-iiii -i ii-ii ii -iicii ii i`ii: -ii
ii ii: i`-i<iiii i-ii t i`i ~iii-i-~i-i-i-ii-i -i -i-i i`-i--i i-i -iii, -ii --i
-ii t- +r+rrtrr tr rrrtrr rtrrr -r rrtr (ii-ii--iii`-iii, s): iii`-i i`i
-iit :iz-i -ii ti, -i-iii ii ti, i`-ii ii ti ii-ii -i i`-i--i-i ii ii: (-ii -ii i`-i-i
ii-ii t ii -iii-zii i-i ii-ii t: i it i-i: ~ii-izii -iti i`i ii z-iii -ii
-iii-zii t, -i :iz-i ii -i-iiii-i t, -iti ~iiiii ii ti: :-ii`-i( t -ii`-i ii
~ii-ii ii-ii -i-i-ii ti-ii t: i-i i`i zi-i i -i-:iii ~i-ii t i t -ii`-i ii ~ii-ii
ii-i-i-zi-i -iii`-i i-ii i-ii t: --ii :iii ii ii-ii -i ~ii-ii z-iii ~ii ~ii-ii
~ii ciiiii --i ~i-izi i`-i-iii: ii-i-i -i ti-i`-iii -iii ii ti-i t ~ii t -ii`-i
ii ~ii-i ii iii`-i -i-i-ii~ii i -iiit i ~iii-i -i-i -i ~ii-i-~ii-i :iz-i i-i i-i
t: -ii ii -itii -iii`i(, iit i`-ii ciii`ii ~ii zii ciii`ii ii i-ii:i- i it
-ii ~iiii ii-i-i ii -iiit -i ti i i--ii :izi--i i i, it it-ii ii` a-i t : ~ii
-ii -i i ii -ii ii z-ii i it -i ~i-i -i-iiii-i -ii-ii t -
sqt artrrrrtrrrr rrtrrrrrrrtrrar tr +
+rrtrrr rrtrrrr rrtrtrrr r`trrtrtrrr.++ (ii-ii--iii`-iii, r=)
~iii ~ii-i -ii-i i i`-ii ~ii -ii-i i z-i-i t- it ii-i-i i ii zii
-ii ~i- -ii-i t ~ii -i-i ~ii--ii`-iiii -i -ii ii-ii t, i`i i`-iii i i`-i( iii:zi
ti -iti: sqtartrrrrtrrrr ~iii i i: iii ii ~i-i ~iiii`i -ii-ii t: i t -ii`-i
ii :-i ~ii-ii ~ii -ii tiii, --ii ~iiii`i i i -i ~ii-ii-ii tiii, -iii :-iii
-iiii-ii it-ii-ii iiiii:
i. i-i-i-i- -iiiiii, :iii-i, zi-i-i`-iiii, -iciii`ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii,
-ii, i`-ii-i i: -iii -i i-iii`-ii ii`-iii i -i-i-ii-i ii -ii-ii-i :iiz -ii`-iii i
ia-iii :i--i-i i t t: ii-ii--iii`-iii ii-ii i ~i-i--i --i (-i -iii-i z-iiii ii
:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 13 14 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-ii-i-ii (-i -iiii`ii i`-iz-iii i -iii -i-iii-i t: :i-ii -ii-i -ii-iii ii
i` ii ii`ii-i ti-ii t: -itiii-i i ~ii-ii-i-ii--ii -i-ii ii ~iiii i-iii ii-ii
ii ii -i-ii-i-zi-i iiiti --ii t, --i i. -iiiiii -i ~ii-i -ii-i ii ~iiii i-iiii
t: ii-ii ii -ii-:iii`ii, zi-i--ii-i -i-ii-i-i-ii -iicii( ~i-ii t, i`i--i -ii-:iii`ii
i-ii -i ~i-ii-i ti --iii ii -i-ii-iiiiti --ii t, -it ~iiiii`--ii -i-i-ii ii
i`-ii-i-<i ~iiii-i`zi-ii t: it ~iiiii`--ii -i-i-ii -iii --iii -ii-iii`ii--iii`-ii
-i-iti -i -iiii i`-iiii iii`ii -iti t: ~i-i: -ii-itii`i -iii ~ii--ii`-i--i-i-:i-ii
-iiii i-ii ti :-i -iii`-iii -i -iii -ai -ii-i t: ~i-i-ii -i-i, -iiii -iii
i`-ii-i-iii t, ziiiii --iii-i ~ii-ii -ii-:iii`ii ~iiiii -i it ~iiii--i -iti t:
-iiii`ii i`-iz-iii -iiiii t:
-i i it :-i t i` i i . -ii iiii i` -i>iii` --i i iii -i --ii ii -i ii ii
t : -iii` -iii~ii i i` -i( ii-i ii i -iii` -iii -i i` -i ci-i -ii-ii ii iii( -iiii :
-i i i` -iii-i t i` i :-i :iii ii -ii` -i i` i-ii iii ii-i ii -i -i i` -i--i-ii -i
i cii t t ~ii ~iii i` i-i-i --i ii-i-i ii -i-ii i i t : t -i --ii -iii` -iii
ii-ii -i it -i -iiiii` --i-i ti i ~ii it zi ii ~ii-ii -i i` -ii, ~iiiii` --ii -i ii ii
ii` t-ii-i-ii :ii-i i -ii ii: :-ii -i -ii` -i, -i-iii ~ii i ii ~ii i ~ii
i` -i:>i i-i -ii` ii` t-i t :
iiai -i ii -ii (i i`-i-i-i t: ii-ii i :i-ii z-iii -i -ii-ii ii ~i-i--i-ii
i`-ii`t-i t: it i`-i--ii-i-ii :i-ii -ii`-i ~ii-ii ~ii ciiii ii -ii-ii t: ii-ii ii -iii
~ii ziii-i ii`-i -iti, ~ii`i-i -ii-ii-i i-i -ii t: (-ii ~ii ti -i-iii ii -iii -iii
-iii -iii i`zii-iii :ii-i i-ii t: i. -iiiiii i t-i -iii -i-i-i-i iii t i`i-ti-i
ii-ii ii ~i-i-iii-i -iiii ii iii-ii`t-iii, iti-i-iciii -i-ii i-iiii t: --iii zii
ii-i-i -i-iii i i`-i( -i-ii`i-i :-ii :iii ii -ii--i-i -iii-ii -i -iii t-iti t-iii
:iii-ii t:
(rr ttrrr rrr r` rrtr. rr trr--rrr` rrrr, tr rrrarr- zr . rrrrrr-ra trr rrrr , trr rr trt,
arrr-r`r+rrr, rrrrrrrrr trarrr`_zrr r`r+rr`rcrrrrr, sarrrt (trrtrrr,
trrrrrrrr-trrrr tr +rrttrr +rrrrarrr , rrrr t, trrrr tr trrtr-rrr-r , {, trrrrr` tr-
rr. trarr-xi, xii, xiii

7. rrtrrr rr rr`rtr trtrrrrrrr r`trrtr +rrt trrrrr


iii ii ~ii t ii-ii ~iii-i :ii-ii-i ~iicii-i: :-iii (i ~ii ~ii t ii-ii
~ii -iii- rrtr -r rr : -itiii-i ~ii iii ii ii-i-ii -i iti iii t: i`-ii ii-i-i
-i iii ii i`i-i-ii -it--i ~iii ii t it :i-ii iii`-ii i-i -i >ii`-i---ii`-iiiii-i i
-ii-i -i -i ti-ii t: iiii ii -i-ii i`-ii`ii --r zi-iii`ii -ii ti-ii ti: :i-ici,
iiii -i -i-i:i-i :ii-i i - i`i`-iii i i`-i-i -ii-i -i it -ii-i-ii -i`-i-i tiii i`i
--i-i -i-ii (i`-itii`-ii i`-i-ii ;;-:. i-i ii t:
i`i-i i`-ii-ii -i iiii ii (i`-itii`-ii, ii-iii`-ii -i -ii-ii`-ii -ii-iiii ii
~i--iii i`iii t --i-i iii`i i`-i--i i`--ii, i ~ii iii, i.ii. iii-i-ii-i,
(-i.-ii. ii -iiii, -ii ii-iii, i. ~ii. -i-ii:, :.i. -i-i, ii.(-i.iii-i ii -ii-i
i`-iziii -i ---ici-iii t: :-ii i`-iii-i i i`-ii-ii ii iiii t i`i iiii`ii
:i`-iti-i ~ii`-ii-i-iii -iii ii-ii t: -i i`-ii-i-iii -ii-ii -i -i-i-ii -iii :ii-iiiiii
i ii iiii`ii :i`-iti-i ii -iiii i`-iii t: -i--i-i: iiii -i ~ii-ii i`-ii`zi zi-ii -i
ii-i i :ii-ii-i :i`-iti-i (-i -i-ii`-i ii -ii`i-i cii t: -i-ii i -iii --iii -ii-iiii
ii ~i-izii-i-i i-i i t-i i`-ii`i-i ti :ii-ii-i ii-iii :i`-iti-i i -i-i ii ii, --ii
-ii-iii`ii (-i -ii-ii`-ii -i--i ii ii -ii-i t: :ii-ii-i-i-i iiii iti, -iii, itii
(-i -i--i -i -iii :ii-ii-i-i i`-iiiii -i -izi (-i -izii-i-ii`-i iii-i-i, i, ~ii`-i,
i<i, i`-ii, i-i -iii -iiii iiii ii ~iiii ~ii`ii t i i-i-ii -ii, iti-i-i-i,
-iit, -ii-i-i -iii -i- iiii -i :i`-iti-i zi-i:iii t: ii-i-iziii iii ~ii`i-ii-iii
-ii i ii-izii ii -ii-i iiii -i i-iii-i -i t -iii --ii ii i iii~ii ii :i`-iti-i
ii`-ii i :iiii ii i`iii ii i`i :ii iii-i i ~i-i-ii :-i ii-i ii :i-iii t i`i :ii-ii-i
iiii ii ii`i-i --ii -itiii-i iz i ii-i -izii i ii i`-ii`i-i ti -iii ii:
:-ii`-ii :-ii ii i iii~ii i -ii-i -i ii`-ii-ii-i ii :iiii t~ii t:
iiii i -izi--ii-i i ~i-i-ii i`-i-i--ii-i -ii i ii -i-i--i-i -i-i i -ii iii
-i -i -ii :-iii, -iiii-ii`, ziii--i -iii -iiiii ~ii`ii :i-iiii i: :-iii, ~iiiii -i
ii i-i i, :-ii i ii i`-iii`izizii ~ii i`-ii`-i i i`i-i-i ~iiiii -iii i`-it i
-izi -i-i: :-ii (-iii -ii -izi -i ~iii -i-ii zii ii i-i t( i: -iiii-ii`
-izii-ii i iii i: --ti-i -izii-i -izi ii -iii-ii ii: ziiii`-i ~ii-i-i ~iii-i iii-i ii
:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 15 16 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
iii ii i`i-i-i ziiii-i -izi -i-ii: -iiiii i -izi -i --ii ii-i -i iii-i -izi -i-ii:
-i-i-i -i-i i -ii-i -ii iii i ~ii`-ii`-i (i iii ii: i iiii i ~i-i-ii -it ii
:-i ii ii -iii i-i iii ii: :-ii ii i`-i-iit -ii-i ii ii -i t~ii, :-ti -i i-ii
(-i --ii t~ii i`i-i-i :ii`-ii-i (:iiii) i -i-: ii (-i-izi ii -iii-ii t:: i-ii i
iii -i -i ~iii :ii`-ii-i -i ti ii i-ii ti ~ii --ii ii: ~i-ii-i-i -i ii-iii -i
~ii-i ii-izi ii :ii`-ii ii: ~iii i -iti ii-iz ii -izzi-ii, -i,i`i ~ii ~i-i-i
-ii-ii iii -i -i ii-iz -i iiziiii ii -iii-ii ii: -itiii iiii`-i i ii-i iii -i
~i-ii ii-izii ii :i-i-i-i i`iii i`i-i-i tti, ii-i i`i-i-i (ii ii t() -i-i-i,
:ti, ~ii-i-i -iii ii-i (i`i-i-i ii-i ii t() ---ici-iii t: :-i i`-ii`ii ii-izii
ii -ii-i iii~ii (-i -itiiii i -ii`-i ii i`-iii ti iiii -i -i-ii :i`-iti-i t ii
-itiii-i i iz i -iiii -sss -ii i-i-ii ii t: -itiii-i ii i ii i-i-i
(-iii, ii-i -iii -iiii ii-izii i iii~ii ii ti ---ici t ii ~ii`i-ii-iii
-ii-ii iii i ---ici -ii -i-ii-i ti ii-ii t: zii ii-izii ii ~i-i--i ~iii -ii-i ti
ii--ii -i-ii ti-ii t:
~ii`i-ii-iii i ii ii`-iii i i`i-i iii~ii ii ii`-iiii-i -i ii`-ii-iiii
i i -i -iii, itii, i`-ii, -i--i -iii iii-i-i iiii -i ---ici t --i-i i`zizi-iii
-i-, -iii, zii, ii-i, ~iii (-i i-i -izi i :i`-iti-i-:ii`-iz ii -ii`--ii`-i-i t: :-i
ii-izii i i-iii i ---ici i -iii ti i`-i--i-iiii ii ii-izii i-i i`i ~iiii,
ii`-i-i, zii, i-i-i, -i-i, ti ii ii ---ici t-i :ii-i ti-ii t: iii~ii (-i ii-izii
i -ii-i i -iii--iii iii --i ii-i -i -i-ii-ii-i -ii-iii`ii ~i-i-ii ii ii i`-iii
i-i t: iii`i -i -iii, itii, i`-ii, -i--i -iii iii-i-i iiii -i -i-ii -ii-iiii
ii ~ii-ii-i-ii--ii ~iii-i i --ii (i`-itii`-ii -it--i ii :ii`-iii-i i`iii t: ii-izi
i iiii`ii ---icii -i (i i ii`--iii ii t i`i-iii :i`-iti-i -i i`-iii -i t: i-i i`i
ii-i-iii :i-i-ii`i-i i i-i-i-ii i i -i ziiii, zizi-i, i`-izii -iii it-i ii
---ici ii i`ii`-i-ii ~ii --ii --iii`iiii`ii ii i`zizi-iii -iii iii-ii ii -izii
i-i-ii-ii: iiiii`-ii i`-i-ii -i ii ii--ii iii ci-i ii i`-i-i-ii t: -iti i
i`-ii iiii -i i-ii ~ii --ii -iziii iiii`-i ~iii` ii :ii`-ii-i (:iiii) ii -izi
i-iiii iii t iii`i -itiii-i -i iiii`-i ii -i--i-ii :izi ii iii`i-i i`iii iii t:
ii`iii ii ---ici ii -ii`i i-ii -i i`ii t: iiii -i i -iiii`-i ~iii` ii`iii ii
iitii i-i ii i-iii ti -iti -ii` ii :iiiii`-i ii -ii-ii iii t: ~ii`i-ii-iii -i
i-i-i-ii ii-izii ii ii iiii`ii -i-ii--i -itiii-i -i -i-i -iti cii-ii --ii -i-i-i -i
it ii iti ii -ii-ii t i`i iiii -i :ii-ii-i ii-i ii --i-i-i (i`-itii`-ii -izii-i-ii
-ii`i-i ti:
iii~ii (-i ii`iii i ~ii`i-ici i -iii i iii iiii ii -i-ii-ii-i
:i`-iti-i ii i` -i ti -it--i -iti t ~ii`i-i ~ii-i -i-ii i -i-iii i :ii`-ii`i-i ii i`
-i ii iii--iii`t-i ~i-i--i -it--iii -i-i-ii-i t: i-i-iii -iii i-iziiii -i
i`-ii`i-i -i-iii iitii -ii ii ~iizi i-i-ii -i t-i ~i-izi ii`i`-i-i ii-ii t i`i--i -it
-i-iii i -ii-ii-i -ii ii -i-i-ii, i`-ii`-i ii -ii--ii`-ii-ii ii iii -iti ii-ii:
~i-i(-i iiii -i -i-ii ~ii-iii`ii -ii-iiii :ii-ii-i ii-i i -i-iii ii i`-iii-i ii-i-i i
i-ii it-i -it--iii t:
:-ii-i--i i it-i ~ii ii ii i zi-iii`ii i --i ii-i--i i`t- -i-iii
ii i`-ii iiii -i -ii`i-i t ii ~ii-ii ii-i ~ii ii-i-izii`-i ii ii`i`-ii`-iii i
~i-ii ~ii-i --ii -i ii`-i-i-i i-ii ti: ii`ii-i-i: --i-i ii-i i i`-ii`ii iiii -i
i-i iii-ii ii ~ii ~i-ii`i-i-i ~iiii-ii iii`-iii ii ~ii-i -i -ii`--ii`-i-i i ii-iii
-i-iii ii -ii-ii`-ii (i-ii :ii-i ii: -ii-i, i-i -iii ii`-i i i`-izi--ii -i -i-i--ii
-iii`i-i i-i ii, -ii`i -iii ~i-ii`i i`-i-iiiii~ii -i -ii-ii-i i -ii i`ii-i ii >ii
iiii ii ti t: i`-i-ii--i ~i-ii -iiiii ii-iii ii ii i-i, zi-i, -ii-i i`-i-ii-i -i
-iti ii`-ii -iii`i-i ii-i ii ii >ii iiii ii ti t: iii`-i-:iii ii ii-i -i
ii-iii -i-iii ii -i-i i-i -i ii, zi:, -iii-i ii i-i i ii -i :i-izi ~ii
--i-i-i-ii i`-ii-i -i iiii -i -it--iii ii`-iii i`-iii: t: -i--i-i: :ii-ii-i ii-iii -i-iii
-i iiii ii :-i-ii -it--i i iii ii i`i i`-i-ii-ii`ii, i-ii-ii, -i-i, -i--ii,
ii-iii--ii-ii i-i :ici i`-i--ii -iii -i-iii-iiii ~ii-i -i-i ii ii` -i -ii ii ~iiii
iiii ii iti ~ii`ii ---ici i-i t: ii-i ii i-i ~ii-iii iii ii >ii`-i i
-i-ii-i ti :ii-iii`ii -ii-i-i t: ii`-i ii i`i-i ii-i-i iii -i ii-iii -i-iii ii iii
(i-ii ii -ii-ii`-ii ii-i ~iii` i iii -i -i-ii`z (-i -ii-i-iii -i-i-ii ii -ii`-i :ii-i ii
t --i :i-iii`t-i i-i ii >ii iiii ii t: i-i-ii -i--i-iii --ti -i -i-i t: ~iii
ii -ii-ii-i ii-iii -ii`i -iii i-iziiiii ~iizii ii ~iiii iiii -i -ii`i-i ii`-ii
ii-i-ii, -ii-iii`ii -i-ii -iii -ii-ii`-ii ii`i-i-ii~ii -i ~i-i:iii`i-i t:
(ttrr`rrr`artr, +rrrrrrrrrrr sarrrt, rrtrr, -.{.{;

:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 17 18 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(


8. rrrrtrr . +rrr trtrrr`tr rrr r`r+rrrrrr
i-ii i ~i-i-ii ~iit -itiiii ii iii t: --i-i ti -iiii t:
-itiii-i, -i--i, i-i -iii ti`-izi ~iii` -i :ii-i iii--i-ii -i itiiii ii -i-i:ii-i
---ici ~ii-ii t: i`i--i ~iii ii itiiii t-i i`-i-i-ii t -it ~ii`ii :ii-ii-i -iti t:
i`-ii-ii ii iiii t i`i -i-i-ii-i itiiii ii -i-ii ss--ss :. ii t: :-ii
~iiiii ii -ii-ii ii -itiii-i, ti`-izi -iii i`-ii, -iiii (-i -iiiiiii -i ii
i: t: :-i-i -i-ii i iii-i-i ii (ii), iiiii`-i (iiiii) (ii-iii (-i-ii),
i`-iiiii (iiii) ii i`-ii`zi ---ici t -iii ~ii ii --i-i i iitiii ii ii-ii
ii :ii`-iii-i t: -ii-i, -ii, zi-i -iii zii-ii i :-i ii -iiii ii -i-ii-izi i-i-ii
ii-i ii :iii t: :-iii`-ii it -ii-i-ii t i`i itiiii ii -i-i-ii-i --ii --ii
zi-iii :-i-ii -ii i`-i ti iii ii:
-i, -ii (-i -ii`-iii ii i`-ii-i ii` iii ii -iti ii-i-ii -ii i`-i-iii ii
-i--i:i -iti -ii-ii ii -ii-ii-
rr r`rcrr--rtrtr rarr trrrrrr`rrrar r`r.+
r -rtr rrtrr trr`rcrrrr tr trra r`r-rorr.++
-i ii -iiti :i`-iti-i -iii iii -i i-ii -iii`t(: ii -ii`-i i-i ii-iii
t --i-i -i ii it-i -ii-ii t i`i iti -it -ii i :iti -i i ia- ~iii-i ~ii
ii ~i-ii -i i : :-iii`-ii iii ii izi-i -i iti iii t: ii-i ii -i --ii
~ii-ii -iiiii ii i`-ii`i-iiii ii -it :ii-iii`ii-ii -ii-ii t: -iii`t-iziiii iii--iiii
ii i`-ii ii -i-iit ii -it i`-i-iiiii (-i ~i-iiiii -ii-i-i t:
:ii-ii-i ii-i i iiii`-iti-i (-i ii-izi ii ii-iiii i i`-ii, iiiii-ii-i
-ii-iii`ii ~i-i-ii~ii (-i i`-ii`ii-ii-iii i`-ii`ziii i -ii-iiiiii ii :ii`iii ii
ii`t-ii-i-i i i`-ii i`iii iii: ii-iii -i-iii i i`-iii-i ii i`zii ii -i-ii-i i i`-ii,
ii ii` ii i ii -i ii i-i-ii -i ii` -ii i i` -ii ii i` -ii, -iii-i` -i-ii-i, zii -i, ~i-ii` -iii-i,
~iii -i , -ii i` -i<ii, -ii i` -iiiiii` -i<ii, iii-i , -ii-ii , i z-i` -i-ii-i, i-i i -i<ii,
~iiziiii` i` -i-ii-i, -, -iiii, ii i, -iii, -i -i ~i-i iiziii, -ii--i ziii, -i:ii` -i-ii-
i`-i-iii, --iiiii-ii, ii, ~ii, -ii, -i-i-ii`-i ~iii` ~i-ii i`-iiii i :ii-ii-i -ii-i -i
ii`-ii i i`-ii iii i`-iiiii t:
iiii -i -iii:i-ii`-i-i -i-i--i-ii--ii, iii`-ii -ii-i-ii~ii, -iii`ii i`-iii-ii-
~ii-ii~ii (-i -ii--i-ii~ii ii --iiii i --iii :ii-ii-i ~iii-i-i ii -ii`i i-i -i
-i-i--ii -iii`i-i i`iii ~ii :-i :iii ii-iii -i-iii ii iii`-ii -iii -ii-ii`-ii (i-ii
:ii-i ii: ii`-i ii ii-i-i iii -i i`i i ~ii`-ii`-i zi:, -iii-i, ii ~iii` -iii ii
--ii-i i-i ii ~ii`iii :ii-i i`iii: i-i, -ii-i -iii ii`-i -i -i-i--ii -iii`i-i i`iii:
~ii-iii i`-i-ii-ii`ii, i-ii-ii, -i-i, -i--ii, ii-iii--ii-ii ~iii` -i -ii`-iii -i iti
~ii`ii iiii ii -itii i`-iii -iii :-ii ii --i -i--i-i-ii ii -iii (-i -i-ii-i
t~ii ii -i-i-i ii-iii ii-i-i ii ~iii ii -ii-ii`-ii ~iiii t:
iiii -i ii-i-ii i :i-ii i`-i-ii-iiii (-i -it-iii iiii, -ii, -i,
~ii, i-i-i ~iii` ii iii`-ii -ii`t-ii -i -ii`-i i --i -iii iii`i-i i`iii: i-i,
-i-ii-i, -iii-i, ii-i-i ~iii` ii i`-iii-i i-ii i ~iii i-i ii -iti:iii, ii-i--i ~ii
-ii-i i-iiii: iii-:ii`-iiii`-i i-i -ii`i i-iii ii -it ii`-i -iii ii-iii
-iii-i -i ii--i -iti t: -it iti ii -it ~i-ii-i-iiii-i -iti t: -it -ii ii-iii`-i -i
:ii`-ii`-i (-i ii-i--i t: :-iii`-ii ~iii ii -i-ii-i i-ii ii ~iiii-i i-ii-i -ii-i-ii-i
ii ii`i-ii i i`-ii, iizii -i i-ii-iii i zi-i i i`-ii, -ii-i ii`-ii -ii`ii -i --ii-i i
i`-ii, ii-iicii ii iii i i`-ii, -i-iii-i ii iiii i i`-ii -ii-iii`i-i t-ii t: iii
ii-i i -ii--ii -i ii ~ii ~ii ii ii-i-ii i-i t: iiii`ii i-i i-i-i i`t-~ii
-i iii`-ii (i-ii -iii`i-i -iti i-ii ~ii`i-i iiiii`-ii ~ici-ii ii ~i-iii`-i ii iiii
ci-ii t: :-ii i-i (-i -ii-ii`-ii ii-i-ii i ii`iii i i`-ii iiii -i ~iicii-i-
-iicii-i, -ii i , -i i-i ~iii` ii i` -izii-i -i iit t : :-i :iii i ii -i i` i i-i i -ii i` t-i
--ii, i` -ii` ii iii` -i i -i-:iiii (-i -i-i--i-ii--ii i i` -iiii i -ii t ti -iii ti -i i` -iiii i
ii -it i` -iii -i -i -i-ii i -: -i ti i -i-i--ii (-i -ii` ti -ii i -i--i :i ii--i-i t :
itiiii -i -- ~iiii t: -ii` i`-iii -i :ii-i i i`-ii`ii -izii ii
-ii-i i-i t( -iicii-i, -ii`i, --ii`-i-iii~ii i -iii -ii-i -iiii ii -ii-i t: ~i--i
-i -iti:i-ii--ii-i i iii, -iici, iii i`-i<ii-~ii`-i<ii i-i i`-iiii ii -i-ii i -iii
iii -i-ii-i ti-ii t: ....... i-i-ii, iii ~iii` -ii`ii i-i ii i ~i--ii-i i-ii-iii`-iii
ii -ii`t-ii i-ii: i: t-
a rrrrrrr` rr +rr r` rtrr. tra r rr rrrr tr.+
+rrttr +rrrrrrtrrrrr artrrttr-rtrr. r`ortrr++
rrrr rr rr tr r-r trr rrrr r tr trtr t .+
trtrrrr r` rttr ttr ttr trtrrrr orrrrr rr ar .++
r +rrttrtrrr rrr rrr`rrrrrr`ttr +rr r`rr.+
rr r`rtrrarr rrr. trrrrrtrr`+rrrr`=trrr++
rrrttr +rrttr rrr rrrtr r rtr -rrrr.+
rrrr r rrrrrrrr orrrr trrrr rr` tr rrrrrrrrr ++
...rr. rrrrrr r` tr r rrr-r +rrttrtrrr` arrrrr` rr.++ (~iiii ---)
:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 19 20 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
i`-ii`ii -ii -i -i-i--ii i -iii -iii`-ii ~ii-ii-i ii-i-i t- r`rrrr
rrr. r`rrt.+ rrrrrr rrr.+ r`rrrr rrr. rrr-rrr+ +rr rrrrr t
trrrrrrr rrtrrr rr`rrttrr +rrr`atr r`tr+
i`-ii`ii -ii ii --ii`-i -i iii ii ~i-i--i -iiiii iiii -ii-ii ii-ii t: ~ii
ii ~i-i-i ii --ii`-i -i -iii`t-i ii -iii -ii-:iii`ii -ii`ti-ii ii ii-i, -ii--i ii
i-i-ii~ii ii --ii-i (i -iii i`-i-i-ii t-
trtrr a trr rrrr trrr ortrort rr +rt+
r rr` rrr r` rrrrcrrr` +r. rrrrrrrr` +rar r` ttr.++
+rrrarrtrrrrtrrrrrarrtrrrrr+
+rrrar rrr` rrrrr trr rtrr :r` trr rrtrr +rt ++
r rr rrr r` rcrtr rrrrrrtrrr` arrrrrrr.+
tra rr rrtrr r`rtrrrr`rrrrtr +rrrrr.++ (.---;)
tr rrr rrrrrrr`trtrrrr r`rrrtrr tr rrtrr.+ r`rarr-rrr`tr. trrrrtrr:r`r trrrrrr
rrrrr`trttrrrttrrrrrr r`+rrrtrrr rrar`rr rrrr`tr tr rrr`-r+ra.-
r` r+r +rrrtr rr` tr r` tr r+rr` ttrrrr r` r+r -r tr r rrrrr :rrrrtrrr=-r.+
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ii`tii -it Steretobaresman --iiiii`tii -it Hauma -ii-i-i -it Zautar tiii
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iti-iii --ii`-ii ~iii-ii -i :ii`-iiii`-ii-ii-i-ii-ii-ii-ii`i -ii-i -iti-i i`-i--ii zi-i:
-i-:iii-ii--i :iiiii-iiiii ti-i-iii`-ii`-ii`-ii-i-iiziii`-i-ii i-i-i-iiii:
--ii-ii i-iii` :ii` -iiii` -ii-ii-i-i i-ii-iizi -iii ii i` -iii-i-i i-ii` -i-i -i -i -i-i :
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ci -ii-iii-ii iii -ii-i -i ~ii-iiici-i -itiiii-iii`iiii: -iiiiiii`ii-i
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i -i -i-i i` -ii:ii --i-i ii-i ii zi-ii :i i-i i` i` -i ri-i : ~ii-i-i :i` i-ii zii-iii` -i-iiii-i--i -ii
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tii-i ii-i-i -i :ii-i-i:
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iiizi-i--i-i-i-iiczi-i i`-ii`t-ii:: -ii -it ~iii ~ii`i -iczi-i i`-ii`t-ii:: -iii-i-i -i
iii i-i-i--i-ii-i-i`-izi-i-i-iiiiiiii -iiiii ~i-iii i-ii`--i -i -i iiiii-i:
iii-iiii izi-ii -i-iii-i-i-iii-i--ii :-ii`--i i`-izii:: -iii--i -iiiiii--i-ii ii-i i--ii
---ii ~iii-i ii-i-ii-i-i ii`-iii: iii:: iiiii i-iiii--i-ii ii-iii-i (-i
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-iii ~ii-i--ii`iii-i :i`-i ii--ii`-i-ii: iiii-ii--i-i-iii`ii:
(ttrr`rrr`artrrr )

:ii-i ii`- : -iii` 25 26 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(


r`trrr rrr`t-a . arrrrrrtr
1. Presidential address
in the Religion and Philosophy section (ICPR)
Friends,
I am most sincerely and profoundly grateful to the Members and
Authorities of the All-India Oriental Conference for electing me President
of the Religion and Philosophy Section for its 33
rd
Session being held in
Calcutta under the auspices of the Asiatic Society, an institution which
pioneered the Indological studies in the past and is now launching new
projects for all-round development with the active association of
internationally renowned scholars. The city is sanctified not only by its
long and continuing tradition of scholarship in various disciplines
including the neo-logic but also by the mystique of the life of Paramahansa
Ramkrishna who epitomised the unity of all religions and by his worthy
disciple Swami Vivekanand who internationalised the philosophy of
Vedanta making it an instrument of social service, freedom of man and
universalism of spirit.
It is customary for the Section President to begin his Address by
making a survey of important publications and scholarly activities in the
field. I approached M/s. Motilal Banarsidass, Indological publisher of
long standing, with the request to publish special issue of their MLBD
Bulletin listing all the works section-wise on the occasion of the Sessions
of the conference. They agreed to do this. Even otherwise, the monthly
issue of the MLBD news letter, reviews of works in established journals,
like the Annals of BORI, Digest of Indological Studies, Annual Reports
of the Institutions, will prove a better guide of goings-on in the field of
religion and philosophy than a hastily prepared and necessarily brief account
of the works published during a year or two. I would, therefore, like to
share with you some thoughts and questions that have agitated my mind.
Dharma, which is usually yet imperfectly translated as religion,
has a very wide connotation. Nature or essence of a thing or entity, moral
conduct, normative behaviour, other worldly or spiritual concern, esotoric
practice, rites and rituals, organisation of individuals in society and
regulating their conduct in various stages of life (Varnasrama dharma),
duty and obligation all this and much more is comprehended under this
term. However, it is generally identified with a set of beliefs and its
practice by their votaries, Moral concern for the good of others different
from ones own self who are free and automonous individuals does not
seem to be focal point instead observance of ceremonies, rites and rituals,
and all-absorbing interest in prescribing particular food and dress or at
best a spiritual pathway to ones own perfection and salvation have become
central to the popular conception of dharma, inspite of long tradition of
protest against ritualism and unwarranted distinctions of caste, creed and
sex. New phenomenon of political religiousity resulting in fundamentalism
and sharp divisions of social groups have further undermined the role of
dharma in building an egalitarian and harmonious society. True dharma
should unite the mankind in fellowship of spirit, commonwealth of
brotherhood and should serve as an instrument of change and well-being
of all than be an uncompromising source of obscurantism, oppressive
terrorism, spiritless exploitation and mutual hatred. The conception of
Karun (love and compassion) for all beings, the doctrine of non-violence
positing faith in the sanctity of life in all its manifestations. The gospel
of faith in the welfare of all (Sarvabhtarati), the definition of reality as
devoid of all distinctions (apetabrahmaksatrdibheda) and the ideal of
universal freedom (sarva-mukti) or the description of dharma in harmony
with socio-economic good of the society, are yet to boldly assert itself in
true understanding of religion. A vowedly ideal life of a perfect being,
Jvanmukta, Arhat, Sthitapraja or Yogin may be useful for an individual
or his intimate follower but does he become more sensitive even to moral
issues and problems that confront his brethren and his times and
environment? Is he morally active for the good of others or is he a passive
and insensitive witness to the cruel ways of the evils which beset society
of his times? There is no dearth of Subhasitas in vast Sanskrit literature
and of tales and legends in the Puranas and other kindred literature which
28 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
emphasise ethical qualities and moral virtues yet our society remained
stagnant for centuries. The large army of sadhus of various descriptions
and innumerable religious institutions have done but very little to wipe
out poverty, illiteracy and deprivation of spirit of even their helpless and
innocent followers. I do not wish to lay all the blame at the door of
religion and philosophy as I am aware of social and moral commitment
of the intensely religious men, like Ramkrishna Paramhamsa, Swami
Vivekananda and Dayananda and movements, such as, Bhakti. However,
the comprehensive notion of dharma has to accept its share of responsibility
for the evils and vices which dominate Indian psyche and ethos. Dharma
may be eternal but its manifestation must differ from age to age and its
march should be progressive in building a more prosperous, peaceful
and harmonious society than at present. Kalidasa who prefers dharma to
the ideal of moksa prays in the Bharata-vakya of his famous play, the
Shakuntalam, for social good which implies law & order as its
precondition, cultural excellence and individual freedom from the cycle
of rebirth at the end. At another place, he emphasises austerities in the
midst of all-round prosperity. Thus conceieved dharma is an instrument
of material well-being of society and freedom of human spirit and will
not be condemned as a synonym for ritualism, superstition, fatalism,
hatred and violence even which it claims to be the contrary.
Indian Philosophy is generally described more as a way of life
than a way of thought. It is also held that it believed in the supermacy of
authority (sabda) over reason, that faith and not rationality determined
its course of evolution and development. As a result, it is considered
more of the nature of theology than pure philosophy. Another popular
notion about Indian philosophy is that it is syncretic and that all have a
common goal and differ in carving out different roads leading to it. All
this is patently wrong if we minutely follow the continuous encounter
between various systems of thought, orthodox or unorthodox and sharp
dialetics that developed during the long course of philosophical tradition
in India. The encounter of the Nyaya with the Buddhism begins in the
fifth century A.D. and is continued for seven centuries when Buddhism
ceased to be a strong and viable force. akara is immediately opposed
by a galaxy of aiva and Vaishnava philosophers. It is also true that as a
result of encounter of a system with opposite system or self-critical
evolution of a thought, modification (pariskara) of original view is effected
many a time. Buddhist influence on akaras Vedanta and of the latter
on the Sakya and the development of Navya-nyaya propounding its
special categories of logic and its impact on other philosophical schools
and non-philosophical disciplines are well-known examples of continuous
change and development of Indian philosophical thought. Argumentative
spirit and hair-splitting analysis of opposite views (purvapaksas) and the
notion of independence from the well-established disciplines
(sarvatantrasvatantra) underline the rational evolution of Indian philosophy
and its uncompromising attitude to contrary thoughts either independent
of authority or proclaimed to be dependent on the verbal testimony of the
Vedas or the gamas. A bewildering variety of opinions held within a
system, for example, in the schools of Buddhism and the Vedanta of
akara and sharp divisions amongst orthodox systems, all supposedly
relying on the Sruti, confirm our faith in independence of intellectual
tradition of India. This is further corroborated by the evolution of both
theoretical as well as experimental Sastras (scientific treatises) many of
which are secular in character. The grammatical system of Panini
illustrates the scientific precision and rational capacity of Indian mind.
Much of the scientific literature dealing with mathematics, astronomy,
geometry, physics, chemistry, metallurgy, architecture, sexology, town-
planning, arts and crafts etc. is still lying in manuscripts. Developments
in science and technology in advanced countries have overtaken us but
we need not import philosophy also. The philosophical tradition of India
is strong and formidable but should it not ask new questions and raise
fresh doubts about the validity of a thought-system? This can happen
only if we engage ourselves in legitimate adventures and encounters with
foreign thought. Professors of Philosophy in Indian Universities who
have no communication and dialogue with traditional Indian thought and
the Pandits who do not understand modern developments in philosophy
should join hands in the new intellectual adventure. I am glad to report
that the Indian Council of Philosophical Research and the Rashtriya
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 29 30 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Sanskrit Sansthan have held seminars on Navya-nyaya, Mmasa and
Kashmir aivism in order to initiate the dialogue between the Pandits
and the Professors of Philosophy. Sustained effort in this direction and
inter-disciplinary approach by co-operation of teachers of philosophy in
the Deptts. of Sanskrit and Philosophy and traditional Sanskrit scholars
in the Pathashalas are bound to open up new vistas of philosophical
speculations. It might also lead to lay the foundations of universal thought-
system based on analysis of ontological, epistemic and other issues and
problems of hard core philosophy.
Another equally important and urgent task which will help than
hinder the growth of comparative philosophy is the preservation and
furtherance of such philosophical systems that are not better known or
are being neglected in our traditional studies. Kashmir aivism or gamic
philosophy falls in this category. The number of scholars well-versed in
the schools of Mmasa and Navya-Nyaya is also declining very fast.
Besides, orthodox Vedic schools and the heterodox systems of
the Crvka, Buddhism and Jainism we have mid-position of the schools
which believed in the authority of the aiva and Vaisnava gamas and
the Samhitas. The followers of gamic tradition are generally speaking
independent of the Vedic tradition of thought. This may be explained by
briefly referring to their basic points of view regarding the nature of
reality, status of the world, nature of the self and his pathway to freedom
as found in the monistic school of aivism developed in Kashmir primarily
by the trio of Somananda, Utpala and the celebrated Abhinavagupta.
According to this system ultimate reality, spoken of as Siva, is invariably
related with the powers of consciousness, bliss, desire, cognition and
action. He manifests this Universe through his supreme freedom of action.
He is the supreme knower and free agent (karta). He does not merely
shine like a crystal but is also self-aware unlike it. The universe is his
reflection which he manifests at his will and command and is one with
him. He is not dependent on any external aid for reflecting the universe
which is united with him with all its manifest diversity. An individual is
essentially not different from him. He enjoys the same powers, albeit in
limited extent and degree. Like him, he creates the world out of his
imagination. He is free to create the world of his choice. This He does so
in his dreams where the objects of bewildering variety shine forth without
losing their unity with the mind of a dreaming subject. He also does it as
an artist and as a thinker. As a reformer he changes the objective world
by his powers of knowledge and action. The self-reflective consciousness
is also identified with the highest form of speech (para vak) which is the
ultimate source of spoken language through intermediate stages of the
pasyanti and the Madhyama where distinctions of subject and object,
word and meaning, begin to appear gradually and indistinctly leading
finally to their concretisation at the last stage of the Vaikhari. Relation,
direction, time, space, succession of events are manifested by the reality.
The diversity expresses freedom of thought and action of the ultimate in
which it is rooted and united at all times. A limited and hence imperfect
individual has to recognise his forgotten perfect nature in order to discover
and realise his hidden potentialities. It is not, therefore, knowledge of the
unknown and the novel but it is recognition of his ever-present self covered
with the accidental impurities. Pratyabhijna is the way to self realisation.
Pratibha or Pratyabhijna is also the means for comprehending meaning
of a sentence where individual words are recollected at the time of
comprehension of a sentence.
Pratibh means in this context shining (i.e. comprehension, bh)
into an individual responsible for recollection of momentary syllables or
words. Every action, such as pacati, represents a group of complimentary
and preceding actions done in the past finally leading to the expression,
pacati, in the present tense. This signifies unification of several past
actions through recollection with the perception of a present action which
gives rise to the expression such, as Pacati. Similarly, realisation of the
self is a case of Pratyabhijna i.e. of the recollection (smarana) and the
perception of the true nature of the self obscured by a veil of self-created
ignorance, the supreme self is remembered and then perceived in one's
own self. This philosophy of unity of consciousness and action, praksa
and vimara, posits its unshakable faith in the freedom of action, in the
reality of self-willed manifestation of the world and shows the way of
recognition for discovering the potential self. Salvation, according to
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 31 32 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
this system, lies in full display of ones hidden powers
(svasaktyabhivyaktata moksah). Samkhya believes in the different
substratum of consciousness and activity, Vedanta of Sankara regards all
activity illusory in character and defines the consciousness as devoid of
any action or change. Change or modification, according to him, is false
and unreal. The Nyayavaisesika does not regard either knowledge (Buddhi)
or action (prayatna) as the essential nature of the self. Buddhism does
not believe in the principle of unifying agency of self. For the
Visistadvaitavadin powers of knowledge and action do not constitute the
substantive as these are dependent epithets. It would therefore, seem that
the gamic schools represented by the thinkers of Kashmir advocated an
independent thought which deserves our attention for its philosophy of
freedom of thought and action. While its contribution to aesthetics is
better known, its stand on moral issues, is not fully understood and
appreciated. It is significant to note that the Kashmir Saivism did not
sanction Sannyasa as a way to spirituality nor did it accept the eightfold
yoga of Patanjali. In fact, it had its own system of Yoga which is influnced
in such works as the Spandakrik and the Vijnanabhairava. The Agamic
tradition made no distinction on the basis of birth in a high caste and
admitted even women of lower caste in its religious rites which were
esoteric in nature but were performed more in groups of individuals than
only by a single individual. The Agamic philosophy of Kashmir also
developed as a result of its interaction with the Buddhists whose theory
of momentariness was accepted without giving up its basic stand on the
nature of reality, with the Samkhyas whose twenty-five categories were
admitted with necessary modifications with the grammatical philosophy
of Bhartrhari, whose thoughts on Sabda-Brahman, Svatantrya, Vak and
Pratibha were quoted with approval and due criticism, with the Vedanta
whose conception of Maya was included under the obscuring power of
the supreme self and systematic consideration of other schools of thought.
Kashmir remained a secluded sanctuary after 1339 and it strained itself
to protect its mysticism and philosophy. Now this system is engaging
the attention of international scholarship. The publication of the out of
print works of Dr. K.C. Panday and of the Tantraloka of Abhinavagupta in
eight volumes will give further impetus to comparative studies in philosophy.
I have spoken briefly about redefining our attitude to religion
and philosophy so that they serve the needs of the suffering world facing
the dreaded prospect of self annihilation. The best way to save the world
is the path of active spirituality and profound insight into philosophy
through interaction with new ideas and a continuous encounter with the
issues so that the truth may be revealed.
+rrrr +rr. rtrrr rtr r`r+rtr.+
Let noble thoughts come from all directions
(Hand written

2. Philosophical Writings in Modern Sanskrit


This paper does not attempt a comprehensive survey of Sanskrit
writings in our times on philosophy nor does it claim to deal with the
representative philosophical writings in Sanskrit. This is a very modest
attempt to deal with some works known to me accidentally as there is
dearth of proper and authentic information, lack of library facilities and
easy unavailability of the material. Perhaps the Sahitya Akademy could
rectify this situation by preparing bibliographies subject-wise so that a
clear picture of goings on in various modern languages could emerge for
the benefit of less privileged Indian scholars.
stra is a key concept for understanding organisation of religious
and secular ideas into Sanskrit texts which evolved in intellectual circles
through predominantly oral tradition in India. A theory of knowldge which
is basic to a stra has certain peculiar characteristics:
(i) It believes in the validity of word revealed or otherwise as a
source of knowledge. Indian cultural tradition positing faith in efficacy
of word re-inforces this belief.
(ii) Any stra is discovery of pre-existing knowledge. This
underlines the importance of tradition of a discipline which has a long
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 33 34 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
history of ideas than its formulation or rather interpretation by an individual
author. Hence the mythical origin is always invoked.
(iii) Individual authorship is not denied but impersonalised
revelation of truth or its institutionalised formulation is underlined. This
explains anonymity or near-anonymity of authorship of the stras.
(iv) Dates, chronology and biographies of authors are uncertain
and ideas, opinions and their competitive co-existence are more important.
(v) There is manifest anxiety to show rootedness or unity of
knowledge than to emphasise its novelty or divergence.
(vi) Each stra is related to man and his destiny-through a
scheme of fair ends of human life.
(vii) The language of a stra is Sanskrit-which gave it a Pan-
Indian character by transcreating regional terms into a refined and polished
Idiom. Sanskrit is the word or idiom for an all-India understanding of
contents and ideas which may have originated in the circles which did not
know or speak Sanskrit. ........... (Incomplete).
(Hand written

3. trtrrtr r`rrrr rrr ar -arrr rr orr rr


ii-i -i zi-i i ii -i ii ii i`-icii iii t -it -ii -i-i-i i`-ii-ii ii -i
t: it -ii-ii-i ii-i ~ii`ii ~ii`-iziiii`-iii -iti t: iii`-i (-i :iii-i ii :iii`-ii
-i-ii~ii, -ii`-i-i i-i -izi-i iiii iiii~ii -i i`-ici :iiii -iii`t-i -iii -ii zi-iii
-i ii-iii iiii~ii ii ~iii.ii -i i`-ici ii iii ii ii iti it-ii tiii i`i
zi-i i ii -i -i-i-i ii -iiii (iii`iii ti t: ~iii i ii -i ii ii-ii-i i
i. i`-i<iiiziiii i-i i`-ii-i ~ii-ii -i.-i. -ii-i-i ~iiii ~ii --iii i`zii--i-ii
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ii -ii ii -iii ti-ii t: -ii, iii ii iii ~ii-ii --i-i-i ii-i i -iii-i -i
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:ii-ii-i ii-iii zi-i ii ~iii.ii, i`t-i ~ii-ii ~i-i i`i-ii ii-iii iiii -i -ii`-i-i
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~ii-iiii ii ii-ii ii --i-i ~i-ii`-i ii ii -iicii ii -ii iiii -i -iii`-i-i -iti
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~ii`iiizi iii ~iii-ii iii`-ii`iii -i t: -i-i-i i`-ii-i ii :-i -iii -ii-iii`zi ii
-zi i ~iii i ii ii -ii t: -iti :ii-ii-i ii -i-i-ii-i -i ii-i ii -i-i t:
-ii-ii-i-i: ii-iii zi-i ii i`i-iii ~ii`i:iii -i-i-i -i -ii`-iiz izii`-ii
i`-i--i-i -i t, -ii i >izi ci-i -ii-i ~iii`--ii zi-i -iii -ii ii -i -ii-i-i -ii-i
-iii`--ii zi-i ii i :i-ici >ii`iii -i i`-iiii`i-i i`iii ii-ii t: ~iii`--ii zi-i -i -iii,
-izii`ii, -iici-iii, -ii-ii-ii, -ii--i ii ii`ii-i ti-ii t -iii -iii`--ii zi-i -i
-ii-iii ii -iiiii-i, i-i -iii iiz zi-ii ii: :-ii ~ii`-ii`-i ~iii-i ii -i-i-i-ii
i ~iiiii`-i ~i-ii zi-i, -ii-i (-i zii-i zi-i t ii i`-ii-i ii -i -i --i-i-i tii
-i-i ti-i i ii >ii`-i -i ~ii-ii -ii-ii-i -iii`i-i i-i t:
:i-ii zi-i ii i`-izii-i -ii-ii t ~ii -ii-ii-i-i: -it -ii ii iii`ii, -ii`-i,
iii, iii ~ii -iiii~ii -i i`-ii-i tii i`-iii`-i-i t~ii t: i<ii`i ~iii`--ii zi-i
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iii --i-i-i -iii -ii-i-ii ~ii`ii -i`-i-i tiii: >ii`-i-:ii-iii ii -iii i-i i ii
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t: --ii zi-ii -i -ii -ii zi-ii -ii -iii zi-i ii iiz zi-i -i ~i-i-i-i -iii, -i-i
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-ii--i -i-:iiii i ~ii-iiii i-ii-ii, -i--ii, i`-i-iii -iii -i-i ii i-i-ii ~iia
zi-iii`ii -i ci-i ii i-i i-ii :i-iii`i-i i-ii t i`i -i-i-i i i`-ii-ii -i zi-i
i ii -i i`-i--i-i ii --iii-i-ii, --i-i-i-ii -iii -iii`ii-ii ii i-iii cii t: >izi i
-ii-ii -i -ii ii i-iiii -iti iii t: ~iii`--ii zi-ii -i ~iii-i -i -ii-i`-i-ii -ii
t~ii ti t --i-i ii ii -iii`--ii zi-ii -i i`-izii-i: iiz zi-i -i t -i-ii ~iii`--ii
zi-i ii -i-ii-ii i: (i ~ii -i ii i`-i-i ~iiiii --i-i: :i-iii iti ii ti ii -ii
-ii ~ii -ii-iii i-ii -iti`i iti -ii it ti ii i`i -i i -ii-i i-ii t- ii, i-i
~ii i` -izii-i: :-i -iii` --ii ii -iii -i ci-i i` iii: --i -ii ii` i ii -i--i:i -ii-ii:
:-ii i` -ii -i-i zi -i-i iit i -i ii-i ii ~ii-i -ii-ii i zi -i i tiii t -i :ii-i ti -ii t :
:-i :iii i` -i--i-i ii :iii-i-i ~ii -i i` -ii -iii` i-i i-ii -i -i -i i` -ii-i ii :i-i ci -i t :
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 35 36 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
i`-i--i-iiii~ii ii i`-ii`-ii-ii~ii ~ii ~i-ii iii`ii i ii-ii ii ii-ii`i
-i-i--ii ii i-ii ii-iii zi-i -i -ii -i ti t: iii (i zi-i ii -i zi-i ii
ii`-iii ii -iiii-i -ii-ii ~ii-ii ~ii`iiii ii iii-ii i`-i ii -iii i i -i ~ii-ii-
~ii-ii i-ii, ~ii-ii-~ii-ii ii ~i-iii-i i ii it iti iii i`i -i--i-iiii-ii ii
~ii`--i-i -ii (i ti-i i iii -iii -iii (i ~ii ii-i t i-i i`i -iii -ii`ii -i-i:
-i -i-ii-ii t-
-rr rr r r` -rrra r(r rr r` rrrrrrrrrr rrr +
rrrrrrrr rrrttrrrr`tr rrrtrrrrrr r++
:-i -i-i--ii ii-i-ii -i i-iiii -iii ii i-i i`iii i -iii ti --i-i-i-ii
(-i i`-ii`-ii-ii ii ii ii ii: :-i zi ii i`-ii`-ii-ii :-i-ii ~ii`ii ii i`i --iii -iiii
-iicii i-i ii :i-ii izii`-ii ii ~ii-izii-ii ii: -iicizi-i -i :iii`-i ii i-i
i`-iiii iii ii -itiiii -ii-i i-iii -ii-ii--i i -it~ii`--i--i -iii -iti-i--i ii zi-i
i`ii: ~ii-iii zii -i iii`-i, -ii`--i -i-iti ~iii` -iii iii -i-ii ii i`-iii iii`i-i
i :-i-i i -i--i ii :ii`-ii ii -iii`i i`-ii`-ii-ii -i i iii r rrrrr`ttr r`rr&rr-
-ii-ii (i, ~i-i, i`-i:iizi iti -i ii-i ii ti -iti ~ii`i-i i`-ii i`-ii ii (i-ii ii
ciiii ii -ii-ii: it (i-ii ii ~i-i ii i-i -i-i i`-i--ii -iii ~ii-i--ii t: -i-ii
-ii` ii --i, i`-ii`-i (-i i-i i`-i>iii`--i ~ii-i- -i t: iiz-iii iiii i ~i-i-ii :ci
-i --i -iti t: +rrrarar arrr rrrr`r +rtrrr`r rrtrrr`r +rrrar rrtrrr`r
rrrr`tr, +rrra trrr`tr +rr`+rr`rrrr`tr:
-ii-ii--i -i i iii ti iii :-i -ii-ii--i ii ti i-i i`zi-i ii zii`-i ii
i`-i-ii-i -i-i-i ii :iii ii i`-ii ii ~ii-i--iii -ii-ii iii -i -ii-i i`-iii iii: :i-ii
ii-i ii i`-iii iii`i-i i-ii -i-i-i (-i -i-izii`-i-ii-i ii ~iii i-ii-ii t: ~i--i, -iii
i`-ii, ii ii i`ci-ii t ~ii ii i`ci-i i ii i t -it -ii i`zi-i t: ii-ii--ii i`zi-i
it-ii ii` -i`-i-i -iti -ii-ii -ii iiz -i iti i`i -ii i ii -iii i`-i-ii`-i ii zi-i it
-ii iiii`i i-iii ii zi ii ii-ii--ii ii ~iii-ii--ii ~ii ii -ii-ii -i iii-ii aii
-iti t:
:i i i`i-ii ii :i ii i`-i-i -i--i i i -i -ii-i i`i-ii -i-i-i i i`-ii-i -i
ii-i -i i-i ii ii`i-i-ii ii ~ii zi-i ii i`-iii-i i`iii: zi-i--ii-i zi-i ii
ii`-iii ~i-iiiii~ii ii i -ii iti it-ii tiii i`i -ii-i-i ii i`-iii`-i ii i`-ii--ii
-it --ii t: -it --ii t~ii t ~ii-i i-ii i iii: -it ii t ii tiii --i i --ii
~ii-i i-i--i ii ii tii: it i`-i--i tii: :-ii i`-i--i-i -i i-i i`-izi--i i`ii t ~ii
-ii` ii -i--ii i-ii--i ~iii` i i`-izi--i --ii ii :ii`-ii-i t: zi-i iii -iii`ii
tiiit -i i-ii t ~ii`i-i -ii-i-i -ii-i -i ~ii-i ~i-ii-i-ii`-i-i i`-ii`ii i-i-i ii-ii t-
i`-i<ii -i ~i-i-i--i ii :iii`-i ti iti -iii ii i`-izi--i t: -i-ii ~ii -iii ii (i iii`
t- trtrrttr tr rr rrrr`. r`rrrrtr -r r`rcrtr+ r trrrttrt r`rrr`&rtr trtrorrrrr`rr
r`rcrtr+
~iii i ii-i ii i`-ii ii ii :ci ii -i-ii t --i-i -ii`-i i -iii -iii-i
-i -i-i-i ii i`-ii-i ii`i i-ii -i--izi-i ii i`-i--i i`-iii`-i-i i-ii t- i-ii i`i
-it (i zi-ii i-i -ii i-ii ti t -ii i`-ii`i-i ti i`-ii ii i-iii tiii:
(ttrr`rrr`artr, +rrrrrrrrrrr sarrrt, rrtrr, -- rrrtr, {~

4. srrrrr
i`-iii`-i>i-i-i izii`-iii`zii-ii -i--i-i-iti-i :iiiii`izi-i(-iiiiii) -
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~ii -iiiiii iiii-izi -i-iiiii-ii i` -i ii -i -i -iiiiii zi -iziiiiii -i i` -i-i-ii
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i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 37 38 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-i-i-iiii`iii:, -i-i-iiiiii -ii-ii-iii -ii --ii i`-i<i-ii-ii-i --ii-i-i -i ii`i`-i--ii`--i:
~i-iii-ii`i i`iii-iii`-ii-i-i iii: i-ii iiii-iziiiiii-iizi-i -it -iii--i -ii
(-i: -ii -i-ii-ii-iiiiii ii-izii i :-iiiii`-i: :ii`-izi-iiii`iziii -i ci-i ziiiiii
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ri` i` -iiii i -i-i ii-iiii ~i<iii` i :i-iiii` :i-iiii` -i-i -i-i :i-i-i -ii-ii: :iii i
iiii-iizi i` -iii-ii :i-iiiii :ii-i :ii-i--i : iiii-izi -ii : i -i iii i -i
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ii--iii -i-iiii-i ziii--i :i`-i i`-i-iii -i-iiii`i -iii`-i: t--i, :-ii-i -ii-iii
ii-iiii-i, --i-i-i--ii-ii`iiiiiii`i`-i i`-i--iii iiii-i -i-ii`--ii`-i -ii`-i-i-ii-i: r r`
trtr`rr`atr r`arrrrtrrrrrr`-r+
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ii-iiii`-i--i-ii-iiii: --i-i-i:i`i zi ziii`-i-ii -ii iii -i-i-i-ii-ii -i-iii`-i -i
i -i : ~ii -i ii-i ~i-ii ~ii` i ii` i-i i` ziii ziii` :i-i -iii` i--i-i-iii -i-ii -i:ii ti-i-iii i` i` -i
-ii ~ii`i i`-i-iiiti:: ii`i-i-i-i-i-ii-i-i, ii-iiiizii`-iii-i-i-ii-iii`i:, ii-
. ii-- zi-i-ii-i ii -i -i -ii-ii-ii-iii` i i-itii i -i :ii . iii i-i, :ii . (-i.ii . i :-iici-i
-i -i-i--i -iiii i`-iii -i -itiii-i -i--i-i-itii-i :iiiii`.izi-i-i`-iiii i`-i-ii
iii-i i-i rra rra rrrtr tr-rrrr :i`-i -iii-i iii-i-i :ii-ii iii :ii-i-i-i:
-i-i -iiiziii-ii`ii-i ---i-i-iiiiiii-i-i-ii-i -ii-iii, -iiii-ii-ii-iii`-iii
-i-ii`--ii, i`iizii-i-i-ii`ii-i iiz-ii-i>ii-ii ~i-ii-i -i i`i -i-ii`ii`iii iii
i-i i :ii-iiiii-ii` -i--i-ii-ii:i-i -i-i--ii` -i` -iiiii :iii--ii: -i i -i-i -ii zi -iziii
-ii -i -iii` -iii` -iii -ii` i -ii -i ii-ii` i -i -ii -i -i i-ii -i-iiii-i: (i -i-i -ii--i-ii ii-i
iii-i-i :ii-i-iiii--i, i-itiii -ii :iiiiii`ii-i: ii-ii`ii`-i-ii (ii
~ii -iiiiii` -i ~ii -iiiiii --iii -iit-i , ~i-i-ii -i -i -ii` ii ii` -ii -i-ii --ii` -i-iii-i
:iiii-ii-i: -iiiiiii`-iiiiiii-i-i-iii`-ii`i-ii -iitii-ii-i: -i-ii-iii`zi
iiii--iii-iitii i`-i-iiiii iiiii-ii-ii-i -ii-i iii`a-i -iii-i-i-iiiii-i -ii
i-izi: ~ii`i-i-i:iiii i`iiii-i-ii-ii`-i--i-iii-izi -i :i-i-i -iiiiii ii`-i: -iiii`i
i-i i -i -ii-i i i` i-ii-i i` -i-iii` -i-izi :i` -i iiaii-ii :ii` -ii ia-i -i -ii ii` -iii` -i: -i -iii` -ii` i-ii
i-i-ii-i i`-i-izi-i --ii -iii-i-ii`i`i-i, ii-ii-i -i itiiiii-i-i: -i-i (-i ii
i-i-i-i i-ii`-i--iicii-i, :iiii--i, ziiii-ii -ii`-i-i-i-ii -iii zi--i: -iiii`i -i-i
-i-ii-i -iti-iii --ii :iiiiii`-i: -i-i-i :ii-i -cii`-i-iiiii-ii-iii`i ii-ii
zi-i : zi-i : ii-ii` iii i-ii ti -iii` -i--i: (-i--i -ii-i-i-i` -i-iii` -i-i cii-ii
-i--iiiiitiiii`-ii`-ii-ii :ii-iiiii-ii`-iii -i-ii-ii-i-i -i -iiii`--i: iiaiiiii
i-i :i-iii -i -ii-i:
i . iii i -i --iii i ~ii-i ci :ii` -iiii` -i i-i i ii-i-i -i iiiii -i-i:iii iii` --iiiii
iiii: i-ii-i-i i-ii -iii--ii-ii-ii-i`iizi-ii -ii-iiii`-iii`-i>ii-iii -i-iiii`-i
ii i--iii` i -ii` --i: iiiii` -i-ii-ii i -i-ii -i:iz-i-i-ii i -i-i i -i -i -ii:
:ii-ii -iii` -ii-ii-iii i` -ii-ii ziiii-iii iii i` i-ii-ii, iiii-izi -i:i-iii-ii
-i-i-iiiii-iiiii`ii-i -i-iiti, ~i-i -i-ii`-iii ~ii-ii ~i-ii (-i i:i-ii`-i-iiii iiii:
-ii-iii`-i -ii`--i: i`-ii`-iii -ii--i-i-i-iii i: -iitii-ii-ii`-i, --i-i (-i -ii iii-i
:i-i-ii: :iiii--ii ii`i-i-i-i-i-ii-i, ii-iiiizii`-ii-~i-i-i-ii-iii`i-i, .ii-
:ii`-ii-i, ii-iiiiiii-i-ii-i, i-:ii-ii-iiiiiii -ii`ziiiiiiii -i -i-ii-i, ii-i-
-itii`-i<ii-ii:, iiiii--i-iiii-i-i-ii-i -ii-ii ~ii`iiii`ii -ii`-izii-i--ici-iti`--i:
ii-i iii`zii`-i--i-ii-ii -i-i-i-iii-i-i i`-it-iiii i`-i--i :i-ii`-i-ii:
~i<iii` i -ii i-ii :ii-ii -i i ii` -i i ii -ii` -i: ii-i-i -i-ii -i i` i ii` -ii
izi i` -ii:iz-ii-i-ii -ii-iii-ii --iiiii` --i, -i-iiii-i -ii--i iii` --i: -i--i -i
~ii-i-ii`t-ii-i-i-i<iii`i :ii-ii-iiii`zii-iii`i-i-iiiii -i-i-i-i-i, -ii-ii: -i -i-ii:
-ii-i iiii--iii`-i-i-iiii-i--iii`i ii`i-i-iii-i: :ii-ii-izi-ii-iiii-ii ii`-ii
>iiii-iiizii-i-itiii -ii-ii ~ii-i-i: -i ci-i :ii-ii-ii -i-ii-ii:, -i-ii-ii -i :ii-ii-ii:
-i--i: :ii-iiiii-ii -iii : i-i-i -i i-i :-iii-i-i : t--i, :ii-ii -ii -i-iii ii --i-i-ii i` iiii
ii`iii`zi-i--ii-i -i-ii-i :iiizi-ii-i-i-i-i -i i`-i-ii:: ~ii ii-i--ii: -ii
-i-ii-i:
:ii. i-itii: --i-ii-ii-iiiiiii i`-ii`ci-iiii ii`-iiiii ii-iiizi-i-i
i` -ii` -iiiii` -i-iiiiiii` -ii` -iti-i-i ciii-ii -i :i-i i` -i ii-i zi-i -i-:i-i -i i i` t--i
ii` ii i:i-ii--i -i :ii` -iiiii` -i: ~ii -iiiiii ii-ii izi -i i` -i-i zi--i:
iiii-izi-iizi`-i:i-iii -iciii: :iiii iiii-i-i--ii`-i--i-iizi`-i, -ii`i-ii`-i:iii-ii
-i :iiii-i-i --iii-i ii-iiizi-iii`-i i`-i-i-iii`--i: ~ii-iiiiii`-i-ii: iiii-ii: (ii-ii
-ii) -iii iiz-ii:: ~i-i (-i -i -iii-iiii:, iiiii-ii i`-ii`ii`-iiiii: -iiiiii-iiii
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 39 40 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-ii-i-ii-i-i-iii-ii -i i`-i-i-i-i ii`ti`--i: -i-iiizi-i -iii`-izi-i -i iiz-ii-iiz-ii
ii`i-ii-ii ii-iiiizii`-iii-ii i`-i-i-iii-ii -ii-iiit-i: :i-i-i cii`: (-ii`ii-i
:ii-ii -iii` -ii -i iii` iiii: -i -i -i -i --i-i-ii` -izi-i -iii -ii-i -i-i -i ii-i zi --iziiii-i i -ii-i
-iii-ii-i --iziiiiiii`-iii-iii i`-i--i :ii-i--i: ~i-i (-i -iii --i--i
i`-iii-ii--ici--i --i:ii`-iii-ii-i--i -i i`-iii`--i: ii-iiizi-i iiii-iii :ii`-iiii-ii
i` -i ii i` -i-izii --i iiii-i-i--ii` -i--i-i ii i i -i -i-i iii` i-iii :i-i-i --i :
-i-i-ii--iizi-i-i-i-iii-ii-ii i`i`i ii--zii-ii, i:t--ii-i-ii`-ii`-i>i-ii
-i -i-ii-i -i -i, ii i` t zi ii -ii-i-ii` -ii` -i>i:, ~i-ii -ii ii-ii i: ii` icizi i` -ii:
iiii-iizii`-ii-i-i-i :i-iii-i, :i-iiiii`ii-i -i: -i-i (-i iiii-iizii`-iii`-i-iiiiiii
iiii-izii -i-i-ii-i :ii-ici-i-i-i-i :ii-i-i ~i-i-ii--i-i -i-i -iii-i ii--i -i
-i-i-iii-iiii-i :ii` -ii` z -i i : ~i-i -i i-i ii-ii ii-ii ~i-ii -ii --i cii i` -iii-i-i ,
ii i`t -i-ii`-i iiiiii`~-i-i i`-i:i-i--ii i`-ii-iiii ii`ii-i: ~i-i-i -iii ii`ii-ii
ii-iiizi-i i`-iizi-i-ii i-iii--i-i i`-izi--iii -ii -iii`--ici-i, -i -ii -iii-i:
-ii-i--i-i--i-iii`i`-iii --izi:ii-i-i-ii izii`-iii`-i--i-iizi`-i: iiiiiiizii`-iii-ii
-i -ii :i-i i` -i: -iti : i` i--i ii-ii ii-ii iiii-izi -ii` -iii-iii ii` -i--i-i-ii ~iiii -ii-iti` -i:
-i -ii -i ii -iii-i -i ii` -i-i i` -i-ii :ii-ii` -i: ~i-i (-i ii-ii ii-ii iiii-izi -ii i -ii--ii` -ii-i-ii-i
-i-i -i-iii-iii`-i: ii`-ii i-i: :ii-ii-iii-iiii`-i--i-iiii-ii-iiiiiiiii`i-i :i-i-ii::
:ii-ii-ii ii-iiii i`-i--i-i:iii-ii iiii-izi-i:iii-ii-izii i`-i<i-i :i`-i -i: -iiii`i-ii`-ii-i:
(ii --i-i-ii -i-i-i iiii-izi-iiii, ii-iiii -iii`--i i`-iiii iii i`-i<i-ii-ii iii:
iiii-i zizzi-iii -iii`--ii-i-ii--i -i ii`ii`i ii-iiiizii`-iiii`-i-i:: -i-i -i
-iii: :ii--i: iiii-i-i ii-iii-i -ii zi-i-i i`-iii-ii:i`i -i -i-iii`-i:
~ii` --i -i -i ii i` iii ii` -ii-ii ziii` iii -i i` -i-ii` -ii ii-ii ii
izii`-iii`-i--i-ii-ii: -ii i`t ii-iiii`-i--i-iiiiii i`-iii-ii -i-ii -i-i-i-i --i-i-iii`-i
:iiizii--ii :ii-ii-i-i-iii`-ii-iii-i-ii-i -i-ii-izi-iiiii`-i: -i-ii i-i-i -iiii`iii:, ~ii
-ii-ii-iii:, ~i-i -i -ii--iii`zi-i-iiii: --i-ii-i-i-:iiii-i-ii --i-i-iii`-i ziiiiii
i`-izi--iii-i iiii-i ii`i--ii i`-i--i iii`zii-ii i`-iii-iii`--i: zii-iii, iiii`i:
ii` iii -ii -iii-i i i -i it ii-i -ii i` ciii-iii, -i-i --ii i -iiiiii -iii ii i` -i-iiiii
-i ii-ii`-ii`i-ii -ici-i-i ii-iiii iii`zii-ii izii`-ii-i-:iiii (-i--i ~iii ii)
i` -iii-i -i i -ii-i -i: ii` -iiiii iziii` i:i` -i-ii` -iii -iiizi i -i-izii
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izii`-iii`zii-iiii:--iii`i-i :i-ii`i-iii--i: -ii -i it-ii :ii-ii-iziiiiii-ii i`iziii-i-i
i -i i` --i: -i-ic zii -ii-ii i` -ii` -iiizi i` -iii` -i-ii-ii` ii :ii i` --ii` i-ii-i -iii -i -i -i -i ii` i` -i--ii` --i:
-i-ii`i iiiii ii-iiiizii`-iii-iiii: iiii-izi-ii-iii -it -iii`--ii: -i-ii
~ii-izii: rra rra rrrtr tr-rrrr.+
(-i--i-i -i-i -i-iii, -i -i-iti i -i ii` i-ii` -izi--ii: :-iici --iii-i :ii` -iiii` -i-i
:iiiii`.izi-ii`-iiiii`-izi--i-i ii-iiiii ii-iziii iii-i-i i`-i-iiiii -i-iiiii`i-ii
i-ii i-i i`-izi--i-i -iii-i -ii-ii-iii -i -it -i-i-i ii-i -i-i-i:: ~i-i i`-izi--i-i
~ii-iiiiii -iiii i`-i-ii :i--ii -i--i -i-i-i-ii-i<i iiii iii iitii-iiii-ii i`-iii
-ii`-ii :iii-i :ii`i-i i-i i`-i-iii-i-i i`ii`~-i-i -iiii -ii-i: -i-iii-i-i -i ~ii-iiiiiii
-i-i-i-i -i-i-i-i, -i-i-iiiii-i -ii-iiiiiii-i-i-ii-i -i-i-ii i`-ii`t-ii: (i
i`-ii`i--i-i--i -i-ii-i iiii -i-i-iii`i-i::
iii-i-i :iiiii`.izi-ii`-iii -iiiiii iiii: i`i i-i-ii-iii`i`-i :iz-i: -i-i-iiii-i
-i ziii-i: -iiii`i ii`-ii -i-iizii`-ii-i-i-ii-ii i`-i-iziii-ii--iii -i-i--i -i :ii`-ii
iii-i-iiiii-iii`-ii-i: -i--i i`-i-izi -i`--ii`i-ii-ii :iz-ii-ii i-ii`-i-iiii iii-ii-ii i`ii:
:i-ii ii-ii-i, -i -ii-ii-i-i-ii-izii-ii -ii i` --i-i ci: :ii ii i` izi-ii` -izi--i: iiii-izi i-iiii
iz-i -ii i` i--i ii-ii iii -i i` -i-i -i -iii iii i` -i-ii: -i --i-ii i` -i :ii` -iiii` -i:
iiii-ii-ii-i -ii -iii iii ii -ii-i -iii ii -i :i-i-i -i :ii` -izii` -i -i: -ii--ii:ii ii i` . . izi-i-i -i
-ii-i-i i` -iii:, -i -i -iii ii -i i` -ii<i-i -ii-i-i:: -iii i-i -iii -i i :i-iiii-i :
ii-iiii-ii-i-ii--i -ii-i -ii`-ii-i-i-i iii-i i-ii`-i: (i-iii`i ii-i -i -iiii
iii-i : -iii` -izi--iii : i` ii--ii-i i` ii--i iii i ii` -ii` -i -iii i-zi-~ii --ii-i-i` -iii-i-
-iii`:i-iii-ii -i-i-ii--iii`-iz-iii-i i`-ii i`-i-i-i ziii-i, -ii-iii: (-ii ziiiii-i
-iii-i-i i`-i-i-i-i-ii-izii i`-i<i-i: ii-iiizi-ii ziiiiii`-iii`iii -i-ii iti :iii-i:
~ii -ii iiii-iiii` -i i` -iz-i iii--ii zi -i-i ~ii -i` -ii ii` -i-ii-i -i it -ii-ii-i-i : i ii-i-i
-iiii iii :ii-i-iiii-i-zi-i-iiii-i i`-ii: ziiiiii`-i-iiii :iii-ii-ii`-i -ii-i
-i-ii:: -i-ii`-i-i-i--iii`i i`-i-i-i i-itii: --iii`-iiiii-i: i`-i--iii -i-i :-i-i:
:iiiii`.izi-ii`-iii -iiiizi-ii`:, -ii-ii-iii`:, -iiii`:, ziiii--ii`i
-i -i i -i i -i -i i zi -i : zi -i i ` --i i i ` -i : i i i ` -i -i -i i i ` :
iiii-i-iiiiiii`-i-iii--ii-i-i-iii`-i, iiii-ii`-i-ii -i ii`i-i :i`-i -ii:i-ii -ii-i
:iii-i-ii :ii`-ii`i--i-ii iiaii-iii`-ii`-i:
(SAVDA, ICPR, MLBD, 1991)

i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 41 42 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(


5. Introduction to Mms studies
Massive and unique contribution of Mms to the philosophy
of language, hermeneutics, exegesis and semiology to the philosophy of
religon, epistemology and above all to the philosophy of pragmatic active
life affirming continuity of cultural tradition remains important for the
intellectual pursuits in the world of knowledge and culture. Its influence
on other branches of learning in India is formidable. No system of thought
can be properly and comprehensively understood without a reference to
Mims.
Reserch papers by eminent pundits and scholars include in this
felicitation volume in honour of my friend Dr. Mandan Mishra, who is
known for his basic intellectual interest in Mms, are devoted mainly
to analytical and critical exposition of its theories, focusing attention on
its relation to other disciplines and presenting a comparative study with
similar Indian and Western speculations. This is perhaps the first
international intellectual adventure of its kind which is bound to generate
fresh thinking and create right perspectives in the field of Mms.
Studies in Mms in this volume take it out of its traditionally
recognised narrow confines of ritualistic interpretation of the Vedic
sentences and make it part of the global phisolophy of language and
religion. It is difficult to put the papers under neat classification or water-
tight compartments yet, broadly speaking, these have been arranged under
three Sections: 1. Phisolophy, Epistemology, Ethics; 2. Language,
Meaning, Grammar; and 3. Hermeneutical Essays.
G.P. Bhatt in his article gives a brief statement of the non-
ritualistic and purely philosophical ideas and doctrines found in the works
of Mms, more particularly its leading thinkers, Kumrila Bhaa
and Prabhkara.
John A. Taber advances arguments of Kumrila against the
Buddhist denial of the existence of objects outside consciousness. He
emphasises Kumrilas assertion that the reality of the external world is
revealed directly by our perceptions and other cognitions. This is based
on the theory interinsic validity of knowledge (svataprmya) which is
a unique contribution of Mms to the theory of knowledge.
Those interested in the philosophy of religion will find certain
discussions here quite exciting. Peri Sarveswara Sharma makes close
textual study of the Sambandhapark section of Kumrilas lokavrtika
denying creation and dissolution of the world along with a refutation of
the theories of Vaieika, Nyya, Skhya and Vednta.
A paper by Lars Ghler in comparative phisolophy examining
the similarities in the philosophical concepts of Kumrila and K.R. Popper
regarding verification and falsity of cognition underlines contemporary
significance of Mms epistemology.
The injunctive nature of the Vedic sentence presents a pragmatic
paradox, argues Shlomo Biderman, which makes it possible to remain
innocuous by opening new possibilities of understanding the role that
interpretation plays in religion. He distinguishes it from the Semantic
Paradox found in the monotheistic context.
Tomoyasu Takenaka explains the relation between liga (vypya
or pervaded) and ligin (vypaka or pervader) and the Shityaniyama of
the Bha School which establishes this relationship. In his view this
notion of the Bha School is larger than that of Vaieika or Dharmakrti.
Self-revealed nature of the scriptual knowledge
(Vedpaurueyatva) which is a basic concept of the epistemology of
Mms is critically present in the light of Buddhist objections in a
paper by J.M. Verpoortan.
The philosophy of activism, as expounded by P.T. Raju in a
paper reprinted here is a strong rebuttal of general notion of Indian ethics
as life-denying or advocacy of inaction. The paper will prove affirmation
of life in Indian thought leading to the national regeneration and
international co-operation for global peace.
Hajime Nakamura demonstrates that a Western notion, such as
Kantian categorical imperative, could be applied to the idea of niyoga in
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 43 44 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
the Prbhkara School. He suggests that anapeko vidhi or anapek
codan found in the philosophy of Prabhkara and the Nyyakaik, a
commentary by Vcaspati Mira on the Vidhiviveka of Madana Mira,
could be an Indian equivalent to the western idea of categorical imperative.
The notion of Niyoga in Prabhkara may have been influenced by the
spirit of maitr and karu set forth in Buddhism as a categorical imperative.
This is an important contribution to the study of comparative ethics.
According to Purushottam Bilimoria, the autpattika (relation of
word with the meaning from the very beginning) thesis offers semiological
insights from de Saussures work and their extension in the writings of
the contemporary French philospher Jacques Derrida.
The problem of getting at the particular meaning of a sentence,
from the universal and removing incompatibility in the context, is set
forth and a solution suggested by K. Kunjunni Rj by expounding two
forms of Abhidh according to the Prbhkaras and two operations of
Laka according to the Bhas. He also draws attention of the scholars
that the Ttparya akti, is nothing more than the sasargamaryd
accepted by the Navyanyya school. The theories of abhihitnvaya held
by Kumrila and anvitbhidhna and important contributions of semantics.
These are variously explored in the papers. Thus, for example, the theory
of prior existence of a meaning whole is comparatively brought out by
Harold. G. Coward. And again how a simple word Vara standing for
phoneme or sound has been wrongly translated as Letter is exposed by
Albrecht Wezler with a penetrating and in-depth study of the texts and
translations.
Sri Ramchandrudu points out that according to Kumrila grammer
cannot intervene to get at the real meaning of a word of a sentence. Its
usefulness is restricted to knowing the correct word to be employed in
the performance of sacrifice. Purposes of Vykaraa enunciated by
Patajali in his Mahbhya are roundly refuted by Kumrila as of no
help for the interpretation of the Veda. This is a significant debate to
establish independence of the exegetics from grammar which is primarily
concerned with the determination of correct word and its formation. It
cannot govern its meaning, intention or interpretation.
The views of Prabhkara, Prthasrathi Mira and Khaadeva
on the meaning of the khyta are expounded by a great traditional Sanskrit
Pundit Peri Sryanarayan str in his paper in Sanskrit. He favours the
opinion fo Khaadeva according to which fruit and operation, phala and
vypra are conveyed by the verb root, and bhvan in the form of action
conducive to the meaning of the root is conveyed by khyta. Kumrilas
postulation of aprva and Bhatharis theory of Sphoa are compared to
discuss how the words convey the meanings in a relation which is unborn
and eternal and is not man-made, conventional or even divine.
The paper in Sanskrit by renowned Mmsaka, Padma Bhushan
Pt. P.N. Pattbhirma str, the gur of Dr. Mandan Mishra and Chairman
of the Editorial Advisory Board, who was snatched away from us by the
cruel hands of death before he could see the publication of this volume,
establishes that the nyyas (maxims, principles, rulings of judgements)
developed by Mms to determine meaning of a scriptural sentence
are applied by other disciplines and can be significantly used even in the
judgment of worldly transcations.
Application and extension of a specific nyya, namely the principle
of apaccheda, is pinpointed in the texts of Dvaita, Advaita and Viidvaita
Vednta by N.S. Ramnuja Ttcharya in his paper in Sanskrit.
Francis X. Clooney, S.J. present continuity and difference of
Mms in Vednta by articulation of properly Vedntic mode of
exegesis in the Vednta Stra 3.3. The Vedntins employ upasahra
in their interpretative movement between a reorganisation of
Upaniadic knowldege based on the Mms functional
systematization of the Veda and one based in part on the fact that Brahman
is the known object of that knowledge, its referent. They argue from the
grammatical sense of the texts and from their reference, and to highlight
upasahra, as one of their key Uttaramms principles.
Kunio Harikai after close examination of the text, Arthasagraha,
by Laugkibhskara, concludes that the threefold classification of
arthavda, a statement or explanation of the meaning of a formula or
prayer (mantra and vidhi, injuction, in a Brhmaa text) into Guavda,
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 45 46 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Vidhiea and Niedhaea would not be derived from the Mms
school but from the Vednta school or some heterodoxical Mmsakas.
Equally interesting is another paper is Sanskrit where Batukntha
str Khiste presents the views of an original thinker of 17
th
century
C.E. Bhskararaya to show that the Mms exegesis can be applied to
the gama texts and the worship of rvidy can be explained in the
Vedntic mode of Brahmavidy. The rootedness of the gamas in the
Vedic tradition is shown here with necessary textual connections and
their fresh and novel interpretations.
Yudhisthira Mmsaka has for the first time given a
metaphysical interpretation to the Avamedha sacrifice.
In his paper on Mdhava as a Mmsaka Haruo Kurata
establishes through an initimate and close study of the relevent texts that
Mdhava, the author of the Sarvadarana-sagraha, Jaiminyanyyaml
and Prara-mdhavya is neutral to both Kumrila and Prabhkara
whereas Syaa, his brother and well known commentator of the Vedas,
is a follower of Kumrila. Such questions, important for the history of
Mms, are also incidentally dealt with by other scholars while dealing
with the problems and issues of hermeneutics, philosophy of religion,
epistemology or inter-relationship of Mms with other disciplines,
Vykaraa, Vednta, Skhya and so on.
Johannes Bronkhorst adduces textual proof to establish that
Bharthari used a text of Mms older than abaras Bhya, most
probably BhavadsasVtti which contained verses found in Bharthari.
In the context of ritual details Bharthari draws upon practical manuals
of the Maitryayas.
As against this, Kiyotaka Yoshimizu argues that although
Prabhkara insists that the fulfilment of obligation is the real interest of
Vedic injunction, he also admits like Jaimini and abara, and unlike
Bdari whom he generally follows otherwise, from the viewpoint of human
motivation that the act of sacrificing is a means to and therefore
subordinated to the desired result.
K.T. Pandurangi illustrates the logic and methodology of
Mms followed by akara in the field of dharma-jna at the stage
of avidy and application of its principles, even in the case of Brahmajna.
What is true of Vednta is also equally true of Tantra, Alakra,
Dharmastra and other disciplines.
There is no branch of learning and no movement of thought and
action which did not interact with Mms. Much work still remains to
be done in this area of research. Contemporary philosophers of language
and theorists of knowledge may discover fresh insights in this system of
thought which has remained largely unexplored for its hard-core
philosophy. This volume, one should hope, will mark a shift from pure
ritualism to speculative, epistemological, hermeneutical concern and inter-
disciplinary significance of Mms which would become part of
universal thought systems.
(Introduction, STUDIES IN MMSA Dr. Mandan
Mishra Felicitation Volume, MLBD, Delhi, 1993)

6. trttrrrrr
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( :.) -i -iii-iii`-ii-ii-iiii`zizi-iiiii-i: :izi i-ii -iz-ii-i-i (---:.)
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-iii-ii-ii -i-iii` i ii ii ii-i ii` i` i-ii:
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i-i-i i-i-iizii`-ii`-ii`i it -iii`zi-i:
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. :iiiii`-ii`z: (-iiii`-iiiii ii-ii -iii-i -iii`iiiiii -ii`-i-i:):
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i -i -iizii` -iii-i :ii` zi -ii i -ii--iii i -i-i -ii` -i i` i-i iii` ii i i -ii:: -i-ii-iii -i i i -ii
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ii`-iiiii-i i`izi-i-i ii`i`ziiiii (-ii-iii-i -iiti--i iizi-iiii -it
ziiiii i`-iii-i -ii-i: -i--i -i-i (-ii-iiiiii-i: iiiiiiii (ii-iiiiii -ii)
ii:i-ii-iiii -ii` --i iiii-i ~ii-i -ii-i zi , -ii -i iii i -i-ii ii-i
-ii -i zi iii-ii-i-
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iizi-ii-i-iii-iici-i :iii`--i--i-iii-i -iii-ii-iiii -iiii ziiii -i i-ii :ii`-ii
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i i--i: (-ss : .) -ii t-ii i` iiici ii-i : i-ii-i ii -i -i i-ii-iii -i -i i -i ii--i -i
iiiit: -iii` --ii i i -i iii i iii` --ii i -i i` -izi--ii i i (i ~ii-iii : i-ii-i :iii` -ii` -ii -ii :
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 49 50 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-iiii -i -iizii` -ii ii-ii i t-ii i-ii -i -iii-i-iii` -i-i-iiiii-i i` zii -i-ii` -i:
iiz-ii--iii`iiiii-ii -iii: (ss :.) :ii-i: i-i-iizii`-iiiiii ~ii-ii-i:
i<ii`i iiiii-i-ii-i-iii--i-ii-iii-iziiii`-i :ii`zi-iii`-i, -iiiiiizizi-ii<ii: i-i
i-iii` i-i-iii iiii -ii-i -ii i-ii-i : i zii iiiiii-:iii-ii i` -iiii iiiii: (-=s
: .) ii` -i-iicii i iiziii: ii<i -ii-i-iiii-izi ii ii-ii-ii i -ii -ii-ii :-i i` :-ii -i -i-i :
-i-ii-iii-i ~ii--iii`ziz:, ~ii--i-i--ii`-i-ii-i -i ii:i`i -iii-ii-i: (-i-i-i
:iiiiiiiiii-i (--s :.) -i-i-i -iiii-i-iizi-iii`i ii-ii i-ii ~ii`i iii
-iii-ii--i: :i-i-i ii`-iiziiiiiiii-i-ii`-i-ii iiiiiiiii:: iziiiiiiiii:
-ii-ii-iiiiiii: (;-s :.) :iiizi-ii--ii iii :iiiii-i: :ii`-ii-iicii-iiiiii-ii
iiii-iiii i iiii i` -ii` zii` -iiiiii i` -i-i -i-i zi-i : ~i-ii: :iiizi-i iizii -i -i -iii-i-ii-iiii
i`i-iii`iiiii-i-ii-iiiiziii-i-i: ~i-ii: :iiizi-iiciiii: -ii--ii--ii i`-i-ii`-i>ii
(--r :.) i-ii iii, iiiiaiii -i i-ii i-iii-ii--ii :iiii`zi-ii iiii-ii-i:
-i--ii` -i--ii-ii` i-iicii-ii --i--ii iiiii: (;=- : .) -ii-icii i iiziii i` -i
zii`-i>ii-i-i -iii -iii-i: -i--ii`-i--ii-ii`iii`i-iii`i-ii i-iiii`zii-ii`i: (=-
: .) -iiii -i -iizii` -i-iicii i i` ii` -i-ii--ii :iii ii -i : ii<iii` i iizii -i-i--i-ii i-i-ii --iii-ii
ii i` -ii` ii i ii` i` i-ii: -i-iiii` i-ii zi ii` -i>i: (-ss : .) ~ii-ii icii ii:iii-i -i
:i-ii i` -i-i -i : i ii-i-i` -i<ii-iiii zi: (--s : .) i` -i-i i-ii--ii i iiziii: -i -ii` -i-iiii` i-ii
iiiii-iii: (r-s :.) i-i-iizii`-i-iicii -ii :i`-i iii`-ii`i-ii`-ii`i-iii-i:
ii i -i-iiii iiiii -i (r-s : .) i -ii i` iii iii --iii-ii :-i i` :-ii i` -i<i-i : ~ii` --ii -i
ii-i ii--iii`-iiiii iiii-iii-ii-ii :ii-i-iiiii--ii`i: :iiii`zi-ii iii -iii-i:
iii-i-i`-i<ii-iiiizi--ii-iii`-i-ii i`-i-iii-ii-i: :i iiizi-iiiii-i-ii-iiii--ii`:-ii:
i`i-ii-i-i-iiiizii-i-i-i (=ss :.) i-ii ii-i-i -iicii-iii`i`-i iiii-iii-i-ii-ii -iii-i:
-iiiii-ii i -i i -ii -iicii i i ii` -iii` -i<ii-iiii-i-ii-iiii--i i` :-ii:
:-iii-ii-i-ii`-iii-iiii (rss :.) i-ii ii-i-i -iicii-iii`i`-i iii`-ii`i-i-ii-ii
-iii-i: i`i-ii-i-i-i-i (ss :.) iii:-ii`:-ii -iiii-iii--iii-ii -i-ii-i:
i iiiii` -i--iii` -iii: (= : .) zii i-iicii -iiciiziii, ii
iii`-iii-ii-iiii iiii-i-iiiiii-i-ii-iiii -ii`:-ii: -ii-i -i-:ii--i-iii-iiii (ss
: .) i -ii i iii` i -i-i (-i -i i` :-ii: -i-:-iiiiiii-iii i (ss- : .)
i-i-iizii`-iiiii i`-ii`-i-i-i: ii`z -iici-iiii-i-ii-iiii--ii`:-i-i: i-i-ii--iiiizi-iii
(rs :.) i`iii iizii-i-i-i-iii-i-ii-iiii--ii`:-ii:
i` -i zii` -izi-ii<ii-iii i` -ii ii-i -ii-:ii` -ii i` -i i` : i -i -iizii` -i-iicii-i` -i-ii ii-ii
-iit -ii-i ii` ii-i-i : (-i-:i-iiii -ii: -ii` --i ii --i -ii -izi ciziii` iii, --i-i -ii ii-ii-iii i,
-ii-i-iii -i-iiii-iii i, i` zi-i-i-:ii` -i -i, iii-ii t-i--iii` -i-ii, ii-iicii-iii-ii -iiii zi -i,
~i-ii:i-iiziii`iii, -iti-itiiiiiiti`tiii-ii`-ii`-ii -i i-ii -iicii::
i-i-iizii`-iiii`iiiii-i -iicii-i -iii-i-i--i-ii: (-ss :.) iii,
ti`i-i-iiii-iii-i (rss :.) -iiii-iiiiiii`iii -iicii, ti`i-iii-i-ii
-iiiiii` -i>i i (r : .) i -ii -iicii, -i <i-iiii -i -i i -ii -ii iicii
ti` i-ii i-i i` -i-iicii, ii --iii` -iii-iii i -ii -i -iicii -i-ii--i : (-i-i -i i-ii:-ii-i ii -i -i
(rss-=ss :.) ii-i-iiii-iiii (r-s :.) iii-i-iiiizii-i-i-i (r-=
:.) i-ii: iii`ii-iicii ~ii`i -ii`:-ii ~i-ii`:-ii -ii i`-ii`--i:
-i i-i-i -ii`-i--iicii-iiii`ii -iiii-i-iizii`-i: i`-ii`: -i-i-i:
--i-i-iii-ii`-i-iii-iii`i -ii ~i-ii: :iiii-i:: -iii i`t :i-iii:i-ii-ii-iii ii-i:
iiii ii i-ii -ii i` -iii` iii` iii i` -ii` i-i : i-iiiit -i -i -i-i-iiizi -ii ii` i -i :
ii~ii -i-ii-ii-i :ci-ii-i-iii-ii-ii-i i`-iii i`-ii`-i-ii :i-iii:i-ii-iicii -ii-i-i
-iiii-i-iizii`-i-iiciii-iiciii-ii --ii-i-ii iiii`-i:
i-ii zi-i-iii-i`-i -i-i-iiii, :iii`ziiiiiiiiziii-ii -i-ii`-i -ii`ti`--i,
~iiii-iiiiii--ii`i -iiii-i-iizii`-i-iiciii-ii -i-ii-i-ii -ii-i: ~i-i :i-iii-ii`--i
>iiiiiii-i-iii`-ii iiii-i-ii-i -it -iicii-ii -iiii-i-iizii`-i:: i-i :iiizi-i
=; -i-i i`<i--ii -iiii-ii-i-ii`-iii`-i<ii-ii-i: :iiii`zi-iiii iii-iiiii-ii-i-ii-iiii
-i-ii-i-i : ~ii-iii i` -ii ii` -izi--ii` zii -ii` i-ii i -ii ii` -i-iicii i` t-i i ii
-iici-iii`-i<iii-i-i-iiii-ii-i: :iiii`zi-ii iiiii`ii iii i-iii i`-ii`-i: :.ii. ii-i-i
i -ii ti` i-ii i-iiciii -it i -i -iizi-i i-iiiii-i -ii (ii -ii` -i zii` -izi-ii<ii :iiizi -ii` -i-i::
-iti-itiiiiiiiiii-iiiii`-iii-i :ii-i--iii-iizii-i-iii:i`i ~ii-iiiiii -; -i-i
-ii ii`iiiii :iiii`zi-i:: iiiiiiiii i-iii-ii-iiii-ii iiii-i-iii iii-i: -
-i-i i` <i--ii :iiii` zi-i:: i` -i-ii i i -i: :ii-ii` -ii i--iiii-i -ii: r i` <i--ii i -i-i i` :-i::
~i-i ii-i-i -ii`:-ii:-ii`:-ii-ii iiiii-ii-ii i-i :-ii ~ii. -ii--iii`-izi-iii i-ii
-i:i i i` -iii` -i<ii-ii-ii - i` <i--ii :iiii` zi-ii zi -i-izii (:ii-iiiiii` --iii): ii-i-i
-i i` :-ii ii-ii i` -ii` -ii-i -iii-ii i` -i-iiii -i-ii iiii-ii-iizi i -i :-ii ii-i . (-i. ii -
-i-iii`-ii :--ii.i-iiiii`ii ~iii :i`i-i i`i-ii-iii (i. ---;):
-iiii-i-iizii`-iii-i-ii-iiii`-iiiii :iii-i -ii-ii-i: >i-i-ii-i -i-iii
:i-i-ii:i ii-i:-
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 51 52 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
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tra rrrr r` rrr&rrrrrrrrrrtrrr rtrrr rrr rrrr` -rarrarr rrtr ++ :-i -i --i:i--ii-i-iiii
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-it ii-i-i -i i-i iiii--i ~ii ii` -iiii` -ii-i-iii` i` -ii` t-i--i-ii--iii` i-i :: izii-ii-i-iii i:iii i
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rrrrcrtr rtr., rrrrrr r` rtrrtr :i` -i -i i--i-i i :i--iii -iii` -i: -iiii` i i tii: (: i-i)
ii-i-i --i -i i-i --i -i -i i` i-i-i : ~i-ii -i -i i--ii` -iz (-i ii -iiii ii` zi -ii` ziii i` -iii-i-i :
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i -ii-ii , izi-i -i -ii cii-ii -i-iii` -i :iiii-i -i cii` -iii` -i :i-ii--i -iiii-i -ii iii iiiii-i:,
~i , :ii-iii , ziii` -i-i--i , -i i-ii ii i i--i-i , ii-ii i` -ii` zi zii` -i:, :i-iiii-ii i` -i-i -i-i-i ,
:i-ii-iii-i, :i-i :i-iii--i-i, ~izii-ii-i ii-i-i--i-i, ~ii-iii`i:iii-i
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i-i i i` -ii-i:: -ii -i i -i i i-i: izi-iii i` -i:ii` -iii` -i:- +rrrr r` rrrrtr
rrtrrr rrtrrrrtrr+rrrrtr , +rrrrr` rr rrtrrr rrtrrrrrr rrtr +rrrtr ,
tra+rrrrr arrtrrrrrtrrrrtr , tr-r :r` rr trtrrtrrrrrtrrtr , trttrrrrr trrrrrr+rrrr--r:
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t-i:: i`i-iiii`i -ii-ii-iiiii-ii-i: ~iiiii-i -ii-i :ii-i: i-ii-iiii-i-i-i :ii`-ii:
-i--i: :i-i-i--i:-i-i-i--ii -ii-iii`-i-i: (-i-iiiii-i -ii-i iiii-i-iiiii-ii i-i -i--i
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i` i-iii` -ii-i i i-i :ii--iii` ii` -i i -i : i-i-iiii-ii-i : i i` -ii i --i-i-ii i-i-iiii-i::
i-iii`-iiii`ii--iti ii-i: (-izi i`i-iii` ii-i :ii--i-ii`-iizi i`-i-iizi--ii-i
iii-ii-ii-ii`i`-i t--i--iiii`i ii-i -it-iii-i i`-ii`z::
i<i-i i-i-i -i-itii-ii :i`-i -iz-i-iti: iii`iii:: (-i ii`-i-ii-ii
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~iiii`-iii`-iiii`-i-iti-ii`i`-i -ii i--i-i t-i-ii -i-iti-:iiiii-ii-i i`-ii`z::
:i-ii-i: -i-iiii-ii-i :i-ii--ii`-iiii-ii-ii -ii: -i-ii ~iii-iii`-i-:iiii:i
iiii ii -i i: :i-iii--ii-i :i-iiii` -i-i , -i i-i -ii-i iiii ii-i :i-ii--ii-i :i-iiii` :i-ii-i-i
:-i-i-ii-i-i :i-ii-i: :ii`-ii`z::
>i-i-ii-i: -iii -i -ii: -i-i-i:iii-ii: -i--ii-i ii-i -ii-i iii :-i-iiiii`-ii`-i
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-i i-i --i -i ii` -ii` z::
-iii iii` -i-ii--ii-i :-ii :: -i -iii iii` -i ii i iii` i -iii i--ii-i
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-iiziii-ii-i i`-ii`z::
-i ciii` -izi i:i-iii i-ii` --i-i : ii ii-iii-iii i-ii` --i-i ciii` -izi ii-i , (-i
ii ii-iiii ii-ii` i--i-i ciii` -izi iii` -ii :: (-izi ii iii i ii` -iii-i-ii :-i--ii-i ,
-i--i ii` -iii iii iii i i--ii-i , -i--i iii -ii-i i -i -i i-ii : i :-i-i -ii-i -i ii` -ii` z::
i`-iii`-i-ii :-i-i-i :i i`-i-i-i-ii`-iiii-ii-ii`-ii`z::
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 53 54 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-ii -ii-iiii: -i-i--i t (-i ~ii--ii, -i-i-i -i -i-i-i-i: tii`-ii`-i: ii`ii--ii
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+rrrrr`rrrrtr rrtrrrrrtrrrrtrr+rrrr i`i`-i i-i-i-ii-ii-i--i iii (-i i-i i-ii`-i:
~i-i: i-iii-iiii`ii-i--i-i i-ii-ii-i--i-i -ii ii`i -iii`--i :i`-i -iii`-ii`z:: ii`
i-iii-ii--ii-i ~i -ii-i i`ii`zi -ii-i, -ii -ii`ii-i-iii :i: i-i-iii`i: ~i-i-i
-iii`--i, -ii :i-iiiiii-ii-i: :i`-:iii`-iii--ii-i -i -ii-i :i-iii`-iii-i: -ii-i-ii-iii`i
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-ii` i-ii` -i-i-i-i-ii-iiii -i-i-i -ii-i -i --ii i-i zii i-i , ~i-i -ii-i-i -ii:ii-iii
-iii -i-i i -iiitiii -iii ii-ii-i zi-iii` i -iii` --i :ii-iii-i : ii` iii iiiii-i: :ii-iii` ii:
-ii-i -ii i` i-iii` i-i --i -i : ii` -ii` z: -i ziii: i i` i-iii` zi -i :i` i -i -ii iii --i i` -izii` -i:
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i`-iii-i--i -ii-ii-iiii: ii-i: -i-iii-i -i-ii-ii-i -ii`-ii :ii`-iiiii`--i: : -i -ii`-ii
iii-i--ii -i i`-iii`i-i ziii-i, -ii`-ii-i iii-iii iiii-i--ii`-ii-ii-i: -ii
iiiiii-i:-i-i iii-ii>iiiii-i: ii` ~i -i -ii-i -ii`t -i ii:i`i i-ii-ii
:i-i-i-i: :i-i-i--i -i itzi: it-iiiii-i-iii iiiii`ii-ii`i i`zii:: ~i-i-ii-i :i-iii-i-i:
-ii`i-ii-izii-i i`t ~i-i-ii-i-ii:ii-iii -ii-iiii: -iiiii`--i, -ii:i -ii`i-ii-izii:
~i-i-ii-i-i--ii -iicii:: ii-ii--i zii--i -i i`-i-iii: -ii`;i-iii: -ii-i--i -i :i-iii
-i i-ii` -i: -i--ii-i :i-iiii` -ii` -i-i-i -ii-i-ii` -i--iii` i ~i ii iii i-i -i: -ii` i-ii-i zii -i t -ii -i
-iii-i--ii` -i-ii` i ~i-i -ii-i :-ii` -i -i -i-i : ii-i :-i i -i-i -iii i --ii , ii-i-iii izii i :i` i
--ii i` ii-i (-i: -i ci-i ~i-i -i -i ~i-i: ii` i-i --ii` -i :i` -i ii` i-i -i ii-ii t-ii` -ii` -i:
--iii-i-i (-i:
-ii-ii-iiii: ii`i-ii: ~iiii--i-ii-i:: ii` ii`i-ii iii--i :i-ii -ii-ii
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:i-i -ii-i i`-i-ii:i`i i-iii-iii-ii-ii-i -ii-i-iii`-i -i -i-iii-i :i-i-ii ~iii-i:
-ii-ii-ii-i-i i`-iii-i--i ~ii-iiii: -i-iiiii-ii i-i--i iiii--izi -iiiii`--i:
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(:ii) :iii-i--ii-i -itii-iii`iti-i--ii--i :i-iii-i:
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-iizi i` i-ii` i -i--i -iii` --i: -i i -ii:i` i iii` i i iii` i -ii -i-i -i: i ii :, -i zi -i-i ii-i-iii` i
-iii`--i: ~i-i: -i-i-i: ii: ciiiii`i-i:: -i ci-i :i-iii-ii-i-iiii`i-i i`-iii:-i-ii-i
:i-i-i-i: ~i-i: :i-iii-ii-i-iiii`i-i--ii-i -ii-i-ii-i-i :ii`-ii`z:: i-ii -iii zi-i ii i`t
i-ii i-ii` -i -i zii i i-ii` -i, : i--i ~izii i : ~i-ii :zii --ii-i -i ii` -ii` z:: trrr rrrrrrarr
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-i ~i-i i-i-i-iii i: -iii -ii` -i ~i-ii i` -:iiii-iiiiziii -ii-iiii-i: :i-ii -i: ~i-i:
:i-iii-i i-i-ii-i : iiii-i :i` -i ii-i-ii -i-i , : i-i :i-iii i-i-iii i--ii--i: zii iii-ii-i
:iiii-iiii-ii--i :i i-i--iiii-ii-i-ii-i ~ii>ii-iiiiii:i-ii:: -i-iiiii ii
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~iit-ii: -iiii`ii--iii-ii-ii-i:i`i -ii :i-iii -i --iii-ii`--i: i-i: :i-i
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ii i-ii -ii -iii`--i: ~i-i: :ii -i :i-iii-i: :i--ii-izi -i :i-ii: ~i-ii-ii`-iiii -ii-i
:i-ii i-ii`-i: -i-i-i-i :i-i -i i`ii`zii`--i ~i-ii-i-i: i-i -ii-i iii-i -i-i :i-ii i-i-i,
:i-i -ii-i i`-i-i--iiii-i<i-i -i--ii-i :i-ii-i -i :i-ii, -iii`i :i: :i-iii-i:
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:i: --iii-i-i (-i i`iii>ii-i i-i--ii-i: ~i-i: :i: :i-iii-i: ~i-ii-ii`-iiii -ii-i
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i`i-iii`i-i--i-i -i-i-i: :i: i`-iii`-i: iiii-iii-iiii-iiiii-ii i-iii`i
: i:ii--ii -i iii-i : i-i ii -i-i:ii--ii-i--ii` -ii-ii-i : : i-i ii-ii -i :-iii` -i -iii ii-ii` i
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i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 55 56 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
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i ii -iiii -i -iizii` -ii` -iii-iicii >ii -i-ii ii ii -iii-ii i` -i-ii i -ii: ~i-iii iiii:
i-i-iizii`-ii`-iii-i :i`-i -i-ii ii`iii-ii -iii-i: rrtrrrrrrr. r`rrrrtr (:ii-ii)
+rr-rrrrr-rrrrrrtra r`rrrrrrrr (=- i izi-i i<i) :-i--ici-iii`i iiiii:
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ii`iiiii i`-ii` -iiii`i rrrtrtrrrrr`rrrrrrrr r`rrrrrrrr-rrrrrtr trrrrrr
(i =r) :-i-i-i -iiii-i-iizii`-ii`i`-i -i-iii`i -i-ii-i:
iii-i:ii-ii`-i<ii-i-ii-ii-i ii t--i-ici: :ii-i--ii ~i-i ii-i-i -ii-i
i -i -iizii` -iiii` iii` -iii-i :i` -i -i i` -i-i-i : :ii-i i i` iiiii -i -i i` -iiii i` -itii iii` iiii
-iicii-ii-i :i -i -ii:i` i -iiii : iii -it--i-i ci-i --iiii--ii i` iii-i :ii-i --iiii--i
i-i-iizii`-iiii`ii i`-iii-i :i`-i, i`-iii--iiii--i i-i-iizii`-ii`-iii-i :i`-i, -i-iii--iiii--i
-iiii-i-iizii`-ii`-iii-i :i`-i -i-iiizi-i--iiiii--i -i i-i-iizii`-ii`-iii-i :-ii-ii-i:
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iii -; i ~i-iiiiiii: i`-i-ii-i :i`-i -ii-i i`-ii`-i: -i--i -i-i: :i-iii: -i-ii-i:
>ii ii --iii` -ii-i i i: >ii ii ii -iii-ii -ii i-i: i` -iii iii >ii iii` -i t-i (r--
rr= :.) iiii-ii-i ~ii-ii`i`ii (~ii-i :i`-i :icii-i) i-i-iizii`-i-iicii-iiii`i`-i
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>rrrrrrr-rtrrr`trrrrrrr rrar r`rr trrrr+
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~ii-iii -i-i-i -ii--i-i-i-ii -ii: i-i-iizii`-iii-i-i :iii-iii-i: (rs--s
:.) -ii ~i-i-ii-i ziii-i:
>ii :-iii-ii-i-ii` -ii` -i i-iiii` -izi--iizii-i-i-i i i i-ii ~ii-ii -i : ~i-i -i
ii-ii` -i-ii-i:, i -i -i:, -i -i-i-ii` -i-ii :i` -i ii-iii , i -i -iizii` -iiii` iiii , -i--ii` -i--ii-ii :,
-ii-ii-i-iiii`i-i:, iizii`iiiii`i-i:, i`iii-i-ii:iiizii`-i-i-i: iii-i--ii`-iii-i
i`-iii-iiii-i, -iiiii-i, ~iicii-i-ii-i -i~i-ii-i -i iii i`-ii`-i-ii ~ii-ii`ii`-i
iizii ii -ii--i-i -iii-ii (i`iti iiiii ii`i i. -=--) ii-i-ici-i -iii-i:
~ii-ii-ii i`-iiiiii iii`-it-i i-izii-ii: ii-ii`-it: (-=r-r- :.) iiiii
zizii-i i-i :ii-i ii-ii`-i-ii-i-i i`-i-iii-ii-i-
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(ii-i-ii-ii, z-iii ;)
~i-i-i iiiiii --i-izi-i ii`-ii: iii--i i`-i-ii`zi-i:: -i-i-ii-i ~i-i i-ii:
i-ii-i-ii: >ii-iii`-ii: -itiii-i ~ii-ii-i, iii-i-iii`i-ii -iziii: i-ii iii:
ii-i:: (-i-i-i-i-iii-i i-i -iziii: -i-ii iii>ii-ii`-i--i: >ii-iii`-ii-ii--iii
i-iiii: -iii`-ii-i --ii-ii-ii: ii`-iii-iii: -i-i-ii-iii i-iii: -iiii-i
-i--i-iii`-i-i -i--iii`-ii-ii-i -i-i :ii: : trrr`atrrrrrtrtrrrrrr`-r :i`-i iia-i
-ii-i rrrrrrr` trrrrrrrtrrrrrr` -r i` -ii` -i iiai -i -iii-i : i -iiii-i i i: ii --ii-ii -ii-ii
~ii-ii -i ii -ii-i-ii` -ii` -i i ii-ii i --i ii: -i-i -i ii --iii` -ii-ii--ii: >ii ii ii -iii-ii -ii
:-ii i ii -ii : ~ii` --ii -i -itii i i -ii i` -ii -i -i-i -ii: -ii i` -i>ii i ii-ii-ii -i i` -ii i` iii-ii-ii
ii-i -iii: (i-i :iiizi-i ii-ii-ii i-i-iii-i-ii-iiii >ii i ii -i-izi-i -i-i -i i` -ii -i-ii<i
i-i-i:) -ii-ii :i`-i -ii--ii i`-icii-i -izi -i-i-ii: >iiiii: i-iiii-i -i-i:
>iiii-ii-ii-i iii ~ii-iii`i`-i -ii`-iii`iii-i: -ii-ii<i: -i-i-i: >iiiiii-iii-iii`-i-i:
i`i-i-i-iii ~ii`i -i-i-iiii`iii ~ii-ii`ii`-i -i-izii:i -i--i-ii--ici-i-i i`-ii i-ii`-i:
-iii i`t- qr&r rr`trrrrrtrra. rrrrtrrr-arrtr rrtrrrrrr`-rtr:r`rr r
orr` trr` tr` tr r` rrtr r-rtrr. ii-iii :-i i iiiii :i` i i` zi-ii-i ~ii-ii i` i` -i
:ii-i-i-iii-ii-ii<iiii -i-ii--iiii--ii<i-i -i -i i-ii`-i: ~ii`-iiiiiii-ii-iii-ii-ii
i`-iii-iii i-ii -iicii -i-iii-iiiiiiii :i-i-ii: ii i`t -i-ii`-ii-i-iiii ii`-i-ii
-i-ii i` -i-ii ii` -i r-i-iiiiti` --i: -ii--ii ii` r-i i iii` -i-ii -ii ~i-ii iii: i` -ii` zi-i -ii
iii: -ii-i--iii`-i :i-ii: iiii-ii :iii`-i: (i. -=):
iiii-iii-iii`-i-ii iiii`-i-ii-i iii, zii-iiit-i, ~i-i -i i-i-i ii-ii
i`-ii`-i-ii ~ii-ii`i-ii`i ---ici: :iii-i:
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 57 58 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-i-ii--ii`-iiiiii-i-iiiii-ii :ii`-ii-izi: ~i-i -i-izii-i-izii<i
-iii-ii`-i: i-i-iizii`-iiiii-ii -iicii-ii-ii itzi: ci-i-i ~i-iiiiiii -ii`zii
-iiiziii-i i`-iii-i i-i: -i-i (-i iiii-i: -ii`-ii`i -i-ii -i-izi-i-
rrrrrrrrr ar trr` rr rr arrrr r` tra rr rtr rtr r+
rr-rrrrarr r`rrr>rrtr trr`trr`qrrrrrtrr`tr r`rr`rrr`trrr++ (i. =r)
.......
(rrrrrtrrrr=rr`rrr`rrrrtr., rrrr-trtrrtr-r`rcrrrrrarr, rrrrtrr, {-

7. +rrr`arrt
i`i-ii iit zi-iii`ii -i i`i-i ~ii-iii i i`-i--i-i -i :-i zi i zi-i ii
-i-iii`ii :iiii`-i-i i`iii t -iii i`i-iii ~ii-iii-i-ii ~iii ii i`-i--i i`-iii-izii-i
t, --iii i--i i-i i -ii-iiii ii i ii-ii` -ii-ii iii-i -i -i-ii iitii i i
t~ii ii (i--i = :. -iii i`-i-iii -s :. -i -ii-ii ii-ii t): --iii -ii-i t-
zii-iii: --ti-i zizi-i i :ii-i ~iia -ii -i -iii -ii ii ~iii-i i i`-iii ii,
iit -ii -i -iii ziiii ii -ii-i :ii-i i i`-iii ii ~ii -ii-it-i -ii -i iti-ii i
~ii-ii i`-ii:ii`-iz ziiii-ii-ii-ii ii iii ii -i-ii i i ii ~ii i-ii-i-i -ii -i
iti-ii-i ti ii i:
:-i-ii i-i ~i-i-ii -i i`-ii ii ~ii-ii -iti-i iiii-i -i -ii-ii ii: -ii
-i-iiii i`cii: ii -i-ii: -iti -ii: :-ti-i -i i-i-i -ii--i i ii-ii ii :iii-i i`iii
~ii`i-i ~i-i i`-izi--i i :i-ii i i`-i( zi i i`-ii`ii iiiii ii ii`i-ii i`iii: -i
-i-ii ii -ii-i-i -ii-ii i -iii i`-i--i ziiiii ii -i-ii zi -i ~i-i ii i`-iii-
i-iiii iti i: ~iii --iii ~i-i i`-izi--i ii-iii zi-i ii -ii-ii`i -ii-ii ii-ii t:
--ii-ii i`-i-iii-i- (-i ~i-i ~ii-iiii i -iii-i -i zii-iii ii ~i-i -ii--i -ii-iii-i
ti iii: zi-i i ii -i ti -iti ~ii`i-i --iiii i -iii-i -i -iii`t-i i ii -i ii
~iii`zi ii iiii-i ~ii-i ~ii ~ii`-i--iiii t:
iti ii-ii t i`i ii-i -ii ii ~i-i-ii -i it ii-ii ii -ii -i --ii-i i ti
ii -ii (i iiit -i --i ii i`-iii ~ii -ii -ii -iti ii ii -ii --iii -izi -ii-ii -i
-i-ii-i-iiti i-i ii ~i-i-ii`-i -iti i: i ~i-i-ii`-i i -iii (i zi-i ii i`i -izi -ii-ii
ii ii ii ti-i-ii-i tiii -ii -i-ii-ii ti-i i ii ~ii-iii zi ~ii-ii -ii ii ~i--ii`
i-i --ii ~iiii: :-i i`zizi zi -i --iiii i --i i`-ii-i ii ~ii-ii i-iiii i`i-ii
~i-i-ii -i-ii-ii ~ii`-i -iti -ii-ii:
:-ii :iii i i: -iii`-ii -ii-i-iii :i-i --iii ii-i-iiiii -i i t( t:
i`-ii-ii -i it :ii`-ii`z t i`i zi it-i zii-i i ~ii ii -i -ii-i t( -iii ~i--i -i
-i-ii-ii tii ~i-i -ii--i i :ii`-iiii i-i: it ii (i -ii t i`i i`ii ii-i i
ti-i i ii zii-iii ii i`i-ii ii -i-ii -i i`ii i iiiii`-ii i`-i-ii, cii-i-ii-i ii
iiii i-ii ii -i-i -iti i`-i-i-ii: it -i-i-i t i`i --ti-i ~ii-ii -ici ii-i-i --i
ii-i -i i`i-iiii ti: --ii i ii --i i ti i: --ii i`i-ii-it ii -ii-i i`-iiii`iii ii:
ii-ii` -ii-ii iii-i i ii -i it iti ii-ii t i`i --ii zi ii-ii-i i-ii-i -i
-i-ii ~iii i :-ii`-i( ii-i-~ii` i ~iiii i -ii`-i-i -i :-i ii-i ii -ii-i ii-ii`
ii: zi i i`i-ii ii -ii-i i`zi-ii ii: --ti-i i`zi-i ii ~iiii-ii ii -iiii-i zi ii
~ii-i ii i i -i :ii-i i`iii ii: --ii i`zii -iii-iii i ~i-i-ii :-ii i-i ii
iii ~iiii ii: zii-iii i i -iiiiiii`ii i i`-i>i-i -icii iiii i i`zii
iii`-i-ii-i-ii i:
zi i i`ziii -i i<iii, t--ii-i-ii -iii -ii ---ici-iii t: zi ii
ii-i-i-iiii ii -ii ~i-ii ii-ii ii :iii-i t~ii t i`i-i-i zi- i`i`-iii -iii
i-ii-ii`-i i`-iziii -i ---ici-iii t:
zii-iii i -ii-i -i -ii -i ~ii`ii -i-ii( :ii`-iz t i :-i-i ii: -i-t -iti
i`i --i-i ~i-ii ii`-iii ~iii` zi i ii :iii-i -iti t: ii-iii -iii`t-i ii it
i-ii ti t i`i ~ii-ii ii`-i i :i-ii i i`-i( -icii ii ii`-i --ii ii -ii-i -i i
i`i-ii :ii`-iz ii`-i ii ~ii-iii i -ii-i -i ~ii-ii -i-ii ii -i-ii`i-i i -ii ii: iti
iii t i`i iii`-ii-i i -ii-i -i ~i-ii -i-ii( :ii`-iz ti i:: -ii-i i -ii-i -i ~i-ii
iii--iiiii ii -i-ii ti i:; i-iiii--itiii-i -i :ii`i-i ~izi -i ~i-ii -i-iiiii
ii -i-ii( i`-i--i -iii`t-i--i-i: -i -ii`ii ii iii`-i ~ii-ii -iii`-ii -ii-i cii-ii ti ~ii
-i-ii ii iii`-i-i i-iii ti: ~ii-i -ii-i i -iit -i -i ii -ii-i ii iii`-i-i ci-i ii
it ~ii-i ii-iii :iiii t: i`i-i ii`-iii ii ~iii`zi ii :iii-i -ii-ii ii-ii t, --i-i
i ti-i iiii, ii -iiiii, zi -ii` -iii i iii, -ii i iiii` iiiii, i` -ii -iti-ii-iiii,
i-i-ii-ii-ii`i, -izi-iit-ii, i`iii-ii`-i--iii, iiiiiiii -iii -i-i-i-i: -ii-i-iti
i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 59 60 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
i`-iziii -i ---ici-iii t: -ii-izii ii iiiii`-i--i ~iii` i-i --iii ii ~iii`
zi i -ii-i -i ~ii`ii :ii`-iz t: -ii`-ii, iti-ii -iii ii-ii ii i`-i-iii :i-ii-iiii
iti ii-ii t: i ii-iii -i-ii`-i ~ii i`-i--i-i i ~iiiii-i ii-i t: :-i -ii-ii ii-ii i
iii ~ii-ii iii i`-icii ~ii-i -i-i ii -iii-ii ii ti i`i-ii -i-iiii ii ~ii-iii -ii-i
ii-i ii i-ii ii -iiii-i --ii zi -i ti i`iii ii: :-ii ii ii ii ~ii-iii ~iii,
i-i i`i i-ii-ii, -i--ii, i`-i-iii, -i-i --ii i`-i( it ~ii-izii ti iii i`i
:i-ii-iiii i iii i`-ici ~ii-ii --ii -iii ~ii-i -i-i ii -ii`-i :i-iii`i-i i: :-i
:iii ~ii-iii zi -i :-i ii-ii ii i`-i--i-i ii -i i-ii i`ii -iii`i -i-ii-i i`-i--i-i
~ii-ii i -ii iii ~ii-ii :ii-iii`ii-ii :ii`-iiii`-i i -ii -iii i-ii ~ii ii`-i-i-i-
-i-ii`-i i :i-iit -i i`-i-i -ii:
~iia-ii zi-iii ii ii-i i` -ii` ii -i-:iiii -i i` -ii-i ii, -i -i` -ii ii -iii` --ii-ii
:ii-i ii -iii ~ii-ii (-i -iiii i`-i--i i`zii`i-i ti-ii ii ti ii, i-iii ii ii
t( ii, i-i ii -ii--ii`-ii --ii iii -i i`i iii ii, -iii`ii ~iii i i`-i( i-i
ii i`t-ii-:iii-i -iii`-ii i ii ii -ii-i--i-i-i ti ti ii; :-i ii`i`-ii`-i -i
zii-iii ii :iiii-i t~ii ii: --ti-i i`-iii iti ii i-i-i--i i i -i :ii`-iiii`-i
i`iii: --i i-i-i--i ii -i ii: iii`-i t, -i zi t, -i ~i-i-ii t, -i -ii t, -i i`-i t:
:-iii -iiii--ii ~ii`i:iii it t~ii i`i -ii -i-:iii, iii-izi`-iii, ~ii-ii--ii`-i-ii,
-ii-iii, -ii i -ii-ii t, -iii`ii t, :iizii t, -iiii t: :-i-i -i -ii`-i
i`i-ii ii -iii-i ii ~ii-ii :-i i ~i-i-ii ~ii-ii -ii-ii t i --iii ii: ii-iii`ii
-it--i -iti t: ~i-ii :iii ii i`-ii`-ii-ii~ii -i i t( :-i i`-ii -i i`-ii`-ii-ii ii, -i
ii, :iizi iii`i-i i-ii ~ii i-iii ii :-i -ii-i i i-ii-ii i`-i--i-i i ii -i
(i`-itii`-ii -i-ii`i t: i`-ii`-ii ii i`-iiii i -i-iii itii ii (i-ii ii -iii
~ii-iii zi -i i`iii t- trr arr`rra rr+ -ii-ii--i --ii -i -i-i -iti t, -it -iiii
t i`i-i -i -i-i iti ii -ii-ii t ~ii -i ~i-i-i: :-ii ~ii -i -i-ii i`-iii, -iiii ii
~ii`-i<ii t:
iti-ii i ~ii-iii zi -i ii iii i`-icii t --iii -ii-i t- ziiiiiii:
zii -i t-i -ii-ii ziiii ~iii-i ii-i: :-i iii ii it -i-ii :-i ii-i ii -ii`-i-i
i-ii t i`i iti-ii i -ii`i-ii iiiii -i ~ii`ci-i itii ii (i-ii ii :ii`-iii-i
i-i i i`-i( iti-i--i ii i`-iii i`iii ii, -ii ~iii`zi -i --i iti i -iii ~ii--ii
ii ti ii (i-ii ii :ii`-iii-i i-i i i`-i( ~ii-i iii ii -ii-i ziiii cii -iii it
iii`i-i i`iii i`i ~ii--ii ti iti t- ....... +rrtrrr -r rr: tr-rrrr`tr ii ii iti t-i
t: :-ii ii iti ~ii ~ii--ii ii (i--i i`-i-ii-i ~ii-iii zi -i iii`i-i i`iii t: iii, i
~ii i`t-ii -i-ii ii -i-ii -i ii-ii t; ~ii`t-ii, iii ~ii -iii i ii-i (i ii -i
-i ii-i t, :i-i -i (i-ii ii ~i-iii`-i, :i-iiii-i ii -ici-:ci -i ~i-i ii ~i-ii-i-
+rtr trara.arrr. -iii i-i-ii -iti, ~ii`i-i -ii-i-iii ~i-iii`-i ii iiii t: iti
~i-i ii ii-iii`-i t: zi ii it ~i-i i`-izi--i -i-iii itii ii (i-ii ~ii -i-iii
:iii`iii i -iii--i ii, itii-ii ii izii`-ii iiiii t:
iiz ~ii--ii i ~ii`--i--i ii --iiii -iti i-i: -i ~i-ii--i-iii t: ~ii-iii
zi i ~i-i-ii ~ii--ii --iii`-iz t iiii`i :i-ii -ii`-i ii ~ii-i ti-i ii ~i-ii-i
ti-ii t: ~ii-i -i ti-i ii ~i-ii-i --i -iti ti-ii: it ~ii--ii -ii`--ii-i- t: ~ii-i-
:-iii --ii t; :ci :-iii i`-iii`-i -iti t: :-i :iii zi ii ~i-i-ii iizi i
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ii --ii`-i, i`-ii`-i ~ii -ii ~ii-i- -i i`-i>ii--i t: it i`-i--i-i ~ii-iiii i i`-i--i-i -i
i`ii t: iti iii t i`i ii-iii zi-i -i -ii-i-iii ii-ii ii ~ii`--i-i -i-i -iti -ii-ii:
~iii`zi ii ~i-i i`-izi--i i`-ii -i -ii--i i -ii-i -i :ii`-iz t: -i i
~i--i, ~ii`--i-i iii -iii -czi ii :i-iii -ii-ii :i-ii`-i-i ti-i i iii :-i -ii--i it-i
t: :-i :iii zi ii zi-i i`-ii i :ii-ii-i-i-i i`-i--i-i -iii ii-i, -i ii >ii`-i -i -iiii
ii t~ii t: :-ii -iii ti ~i-ii-i i ~iiiii`-i ti-i i iii it i`-i--i -i-ii-i ~ii
-ii-izii-i ii t: ii-i i i`-ii`ii ii-ii, ii-ii, iii, ii, iii, >ii-ii -iii
ii-iii -i -iii`i-i -iai -i zi ii i-ii ~iii ii iii`-i-i t: zii-iii :ii-ii-i
(i`-itii`-ii -ii`-i ti -iti, ~ii`i-i ~iii ii :iii-ii-i -i-ii t: --iii -ii--i zi-i :-i
-i-iii`-ii ii -i ii -iiii t: i-i i i -ii-i ii, i-i i i zi-i ii ii :ii`-ii
~iii`zi -i -iii`i-i ii t -iti ii-i i -i-i-i`-i-iii ii, i`-ii -i ziii`--i ii -iii-ii
~ii :iii`i-iii i i-i-i -i iii ii-i ii (i-iii -iii t- r(tr ;rrrrr r rrr`-r.:
(trrtrrr rrr`rrrr, rrrrt

i`-iii ii`- : zi-izii-i 61 62 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(


trtrrr rrr`t-a . rrrrrrrt rrr arrr
1. rrrrrrrarrrrr rrttr-rr`rrrrr.
ii-i-i ci-iiiii` -ii-iii` ii:ii -ii i` -i it i` -i zi -izi -iii` -i ii -ii -ii-i-i: --ii --i :
-ii` t -i ii -iii` t-i -ii-:i-i :iii-i , i -i -i:i-iii -iii ii -i i -ii -izi -ii` -i-izi :
ii i-i-ii-i-iiit -i: ~ii zi zi -izi -ii-i i` -ii:i-iii -i--iii` t-i -ii iii -i
zi -iii-iii-i :-ii-i-i-i-i -i-ii i--i : (-iii` -i -iii` -i . -iiizi i-izi -i-i -.
-izi -ii` -izi--izi -i-i ;. -ii -i-ii -ii ziiizi i-izi -i-i . i` -ii` zii -izi -izi -i-i -. -ii zi -i-i-i
zi-ii`-iziiiizi-i -ii r. -ii`-iiii i`zi-ii-izi-i-i =. -iizi-i-i . i-izi-i-i .
i-izi-i-i s. :i-ii`i-iizi-i -i: ii--i-icii-iii`-i i-ii-i:i-ii`i-iizi-ii-iii--i-i
iiz-ii zii -i--ii-i iiz-ii i` i ii-iii ---ii` -ii` -i--iii -i :iiii-i -i
ii` i ii` i-i--iii` i-ii --i-i --i--i-i : iiz-ii zi -izi -ii-ii -ii` iii i--i : zi -iii-ii-i i-i :i-iiii i -i
:i-i -i -i i zi -i -i-i ii i` -ii -i i` -ii :i ii-i-ii-iiii-i-i: :i -:i ii-iii ti` -i-i-ii-i :
-i i--i-iii ii -i -iiii-iiii i` -i iiiii-i iii` i :i-iiiii i` -iii iii` -i cii--i i` -ii-iii ii -i--ii
iiziii iii: :ii` -iii` i-ii:, i` -izi--ii: -i-ii--ii-ii:, ii -i-i --i i` i-ii:,
:iii--ii-i--i--iiziiiiiii`i i`i-i i-ii-i: :i-ii`-i-ii: :i-i-ii: ii`-iii`i-iii ii`-ii--i:
i -ii i -ii-ii-i--ii-i -rr rr r r` -rrrr rr r` rrrrrrrrrr rrr -i ii -ii-i:iii i-i-ii i` -ii -i
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-iiiii-ii-i-ii`iiii-i--i-ii zi-i-ii`i -ii-ii`iii (-i -itii-iii i`-i-i-i -i ii`i:
~iii-iii` >i-i -ii-ii i -i-i ii-ii` iiiii-iii` -i-ii-i-ii i -ii ziii-iii` i zi-izii i` i<i-ii-i--ii
i`ii-i-iii-i :i-ii-ii:i-i-ii--ii ~iii-i-i-ii-ii zi-ii-ii -iti -i-iii -i-ii-ii-i
i` -iiii` -i: -i-i (-i -i-i i zi -i-iii ii zii-i-i-:iii :-i -i<i-ii -i-i i -ii-iiiii-ii iii i:
--ii i -i:, ii i-ii iii i i-iii` -ii i -i -i-i--ii: -i-ii--ii-i:: iii i` t
ii-:ii i` -i-ii -ii-ii-iii` -ii -ii` -ii` -ii-i--i :iizii -i-ii i -ii` i-ii ii` ii ii
iiii i` -i-ii izii` -ii` i` -i -i zii i-i :i` iii-i -i , -i -i ii-:ii i` -i -i -i i` iiii ii-i ziczi -i-ii` i
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{. trrrrrrrrtrrrtr rrttr-rtrrrrr
>iiiiiii-i rrtrttrrrrrtrrtr :i`-i -iii -ii >iizii-iiii -iii
rrr+rtrttr r`tr -ii--ii:-i<i i`-i:ii`-iii<i-ii-i iizii-i-i-i :iii-iii`-iiii: iiiii:
i--i:ii`-iii-ii -izi-i-i-i-iii-i: -ii` iiiiiiiiii`-ii`i:cii--iii`-i izi -i--iii`-i
-i-ii i` -i: (-i iiii : izi ii` -i-i i i izi iizii` -i-ii iiiii ii` i:: iii ii` -ii` i` -i iii izi i` i` -i:
ii` -i--ii -ii ciii i-i zi i` iiii -ii -i-i -i -iiiii` i i` -ii` -i-iiii --ii i -i:: :ii i` -iiii-iiii-i:
-i -i iii i` i` -ii-i --iii-i i` -ii` -i-i -i: izi --ii-i t i` -:iii` -ii` -ii` -ii i` -i-ii` ii--iii :-i ii
i`-ii-iii`-i-ii-i-ii:--i-i-i: i-ii -i: iziiizii`-i-iii (-i :cii--i:: -i (-i -iii -iii::
~i-i: izi-ii i-ii-i-iii :ii-iiii-i-iii ii-ii`-ii`-ii`-i-iit-i: ii`-ii`-i iizii-i-i-i-i
ii`-i--ii-i: -ii-i ti-i-ii-ii-i-ii`-iiii-i :iii`i-ii -i iiiii`:i-ii`-iizi-iiii,
:iii` ii-i ii-i -i -ii` iiii iiii--ii-i : -i -i i-i z-iii : :i-i-i :i-i-i i` i--i :-i -ii>ii:i-i:
-ii-i, i-iii-i-i-i-i--ii-i ii ii iizii -i :i-ii`-ii`i`-i -i-i-ii-ii-i-iiii`t--ii-i i-ii-i-ii
:ii-iiii-ii -i-i-ii-iii-ii ii--i i-iii-i--i-i-iiii-ii: iziiizii`-i-iiiiii :i-i-ii
-iii`ii--iiiiii:i-ii`-iiiiii-iii`-i-i--ii-iii--i:i-ii:i`i ~ii--iii`-ii`-i:
-. trrrrr`trqrtrarrrrr
-i-i zi -i-i iit zi -izi -i-ii--ii -i i ti -i zii` zi-iii-ii-ii-iizi:ii-ii-ii -i :ii-iii
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-ii ii`-i--iii`-iii-i-iii :iii-i-i :ii-ii`i-i: (--i-i (Anselm)- (i-ii-i-i
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i` zi-izii` -i-iii` zi-i i--ii` <iici -i--iizii zi z-i : (-i--i i-ii-i--iii -i-i i` -izi--izi -i ::
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-i i-i: -ii-ii>ii--i-i, -ii -i -i-iii-ii--iiiii-i -izii`iii:, ii-i (izii:)
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i`-izi--izi-izi-i-i ii---iii`-iii i-i--ii`-i-izi -ii--i -i-ii-ii-i -i-iii-i:
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i` <i--ii ii` -ii izi-ii >ii -i-ii -ii -ii zi -i :i-ii` -i -i -iii--i -i :ii-ii iici
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ii`tiii-i--i i`zi-i-iiii-i (-i


i-i-ii--i-ii :-i ii-i-i iti--i-i) -i-ii -i--ii -ii-i--i-i: i-ii iii-ii: ii`-i:
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iiiii zii`-i-i-i: zii`-ii -ii-ii-iii-i, --iii-ii-i: trtr-r tr-rrrr.
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~i-iii--i i-iii`-iii:iiiii`-i i--i-i -i -iiii -iiii--ii-iiii--i:


iii ii` -ii` -i i -ii ii: -i-ii -i -iiii -i -iii i i` -i: izi --i -i --ii i -i: -ii ciii` i-i-i:
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-i -i--ii-i: >ii -ii-i >ii ia: --ii i i ti-ii -ii -iiiii zi -ii` -ii` zii -i-i iizizi-ii :ii` -iiiii-ii-i:
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itiii`-ii-ii-ii-iii--ii-i: i`zi-i (-i i:: zii`-i--i-i i`-iziii-i: -ii`t -ii i`-i-ii ii:i`i
i` zi-i :i-ii ii-i : ~ii i:iiiziii` i-iii-ii-ii -ii` ; -i :i-i i` -i: ~ii ii zii :i
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iiiii-ii--ii-i-ii -i i-ii`-i, -iiii`t i`-iziiii`-iziiii-i :i`-i :ii`-iii-ii-i:: i`zi-i-i
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ii -ii` -ii` -ii` -i-i tiiii` ii zii` -i -i, i -i-ii: i` zi-iii` -i-iiiii` -i--ii
ii-i--i:iii:-i-iii-i :i`-i zi-ii-ii i`-ii`zii-i-i:
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~. rrrr`rrrrrrrrrar rrtrrrrrtr rr
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~iiii ti ii-ii t: i`zi-i (-ii i-iiii t ii i`i-ii i`i-ii -iii-i ~ii i`ii`-i i iii`--ii
ii i`-i-iii i-ii t-
r` rrrrarrtrr+rrtrrr` +r-rrr r trrtr +
rrr` --rr rrrttrtrr rrrrrrrrrrrrr rr r` rrr ++
--ii-i-i ii i`-iii t ~i-iiiii ii ~iii-i: -i-i-i, (ii ~ii i-i--i,
~ii`-iiiii`-ii ~ii-ii i-i-ii-i-i-iiii-i-i ii -ii-ii --i-i-i-ii t ii i`i --ii ii
iiii-ii -i i`ii -iti t:
zii`-i ii ~i--i:-ii, -i-ii ii ~i-ii-i, -iii`zi-i -i--i t ~ii iii--ii
:i -i--i: -i--i-i: :-i i`-ii`-i -i ~ii--i ~ii iii t -iti i`i--i -i-ii- i zii`-i ii
-i- ii it -ii-i (---i-i) t, ii i ii-i -i ~ii i ii-i i iit ii ~ii
-ii-ii t: it ~ii--i -i iii ~ii--ici -iii t: ~iici ii -ii`:-i ~ii ~i-ii`:-i ~i-i-ii -i
i-i i ~ii--i -i iii -iti t, --ii :iii :-i ---ii -i i`-i-ii -i ii: it ---ii-i`-i-ii
~iii -i-ii :i-iiii ii :i-iii i-i ii-ii t: i`zi-i, zii`-i, -iii`zi-i, :i i :-i
--iii ii :-i-i i` -i<i-ii-i ~it--ii-:--ii, ~iti` -i ii zi z :i-ii i` -i -ii` <ii t -
trrrrrrrr`rrrtr -r trr`crrr`rrar`rrr.: (i -iii i i -i-ii-i i-ii ii -it ~it
~ii : ii iti ~i-ii-i ti, -it -ii`<ii ii <ii-ii t: :-i :iii ~iti`-i ii ziz
ii-izi ti -ii`<ii t: ziz i`-i<ii ii iii zii iti iii t: ii-ii ii ~i-ii--ii -i
ii-i-i ~ii--i (~iii--i) t, --iii ~it--ii -i ~ii-ii`-i t-ii i--i t: -ii`-i<ii -i
~i-ii--ii -i iii` -i-i iii ~it--ii -i ~ii-ii` -i t-i t : ~i-i: :-i iii zii iti iii t :
ii ii ~iiii-i-i i-i ii --i-i-i-ii ii :ii i-i -ii-ii -iiii, -it -iii`t-ii
zii`-i t, ii (i -i -i i`-ii-ii i i`zi-i i-i -ii t: ii ii ~ii-i ii -iiii i ii
~iii i -i ~ii`i-i-i i-ii t -ii -it ~ii-i ii ii-i iizi ii izii -i ~ii-i-i i
-i-ii t: -i t- i-ii, i`-i<ii, ii, ii-i ~ii i`-iii`-i: i-ii i`ii`zi-i-i--i ii ~ii i`-i<ii
i`ii`zi-ii-i--i ii iii t: ii i`-iiii -i ~ii`i-i t: ii-i, ii-i ~ii ~iii-i ii i-i
t i` -iii` -i: it -i i t , it -i i -iti t - :-i :iii i i` -ii-i-i ii t -i t :
(:. :i:i-ii`i-iii`-i-ii`zi-ii, ;..=.-, -i-ii-iii r.-=) ~ii`i-i-i i ~i-i-ii i-ii,
ii` i` -i-i i-i --i iii t , zi i -ii izi i iii t - r` rcrr trrr :r r` rrr` tr.
rrrrr;rtr--rtrr rrrrrrrrrrr (-iti, r.r):
i`i-i :iii --i-i, --ii, -i-iiii, -i-i -iii iiii ii :-i ii iii
-iii-i ii ~iiii -iti t, --ii :iii i`zi-i ii ii -ii`-i-i ~ii-ii --i-i-i :-i -i
~i--i:-i ii-i ii iii i`-iii i i -i ~iiii-i-i i-ii t: -ii i --i --i-i-i i`zi-i
i ~iii-i ~i-izi t i -it iiii-i -iti t, --iii ii: ~ii-ii, ~i-i-i, -iii`i
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 69 70 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
~iii` ii --i-i --i-i-i -iti t: --iii ii -iti -ii` i-ii t- it --iii -ii-ii ii iii
t, iiii-i-ii -iti t: -iiii -i -ii i-ii ii--i -i--i, --ii -i-i-i ii i`-i-ii-i t, --ii
i --ii-i-i ii ---ii ~ii ---ii-i-i t: -iti -ii ~ii i`-i-ii, -ii`, i`-ii`-i, -iti, i`-iiit
~ii ~i-iiit ii ~ii`i-ii`-i -i ~ii-ii --i-i-i-ii ii -iii i-ii t:
i`iizi-i i ~i-i-ii -ii-ii--i ii ~iiii-i-i zii`-i-ii-i i`zi-i ii --i-i-i :-i ii
-ii-ii--i i i -i ~iiii-i-i ii :iiizi-i t: (ii t-i i --i-i-i-ii ii ii-i -iti ti-ii:
~i-i: ---ii-i-i, -i-ii` -ii-i i i` -iii~ii -i ~ii--i--ii ii ii i-i i ~i-i-ii i ti -ii i-iii` --iii
-ii`-i-i ii --iii-i t: i`zi-i --ii--i:i-i-i-iiiii`-i t: ~i-i: it ii-i i`zi-i ii
~iiii-i t ii ---ii-i-i t ~ii --ti ii -it -i-i t:
~iii-i-zi-i i`zi-i ii i`-ii-ii-ii ii it-i -it--i -ii t- ~it ii -i-ii--ii-ii
ii ~i-iii`-i i`i-i-i -ii i ~ii-ii ti ii( ~iii-i i-ii ii -itiii-i ii ~it--ii t: -i-i,
ii`z, ~itii -i ~ii-ii`-i, zii :i`-:i i i-i-i -i ii`iiti-i, --i-i, i`-iii-i`-iiii,
ziz-~iziz ~ii i`-ii`i-i`-iii i -i -i ~iiii--i ~it-i ~ii`i-ii-i i -ii-ii--i t: ~i-it-i
ii ~i-ii--i ii ii -ii :i-iii`-i ti-ii t, -ii--ii`-ii-ii ~it-i ii ii-i ti -iti ti -ii-ii:
-ii--i -i ~ii--ii ~it ii :i-iii`-i : i i`-iiii :i-ii i i -i t, i`iizi-i -i it
:i-iii`-i : ii ~ii--ii-iii ci-i-~i-ii-i i-i -i t: (i ii ~iiii -ii`-i -ii`-i t -ii
-i ii i`i-i cii i`-i-i -ii-i:
zi-i zi-i i ~i-i-ii -i-i-i i i`-i-i-i ii -i -i--i ii -ii-ii--i :ii`-ii`ii`-i-i
ti-ii t ~iii-i -i-i-i ii ii`-iii -i ti -ii-ii--i ii :i-iii`-i ti-ii t: :ii`-ii`i-i ~i-ii ti-i
t: ~iii-i ii -i :ii`-ii`ii`-i-i i`-ii`ii :ii`-ii`i-i ii -i ii i`ii t ~ii (i -i -i ii:
it -ii-ii--i ii :i-iii`-i t, i`i--i :-i -iii :ii`-ii`i-ii ii ii -i ~i-ii ~ii`--i--i -iti t:
ii i t i i`-ii`-i- ii -i -ii-ii--i :ii`-ii`ii`-i-i t, -it i -iti t, -iiiii ii ii
-i -ii :ii`-ii`ii`-iii ii ii-i t ~ii -i ~ii-ii ~ii -i :-i -iii -i ~ii ii: --i-, -ii`i
-ii`i -i :ii`-ii`ii`-i-i -ii-ii i i-i -ii`i ii i`-i-i-i-ii -i ii: i`-iii ii ii ii -iti i-i
t ~ii`i-i --iii i`-i-i-i-ii ii <ii-ii t: :-ii :ii`-ii`i-i-i i iii i`-iii-iii i`zi-i i`-ii-ii
it-ii-ii t: ii -i :ii`-ii`ii`-i-i -i--i ~iii`iiiiii -iti ti-ii, :-i ~ii -i -it iii`--i
-ii-ii ii -ii-ii t, i`i--i i`-i-i -i :ii`-iiii`-i-i i`-ii ~iii`iiiiii ti-ii t:
:ii`-ii`i-i ~iii`iiiiii ti -iti, ~ii`i-i ~ii-i-i--ii ii ti-ii t: iii`-i-ii ii
-i ~ii-i ii--i i :ii`-ii`ii`-i-i -ici ii cii :i-ii ti-ii t (:. -i-ii-iii, ;.r.-):
:-ii :iii -iii`t-i -iii i-ii i ii -i ii -iri :i-ii-ii~ii i i`-i-ii ii -ii-iii`ii
i -i :ii`-ii`i-i-i ~ii-i- ii -ii` i-ii t (:. -iti, ;.-s): i`i-iii -ii`-i-i -i
i`-ii-ii`-ii ii :ii`-ii`i-i-i ti-ii t, --ii ii i`-iii it-i t:
i`-ii -i--i-i: i`zi-i ii ~iiii-i t ~ii --ii -i :ii`-ii`i-ii -i :ii`-ii`-i t:
~iii-i -ii` ii i` -i ~iiii-i-ii t ~ii i`-ii`-i ii i` -i :ii`-ii`i-i-ii ~ii -iti ii
i` -i -i-ii-izi: i`-i--ii -i-i: ii -ii ~iiii-i t, --iii i--iii`-i-i t-ii i`-ii`-i t
~ii ~i--i -i i-i: i`-i--i (zii--i) ti ii-ii -iti t: :-i -iii ii -i-i t i`zi-i ii
--ii-i-i:
zi-i izii`-ii -i--i i -i--i ii ~iii`iiiiii`-ii -i -i-i-i-i -ii-i-i t ~ii-ii it
ii iti ii -ii-ii t i`i -i--i ii -i--i ~iii`iiiiii`-ii i iii t: i it
~iii`iiiiii`-ii i`zi-i ii :-izii`-i ii i-i t, -i--i ii --i-i-i --iii-i -iti t: --ii
~i-i-ii ii ~iii`iiiiii t, -it -i-i t ~ii -it -ii i`zi-i t ~iii-i -ii`-i-i ii -i-i-i -i
(ii--i t : ii zi-i t , -iti ~ii i` iiiiii ti -ii-ii t : :-i :iii -i-ii ii ~ii i` iiiiii` -ii
ii ~ii` -i-iiii-i (~i-ii` i-ii) t : :-ii ii :icii (-i--i) -iii -iicii (~ii i` iiiiii` -ii)
it-i t: iti -iti, i`iizi-i ii it ii -ii-i-ii t i`i ii -i--i iii i -i :iiii`zi-i
tii :i-ii ii ~i-i-ii-i ii i`-iii i-i-ii t --i -ii -i-iti ii i` -i -i--i -ii-ii ti
ii-ii t i`i--i ii iii ~iiii iiti -iti i-ii ~ii -i-iti-i: ~i-i--i it-ii-ii t, ii`
-it -ii`-i-i -i :ii`-iiii`-i-i ti-ii t, -iit -it ~iiiizi ii, zii ii ~ii i ti, -it ii
~i-i--i -iti t: i`-i:i-ii i ~i-ii-i i -iii ti -i--i-ii, -i--i -iii ~iii`iiiiii`-ii
-i-i-i-i t: iti -i--i-~i-i--i ii i`zi-ii--ii-ii t: :-ii ~iiii i zi-izi-i -ii-itii`i,
iii`zi, i-i-ii--ii ii -i-iii :i-ii ii -i-i-ii :ii`-ii`-i i-ii t ~ii i`-iii-ii ii
ci-i i-ii t: -i--i ii -i-ii -ii`-i-i i :iiizi ii ~ii ~iii`iiiiii`-ii --ii
--ii-i-i ii -i-i i-ii t:
-i-ii-i :-ii --ii-i-i ii -i-i-i, -i-ii ii -i- it-i t- iti -iti-i-ii t
~ii :-ii ii ii-iii iti iii t: iti -ici (ii ~ii ~ii--iii-izi t-:-ii -i i`-ii--i
ii iii ti-ii t: iti -it i`-izii-ii ii i-i t, ii -iii i-ii ~ii zii`-iii ii ~i--ii-i
i -i-ii t: :-iii`-i( iii`ii`-i -i i-ii ii --i-i-i (trtrr. rrtrr ..-) iti ii:
~iii i zii -i --ii-i-i, -i-i-ii, -i-iizii-i-ii, i`-ii--i ~ii:i`-i, i`iiizii-i-ii,
i-i--i -iii ~ii-i- ii iiii t: it -i-ii` -iii -ii` i-ii t, ~iii`i`-i-i ~ii ii`i`-i-i
i-ii ii --iii-i t: :ii-i ii-i -i--i-i`zi-i, zii`-i, -iii`zi-i, :i ~ii -ii`<ii i-izi:
-ii`-i-i i i`-i-i, ~ii-i-, :-i, -ii-i, i`iii i :i-iii t -ii i-ii, i`-i<ii, ii-i, ii ~ii
i`-iii`-i --iii ~iii-ii i: it ~iii-ii -iiii ii iii t:
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 71 72 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
--ii ii ~ii-ii izii t: ii ii ~i-ii ii -i ~iiii-i-i ~iii i-ii
ti ti -ii-ii t: ~iii-ii ii ~ii`i-ii`-i ii i`-ii`-i -i -ii--ii`-ii ii-ii ii :i-ii`i-ii-i ti
ii( -ii ~iii-ii ii -i-i ti i-i: i`-i-i-i ii-ii ii it-ii-i -iii`i-i ti ii-ii t: ii
-ii :-i ii-ii ii :i--i ii :i-ii`i-ii -iti ti-ii ~ii ~iii-ii ii ii`i`-ii`-i ii iiii
-ii-i i`-iii ii-ii t -ii iti ~i-ii-i t:
~i-ii-i ii i-i ci-i` t, ~iii i` t, -i-iii-ii ii ii-ii ii -ii-i -iti t:
~iii-ii ii -ii-i ~i-ii-i t: i`zi-i-ii (.- -iii ;.-) -i :-ii ~iii-ii i -ii-i ii i-i-i
iti t- ;rrr rr.: -i-ii -i ~i-ii-i -ii-i :iii ii t- ~iii-i, -iiiii -iii ii-i:
~iiii-i ii ~ii t, -iii`-i-i ti-ii: --i-i-i-ii ii -iii-i ~ii iii ii -iii-i- :-i
:iii ~iii-i -i-i i :iii ii t: --ii-i-i ii iii -i ~i-ii ti-ii ~ii iii ii
--ii-i-i -i ~i-ii ti-ii, -i zii -i i`-i-izi ii ~i:iiizii ti-ii ii :iiizi ii
i`-i-izii -i ti-ii, zii`-i ii i`zi-ii--ii-ii ~ii i`zi-i ii zii`-ii-ii ii tii`-i t: it
--ii ii tii`-i t, iti ~iii-i -i-i t: --ii ii i`-i-ii-i-i ti -iii-i ii tii`-i t:
--ii--iii-i ti-i i i ii :ii-i i -iiiii -i-i t, :-i-i tii` -i iiii ti-i
i i-iii-i ii-i -i-i t, :-ii -i i--i, ~iii ~ii iii ii i-i -ici:ciii` iii-ii i-ii
t: -i--i-i: i -ii-ii -i-i ~i-ii-ii ti-i i iii -iiii i iii t:
zi-izi-i -i -ii-i ~ii-ii :i-ii`i-ii ~ii-ii i`iii--ii -ii-i ii-ii ii :iiizii
t: it -iti -i-i t, i`i-i it-i iii cii ii, --ii -ii-i-i i-i i -ii-i ii -ii-i
:i-ii`i-ii t: it --ii`-i ~ii :i-ii ii i`-i-ii t~ii -ii-i t: it :i-ii`i-ii ii :i-ii`-i-i ~ii
t: i`iizi-i ii :i-ii`i-ii ii --ii :-i-i i`ii t: -it -ii-i (-ii-i-i) ii ti
~i-i -i-ii-i ii i` -ii` zi i` -iii t - ;rrtrtrrr`rr r`rrrrrtrr r`rrrrrr, +rrtrrrrrtrrrrrr+
ii -ii ~ii-i -iii t, ii it-i -i :iiii`zi-i t ~ii ~iii ii :iiizi-ii-i t, --iii
~ii`i-ici -ii-i :i-ii`i-ii t: :i-ii`i-ii -i :ii`-i -i-ii :i-iii ii, ~ii`i -i-ii ~iii`i-ici
ii ~ii -ii-i ~i-i-iii-i ii -ii-ii t: ~ii--ii :iiii`zi-i ti-i i ii iii`zi i`-ii-ii -i
i`-ii`-i ti ii-ii t, --ii ii -i-i-iiii-i-i -iiii-i -ii-i :i-ii`i-ii t:
iti :i-ii`i-ii :i-ii, ~i-i-ii-i ~ii zi :i-iiii ii -i-i t: i-i ii: iii`-i-ii
it-i -i :iii`i-i i`:ii-i-i ii ii-i iii ii --i ~iii`i`-i-i ti-i i iii i-i-iiiii
-i-iii ii -iti i ii-ii, --ii :iii t-i ~ii-ii ~ii--ii i (ii -i ~iii`i`-i-i ti
ii-ii ii ii-i -iti i ii-i: ii: i ii ziii t-i i-ii , i-i i`i iii`-i-ii ii -ii, ii
i`i t-i ci ~ii-ii -ii-ii`iiii zii`-i ii ~ii`i-ii-i ti ii( -ii t-i ii-ii ii ii-i--ii`-i
i`-i-iii, -iii ti --i ii-ii -i -i-ii ii-i ii -i ii ~iiiii: zi ii ii-i i i`-i(
-ii-ii -i i`-i-i ii-i-ii iti-iii i -izi -i ~ii( t( i`zi-i ii it-ii-i -iti ii-ii: zi ii
i`-i-i i-i -ii-i :-i iti-iii ii -it ~ii-ii -icii -i ~ii>i-i -i iit i`-iii-i-i ii ii
it -ii t (r`rrrrtrrrrrr`rr r`rrrrrrr r. rrrr`rror. trrr`ttrr-rtrrt. -i -ii-i i-i,
izi-i -ii): i ii ti i`zi-i --ii ii :ii i-i t, ii-i-ii ii ~iiii` i-ii-i ~ii -i
-i i ii-ii t (tr rror rrrrrrr`tr. trttrrrrr`. --iti): iii`-ii-i -i :-i :i-i -i
:i-ii`i-ii ~ii --i-i ti-i -ii-ii -i-i-ii-iii -ii-iii`-i ii -i-i i`iii t: :i-ii`i-ii ii
~ii`i-ii-i iii -iti t, ii`-i ~ii--i :i-iii`-i t:
(trrtrrr rrr`rrrr, tr`rrrtrr rrr`tr`rr, {{ rrrr, {;

3. iva: A symbol of Self-critical and Active


consciousness
Indian schools of philosophy can be basically and broadly divided
into three points of view regarding the nature of consciousness Samkhya,
Vedanta, Jainism, Yoga and aivism propound the view that consciousness
is essentially a contentless entity. According to second point of view of
the Nyya-Vaieika which is a modification of the first view, the
consciousness is quality of the substance called soul. These points of
view are opposed totally by the Buddhists. The Buddhists of all
philosophical sects and creeds hold that consciousness is not an entity in
any recognised sense of the term. This Buddhist view of consciousness
is primarily rooted in and derived from his fundamental doctrine of
anntman. According to this view there is no soul and no consciousness.
Rejection of an abiding entity, namely soul implies that consciousness is
neither identical with nor a property of the soul. Buddhists deny primary
derivative existence of consciousness. They explain the nature of
consciousness or conscious self from functional point of view. If to be is
to change, consciousness positing any abiding subject or object would
not yield real nature of things. Similarly Consciousness without any
contact with the object will lack the essantial character of being conscious.
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 73 74 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Hence true nature of consciousness should not only reveal ever changing
character of things but also of its aim. Changing consicousness of changing
objects will never posit any coherence and unity and will be devoid of
abiding and permanent self.
According to Kashmir aivism the ultimate reality is spoken of
as Mahevara, Anuttara, Param Bhairava etc. It is cit, Caitanya or
consciousness. It is cetana or conscious as it is invariably related to or
inseparable from the power or action of consciousness that is Citikriya.
Consciousness has two important characteristics, namely self-luminosity
(Svaprakata) and self consciousness (Vimara). While praksa or
luminosity is a transcendental and static aspect of the self, the self-critical
consciousness (Vimara) implies universal and dynamic aspect of the
self. A stir or spanda in the conciousness like ripple in the still-water
represents akti aspect of iva. The self-luminous consciousness manifests
itself first as akti where everything is one complete whole without any
distinction or manifestation of subject and object. Through its second
manifestation the consciousness reveals complete unity of the objective
universe with the subjects, the self. At this stage, which is known as
Vidy thisness is identical with the "I-ness". At the third stage of My
the subject and object the whole universe, appear as mutually distinct and
separate elements. Brahman of Vednta is self-luminous but is not self-
conscious.
It is therefore spoken of as nta i.e., without any activity. The
manifestation of the universe is inspite of him. The consciousness or
Brahman under goes no change. The ultimate metaphysical principle of
Kashmir aivism, Mahevara, manifests Himself through three important
stages of akti, Vidy and My out of his own free will (svtantrya).
He is a free agent eternally associated with manifold powers to imagine
the world in his own image through his critical consciousness or Vimara
akti. Utpala offers two analogies to explain the nature of consciousness
according his system. The reality is like a mirror with one important
difference. The ordinary mirror can and does receive reflections of external
objects without in any way being affected by the objects which are
reflected in it.
The consciousness first creates or imagines the universe of
subjects and objects through its power of imagination. These objects so
manifested remain one with the consciousness as the objects reflected in
the mirror, The universe is thus a reflection on universal mirror. What is
reflected in the mirror of consciousness is its own creation and imagination
externally manifested. The conciousness can also be spoken of as
universal mind just as an individual mind is capable in its creativity, is
imagining or dreaming the subject-object universe and just as this universe
is in no way different from the individual mind, and it is in fact identical
with it, similarly the whole universe is identical with the nature of
conciousness. The distinctions of subject and object the duality of body
and mind, the difference of internal and external proceed from the free
activity of self-luminous consciousness. It is not fettered by any external
affections. There is infact nothing extrinsic or external to it. The
consciousness can be spoken of complete I-ness, Pra-Ahata, or pure
subjectivity free to manifest the universe of limited subjects and objects.
But nothing is really different from the universal mind the consciousness.
The individual mind has certain limitations, the universal mind has none.
It is free and does not depend on any external thing either to bring the
whole universe into being or maintain it separately as it were or to merge
it in its own identity. The universe is like the thought or idea of the
universal mind which is neither exhausted or affected by its manifestation.
This self-luminious, self-critical and free consciousness is presuppostion
of all thoughts and actions. This view of consciousness establishes and
omniscient and omnipotent permanent self.
The Kashmir aivism is aware of the Buddhist view of the soul.
According of this view the conception of an abiding entity called soul,
self or God is an illegitimate obstruction. It does not believe in the
existence of soul which is nothing but a stream of ideas. The self is
nothing but a flux of cognitions which belongs to no permanent subject.
Such a subject is not a fact of experience. The aiva considers this view
untenable. He asserts like Kant that synthesis of various cognitions and
experiences can't be adequatily explained without assuming a priori entity
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 75 76 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
of permanent self. As the synthesis of experience is not possible on the
basis of momentariness of the self Utpala asserts in his Ivara-prabhij-
Vimarin.
Thus, all human transactions originating from unification
of various kinds of cognitions which mutually differ and can't became
one another's object will come to an end.
If there be not one Mahevara, who is essentially self-
luminous, holds within all the innumerable forms of the universe
and possesses the powers of congnition, rememberance and
differentiation. The Kashmir aivism does not admit any difference
between mind and matter, thought and thing, subject and object. It asserts
the similarity between the individual and the universal minds. Knowledge,
recollection and differentation are the distinctive functions of both the
individual mind and the universal mind is the conciousness. The
explanations offered by the dualists and the pluralists are unsatisfactry
as they fail to bridge the gulf between the self and the not-self. The
approach of the subjectivist like the Vijnavadin fails to explain the
world of common experience. The pure idealism of akara and others
negates the reality of the world by declaring it illusory or inexplicable.
The phenomenon of knowledge can't be explained without assuming their
essential unity in self-luminous consciousness. Utpala therfore declares
that the all inclusive universal mind is the epistemic necessity to account
for the phenomenon of knowledge.
Kashmir aivism admits five states of consciousness namely
waking, sleep and deep sleep relating to the individual self and the fourth
turiya and turiytta, beyond the fourth, states relating to the universal
self. It propounds seven kinds of individual selves limited in their
consciousness. These are technically called iva, akti Mantra-Mahea,
Mantrea, Mantra or Vidyevara, Pralaykala and Sakala. Analysis of
the the five states of consciousness and seven kinds of pramtrs or
knowers will reveal the detailed investigation into the nature of
consicousness by aiva thinkers. However, I would prefer to conclude
this paper by quoting utpala directly on his conception of consciouness
as explained above-
r-rartrrr r` arrtr.r`trtrr`rr-rrrrra rr`.+
rr rr r r` rrrrarrrrr rrtr trrrrrrr tr ++
(ii-ii, Vol. I. 1.5.7)
tr+rrrrrr+rrtrtr r` rrrrr r` ra trrr+
trrrrrrr:rrrrt-rr:r`rr trrr`rrrr`arzrrrrr.++
+rrtrrrtr qr -rtrr r`-rtrr`rrrr`-rr`trrrtrtrr-
trrtrrr rr r` atrttr r rzrttr r` r rrrorr.++
(Ibid. 11-12)
r`-rr`tr. trtrrrrrrrtrrr rrtrrrrr trttrrr`atrr+
trrtrrrr trrr ar tra +rr rrtrrrtrrr.++
trr trr t-rr rrrtr-rr a rrrrrrrr` rrr r` rrrr +
tr rrr trrttrrr trr -rr ar rrtrr r` r.++
(Ibid. 13-14)
rr -r rrr trr` tr+rr tr-rtrrarr rrrr` rrtrr+
+rrrrrrtrr` -r rr. trrrrtrr tr rr +rt.++
(Ibid. I. 7-1)
Finally, the very first Krik of vara-pratyabhija deserves to
be quoted for its basic thesis that a priorientity called Mahevara is both
omniscient and omnipotent through its powers of activity and cognition
eternally associated with Him. Such a nature of ultimate metaphysical
epistemic and mystic principle can neither be refuted nor asserted by any
knowing subject.
rrtr r` t ;rrtrr` t trrtrrrrr` ar` trq rr +rt +
+rrzrtrrr r`rrrr rr r`trr`q rr r`rarrtr rr.++
(Ibid. 1.1.)
(Hand written

-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 77 78 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(


4. Yoga According to the Kashmir aivism
Karma and Spanda systems of K (Kashmir aivism) specially
deal with the yoga. Advocates of close relationship between the K and
the Indus Valley Civilisation find that the image of Lord Paupati found
at Mohanjodaro resembles the yogic posture, mbhava-mudr, described
by Abhinavagupta in his Anubhava-Nivedana-Stotra and affirm its
popularity in Present-day Kashmir. The second and third chapters of the
Spanda krik (abbreviated as SP) named respectively as the sahaja-
vidyodaya (rise of innate knowledge) and vibhti-spanda (bloom of yogic
powers) remind me of the terms current in the yoga system. Abhinavagupta
who is believed to be yoginibh, born of parents copulating as akti and
iva, deals with the yoga in the context of kta way of self-realisation
in chapter IV of the Tantrloka (TA in short). As is well known K
recognises four ways of realisation: Anupya, mbhava, kta and
ava. These are practised through the exercise of power of bliss, will,
knowledge and action and are, therefore, known as nandopya, icchopya,
jnopya and kriyopya. It is not my purpose here to describe all these
four ways in all the possible details as these are authoritatively dealt
with in the opening chapters of the TA. My main aim is to
contradistinguish the aiva yoga from the classical yoga of Patajali
which as an export culture has degenerated into interesting physical
exercises, psyco-analytical substitute and at worst a cosy way for
permissive sexuality. The Charateristics of yogin described in Git and
in aiva works on yoga are such that they emphasise oneness of the
cosmic creation, universality of man, kindness and compassion and are
against any kind of violence, apartheid and distinctions on the basis of
caste, creed, nationality, or religious sectarianism.
Amongst the four means of realisation the first two have hardly
any use of the common forms of yoga. Anupya is hardly a means. As
the very term indicates, it represents emerging stage of final ivahood.
The mbhava yoga marked by dominance of will-power represents non-
differentiated state of subject and object and is a state of no-thinking and
can be spoken of as a state of pure being admitting no conception or
expression. The identification with the vowel sound (from a to visarga),
visualisation of the letters from ka to ha as representing the divine powers
of the Lord and the practice of the mtk (garland of letters constituted
by regular arrangement from a to ha) and the mlin (the same garland
arranged in irregular order and beginning from na and ending with pha)
are also considered part of the mbhava yoga. In fact it is firmly believed
in the system that the bondage or the freedom is essentially the creation
of the will of God. While His obscuring power is responsible for bondage
His grace delivers the man from the bondage. Man can attain his freedom
when iva so desires. The divine grace of the latter is spoken of as
aktipta. This is responsible for taking the aspirant to a real guru who is
finally no other than iva Himself. With his grace, all the four means of
knowledge, including meditation, are of no use and consequence. The
kta way consists in the purification of the determinate forms of cognition
(vikalpa) and consequent merger into or union with iva. The impure
forms of cognition create imperfection in knowledge which binds the
aspriant. As this path is an exercise in knowledge, hence it is also termed
as jnopya. It consists in the constant reflection (bhvan) on the nature
of reality. This includes a number of means including recitation of sacred
formulae, sacrifice, vrata and yoga and is, therefore, also known as the
collocation of means (upyamaala). The fourth means of realisation,
i.e., ava is mainly dependent on the activity of mind mediatating on
vital airs (uccra), on body with one nervous system (karaa), on time
and space (deakldhva) with its various subdivisions. It is spoken of
as extrinsic because the object of meditation is external. One important
question raised in the context of four means of realisation is whether
they are related as one step to the other or whether they are equally valid
and are independent of each other. The answer given to this problem is
that none of these means can be held either superior or inferior and that
none of these create any difference in its result and that a particular
means can be employed by the aspirant according to his genius and taste.
It is so because self-knowledge is the only way to self-realisation. All
the means finally lead to the one and the same means which is the self-
awareness. A look at the three (excluding the anupya) means of spiritual
realisation, mentioned above, brings forth its resemblance with the
jnayoga, karmayoga and bhaktiyoga of the Bhagavadgt respectively.
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 79 80 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The nandopya which is really different from the other means of realisation
can hardly be regarded as the way because it represents the blissful state
of consciousness with which it is one.
Tarka or reasoning is accepted as a helpful means for self-
realisation in many systems of indian philosophy. K gives the most
important place to the tarka which is identified with the pure knowledge
(sadvidy). Reasoning that obscures the real nature of the self and which
aims at the defeat of the opponent is no good reasoning but the tarka
which reveals the real nature of the self and which arises in the mind
purified by sadvidy and which is able to recognise the nature of the self
that alone is good reasoning or sattarka. Such a reasoning is also spoken
of as bhvan which makes it possible to identify even distant object
with the self.
According to the K there are only six parts of yoga. It does not
accept the eight parts admitted in the classical yoga system. It excludes
yama, niyama, and sana and includes good reasoning and propounds it
as the best part of the yoga. The good reasoning may arise either with the
help of the guide or scriptures but the one which arises innately in ones
own mind is considered the best. The rejection of yama, niyama and
sana as parts of the yoga, is based on the argument that they are not
direct means of what is to be achieved. Even pryma and pratyhra
are considered as an extrinsic part whereas dhyna, dhra and samdhi
are considered as intrinsic parts of the yoga. In fact all these have
significance becauase they are helpful in creating the good reasoning
(TA. IV. 105) as the yama etc. can produce their effect on vital airs, body
and mind. This in any case is no direct awareness of reality. Yogic forms
are therefore, only indirect way of self-realisation through the intervening
process of purification of the body, mind and life-force. The good
reasoning, which can be regarded as self-reflection, is of some value in
the yoga system of the K and so far as other parts of the classical yoga are
concerned, purely physical exercises are completely rejected and others
like dhyna, dhra and samdhi are accommodated as an aid to self-
reflection which consititutes the real pathway of the recognition of self.
This positon of K on Yoga is different from the classical yoga of Patajali.
The yoga as handed down in the tradition of the K, through
gama literature like Mlinivijayottara, Svacchandatantra, ivaskta
Vijnabhairava and as expounded by Bhaa Kallata in his SP and by
Abhinavagupta in his encyclopeadic work, the Tantrloka, and its digest
the Tantrasra, is different from Patajalis yoga in another aspect. The
latter emphasises eight parts of yoga without relating it to the five vital
airs, pra, apna, vyna, udna and samna, with the nervous system of
the body, I, Pigal, and suumn the nerve plexuses mldhra and
other similar objects following the system of six circles. The yoga is K
maintains this relationship and also describes the spiritual ascent through
five states of consciousness, namely waking, sleeping, deep sleep, the
fourth state (turya) and the state beyond the fourth (turytta). Thus
interdependence of vital air with the mind, with the various psychic parts
of the body and the empirical and the transcendental states of
consciousness is well pronounced in the aiva Yoga. Gt also speaks of
balancing of pra and apna and the fixation of the pra at the tip of
nose (v. 27) or the eye-brows (VIII-10) and head (VIII-12). Gt (see
IV. 29-30) also speaks of oblation of pra to apna and of apa to
pra and describes the performers of this sacrifice not as yogina but as
yajavida (knowers of sacrifice). The mystic sacrifice of vital airs is
also referred to in the Maitr Upaniad (See VI. 9 and 18). This kind of
sacrifice is unknown to the system of Patajali who regarded breath-
control as indispensable for the yoga. The K accepts the mysticism of
this sacrifice.
The SP (I. 23-25.) speakes of the entrance of yogin into the path
of Suumn which is represented as great ka where the sun and the
moon are set. The sun and the moon represent, according to the various
interpretations, object and the means of the cognition, pra and apna
and the power of iva and Jva. In another place SP (III. 33-35)
distinguishes between the two kinds of yogins, one who is alert in the
states of waking and sleep and the other who is slack in the yoga. While
the former, through his freedom of will, is able to see and dream, according
to his desire, the latter is no different from the ordinary human being.
Here also the author speakes of the rise of the sun and the moon in the
yogin which is responsible for his quick concentration and freedom of
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 81 82 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
will in perceiving the objects both in the states of awakening and dreaming.
The SP also speaks of unmea, a sudden flash of thought, even in an
ordinary human being when he is engrossed in a thought and is suddenly
transported to another thought. While this unmea or sudden flash of
thought is not voluntary in the ordinary human being it is completely
natural to the yogin. In fact, the SP (III . 41) illustrates many such
extraneous situations which occasionly and contingently reveal the nature
of self to the ordinary human being as opposed to its voluntary revelation
in the yogin (see, SP I-22). In the same vein the ivastra had pronounced
the awareness of the fourth state of consciousness even in the ordinary
states of walking, sleep and deep sleep (I.7) and spoke of a sense of
wonder as a ground for yoga (I. 12). The good reasoning (sattarka) stated
earlier can be compared with the vitarka (self-reflection) of the ivastra
(I. 28) Description of the cognitive senses as the spectators (III. II) of
the dance of the supreme self (tman III. 9) on the stage of the introspective
inner self (III. 10) leading finally to the Sttvika purification through the
medium of intellect (III. 12) briefly outlines aiva Yoga in the ivastras.
The Vijnabhairava (see 71, 101, 118), and the ivadti (I. 9-10) of
Somnanda pinpoint situations of intense emotional strees and strain and
of joy which may be used for the realisation of the self through stillness
of intellect (Vijnabhairava, 101), its concentration, absorption and
merger (Ibid, 71) in order to feel the nearness to Brahman (Ibid, 118).
One hundred and twelve dhras given in this book of aiva Yoga, i.e.,
the Vijnabhairava, not merely comprehend the various ways of sdhan
included under the kta and the ava means of self-realisation but carve
out a very practical way of turning empirical experiences into the natural
and spontaneous experience of the higest self, Bhairava. Each form of
empirical cognition and action can be turned into spiritual experience
(Ibid; 137) and in this Vijnabhairava (verse 140) echoes the sence of
Git (V. 10) when it declares: Even while living such a man is free from
bondage and is not defiled by the action which he continuously peforms.
It is pertient to note here in passing that the ivastra, ivadi,
Spandakrik and Vijnabhairava concern alsmot exclusively with the
aiva way of spiritual sdhan or aiva yoga and its philosophical insight.
The K is also associated and identified more conveniently with the
esoteric religious practices. The TA of Abhinavagupta is a brilliant
example of this. Nevertheless, although the original insight is never lost
sight of yet it can be suspected that over-elaboration of the rites and
rituals of tantra on the basis of Agamic texts might have blurred the
vision of an ordinary follwer who may be lacking in seriousness of
purposes and pursuit, profundity of thougt and clarity of goal, There can
be little doubt that an unbroken tradition of the aiva Yoga and
philosophical vision always co-existed with an elaborate system of rites
and rituals and yet some authors decidedly ignored any description of the
Tantric practices in their treatises. Utpala is a brilliant example of this
point. He wrote beautiful ivastorvali to express aiva bhaktiyoga when
the movement of devotion spread throughtout the length and breadth of
this country as the best medium of cultural unity of the nation.
(Annals of the B.O.R.I., Poona, Vol. LXIII, 1987)

5. Kashmir aivism and Tantric Buddhism


From very early times till the systematic formulation of the
philosophical doctrines of aivism in 8
th
century A.D. and after, Kashmir
continued to be the meeting place of different schools of Indian
Philosophy. Traditions preserved in Nlamatapura, Mlasarvstivda
and Vinayapiaka testify to the spread of Buddhism to Kashmir from the
third century B.C. Some of the Sanskrit versions of Vinaya represent
Gautam as visiting Muttra, northwest India and Kashmir.
1
Asoka
(268-9 B.C.), who was a worshipper of iva in his early life, had helped
the cause of introducing Buddhism in Kashmir. His son Jalauka and
queen Inadev were opposed to it and had revived the aiva cults.
What is, however, most pertinent is the glorious role that Kashmir played
in the development of the Mahyna or Great Vehicle, reposing its faith
in a Superintending God interesting himself in mans welfare. The aim
of the Hnaynists to attain arhathood and absolute extinction for one-
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 83 84 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
self was replaced by the idea of Bodhisattva-hood of the Mahynists.
Every being of the world is a potential Buddha; he has within him all the
potentialities of becoming a samyak-sambuddha or perfectly enlightend
one. Thus Bodhisattva, a liberated being or Jvanmukta of aivism, works
for the welfare of all. He helps them in their spiritual uplift. Like a gur
he initiates the spiritual aspirant into the mystical lore of unity with
Absolute, nya or iva.
The Mahyna was a new religion which had the indelible impress
of aivism. That this school of Buddhism was born in Kashmir and
developed by Kashmiri scholars who brought the impress of Kashmir
aivism to bear upon it, is an established fact.
2
Kashmir was the Senai
wherefrom the gospel of karu or compassion was propagated and carried
to the cultural extensions of Greater India. Tantric Buddhism was only
an outcome of and growth within this new religion developed under the
influence of ritualistic, religious and philosophical tradition of Kashmir.
The philosophical doctrines, theology, mystic practices, rites and rituals
of the one informed and influenced the other in the long history of
development. The definite dates of origin of mystic schools and
comparative antecedence of even important details or points of view will
always be difficult to determine, because the Indian mystics of all the
shades believed in keeping their teachings secret and oral. Hence the
unanimous anxiety of all the later writers to trace the origin of Tantric
traditions from iva or Buddha (sometimes called Maitreya) is
understandable. The geographical co-existence of aiva traditions and
Mahyna Buddhism in the mystic settings of the valley of Gods is more
than a possibility. The striking similarities of the ideals and some of the
important details are not mere matters of opinion but can stand the close
scrutiny of fact-finding and objective analysis.
Kashmir aivism has three schools namely, Kula, Krama and
Pratyabhij. It recognises three paths of liberation i.e. nandopya,
icchopya and ktopya. Immediate liberation through special grace of
the Lord is the first path. It is also called anupya, because here akti
herself is working through the teacher to liberate the jva who does not
require any active process on his part. God himself makes the first
advances. And indeed without His grace the final beatitude is impossible.
3
I thought that I loved him,Abu Yazid of Bistam is reported as saying,
but when I (looked again I saw that) his love preceded mine or
again for thirty years I looked for God but when I paused to think,
He was the seeker and I the sought. So too Qushayri tells us how
Rabia, when asked by a man who had committed many grievous sins,
whether God would accept his repentance, replied nay, rather you will
repent if he turns to you in forgiveness (first) for you cannot delight
in God before God delights in you.
4
This is then rightly called anupya.
An Advaitavedntin or Skhyayogin attains liberation entirely by his
own efforts, since in their nirgua monism, there is no place for the
compassion of God. Orthodox advaita Vednta or earlier Skhya do
not recognise a compassionate God. A aiva does. He believes that
anugraha or grace is one of the five fundamental acts that God eternally
does.
5
Destruction of the vikaplas leading to definite knowledge is the
second path of liberation. Strong urge to know and unite with the Absolute
characterises this path. It is called icchopya. Control of the senses,
inflation of psyche and intuitional awareness is technically the way of
akti or ktopya. As these three ways of liberation adopt the recognitive
and not cognitive or analytical process they may be rightly called
pratybhijnas. The realisation consists not in the actualisation of the
potential, nor in the attainment of something new; nor in knowing what
was unknown before; but in penetrating through the veil, that makes the
Mahevara appear as the individual, of which every one is immediately
aware, and in recognizing Mahevara in the individual.
6
Realistic idealism
is the metaphysical theory of Kashmir school of aivism. It believes in
the reality of all that is. The object is not a vivarta of Brahman or a
product of creative illusion called My, nor a transformation of collective
unconscious or Prakiti of the Skhya, nor a conglomeration of atoms
with only efficient causality of God, the Prime Mover. The world of
subject and objects is the manifestation of iva or ultimate Principle. All
is iva. All is real. This is different from the Vednta view where all is
one but the all is not real: sarvam khalvidam Brahma. neha nnsti kicana.
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 85 86 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Distinctions of subject and object, the plurality of selves and the
variety of forms are not the inexplicable illusions, or the evolutionary
results or a disturbed equipoise of the three mutually opposed but co-
functionary guas of Prakrti, reflecting within the light of purua. Nor
are they the new bundles of eternal reals conjoined by internal or external
relations. iva is praka (light) and vimara (awareness). His powers
are not different from himself. Through his power of action or kriyakti,
he manifests the phenomena, which are the basis of the order of time and
space. Through his second power, i.e. jnaakti he manifests the
phenomenon of knowledge, the trio of the subject, object and the cognition.
iva is infinite and the infinite is inherently capable of infinite forms.
There is no contradiction. The Infinite cannot become finite by dividing
itself in infinite forms:
prasya pramdya pramevvaiyate.
To manifest Himself is His nature and will. All religions are
obliged to accept plurality inherent in one, for God could neither create
nor imagine anything other than Himself, had he not the potentialty of
plurality or absolute freedom of forms in Himself.
khya teaches the separation of the individual purua from
Prakti or isolation of the self from all that is not-self. The aim and
purpose of meditation and concentration is to isolate the self from the
contents of unconscious, the not-self. This state of isolation or emptying
oneself of all content is the individual souls liberation in Skhya. It is
kaivalya or isolation. According to ankaras school of Vednta, Brahman
is one and absolute-one without second; ekamevdvityam Brahma. Human
soul is Brahman: tm ca Brahma. To know the Brahman is to know
tman or vice versa and negatively that not-self does not exist. Thus self-
realisation is the isolation of tman (self) from the antman (not-self).
There is some theoretical difference between Skhya and Vednta about
the nature of the not-self or antman. The former holds it real and a
parima of prakti but the latter views it as vivarta or apperance of the
Real. Its position as real or unreal is treated as a matter of opinion in
Vednta schools and their interpretations. However, what interests us is
their unanimous anxiety to isolate the self, purua or tman from the not-
self, prakti or practical reality of the world (Vyvahrika satt). Thus it
is clear, (and it is so easy to understand if we just inter-change the words
tman for purua and antman for prakti) that the Vednta in practice
does not go beyond the Skhya theory of self-isolation from the whole
psycho-physical complex as the goal of mystical self-identity. The
Nyyavaieikas regard soul as the substratum of consciousness-a quality
arising in it under certain conditions. Its liberation is its descent into the
state of unconscious. From a brief statement of the mystical doctrines of
the Skhya, Vednta and the Nyyavaieika what we get is a principle
of self-isolation. Hence the experience of the mystics of these schools is
not of union, communion or unity with the Absolute but self-identification
through the Yogic process of separation of the purua from the prakti in
Skhya, cessation of the illusion or practical real in Vednta and the
disjunction of consciousness in Nyya-vaesika. This natural rest and
the possession of their own souls cannot be taken as the intimate
communion of the human soul with its Maker. There can be no union
when there is only one.
Keeping in view their mystical goal the practices of these schools
can rightly be described as aiming at suppression of psyche and not a
positive inflation or sublimation. Coming to aiva mysticism we find a
difference in fundamentals and consequently in the purpose of mystic
techniques, rites and rituals. Harmony of iva and akti and a
transcendental unitive self-repose through the recognitive process is the
goal of aiva mysticism. akti or the principle of energy is the power of
the absolute i.e. iva the auspicious. It is not a creative illusion as the
my of the Vednta, nor a collective unconscious as the Prakti of the
Skhya, nor a quality inhering in a substance as the Nyyvaieika
could interpret it. akti is the creative dynamism, the eternal feminine
seated in the heart of the divine Lord.
Na iva aktirahito na akti iva- varjit, tdtmyamanayor
nityam vahnidhakayoriva. The harmonious integration of the two and
not isolation, negation or distinction characterises the aiva mysticism.
According to Jung
7
, the human psyche is androgynous. Every
male has within his own psyche a female principle, the animo, and
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 87 88 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
conversely every female has a male principle within herself, the animus.
The achievement of integration is the union and reconciliation of the two
principles. This conjunction oppositorum is found in many schools of
mysticism, for exmaple in the union of Chinese Yang and Yin and in the
mystical marriage of soul with Christ. The unio mystica of iva and
akti, inseparable like moon and her rays or word and idea, finds its echo
in the mysticism of Tantric Buddhism as the union of Buddha and
Prajpramit or conversely praj and Upya.
The Buddhist Tantrism has two main schools, Pramitnaya
and the Mantranaya. The latter is subdivided into three schools of
Klacakrayna, Vajrayna and Sahajayna. The Pramitnaya is based,
by and large, on the philosophy of inferential existence of the objects
expounded by the Sautrntikas and the Mantrayna on the Vijnavda
of the Yogcra school and the Mdhyamika theory of absolute
nothingness or nyat. What, however, interests the Buddhist mystics
is not the philosophy as a way of thought but as a way of life. The
metaphysical doctrines are only of secondary importance, the mystic
methods for the realisation of reality, the unio mystica, is their abiding
interest. Buddhist Tantrism thus pre-eminetly deals with the esoteric
Yoga, occult practices, rites and rituals rather than with any pure
philosophical speculations. The religion of philosophy and not particular
points of view appeal to the mystics. This is as it should be if the goal of
mysticism is not to be identified with or confused with a mere formulation
of metaphysical principles. Belief in the human body as the seat and best
medium of truth, a theological principle of duality in non-duality, the
static and the dynamic nature of Reality are some of the important
fundamentals of Tantrism. The ultimate goal of aivism and Buddhist
tantrism is the perfect state of union-union between the two aspects of
the reality and the realisation of the non-dual nature of the self and the
not-self.
8
This union of iva and akti is represented by praj and upya
or nyat and karu. It is held in aivism that the metaphysical principles
of iva-akti are manifested in the form of male and female. Tantric
Buddhism also holds that Praj and upaya, the corresponding principles
to iva and akti, manifest themselves in the form of female and male.
The comparative study of the principle of the prajpramit with
Mahakti; of mudrs with the actualisations of akti; of the sixfold
yoga with the eight-fold yoga; of the ten spiritual planes of Pramudit
and others to produce Bodhi-mind with uddha adhavan or Pure way; of
sahajavajra or nya-body with the kta-body and of the two forms of
nirva-conditional and unconditional (sopadhi and nirupadhi), will be a
fruitful acquisition.
Religious mysticism is not the anti-thesis of philosophy. It is
rather its perfection and synthesis. Tantric theology, the chanting of
mantras, mystical diagrams, the postures and circles, meditations and
salutations of various types, sexo-yogic practices, the five makras,
may seem to a superficial observer profane insanity, unphilosophical,
unsocial and immoral, but to a serious student of mystic culture, they
reveal their true nature. There are marked similarities and striking
differences between the two schools on many points of sdhan and its
objective but a careful analysis of the contentions of these two schools of
mysticism is still a desideratum. Comparative mysticism-as a new branch
of study, is still in its infancy. It is necessary that we evaluate the all-
important contribution of avism and Buddhist Tantrism to the mystic
culture of this country. Mdhyamikas assertion that all is nya and
aivas declaration that all is iva seem to be extreme positions. But to a
discerning mind and a spiritual aspirant or a follower of the mystic path
the discreation and the widom of interpreting these expressions of
absolutism as signifying negative and positive forms (where neither is
possible) is not denied.
References:
1. Sir Charles Eliot, Hinduism and Buddhism, P. 263.
2. Vide. B. Bhattacharya, Introduction to Sdhanaml, Vol. II and
An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism.
3. Bhskar, Vol. I, P. 25-26.
4. Quoted in Mysticism, Sacred and Profane, pp. 146-7.
5. Vide, Tantrloka and ivai.
6. Pandey, K.C.: Introduction to Bhskar, Vol. II.
7. Jung, C.G., Psychology of the Unconscious.
8. Dasgupta, S.B., An Intro. Tantric Buddism, p. 3-4.
(Printed)

-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 89 90 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(


6. Bharthari and Kashmir aivism
Bharthari (Bh.), the famous author of Vkyapadya
1
(VP), is
now safely assigned to the fifth century A.D. (between 450-500 A.D.) on
the basis of the two verses, namely, yath viuddham kam and
tathedam amta brahma of the VP occurring in the Traiklyapark
(verse 31 and 32) of Dinga (480-540 A.D.), and also on the basis of
phrases like so yam ity abhisambandht and caitanya puruasya
svarpam found in the Vysabhya
2
on the Yogastras 3.17 and 1.9
respectively echoing kindred expressions in the VP 2.40 and 1.124. The
Vtti on the VP is according to the tradition from the pen of Bh. himself.
There is no conclusive evidence to prove different authorship of the Vtti.
In any case the Kashmirian tradition regards both the Kriks and the
Vtti by the same author.
Somnanda (880 A.D.) systematised the Trika system based on
the gamas in his pioneer work of Kashmir aivism, namely, ivadi
or Vision of iva. Utpala (910 A.D.) wrote his Vtti on it and wrote his
famous work, the varapratyabhijnkrik. Rmakaha (950 A.D.) wrote
Vivti on the Spandakrik revealed to Vasugupta. Abhinavagupta (980-
1020 A.D.), the encyclopeadic writer and thinker who is known for his
two commentaries on the varapratyabhijnkrik, namely Vimarin
and Vivtivimarin and for his Tantrloka, the encyclopaediea of Tantric
rites, rituals and philosophy, is like akara of Kashmir aivism. Jayaratha
(1170 A.D.) wrote a commentary Viveka on the Tantrloka. One of the
commentators of the VP is Helrja (950 A.D.) whose commentary,
Praka, is still extant on the third Ka. He is regarded as the teacher
of Abhinavagupta. His commentary which reads like an independent work,
betrays clear-cut affinity with the philosophical presuppositions of the
Trika system. Abhinavagupta himself had perhaps written a commentary
on the third chapter of the VP, namely Prakrakavivaraa and may be an
independent work also bearing on the philosophy of grammar. This can
be speculated on the basis of the expression anyatra occurring in the
Tantrloka and its explanation as prakraka-vivaradau offered by
Jayaratha in his Viveka thereon.
3
Bh. and his VP along with the Vtti are
extensively quoted, alluded or referred to both explicitly and implicitly.
4
This is usually done with approval and a high sense of veneration as is
evident from expressions, such as, tatrabhavn, tatrabhavad-
Bhartharipahitam gamam.
The manner in which the very first Krik of the VP is treated
by Somnanda in his ivadi and by Utpala in his comment thereon and
by Rmakaha in his Vivti on the Spandakrik and later on by
Abhinavagupta will be found very interesting. Somnanda is critical of
the theory of abda-Brahman of Bh. particularly for identifying abda-
Brahman with the Payant form of Vc According to him one must
accept four divisions of the Vc-Par, Payant, Madhyam and Vaikhar,
and in his view abda-Brahman could be identified with the Par form of
Vc only. This is clear from the reading of ivadi 2.2, 2.8 cd; 2.9-10,
2.21cd; 2.22ab, 2.81-82 and Utpaladevas comment on the same.
5
Abhinavagupta gives quotations from the Vtti on VP 1.1 and
explains that the form and action cannot be defined and the same are
result of avidy. He also explains the nature of vivarta in this context.
6
It
is, in fact, Rmakaha who in his Vivti on the Spandakrik, 4.18,
brings out aivite interpretation of the VP 1.1. According to him the
expansion of aktis, aktiprasara, is spoken of as vivarta by the
grammarian. The word-principle for which Brahman is another synonym
is not different from the highest Lord. It is the highest form of akti
which brings about the full and final success. He explains the four forms
of the akti, and identification of Vaikhar with kriyakti, power of
action, of Madhyam with the power of will and of Payant with the
power of knowledge. These powers are dependent on the divine form
which is identical with the alphabets and the words. The sentence which
is one of the many ways in which akti expands itself is eternal in the
form of mantra and the astra and is non-eternal in the form of ordinary
worldly communication. Recognition of the wealth of letters as the akti
of Lord leads to the attainment of the highest goal but the same being
related to numerous individuals becomes the cause of bondage:
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 91 92 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
rrarrrra trrrrrr r rrarrr +rrrrr :rrr trrrrtrt+r ar rr :rrrr +rttr
rrr`-rtrtrtttr r`rrtrrr-rrrrrtrr rrrtr`tr trr+ rar-+rrrr`ar`rrr rr.....
r`rrtrtr:r+rrrr ......rtr.+ r`tr+ +rr rrrrrrrrratr-rtrrr rrrtrr+rtrrr rr
r`rr`arr+ trr`ar rrtr rrr`-rtr trrrrrtrr ;rrtrr trrr trrrrrtrr`trrrrtr+rrrr trtrr
tr rr rr r` trr` qrr rrrrrarr` tr tr -r rr + tr rrr r r artr rrrrrrrrr
rrrrtrrrrrrrrr`+rrr`-rrrtrrtr trrrr r`rrrrrr`-r. trr`rr rrrr`-ra-rr, trtrrrr -r
rrrrrr rrrr -rrrr`-r, trtrrrr -r rrrrtrr ;rrrrrr`-rr`tr`tr+ trar rrr`-rtr trr`tr
rrr` -rrrtrr` rrrrrrr ortr r` tr +rr` +rrrrrtr rr. rratrr` rrrrr` rrrtrrrr q +rtr r` rrrr :trr.
trrrr>rr. rr r rrr r` ar` +r. rrrrrrrr tr . trtrtrt+r a . r` rr r+rtr + rr :r` rr rrrrrrr.
trtrtr:trr. tr r`rtrrr`rtr+rar r`r`rr.+ trr rrrrtrrrr. rrrtrrtrrrr;r r`rtr.+
rrrr`rrrrrrrtr`rrrrrrrr`rrrrrrrrrrtrrrrttr +rr`rtr.+ qr rrtrr+rtrrr`-rtrr
trtrr`+r;rrrrrrrr qrrr rrrrzrr r`r+rr`tr. rrtr`trr`qtrar+ rrrrrrrrtrrrr`rtrrr tr
+rr`rr`-crrrrrr rrtr+rrr`tr+
Inspite of sharp criticism of Bh.s view of abda-Brahman as
contained in the VP 1.1, Somnanda incorporates ideas contained in the
Kriks of the VP in his ivadi. Thus 1.32 and 1.42 of the VP are
reflected in 2.33 and 5.62 of the ivadi, 1.115 in 2.6, 1.123 in 2.11,
1.143 in 2.7-8, and 3.8.4 in 1.19. Utpala, Rmakaha and Abhinavagupta
are definitely more indebted to Bh. for working out their system in the
light of ideas contained in the VP.
Importance of the gama as the source of knowledge, recognition
of manifold aktis in non-dualistic reality, identification of the absolute
with the word-principle, vc and its four forms, importance of pratibh
are some of the basic things which made deep impact on the works of
Kashmir aivism.
The term gama in the VP stands for tradition, for rule of conduct
and the scriptural work or stra codifying the unbroken tradition. It also
stands for abda as prama, as authority against reasoning. The VP
unequivocally declares that reasoning cannot determine dharma which
cannot be known without gama and that even the knowledge of the sages
is derived from the gamas.
7
He points out limitations of reasoning which
can always be displaced by better reasoning by more intelligent men. In
view of differing potentialities of objects due to variation in state, place
and time it is always difficult to grasp the objects correctly.
8
The knowledge
of enlightened sages of undisturbed mind is akin to direct perception.
9
Those who have not seen the truth their perception and description of it
are unreliable and inconsistent.
10
gama is like continuous consciousness
which cannot be obliterated by inferential arguments.
11
These ideas
emphasising impersonal authority of the stra, importance of the
enlightened souls and stating the limits of reasoning are widely used by
the religious tradition of India, these are interwoven in ivadi 2.33
and 5.62, in the IPVV Vol. III, pp. 94-95 in the XXXV and XXXVII
chapters and other portions of the Tantrloka dealing with the significance
of the stra.
The ultimate reality, spoken of as Mahevara, Anuttara, Parama
iva, Bhairava etc. is cit, caitanya or consciousness. It is cetana or
conscious as it is invariably related to or is inseparable from the power
or action of consciousness i.e., citikriy. Consciousness has two important
characteristics, namely self-luminosity (svaprakat) and self-
consciousness (vimara). While praka or luminosity is a transcendental
and static aspect of the self, the self-critical consciousness (vimara),
which constitutes its very freedom (svtantrya) and kartva, implies
universal and dynamic aspect of the self. A stir or spanda in the
consciousness like ripple in the still water represents akti aspect of
iva. The self-luminous consciousness manifests itself first as akti where
everything is one complete whole without any distinction or manifestation
of subject and object. Through its second manifestation the consciousness
reveals complete unity of the objective universe with the subject, the
Self. At this stage, which is known as vidy, this ness is identical with
the I-ness. At the third stage of My, the subject and object, the whole
universe, appear as mutually distinct and separate elements. Adavaita
Vednta denied the reality of matter in order to preserve the transcendental
integrity of Brahman. Change and activity belong to the sphere of nature
which may be practically real but are finally unreal. There can be no real
relationship between the transcendental being and the nature. Brahman
and My, Purua and Prakti are not really and actually related. The self
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 93 94 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
is one and it is none other than the Brahman. It is beyond all change,
transformation, mutability and specifications and hence nothing can
distinguish one self from the other. This implies that the one reality can
be known only by negation and that any change or modification is apparent
and not real. Any identification of the absolute with the universe or of the
universe with the absolute is false superimposition. This is brought about
by inexplicable nature of ignorance, my and/or avidy at macrocosmic
and microcosmic levels. Kashmir aivism (K) and Vednta agree that
the absoluteness is not qualified or predicated by any thing standing
outside or external to it. The absolute is pure in both the systems.
According to the Vednta it is only in the secondary sense that the Brahman
can be defined, otherwise it is beyond all descriptions and characterisations.
It cannot be grasped by speech or mind. Anuttara of aivism is of the
same nature. The autonomy of consciousness or independence of eternal
reality from the body and mind is accepted both by Vednta and aivism.
However, the Brahman of Vednta is self-luminous but is not self-
conscious. It is, therefore, spoken of as nta, that is, without any activity.
The manifestation of the universe is in spite of him. The consciousness
or Bhraman undergoes no change. The ultimate metaphysical principle
of K, Mahevara, manifests Himself through three important stages of
akti, Vidy and My out of his own free will (svtantrya). He is a free
agent eternally associated with manifold powers to imagine the world in
His own image through His critical consciousness or vimara akti. The
VP very distinctly recognises akti and its variety and treats it as
inseparable from imperishable word-principle which is Brahman without
beginning and end. The Vtti on the VP 1.1 makes it clear that the abda-
Brahman is possessed of all aktis which bring out great diversity:
sarvavikalptta tattva bhedasasargasamatikramea
samvia sarvbhi akibhi.
The verses found in the Vtti on 1.1 more particularly:
tathedam amta brahma nirvikram avidyay/
kaluatvam ivpanna bhedarpa vivartate//
explains the role of avidy in forming the modification. The Kriks 1.2-
4 expound the diversity through the idea of akti, which is manifold and
inseparable, and constitutes the svtantrya in the form of klaakti. It is
through the akti that the one is divided into experiencer (subject),
experienced (object) and the experience.
12
The power of words constitutes
the universe.
13
Thus askti has been recognised in various forms in the
system of Bh.
14
Recognition of akti as freedom remaining inseparable
from abda-Brahman and manifesting diversity of the world is pre-
eminently suited to the philosophy of K.
abda-Brahman of the VP is recognised as par vc
15
in the
Trika system which is identified as par pratibh.
16
It was Somnanda,
who, on the basis of the philosophy of abda-Brahman and, in fact, in
criticism of it, postulated that payant cannot be regarded as the highest
form of speech. As a result, the K recognised four forms of vc. But in
doing so they have adopted the descriptions of Payant, Madhyam and
Vaikhar from the VP and its Vtti. A number of verses occuring in the
Vtti under 1.143 vaikhary madhyamy ca etc. have been quoted in
various works of K
17
. It is possible that some verses from the gamic
sources were interpolated in the Vtti.
Bhartharis basic ideas regarding supreme importance of vc or
abda that all knowledge is permeated by word, that all knowledge is vc,
which is pratyavamarin or self-aware and is the source of all branches
of knowledge and arts, that vc is responsible for all human activity
18
,
are very fondly quoted by a host of aiva writers.
19
Taking cue or support
from Bh. Tntric philosophers considered mtk, the alphabets from a
to ka as base of knowledge.
20
Thus, the basic concept of mantra as the
highest form of vc or ultimate reality and of the letters as the base of
knowledge, which is very fundamental to all shades of Tantricism, can
be traced to the ideas contained in
na sosti pratayo loke ya abdnugamd te/
anuviddham iva jna sarva abdena bhsate//
and
vgrpat ced utkrmed avabodhasya vat/
na praka praketa s hi pratyavamarin//
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 95 96 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
of VP. Abhinavagupta explains vgrpat etc. according to his own system
where pratyavamara is expounded as consciousness in the form of aham
which is defined as self-repose without and dependence.
21
The
inseparability of word and knowledge, abda and pratyaya, was rendered
in terms of praka and vimara, iva and akti following the gamic
tradition of nondualistic aivism.
Bh. considered pratibh as common to all beings, birds and beasts,
it was regarded as a flash of intelligence and also as constituting the
meaning of a sentence.
22
Its importance or significance is unique in the
system of Bh.
In the Vtti of the VP, pratibh is identified with vc which is
spoken of as the parpara or the ultimate cuase. It is only through pratibh
which is identical with Being that spiritual attainment is finally possible:
(i) trr :rr` trrrr rr rrrrtrrrrr` rrrr rrr r` rrrrtrrr trrr r` tr trr` tr+rrrrr rrt r` tr
(ii) r`rrrrtrrrrrr trtr trrr rrzrr rrr+
r`rrrrtrrrrrr trtrr trrr, trrrr`tr rrtrrr++
(iii) +rararrrr`r`rrtrr rrrrrrrtrrr`trrr+
+rrrrrtrr trrr`rcrrtr rrrr trrrr`tr. rrtr++
(iv) tra+rrtrr--r rrarr r rrrr rrrr` rrrr trr` tr+rr tr-rtr+rrr +rrrr` rrrrttrrr r` tr
tr-rr trrrtrrrrrrr`-rrrrtrr trrrrrrr r`rrtrr orrrtrrr`rtr.
(Quoted in Bharthari, K.A.S. Iyer, Poona, 1969, p. 452.)
Abhinavagupta identified the par vc with par pratibh
(Tantrloka II. 79) which was not different from the self-consciousness,
svasavid,
23
responsible for all kinds of communication.
24
As a result of continous interaction of the Trika system with the
philosophy of language as propounded by Bh. The grammarian-
philosophers like Ngea Bhaa accepted four forms of Vc. He held
that Vedic expressions like: Catvri gs trayo sya pd (IV. 25.83),
catvri vk parimit padni supported his view. In this Uddyota on the
Mahbhya of Patajali he holds that ca is catvri padajtni
nmkhytopasarganipt ca indicates these four forms of Vc :
bhye padajtni par-payant-madhyam-vaikharrpi/ ata
evgre nipta ceti cakra sagacchate/ In his Paramalaghumaj,
11, he describes the four forms of Vc thus:
par vk mlacakrasth payant nbhisasthit/
hdisth madhyam jey vaikhar kahadeag//
Similar descriptions are found in the Tantric texts. Sanctity of
word, its eternality and authority are commonly shared by the traditions
of Veda (nigama) and gama (Tantra).
Authority and significance of the scriptures, of mantras, anusvra,
visarga, dot and seeded letters (bjkaras), of discourses of great souls
like Buddha and Mahvra flow from the word only. The word is the
very basis of religious and cultural traditions of a race or a country. The
words and their order in the Vedas remains so sacred to the Vedists that
it can admit of no change. It is impersonal and self-valid. Similarly the
mantras in various traditions of religion must be uttered and repeated in
the same form and order in which they have been handed down by tradition.
No translation of a mantra, howsoever, perfect, will produce the desired
and promised merit. It is not so much the meaning which can perhaps be
preserved in good translation but the sanctified form or order of religious
language that is significant. abda is Brahman, really and absolutely real;
artha is vivarta, apparent and changing. Kautsa may have had some such
idea also when he declared that the mantras are without meanings which
may be superimposed on a word which has all potentialities inherent in
it. All words convey all kinds of meanings (sarve sarvrthavcak).
Specificity and particularity of meaning is limitation and conditioning of
word. Tantric mantras like ai, hr, kl do not have conventional
meanings of common usage. But these in themselves are significant and
efficacious. These letters are, in fact, the very form of deity, of
consciousness, and they represent par vc and its self-critical awareness,
pratyavamara. The philosophy of word developed by Bharthari had its
roots in the Vedic, gamic and even non-Vedic tradition of India which
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 97 98 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
adored the Word. It was on account of supremacy of word over changing
meanings that the unity and continuity on the one hand and change and
modification on the other, were admitted in Indian tradition. The
importance of Sanskrit, Prkrita and Pli in various religious traditions
also emphasised the role of word in the cultural heritage of India. The
plethora of commentaries and sub-commentaries and varying
interpretations of the sacred texts show that the words handed down by
the tradition were considered inviolable. Independent or original treatises
were also soaked in extracts and quotations of the tradition, gama or the
stra. Bh. perfected the philosophy of word which had a great impact,
direct or indirect, implicit or explicit on the tradition and culture of
India. Kashmir aivism was no exception. It incorporated his basic ideas
and interwove them into the non-dualistic system of philosophy.
According to K the consciousness and its contents are identical
and equally real. This is absolute idealism because according to this
nothing exists independently of iva. The external objective world is the
manifestation of what is really internal and remains reflected within the
integral unity of the consciousness. iva is both a witnessing self and a
perceived object. The K understands the world as a symbol of the absolute
which is always in the state of becoming, appearing in diverse forms
through its power of freedom. Creation is conceived here in diverse forms
through its power of spontaneous play of the Lord. It is both real and
delightful. Rippling of the ocean, externalization by Yogin of essentially
internal thought, art-object of an artist and images reflected in the mirror,
are generally cited as examples to illustrate the externalization of inward
reality eternally manifesting itself in diverse forms and still maintaining
its integral unity. In this view the world is nothing but externalization of
the consciousness and is not in any way different from it and it is so
because it is real creation of consciousness. The world is not a snake in
the rope or the second moon or the silver in the conch-shell. It is free
expression of his personality or a thought-construct of a philosopher. In
brief, Vednta and K are opposed to the realism posting independence
of the subject and object but both present different models of the nature
of consciousness. According to the Vedntins change, predication,
mutability will defile purity of consciousness, but according to the K
consciousness is all, full and comprehensive, hence duality and diversity
also do not exist beyond it. Consciousness is without contents. In fact,
the consciousness and its contents are identical both in manifested and
unmanifested forms. The consciousness is dynamic and not quiet. It is
self-resplendent like a gem and, unlike it, it is also self-reflective which
is the very characteristic of the consciousness.
The two models of non-dualism presented by Vednta and
Kashmir aivism owe much to the idealistic thought system of Bharthari.
His philosophy of word and meaning inspired great thinkers of Keral and
Kashmir in their special constructions of non-dualism His contribution
to grammar, linguistics, poetry, philosophy and aesthetics is unique in
the history of intellectual tradition of India.
References :
1. See, (i) Introduction, pp. xii-xiii, Vkyapadya of Bharthari,
University of Poona, Sanskrit and Prakrit Series, Vol. II, ed. K.V.
Abhyankar and V.P. Limaye, Poona 1965,
(ii) Bharthari, K.A., Subramania Iyer, Poona 1969, p. 2.
2. Vysa who is placed in the fifth century (400-500 A.D.) by P.V. Kane,
comments on the Yogastra, 3.17 as follows: trr :rr` rrtrr` +rtr rrrtr
qrrrrrrt qr trtrr. trrrtr r`tr+
This, according to K.V. Abhyankar and V.P. Limaye is echoing the
following:
trr :rr` rrtrr` +rtr rrr r rr trrrrrtr rar+
rrrrrrrtr trarrr:r`rr rr. trtrrrrr. trr`-rtr++ (VP, 2.40)
Similarly, Vysabhya on the Yogastra 1.9:
......rttrrrrtr:r`rr rra;rrrrrrrtrrr`rrrrr rrrtr rrtr+ trcrrr -rtrr
rrrrtr trrrr`rrr`tr echoes the Vtti on VP 1.124 .....rrr trrrrrrrrtrrrr.
trrr -rtrr rr:trrrr`rrr. trrr ;rrrrrr`rr trr rrrrrrrrrrrrrtrrr+
3. Thus we find references of allusions to VP 1. 1; 1.3; 1.32; 1.34-35;
1.40-42; 1.50; 1.55; 1.84; 1.112; 1.120-126; 1.128; 1.143; 2.19; 2,22;
2,38; 2.128; 2.312; 2.315-16; 3,1.9; 3.1. 11; 3.1.14; 3.1.32; 3.1.51;
3.1.104; 3.1.105; 3.2.1; 3.2.11.3.2.17;3.3. 4-5; 3. 3.9-11; 3 3.51;3.7. 39-
41; 3.7. 110; 3.7.163, 3.8. 1-4; 3.8.6; 3.8. 9-11;3.8..14 in the works of
Utpala, Rmakaha, Abhinavagupta and others.
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 99 100 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
4. tr rzr trrr r rrarr rrtrrr`tr.+
+rrttrrrrrr r`rtrtrrrtrr`ttrttrr rrrr++ TA X., 41
+rrrr`tr trrrrrrrr`rrtrrar Viveka thereon.
5. The text and comment as found in Appendix III of Poona ed. is given in
full with necessary formal changes:
trr ttr rrt r r rarrr` a trrrorrrr +
traort rrarr trr rrrrtrr rrtr r` rrrr ++
Utpala comments this:
trrr -r tr qrrrr. ....... rarrr`a +rrtr -r rrt rr r`-rrr traort r`rr`rrrrt rrarrrr+trr
qr -r rrrrtrr tr ;rr rrtr rrrr + rrrr rrtrr r` rrr rrtr rrar. r` -rttrrrrrrr :r` rr r trrrrrr tr+
trr r` trtrrrrr` rr rr + trtrrrrrr rrr r -r trrrrrrrrr -rtr trr ttr +
He evidently refers to VP 1.124;
rrr rrtrr -r a trrrrr tr +rrrr rtr rrr+rtrr +
r trrrrrr. trrrrrr tr trr r` trtrrrrr` rr rr ++
Somnanda actually quotes this and other Kriks in his ivadi (2.
9-10) for refutation as a Prvapaka thus : rtrrr-r -rtr trr` t r
rttrtrr-rr (ibid, 2.8 cd).
Utpala says: rtrrrtr tr. rrrrrtr. trr`. trrrr`+rrrr. qrrr-rrr trr`trrrrr`atr
rrrrtrr rr rratr-r +rort +rrrcrtr r r r` r+rrr +rrr r r` rrtr tr
tratrtrrrrrrtrrr rrr-r` tr+ +rtrtrr` r+r-rrrrrr rrrrrr` trr r` rrtr .+
trtrrttrr`rtrtr rtrr r`rrtrrrtr trr`rrr +rrr+rtr+rrrrr`ar`rrrtrrr`-rrr`rrr`tr+
Here Utpala actually quotes from the Vtti of Bh. on VP 1.1 thus:
r` rrtr tr :r +rrr r+ qrrtr tr-rratr-r trtr +r arr rrrtr +rtrtrr` r+r-rrrrrr rrrrrr` trr
r` rrtr .+ trrrr` rrrrtrr` tr+rrtrrtr + s-r -r- rr r` tr r` rrrr` rrtrr +rr` rcrrrrr` -rtrr r` -rrrrrrr +
trr r` rcrrtrrr` r tr-rrrtrr+rrrrrrar rr + qtrr` q +rr` rcrrrr +rr` rcrrtrrr + r` tr+
Utpala on ivadi 2.21 cd and 2.22 ab which says:
rcrr+rrtrrr rr` +r trr ttrttrtrr :rrtrtrr :r` rr rr+
trtrtr arr r+r rrr rtrtr trtrtrr rrrrr ++
observes and quotes from the Vtti of Bh. his standard definition of vivarta thus;
rcrr+rrtrrr rrrrrr`arrrr atrrr rrrrr`tr trtr trrrr trtrrtrtrtrrr`r-rrt trtrtrr
trrrtr +rtrtrrr`r+r-rrrrrrrrrrrr`trrtrrrr r`rrtr -r`. arrr+rrr+rrrr rr-rr
+rtrtr rrrrr rrtrtrrrar`rrtr rrrrtrr. trtrtrrrrr.+
Somnanda further refutes the grammarians view regarding abda in
ivadii 2.80 and 2. 81:
rratr r` rrrrrartr r` rr>rtr r r` rtr tr +
trr arr rr` r;rrrrr rtrr rrar r` arrrr ++
rtrrrarrr` ar` rrr rratr-r rrtr r` rrrr +
rrrrtrr rr rrrrtr ttr rrrr rrtrr rrtr tr ++
Utpala explains:
r`rrrrrrtrr rrrrtrrr rtr +rrarr trtrrr`tr. rratr trtr r`artr -r rrtrtrrr
trr`trqtr rrrrrrtr r`rr>rtrr qrrrrrrtr rtrrrtr tr-r +rrrr`ar`rrr trrr`arr
+r+r arr` +rrrr` r trrr . rtrrrtr tr r r` rr>rr rrrt r trr arr rr;rrrtrr rrar r` arr
rrrrrtrrrr trrrtrr+ r r` trr`-rar`rr trrarrr`aarrrrr rrrrr`trrrr. r` rr` rrrrrr .
+r+r a. .+ qr -r rr rratr rratr r +rrrr` ar` rrrtr r +rrrrara rrr r rrrrrrtr
ttr:r`rr rrrrr`r trarrrrr r`rrrrr qrrtrr trtrrtr+
6. r`rrrtr`trr`rrr`tr+ r +rr arrrrrrr`rrr srrr-rr trr +rttr rrr rr +rtr+ rcrtrrr
tr rtr trar rrr`trarr+rarrrrrrrrrtrr +rrrrrrtr trr+ +rrrrtr r`tr rrar
+rrr rrr`trr`rrtrr rcrrttrrrtrr+ rrorr r`tr tr+rtrrrorr trtrrrr ;rrrrrrtr
rr rrorrrr trtrr`rrorrrr trr+ r -r r trrrrrr`rrrrr trr trr+rrtr r`tr+
-r r`tr +rrtr`rr rrr`trr`rrrrr`rrtrr +rr`rcrrrrr`-rtrrr`-rrrrrrr trrr`ar`+r.
>r trtrrrrr r . rrtr +r+r rrr-r trr .+ s-r -r rr r` tr r` rrrr` rrtrr
+rr` rcrrrrr` -rtrr r` -rrrrrrr + trr r` rcrrtrrr` r tr-rrrtrr+rrrrrrar rr + qtrr` q
+rr`rcrrrr +rr`rcrrtrrr+ IPVV, Vol. III, p. 14.
He further refers to the Vtti on the VP 1. 1 and explains: qr rrr`trrrrr-rrtr
trarr r` rrtr r -rrtr rrtr rrrtrrrr- r rrttr r` tr+ qrrtr r` tr+
tr-rratr-rtrtr trr`rr qrrtrrrrr`orrtr r`tr rrrz rrr`trr`t-rrr+ +rarrrrrtr
r`tr tr trtrr`r+r-rtrrr`+rrrrrr trrrrtrrr +
7. -i -iii-ii-i i-i --ii i -i-ii` -i-i :
iii ii-ii` i i-ii-i -iiii-ii -i i-i :: VP, 1.30
8. ~i-i-ii ziii-ii-ii i i i` iii-i zii` -ii :
ii-ii-ii-i-i -ii-i -i :ii` -ii` zi` -i -i ii: Ibid, I. 32
9. ~iii` -ii -i:iiizii-ii-i-i i-i -i-i -i-ii-i :
~i-ii-ii-iii-i-ii-i :i-iiii i`-ii`zii-i:: Ibid, I. 37
10. -i--ii-i--ii-ii -iiiii it --i-i :
zi-i -i-i-i -iii`i i`-i-i-i-ii-i-ii`-i-i-i:: Ibid, II. 138
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 101 102 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
11. -rtrrr`rrr r;rrrrrr`r-ar rtrtr+
+rrrrrttrrrrrrtrrrr trrrar rrrtr++ Ibid, I. 141
12. (i) qrrrrr rarrrrtr r`+rrrrr`-rrrrr>rrrtr+
+rrrrrrtr:r`rr rrr`-r+r. rrrrrtrrr rtrtr++ Ibid, I. 2
(ii) +rrrr`trrrrrr rtr rrrrrrrr`-rrrrrrr`>rtrr.+ Ibid, I. 3 ab
(iii) qrrtr trrrrrtr rtr -rrrrrrrrr+
+rrrrtr+rr-rrrrr +rrrrrr -r r`trr`tr.++ Ibid, I. 4
13. rrarrrrr`>rtrr rrr`-rr`r+rtrrtr r`rrr`rrr+
rrr. trr`trrrrtrrrr +rarr. trtrrrtr++ Ibid, I. 118
14. rrrrtr rrrrrrtr -r rr-rr trrtrr rrr I.55; trrrrrr r rr-rr. I.88;
+rrr. trrrrr`-rtrra +ratrtrrr-rr. I. 110; trrr-rr rrrrrrrrr I.111;
trtr trrr -r rr rrr`-r. I.117; +rr`r+r-r:r`rr rrrrrrr rrr`-r+rararrrartr 2.88;
See, also 3.7.2, 3.7.28-31, 34, 35.
15. r`-rr`tr. trtrrrrrrrtrrr rrtr rrrr trttrrr`atrr+
trrtrrrrtrrrar tra+rr rrtrrrtrrr.++ IP Krik, 1, 5.13.
16. trr rrtr trr`tr+rr arr trr`ra-r rr-rtrrr++ TA. II. 79.
17. Abhinavagupta says:
(i) tr rrarrrrrrtrrr +rr`+rrrrr. trrtrrrrrr rrrrrr trorr r`tr rrrtr+ rrr
r` trr+rrrr trr`trtrtrrrrr tr, trtrr`rr +ra trrrrr`rrrrrrr`-r. rrrrtrr+
IPVV. Vol. II, p. 189.
(ii) s-rtr-rttrtrtrrrorrr rrrrrrr`r trrorr rtr.+ trar trr+rrrr +rtrr`t.
trr` trtr trrrrrtr. trtrrr+r a trrrrr` rrrrrrr` -r. rrrrtrr trr +r-rrrr -r -rrrr
trr` trrrrrtrrrrrrrr -r tr r` rr` r;r rrrrrtr trr` trrr rrrrtr r` -rtrrrrtr -r
rrr` tr` -rrr trtrr+rrtrr tr tr rr trtrr+rrtrr -r trrr r trtrr+rrtrr
trrrrtrtrtrr+rrtrr -r r` tr+ +rr r r` +rrrr` trrrr+r atr r
+r tr a trrr r` r r` -rrtr rtrr+ Ibid. p. 226
(iii)Rmakaha, in his Vivti on Spandakrik 4.18, quotes: +rr`r+rrrr tr
rrrrtrr ......., rr rrr r qr rrrarrr ........, trrr rrr` +rr` tr rrrr ......,
trrrrrrrrrrrrrrr`rr ......+
(iv) Somnanda refers to Vaikhar in his ivadti 2.7-8 thus:
tr trrrtrr rrr rrr t rrarr` atrrr+rrrrr.+
rartr rrrtr trr rr`rrr`trrrrr rrrrtr ++
rrrr`arrrrr-rr rrtr -rortrr`arr+...
Utpala quotes trrr rr r` rr -r rrrr ....... in his comment thereon.
(v) Jayaratha, in his viveka on the TA (11.63-65), says: arrr +rr`r+rrrr
tr rrrrtrr trrr`atrtrr rrrtrrrrrrrrrrtr rrttrrt +rrrtrrr`atrr`r+rrrrrrrrr.
+rrrtrr trrrtrr:rrr +r+rar +rrrtrrrtr. ...... trr. trrrrrrrr`trtrr. trr.+
18. Reference is made to VP, 1.123-27 r trr :r` ttr trtrrr rrr rr , rrrr rrtrr
-r a trrrrr tr , trr trr r` rcrr r` rrrrrrrr ,tr rrr tr trrr` trr tr ;rr, +rr r` rrrtr rrrr
trrrr ......+
19. Thus (i) r trr:r`ttr trtrrr is quoted by Rmakaha in his Vivti on the
Spandakrik 4.17, by Abhinava in his commentary on the
Nyastra 20.26 and also in IPVV vol. II, p. 237, by Somnanda in
ivadi 2.9 and explained by Utpala. trr`r+rrrr tr rrrrtrr occurs in
ivadi 2.11 and In ivastravtti on ivastra, 1.4.
(ii) rrrrrrtrr.... quoted by Rmakaha in his Vivti on: Spandakrik
4.18; by Abhinavagupta in IPVV, Vol. II, pp. 81-83.
(iii)Abhinavagupta in his explanation of trr trr t-rr rrrtr-rr
(Ivarapratyabhijkrik 1.5.14) in the Vimarin, speaks of
par vc as constituting the freedom which is identified with
mantra, Vimara, par vc, sphuratt, mahsatt, svtantrya and
mantra are treated as synonyms. He says:
trrtr r` rrr qr arrr+ rrr;r r`rrrrrrrtrrr+ r`rrrrrr -r rrtrrrrrrrr`-rrrrrr+
trtr qrr -r - r tr r` r rr +rr -ar rrrr rrr` rr r` -rtr r r` tr.+ trrrrr rr
trr+rrtrr`trr:r`rr r trr:r`ttr.... rrrrrrtrr -rtr .... r`tr trrrr trtrrr`trr
..... ratrrtrr.... trrr`a -r+
20. (i) ;rrrrr`rrr rrrtrrrr+ ivastra, 1.4.
(ii) rrrrrr`arr rrr+rrrcrr. rrrrrrrtrt.: Ibid, 3.19 ivastravtti quotes r
trr:r`ttr trtrr..... rrrrrrtrr -rtr .... in support of the explanation.
21. qtrtr trrrarr`tr trrr -rr`tr +rtrr`tr`ttrrr-rtr r`tr trrr.+ rrr rrrrrr+ +rr-
rrrrrrtrr ..... trrr`arr trtrrrrr`rrrr trtrr+ r`rrrrrr-rtr+ +rr- trrrrrrtr
rzrrrorr trtr+r. rrtrtrrrrr r. tr qr +rrtrrr`r>rrr`trrrorrr r`rtrrortrr
r`rrrrrr:r`rrr`tr rrrtr+ rr rrr rrar +rtrr trtr+r. rrrr`trrrrrrr-r+ +rr-
trrrrrr tr r` tr+ r` rrz +rr tr +rrrrrr` rrr rrrrrrrr+ +rrarrtrrrtrr tr
rrtrrrrrrttrrrrrr`r>rrr`trtrtr-rr`tr +rrrrr.+ ..... trar r`trztrrr qr trrtrrrtrrr
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 103 104 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
r`rrrrr. trrrrrrtr trr rrrrrrtr rr rrrrrrtrr rrarrrar`rtrrrtrr rrr+rtrr
trrrtrrr`artr+ ..... +rtr qr r`rtrrorr +rr`rrr`tr -rrrtrrrttr+rrrtrr rr`a strrrrtr
+rrrtrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrrrtr a+rrrrrrr +rrrr trrrrrr-rar trrrrrr+rrrr:rrrrr
r`rr`rrrrrr rr ...... crrtrtr+ r-rrr`tr r-rr -rr`tr rrrr trrrrrr qtrrrrrarr srrrrrr
rrtrr.+ qtraar rr r +rrrr rtr tr rrrrr rrtrr trrrrrr tr tr -rrr +
+rrrrrtr r`tr -r rrrr +rrrrrrrrr.+ +rrrr -rtrtr+ trrrrrr. trrrrrrtr r`tr
rrrtr rr`a +rrrt. trrrrtr r +rrtr+ +rrr`tr -r+ IPVV, Vol. II, pp. 81-83.
22. See, VP II, 117, 143, 148, 152.
23. See, TA XI. 65-67 and 78. Jayaratha quotes +rr`r+rrrr tr rrrrtrr ......
and rrrtr. trtrrrtr r`trrrrrr`rr rrrrtr in this connection.
24. In this connection the following may be quoted:
(i) rr-rr r`rrr r`rtrrr, gveda, VIII., 75.6
(ii) rrr`rr rr, Aitareya Br., 2.15
(iii) rrr r rr, Bhad. Up., 4.12
(iv) rrrrrr rrrrtrrr`r, Chndogya Up., 6.3.7
(v) +rrrr`ar`rrrr r`rtrr rrrttrr trrr+rrr+
+rrar rarrrr r`arr rtr. trrr. trr-rr.++
Mahbhrata, ntiparva, 253
(vi) tr rrtrrrr`trrtrtr r r rr-rrrrrrtrtr+ quoted in the karabhya,
1.3.28
(vii) trorrrrrrrrr`r+r-rtr-rrrrrrr rr-rrrrr`+rrrarrrrrrr+ strrr r`ratrrr`rrr
-r rrtrr rrrrrrrrrrtrrr`r trr`rr`rrrr++ Auto-commentary on VP, 1.1
(viii)arrr trrr. rrttr rrrtr +rrrrrrr+
rr`a rrarr rrr`trtrtrtrrtrr arrrtr++ Dain, Kvydara
(ix) +rrrr` ar` rrrrr -r rrr. Maitrya Up, 3.5
(x) St. Johns Gospel:
In the beginning there was the word
And the Word was with God
And the Word was God
(xi) Harisvmin (638 A.D.) commenting on the atapatha
Brhmaa 1.3.2.16 (vg v anuubha) says:
rr-rr rr a trr tr+rrr`tr+ trtrrr--r rrarr`trrrrrrr +rr+r. a trr r`rrrrtrrtr
tr+rrtr rrrtr -r+ rrtr -r r`rrtrtr trr.+
Abbreivations used
Bh. = Bhathari
IPVV = varapratyabhijvivtivimarin
IPV = varapratyabhijvimarin
K = Kashmir aivism
TA = Tantrloka
VP = Vkyapadya
(The Annals (B.O.R.I.) Amatamahotsava,
Vol. LXXII and LXXIII 1991-1993)

7. +rtrr`t +rrt rrrrrrrt rrrarrr


-iiiiiii i -i:ii`-iz ii`-iii i-iti` --ii it --iiii i-i t i`i --iii
-i-ii --ii i -i-ii-i i ~iii-i-iiit i ti -iti ~ii`i-i i-izii`-i i -itiiii -iii -iii`
i -iiit i ~iiiii`-i t: -iii` -iii -i-ii-i i ii-i -i ii-i ii -i -i-ii -iti t:
i-izii`-i i -itiiii -i ii izii`-ii ~izi i`ici i t --iii :iii-i i-iti` i ~i-izi
iiii ii -ii-ii t: -iiii-zi-i ii i-ii iii-i :ii-ii-i t, :-i-i ii: -i-t -iti
t: -iti -ii ii -ii`-ii ii izii`-ii -iicii ii :-ii i-ii ii (i ii t:
i-iti` -i ~ii --ii iiiii -iiizii -i -iiiizi-i ii i-ii ii -ii`i -iiiii -i
-i-iz i --iii :ii-ii -i-ii -iii` i-i ii t : i` -iii i :i-iii--i-i --ii -iii i ii-iii ii
(ii ii -i-i-i -i -i-ii -iti t) i i`-ii-ii ~i-i-ii i ~iiii i (-i.~ii. ~iiiii
-iii :ii--ii-i-i -i it i`-iii i`-iii t i`i -ii`i i`-iii -i -iiiiiii i i`-iii -iii
-i-iii iii ii iii`ii~ii ii -iiii i`iii t ~i-i: i-iti` ii -i-ii -s--s :.
ti-ii -iii`ti: :ii. ~ii -i :-ii :i-iii ii i`-iiiii -ii-ii t:
i<ii` i ii z -i iii` ii i` -iii ~ii :-ii ~ii` -ii` -i i-i, i-i-izii -i, zii--ii` i-i
~iii` ~i-i izii`-iii -i i-iti` ii izii`-ii -ii-i-i -i ~iiii`-i -iti ii ii i`i--i -i-i-i
zi-iii :. i iiz-ii zi-i izii`-ii -ii-ii-i- -i ~ii-ii i`zi-ii` -i --t izii`-ii -ii-i-i -i
~iiii`-i ii t: -ii-ii-i- zi-izi-i i :ii-i ii-iii t: --iii i-iti` -i ii`-ii i`-iii
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 105 106 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-i :ii-i ti-ii t: -i i-iti` ii :ii`-iiii`-i izi--ii ii -iii-i--i ii i-i --ii -i
--iiii i -iii i ii -ii-ii -i-ii i ii i-i-ii ii iiiiiii i-i t: --ti i
i`zii ~ii-iii --i-i ~ii-i i -ii-ii-i- i i`-iii ii -iicii i-i t i -iii ti
ii-iii ii -i-i-ii ti -iti i-i ~ii`i-i --iii :i-i-i-izii`iii i`-ii`-i -i -iii--i
-iii`i-i i-i t: -iii ti i-iti` i i`-izi--i ii :i-ii -ii-i zi -i ~i-ii`-iz t --iii
-zi ti -iti -i, ~ii`i-i ii-izii`-i i -i-i -i i-iti` -i i`i-i --ii-i-izii`-i ii -i-ii
ii t --i-i :iii-i iiti i i`-ii`-i, -ii`-i ii -iti -ii-ii i-i--i i --ii-i-i ii
:ii-i -iii i-i t: --ii :ii`zii ~ii-iii ~ii`i-i-ii-i --i-i ii :i:i-ii`i-ii i
~ii-ii it-iii`-i-ii`zi-ii -ii-ii iii -i i-iti` i -iiiiiii -i i`-ii`ii -i-ii -i ~i-ii
-zi :i--i-i i-i t: -iiiiiii i i -iii -zi -i-ii-i i i -i :iii: i`i ii
t: --iii i`-i-ii`zi-ii iii -i ii -iiiiiii i i -zi t: iii ii -i-ii-iiiiii
i`-i-ii i ~i-i-ii -i-ii-iii i ~i-ii i`-i-iii -i, -ii i` -i iii`ii~ii -i ii -iiiiiii
i i`-izi--i ~i-i-i-i t: -i-ii-iii ii (i iii`ii -i ~ii( ~i-ii i ii -iicii
.........-+rrrr`tr trrrrrrrr`rrtrrar ii t, :-i-i :i-ii-i ti-ii t i`i ~ii`i-ii-i -i
-iiiizi-i i ii-i i`-icii ii ii -ii-i-i i-iti` i -iiiiii i ~ii`--i-i -i-iii
ii, :iiiiii ii -ii`i-i iii (i`-i-ii) ti -ii-ii t: i`-i-iiii i ~iii` i -i
i -iii-i-ii( ti -ii-ii t (i -ii it i`i ~ii`i-i-ii-i -i :iiiii`-i-ii i ~ii`-ii`-i
--i-i-i -iiii zi-i-i`-iiii ii-i i`-icii ti ii i`i -iiiiiii i :ii-i i iii
i ii i`-i-ii i`-icii ti: iii`ii :-i :iii t-
tr rzr trrrr r rrarrrtrr`tr.+
+rrttrrrrrr r`rtrtrrrtrr`ttrttrr +rrrtr++ (-i-ii-iii, VII. ;;)
~ii`i-i-ii-i i (i i ii`-iii-i-ii t-iiii i: --ti-i -iiiiiii i iii
i`-icii t: -i iiz-ii zi-izi-i i ii -ii-ii i: --iii-i-i: --ii --ii-i-i i`-izi--i -iii
ii-iii ii --iiii`-i --iii iii -i t:
iii`ii-i ii (i -ii --i-i-i: i-ii (i ~ii i-ii iii i -ici --ii-i-i ii
-ii -ii ~ii i`-ii`-i ii i-i :i-ii-ii i ~i:ii`-it-i --ii-i-i ii izii`-ii ~iiii :ii-i i-ii
t: i<ii`i iizi (iiz-ii zi-i zi-i) ii i-iti` -i -i-i-i i`-iii -i :ii-i ti-ii t
i`i--i --i-i, ~ii`i-i-i ~iii` i :ii--ii -i -it -i-ii-i -i ii`ii`-i ii-ii t: it -iii
-i-i-i (i -iii -iti t iiii`i :-i -ii-ii-i- i i`zii-:ii`zii ti -iii`i-i -iti i-i
~ii`i-i -iiii-zi-i i ~i-ii-ii-i :ii`-ii`-ii`i -iiiiii (ii -iiizi) i ii ii-iii ii
~ii-i zi-i -i -ii-i-ii :ii-i i -iii -i-i-i ii ii-ii`i -iii :iii i-ii-i t: -iiizi
i i ~i-i-ii -rtrrr`t rrr`trrr:trrrrar. trrr -rtrrr`t rrrrrrr`tr`rrtrrrrarr`r -i
-iii i -ii i -ii`i-i t: -itiiiiii -i :-iii -iicii -rtrrr`t rrarrtrrr`r
rrrrarrtrrrrtrrr`rrrrtrr;r i ii ii ii i -itiiii ii -<ii-i -ii-ii iii -i
-iiizii -i -itiiii -i ~ii( -i i ii ii, izi--ii, -ii-ii -iii -icii ii --iiii
i` iii t : +rrrr rrarrtrrr` r rrtr rrrrtrr rrrrrr r artr rrrr` r +rtr qrrrr r` rrrrtr;r r` tr
-rrrrt. trr-tr+
-iii i -ii ii ii ti -iti ~ii`i-i -iiizi i -i --ii -ii-i ii ii
i-i-ii-iziii -i -i-ii ii t-
rrtr rrrr rr rr-rrtrr rrrrtrr rrr` +rtr r` trtrr+
r`atrr rrrrrr ;rrr rartr rraarrrr++
i-iti` ~ii iizi i ii-ii`i i`-iii ~ii -i-ii-i i -iii i ii -iii
-i--i ii i`-i--ii -i -i-ii ~ii-izii t -iii`i -iiii zi-i i zi iti-ii -iii
:i-i-i-iziii`--iii i`-ii`-i i i`-izi--ii ii -i-i-ii ii ii -ii ~ii i`-ii i -iii --i i-i
-i--i i -i-i-i ii -iicii ii ii -ii: :-ii -i-i -i :-i i-ii zi-ii i :iii`-ii
i`-iii -iii iiii`--ii -iii ii -i-i ii -i-iii`-i tiii: .........(+rrrr+
(ttrr`rrr`artr

8. Kashmir aivism (KS) and the Vednta of


akara
There is no direct reference to the Brahmastra or the works of
di akara in the literature that constitutes backbone of Kashmir
aivism
1
. Somnanda (end of the 9
th
century A.D.), Utpala (beginning of
the 10th century A.D.), and Abhinavagupta (middle of the 10th century
A.D. to beginning of the 11
th
century A.D.) who followed akara (820
A.D.) chronologically and who may be considered trinity of aiva monism
make numerous references to the Vedas, Upaniads, Gt and the Vednta
2
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 107 108 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
but none to the Brahmastra or its celebrated Bhya by akara. In fact
Bhagavadgta is classed as an gama
3
and is continuously commented
upon by aiva thinkers including Vasugupta, Abhinavagupta and Rma-
kaha and is extensively quoted in commentaries on the vara-
pratyabhijkrik by Abhinavagupta. Upaniadic sentences have been
quoted with approval
5
and in support of the basic doctrines of KS.
Somnanda who systematised the monistic school of aivism refers to
many views of Vednta in his vision of iva (ch. VI. 2-15). Amongst
them are those who held that Brahman assumed diverse forms
(Chitrabrahmavda), others believed in the plurality of the self
(nantmavda), another Vedantic opinion cosidered Brahman as the
material cause (Updna) of the universe, the tmavdins amongst them
held the individual soul to be the absolute, the netivdins denied any
positive sense of self or Brahman, others held that the selves are like
sparks of the fire like Brahman (sphuligtmavdins), the pratibimbavdins
regarded the self as a reflection of Brahman, another opinion believed in
the plurality of selves in different bodies with inherent duality of the
world, still others held that the individual souls are mutually differnet
but they are essentially one with the Brahman, just like various streams
and the sun. Some Vedntins maintained that the knowldege, freedom
and bondage are within the sphere of avidy itself. References and allusions
to Vednta and its various philosophical opinions recur in the works of
Utpala and Abhinavagupta as well.
Yet it is a moot question weather these cryas had any direct
knowldege of the Vednta of akara or they were simply referring to
the tradition of Vednta as found in the Upaniad and the Gt and also
Gaudapada. Modern writers on K have assumed without and clear and
conclusive evidence that (i) the ivasutrs were inspired by akara that
he visited Kashmir in the beginning of the 9
th
century A.D. as per the
doubtful description in the akaradigvijaya, that the works like the
Dakinmurt Stotra,the Saundaryalahari and Prapancasra are from the
pen of akara whose, Tantric or kta monism is reflected in K that
the life of akara as kta- aiva and his thought should not be devided
in interpreting his philosphy. This has led many scholars like Buhler,
Chatterji, Dasgupta, K.C. Pandey, B.N. Pandit and others to think that
KS or the aiva monism of Kashmir is an application of akaras,
principles to the aiva philosphy. This is not true or complementary to
either of these two systems of thought. These do share many common
ideas, forms and arguments nuturally and also with idealist thought more
particularly with the school of Buddhism. A correct view could be that
akara and K proposed two alternative models of nature of reality in
reaction to the rise of subjective idealism of the Yogcra and the
unyavda of the Mdhyamikas in keeping with their tradition
(Sampradya) of interpreting the authority of the ruti (mainly Upniads)
on the one hand and the gamas on the other.
The Vkyapadya of Bhatrihari, the Bhagavadgit and the
Upniads including the Mndukyakrik were common sources for the
growth of idealism in orthodox non-Buddhist circles althougs to begin
with Somnanda does not agree with any of the these sources and the
aiva thinkers do not show and respect for the Brahmastra and make no
direct reference to akara. Nyya, Vaiseika, Smkhya, Yoga, Buddhism
and Jainism do not claim to present interpretative study of the Scriptures
or the revealed texts. Mmsa, Vednta and aivism (both northern
and southern) claim to be rooted in their traditional scriptures. The first
amongst these is diametrically opposed to the Vednta of any sort. The
Upnads are variously interpreted by a great line of philosophers faremost
amongst whom in akara. Both K and akara give importance to
spiritual experience (anubhava) and svasamvedana and accept the
significance of reasoning tarka or sattarka as an aid to the understanding
of the Vednta and the aivgamas. Just like the Upniads, the gamas
presented diverse traditions of dualistic, dulistic-cum-non-dulistic and
non-dulistic thought and spiritual path ways, rites and rituals.
Abhinavagupta was the akara of Kashmir who strengthened
aiva monism and integrated and syncretised diverse ritualistic traditions
with theology of oneness with iva, known as ivdvaita or ivdvaya.
Contemporary writers describe KS as realistic idealism, idealistic monism
(K C pandey), monistic idealism ( J. Rudrappa), concrete monism (R.K.
Kaw), theistic monism (B.N. Pandit) and so on. Mlinivijayavrtika which
is regarded as a basic gama of KS described it as pardvaita and
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 109 110 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
advaya ( a Buddhist term) where dualism and non-dualism (realism and
idealism by implecation) are on equal terms (I. 262), where distinctions
are neither accepted nor rejected (Idam hi tat pardavaitam bhedatyaga
grahaa na yat) (Ibid. no. I. 261). no division can split the advaya
native of reality apparent opposites like pleasure and pain, freedom and
bondage, sentiency and insentiency are synonyms like pot and jar and
these cannot touch the integral native of reality declares Abhinavagupta
in his Tantrloka (II. 19) : +rtrr +rrrr trar aar rrr rrrorr`;rr`trrz.
rrrrr+rrarrrrr. rrarttrrrrrrrr -r+
By anything standing outside or external to it. The absolute is
pure in both the systems. According to the Vednta it is only in the
secondary sense that the Brahman can be defind otherwise it is beyond
all descriptions and characterisations. It cant be grasped by speech or
mind. Anuttara of aivism is of the same native. The autonomy of
consciousness or independence of eternal reality from the body and
mind is accepted by both Vednta and ankara.
According to Kashmir aivism the ultimate reality, spoken of as
Mahevara, Anuttara, Parama iva, Bhairava, etc., is invariably related
to or is inseparable from the power or action of consciousness that is
citikriya. Consciousness has two important characteristics, namely, self-
luminosity (Svaprakat) and self-consciousness (Vimara). While
praka or luminosity is a transcendental and static aspect of the self.
The self-critical consciousness (Vimara) implies universal and dynamic
aspect of the self. A stir or spanda in the consiousness like ripple in the
still water represents akti aspect of aiva. The self-luminous
consciousness manifests itself first as Sakti where everything is one
complete whole without any distinction or manifestation of subject and
object. Through its second manifestation the consciousness reveals
complete unity of the objective universe with the subject, the self. At this
stage, which is known as vidya, thisness is identical with the I-ness. At
the third stage of Maya the subject and object, the whole universe, appear
as mutually distinct and separate elements. Advaita Vednta denied the
reality of matter in order to preserve the transcendental integrity of
Brahman. Change and activity belong to the sphere of native which may
be practically real but is finally unreal. There can be no real relationship
between the transcendental being and the native.
The self is one only and it is none other than the Brahman: Atm
ca Brahm. It is beyond all change, transformation, mutability and
specifications and hence nonthing can distingues one self from the other.
This implies that the one reality can be known only by negation and that
any change or modification is apparent and not real. Any identification
of the absolute with the Aivarya or of the universe with the absolute is
false, super imposition. This is brought about by inexplicable native of
ignorance (My and Avidy) both at macrocosmic and micorcosmic
levels. Ks and Vednta agree that the absoluteness is not qualitified or
predicated.
However Brahman of Vedanta is self-luminous but it is not self-
conscious. It is, therefore, spoken of as nta i.e. without any activity,
The manifestation of the universe is inspite of him. The consciousness
or Brahman undergoes no change. The ultimate metaphysical principle
of Kashmir Saivism, Mahesvara, manifests Himself through three
important stages of akt, Vidy and My out of his own free will
(Svtantrya). He is a free agent eternally associated with manifold powers
to imagine the world in his own image through his critical consciousness
or Vimarsa Sakti. Utpala offers two analogies to explain the nature of
consciousness according to his system. The reality is like a mirror with
one important difference. The ordinary mirror can and does receive
reflections of external objects without in any way being affected by the
objects which are reflected in it. It does not, however, create them. It
lacks free will for creativity.
The consciousness first creates or imagines the unvierse of
subjects and objects through its power of imagination. These objects so
manifested remain one with the consciousness as the objects reflected in
the mirror. The universe is, thus, a reflection on universal mirror. What
is reflected in the mirror of consciousness is its own creation and
imagination externally manifested. The consciousness can also be spoken
of as universal mind. Just as an individual mind is capable, in its creativity,
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 111 112 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
in imagining or dreaming the subject-object universe and just as this
universe is in no way different from the individual mind, and it is in fact
identical with it similarly the whole universe it identical with the nature
of consciousness. The distinctions of subject and object, the duality of
body and mind, the difference of internal and external proceed from the
free activity of self-luminous consciousness. It is not fattered by any
external affections. There is in fact nothing extrinsic or external to it.
The consciousness can be spoken of as complete I-ness, Prna-Ahamta,
or pure subjectivity free to manifest the universe of limited subjects and
objects. But nothing is really different from the universal mind, the
consciousness or samvid. The individual mind has certain limitations,
the universal mind has none. It is free and does not depend on any external
thing either to bring the whole universe into being or to maintain it
separately as it were or to merge it in its own identity. The universe is
like the thought or idea of the universal mind which is neither exhausted
or affected by its manifestation. The self-luminous, self-critical and free
consciousness is the source of all thoughts and actions. This view of
consciousness establishes an omniscient and omnipotent permanent reality
which is both transcendental and ... ..... and is able to create sustainout
merge the universe and also obscure and reveal itself as will.
The Kashmir Saivism and the Vedant were aware of the Buddhist
view of the soul. According to this view the conception of an abinding
entity called soul, self or God is an illegitimate abstraction. It does not
believe in the existence of soul which is nothing but a stream of ideas.
The self is nothing but a flux of cognitions which belongs to no permanent
subject. Such a subject is not a fact of experience. The aiva and Vedant
consider this view untenable. They assert that synthesis of various
cognitions as experiences cannot be adequately explained without assuming
a priori entity of permanent self. As the synthesis of experience is not
possible on the basis of momentariness of the self Utpala asserts in his
Isvara-pratyabhijna vimarshini.
Thus, all human transactions originating from unification of
various kinds of congnitions which mutually differ and cannot become
one anothers object, will come to an end.
If there be not one Mahesvara, who is essentially self-luminous,
who holds within all the innumerable forms of the universe and possesses
the powers of cognition, rememberance and differentiation. The Kashmir
Saivism does not admit any difference between mind and matter, thought
and thing, subject and object. It asserts the similarity between the individual
and the universal mind. Knowledge, recollection and differentiation are
the distinctive functions of both the individual mind and the universal
mind, that is, the consciousness. The explanations offered by the dualists
and the pluralists are unsatisfactory as they fail to bridge the gulf between
the self and the not-self. The approach of the subjectivist like the
Vijnavdin fails to explain the world of common experience. The pure
idealism of Sakara and others negates the reality of the world by declaring
it illusory or inexplicable. The phenomenon of knowldege cannot be
explained without assuming their essential unity in self-lumious
consciousness. But this consciousness according ot Ks is not a passive
witness. The consciousness is dynamic . This dynamism is spoken of as
spanda, vibration, Svatantrya, freedom and aivarya or fullness. The reality
which is devoid of this freedom of action and knowledge is active like
the Brahman of Vednta. The omniscience and omnipotence of Brahmans
are realty due to the contingency of neiscience (nkarabhasya). Brahman
is not a creator God (svara) for creation is unreal according to the Vednta.
In KS iva is real ground of all things, their very essence and substance.
Brahman of the vednta is the basis (adhisthna) of an unreal
world. According ot Ks the consciousness and its contents are identical
and equally real. This is absolute idealism because above to this nothing
exits independent of iva. The external objective world is the
manifestation of what is realty internal and remains reflected within the
intetgral unity of the consciousness. iva is both a witnessing self and a
perceived object. The KS understands the world as a symbol of the
absolute which is always in the state of becoming, appearing in diverse
forms through its power of freedom. Creation is conceived have in terms
of aesthetic yogic and spontaneas play. It is both real and delightful.
Ri..... of the occur externalization by Yogic of essentally internal thought,
art-object of an artist and images reflected in the mirror are genrally
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 113 114 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
cited as examples to illustrate the externalisation of ..... reality eternally
manifesting itself in different forms and .....maintaining its integral unity.
In this view the world is nothing but externalisation of the
consciousness and is not in any way differnet from it and it so because it
is real, a creation of consciousness.
In biref, Vednta and KS are opposed to the realism positing
independence of the subject and object but both present two different
models of the nature of consciousness. According to the Vedntin the
change predication mutrablity will..... the purity of consciousness but
according to the KS consiousness is all. Hence duality and diversity also
do not exist beyond if consciousness is not contantless. In fact the
consiousness and its contents are identical both in manifest and
unmanifested forms. The consciousness is dynamic and not quite of is
self respendout like gem and unlike is it also self reflective which is the
very characteristic consciousness. In other words, Vednta is the criticism
of the Sakhya by way of denying status to the Prakti and rendering
it as an inexplicable illusary experience. The KS in the critique of the
Vednta by way of establishing the integral unity and dynamism of the
consciousness both suceeded in challenging the Buddhist view that
changing consiousness of changing objects will never post any coherence
and unity and will be devoid of an abiding and permanent self. Vednta
and KS thus represent sister thoughts and two facets of idealism to meet
the Buddhist challenge in India of 8
th
to 10
th
centuries AD.
( srrrrrrrr )

9. Genral Editors Note


in the vara-pratyabhij-Vimarin
vara-pratyabhij-Vimarin, IPV in short, (Critique of the
Doctrine of Divine Recognition) is the most important work of the
Pratyabhij school of Kashmir aivism. This is a commentary by the
great Abhinavagupta on the vara-pratyabhij-Stra (or-Krik) of
Utpala, expounded by a commentary Bhskar of Bhskarakaha. The
original text with Vimarin and the Bhskar thereon was edited and
published by my teachers, Dr. K.C. Pandey and Professor K.A.
Subramania Iyaer, along with English translation of IPV by Dr. Pandey,
in three volumes under the title, Bhskar, as the Princess of Wales
Saraswati Bhavan Texts Nos. 70, 83 and 84 in the years 1938, 1950 and
1954 respectively. These works were out of print for long and are now
being re-issued under the general title of vara-pratyabhij-Vimarin
of Abhinavagupta, in the three volumes. An Outline of History of aiva
Philosophy given by Dr. Pandey in Vol. III of the Bhskar will be
issued separately for the sake of general readers and the scholars interested
in the history of religions. Reprint of the rare and fundamental works of
Kashmir aivism will be welcomed by the scholars concerned with the
idealistic systems of Indian Philosophy.
It was in the mid-9
th
century A.D., when the whole of India was
fired with the Advaita Vednta of crya akara that the beautiful land
of Goddess rad, the Kashmir valley, produced a great crya, who
systematized the philosophical postulates of the aiva non-dualism on
the basis of the monistic aiva scriptures. His name is Somadeva, better
known as Somnanda. He was an older contemporary of another great
aiva crya, Bhaa Kallaa who wrote his Vtti on the Spanda Stras
revealed to Vasugupta. The spanda system hardly differs in its
philosophical thought from Somnanda. Their real difference lies in
prescribing different means of realizing the philosophical goal. ivadi
or Vision from iva by Somnanda is the first systematic formulation of
the philolsophy of what is later on conveniently described as the Pratybhij
school of Kashmir aivism, following the term occurring in the vara-
pratyabhij of Utpala. Somnanda in his foundational work, the ivadi,
consisting of seven chapters of 700 verses, declared (I. 2) that Lord iva
is the essence and identity of all the beings. He shines in all the beings.
He is bliss and consciousness whose free will nothing can impede and
who manifests himself through his powers of knowledge and action.
This concept of the highest reality is basically different from the Buddhistic
idea of momentary vijna, from the nirgua (hence passive) Brahman
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 115 116 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
of akara, from the dualistic conception of Purua and Prakti of the
Skhya and from the later schools of Vaiava Vednta. Somnanda not
merely propounded his theory of the ultimate reality, he refuted the
grammarians theory of abda Brahman, the views of the ktas, the
dualistic aivas, and the followers of the Yoga and demonstrated the lack
of logic and consistency in their view of reality. Utpaladeva, Utpalcrya,
or simply Utpala, built the great edifice of the Pratyabhij on the
foundations laid by his teacher Somnanda. He wrote his famous vara-
pratyabhij Stra of Krik by working out at great length the germinal
ideas of the founder of the system (Utpala treats his Krik as the reflection
of the ivadi) and by providing a suitable fencing against the onslaughts
of the counter systems of Indian philosophy.
Utpala advocates the permanence and universality of the self and
criticises the Vijnavdins theory of momentariness and individuality.
He asserts that freedom of will, thought and action is basic essence of
being. Being must have innate power to become at will. He vehemently
opposes the passive Brahman of Vednta and lack of integrality between
Purua and Prakti of the Skhya. Vasugupta had recodgnized three
ways of final freedom of human beings: mbhava, kta and ava.
These ways required an ascetic life of complete detachment and austere
pratice of Yoga. Somnanada and Utpala show a new way to freedom and
beatitude. The realization in the Pratyabhij system, to quote from the
Introduction of Vol. II (pp. v-vi) by Dr. K.C. Pandey, consists, not in
the actualisation of the potential, nor in the attainment of something new,
but in penetrating through the veil that makes the Mahevara appear as
the individual of which everyone is immediately aware and in recognising
the Mahevara in the individual. The followers of this system daily
recite the following verse which sums up the attitude of a aiva:
r` rrrr artrr r` rrrr +rr -rr, r` rrr. trr r` rra rrtr +
r`rrrr rrr`tr r;r;r, r. r`rrr. trr:rrr r`++
The following prayer for universal peace and happiness occuring
at the end of the manuscript B of the Vivtivimarin of Abhinavagupta
quoted by its editor in his Preface to Volume I explains the aivas
feelings for the world around him and for his fellow human beings:
rr +rrrttr trr rrtrr rrtr` trr` rttrr +rrtr +r trrrr.+
arrrr. trrrtr rrrr`tr trrr trarr+rrtr rrrrrr.++
Utpala holds that the human being is essentially free; freedom is
the very nature of the individual. However, the veil of ignorance covers
this freedom of man and thus keeps him away from the God within him.
Man must remove this ignorance; he must penetrate through the veil to
recognize his real self, eternally free, omniscient and omnipotent.
Recognition is the way to regain the lost freedom Incidentally, it is
significant to note that the phisolophy of Utpala has intimate parallels in
the Dakimrtistotra of crya akara, as interpreted by his great
disciple, Surevara (See Abhinavagupta, pp. 151-52) and the lyrics of
the Saundaryalahar.
According to the tradition, Utpala lived near Vicharnaga to the
north of Srinagar and belonged to the end of the 9
th
and first half of the
10
th
century A.D. Many of his works are lost, those surviving include
Ajaapramtsiddhi, Ivarasiddhi, Sambandhasiddhi and the commentaries
on the latter two works. His commentary on the ivadi is available
only in part. His devotional lyrics are collected under the title ivastotrval
and quotations from his unknown works are found in the IPV. But he is
justly famous for his varapratyabhij Stra or Krik. This reveals
sharpness of his intellect, original thinking and masterly exposition,
intimate knowldege of the monistic traditon of the aiva gamas and the
recognitive Sdhan to realize the Lord Mahevara.
He wrote two auto-commentaries on his Krik: Vtti and Vivti
or k. No complete MS of either of these two commentaries by Utpala
has so far been discovered. The available portion of the Vtti upto the
20
th
Krik of the third adhikra was published in the Kashmir Sanskrit
Series and the fragment of the Vivti is in the personal collection of Dr.
K.C. Pandey, which remains unpublished. The fragment of the Vivti
begins with the 6
th
Krik of the jndhikra, hnika 3 and ends abruptly
with the 3
rd
Krik of the fifth hnika. Utpala imparted his new doctrine
to Lakmaagupta who transmitted it to his worthiest disciple,
Abhinavagupta, an encyclopaedic writer on Indian aesthetics and Kashmir
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 117 118 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
aivism. Abhinava wrote a commentary on the Vivti of Utpala, known
as the Vivtivimarin. This was published in the Kashmir Series of
Texts and Studies, Nos. LX (1938 A.D.), LXII (1941 A.D.) and LXV
(1943 A.D.) in three volumes. Abhinavas direct commentary on the
text of Utpalas Krik is also known as Vimarin and described as
Laghu Vimarin, being shorter in length than the Vivti-Vimarin, which
is described as the Bhatvimarin. They are also known as Catusshasr
and Adaashasr respectively in accordance with the old method of
calculation. The Stras or Kriks of Utpala remain unintelligible without
a commentary, like the Stras of Pini or Bdaryaa. Utpalas own
commentaries are more in the nature of independent exposition of the
Pratyabhij system than actual explanation of the text. Abhinavaguptas
Vimarin offers explanation of the Krik and also reads like an
independents work. It is available in full and it represents the system
comprehensively and correctly. Abhinavaguptas Vimarin is thus the
most authentic commentary of the Pratybhij system, which enjoys the
reputation of an original work. However, in spite of its clarityand lucidy
and comprehensive treatment of the system, it does require a guide to
understand the full implications of the words and the ideas of the
Vimarin. The commentary does not solve the problem fully particularly
when the oral tradition of teaching the stras is lost and when we know
that the original thinker like Abhinava will naturally make fresh points in
promoting the tradition and in defending it against newly formulated
counter-points in the philosophical circles of India in the 10
th
century A.D.
It was to obvitate this difficulty that Dr. K.C. Pandey set on the
search for a commentary on Abhinavas Vimarin. He struck gold in
1931 when he discovered a commentary Bhskar by Bhskarakaha.
He belonged to the later half of the 18
th
century A.D. According to the
Bhskar he was of the Dhaumyyona Gotra and the names of his grand-
father and father were Vaidryakaha and Avatrakaha respectively. It
was to teach his son Jaganntha (svavasutdibodhanrtham) that Bhskara
wrote his learned commentary giving traditional interpretation of the
Vimarin or the Pratyabhij school of Kashmir aivism for that matter,
which was handed down to him through unbroken chain of cryas. Besides
this commentary, he translated the mystic sayings of Lallevar, Lall
vk, into Sanskrit, wrote a commentary, available in fragment, on the
Yogavsiha and composed a poem, named Harevarastava, in singing
the glory of Lord on the occasion of his visit to the temple in Kashmir.
Another anonymous commentary on the Vimarin, vara-
pratyabhij-Vimarin-Vykhy procured by the late Dr. K.C.
Pandey from the Government Manuscript Librabry, madras and edited
by him before his sad demise is under print and will be published before
long by Messrs Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
According to Mdhava (15
th
century A.D.), the author of the
Sarvadarana-Sagraha, (i) Stra i.e. vara-pratyabhijkrik of Utpala
and his two commentaries thereon, (ii) Vtti and (iii) Vivti and short
and long commentaries of Abhinavagupta, namely, (iv) Vimarini and
Vivtivimarin constitute the vara-pratyabhijastra which in essence
is the exposition of the ivadi (spoken of as a prakaraa of the
aivastra) of Somnanda-
trr rr`-rr`rrr`trrrrrr rtrrtr+r r`rrrr`rrrr+
trrrtrr` rrtrrr&rrrr` rrr` tr rrrr trtrr` +r;rrrr.++
(This verse also occurs in the straparmara of Madhuraja where the
last word reads as pratyabhijkhyam.)
The vara-pratyabhijastra of Utpalcrya has four Adhikras:
Jna-, Kriy-,gama-and the Tattvasagraha. The first volume contains
the Jndhikra which has eight hnikas or chapters along with the
Vimarin of Abhinavagupta and the Bhskar of Bhskarakaha. The
second volume completes the text and the commentatires in the remaining
three Adhikras. This also carries an Introduction giving in brief the
History and Literature and Philosophy of the Pratyabhij system along
with various appendixes for Vol. I and Vol. II. Vol. III gives English
translation of the vara-pratyabhij and the Vimarin. As these volumes
are essentially photo-prints; the original edition has not been disturbed
except in the formal matters where the change of title, publisher etc. is
involved. In some cases it might create apparent difficulties. For example,
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 119 120 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
the volumes, although now differently titled will still be found under the
old title fo the Bhskar in the contents, introduction etc. of Dr. K.C.
Pandey. In our desire to place these volumes in the hands of readers at
the earliest, we did not think it proper to make changes warranted by new
circumstances of the publication. I crave the indulgence of the scholars
in this matter and hope the reprint of the classic texts of the vara-
pratyabhij system of Kashmir, for which real credit should go to Shri
J.P. Jain, the publisher, will help in further promoting the growing interest
of Indologists in this branch of Indian Phisolophy.
(Vol. II, Reprint, 1986)

10. Editors note


vara-pratyabhij-Vimarin
The scholars interested in the study of Kashmir aivism will be
happy to know that the works of the late Dr. K.C. Pandey who made
pioneering contribution to research in Kashmir aivism are being issued
in five volumes. The first volume will be the vara Pratyabhij Vimarin
of Abhinavagupta with a commentary Bhskar by Bhskarakantha. This
volume contains two parts completing the text and the commentaries.
The present volume in the series of doctrine of divine recognition
is an English translation of the IPV of Abhinavagupta. This was first
published under Bhskari Volume III in the year 1954. This note is
based on the preface to the above volume by Dr. Pandey. The II volume
will complete the text and the commentary, Bhskar. Before the tragic
end of Dr. K.C. Pandey, he had edited a commentary by an unknwon
author on the IPV which is named as Vykhy. This will be issued in two
volumes IV and V. Thus commentaries on the IPV of Abhinavagupta
will be published in four volumes. Dr. Pandey had made a promise in his
Abhinavagupta: An historical and philosophical study to publish this
translation of IPV in 1931 when he discovered the manuscript of the
Bhskar. The present volume is an English translation of:
(I) The vara Pratyabhij Krik of Utpalcrya
(II) The Vimarin, a commentary on the above by Abhinavagupta
in the light of Bhskar.
These two are well recognised authoritative texts, out of the six,
referred to by Madhva in his Sarva Darana Sagraha in the section of
the Pratyabhij system, the recognitive school of Kashmir.
The original work on the system is the iva Dti of Somnanda
(800 A.D.). The vara Pratyabhij Krik of Utpalcrya, according to
his own statement, is only a reflection (Pratibimba) of the system of
Somnanda. On his Krik he himself wrote two commentaries: (I) The
Vriti: no complete Ms of this work has so far been discovered: the available
portion has been published in the Kashmir Sanskrit series: and (II) the
Vivrti: only a fragment of this work has recently been traced in Kashmir,
after a long and continuous search for it for about twenty-five years by
Dr. Pandey. Abhinavagupta wrote (I) The Vivrti Vimarin, a commentary
on the Vivrti, which also has been published in the K.S.S. without the
original, and (II) the Vimarin a Commentary on the Karik. Historically,
the Vimarin is the last of the available works of Abhinavagupta and,
according to his own statement, summarily presents his views on the
system. Thus, besides the Siva Drsti of Somnanda, Uptalcryas vara
Pratyabhij Krik and Abhinavaguptas Vimarin on it, an English
Translation of which is given in the following pages, are the only two
complete texts on the system available so far.
The Krik, without the commentary, the Vimarin, is extremely
difficult to understand. But the commentary also is from the pen of
Abhinavagupta, whose style is notoriously difficult. Therefore, to facilitate
the understanding of these, the publication of the Bhskar was undertaken.
A new commentary by an enonymous author was further found by Dr.
Pandey. This is also being printed under Vol. III and IV of the Doctrine
of Divine Recognition.
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 121 122 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Abhinavagupta is primarily a commentator. A reader familiar
with the commentaries on the philosophical works on the western
philosophy, will be struck with the difference in the method of the
commentator. He will find that a point, though of very great importance
from the philosophical point of view and, therefore, is seriously taken up
for a comment, is yet given up after just a few words: and another point
is taken in hand, which does not seem to be closely related to the point
just discussed. Such a reader has to remember that Sanskrit authors
comment, not on isolated points of a system but on every word of the
original. They do not attempt to criticise and to present an advance on the
ideas contained in the original text. Even when they do so, they always
attempt to show that all that they say, is implied by a word, construction,
affix, case or personal termination.
Therefore, while approaching the commentary, the Vimarin,
the reader has to jot down the philosophical points as they occur,
eliminating the grammatical and other discussions, and arrange them
systematically, in order to get the connected argument on a philosophical
point. .........
(Typed)

11. >rrrrrr
:-iiii ii ~ii -i--i-ii`-ii`i i -ii-iiii`ii ii -i ri -i ~i-iiiti-i t:
--ti-i ~ii-ii ~ii--iii-ii ii -ii iii-ii -ii-i i`-iii i -ii cizii t i`i :-i -iii -i -ii
--i. tii-i- zii-iiii ii ii--ii`-i ii ~ii-ii >izi i -iicii-i ~ii`i-i i-i ii
~i-i-i i`-i-i -iii: :-i >iiz i -ici ii-ii-i t-ii ii-i -iti t i --ti-i ii-iii
-iii`t-i ~ii -i-ii`-i ii ii -iii i` ~ii ~iiii-i i`i t, -i t-iii ii i`-i--i
~ii-iii`i-i i-i ti: >izi ~i-iiii ii t-iii zi-i-zi-i >izizii`-i -i-ii`i-i t: -iicii-ii
ii ~iiiii-i iiz-ii zi-izi-i: -iii`t-i, zi-i, -iii-ii i -ii-i -i t~ii ii: :iiizi-i
i -i-ii -ici ziiii -i ziii`i ii`-i-i-i i i`ii t: iiz-ii i`iizi-i ii ~iii-i-
i-ii, -ii-ii, zi-i ~ii -iii-ii i -i-i-i -i it ~ii-ici :iiii`-ii ii`-ii i t:
:-i -ii-ii-i ii`-ii ii :i--i-i i-i -i -ii i-i -ii`ii -i -itii-ii -i i`-i-i-ii -ii i-i iii
-ii it-i-ii -ii`zi-i ii: i`ii`iii -i -i-i-i i -zi ~ii -i-i it-i i`i t -iii`i
iiai -i-i -ii it-ii ~ii-ii i`-iii -i -ii ~ii it ii ia -ii: ......
~iii-i i`-ii-i -i i`ii i-ii t: iii ~ii ii`-i :-ii ~iii-i-i-ii i
~i-i-i -iti t: :iiii`-itii`-ii ii-i -i :-i i-ii i :i-iii i`-i-i-i t: -i (i`-izii-i:
~ii-i-i), -ii`-ii, i-iiii, -itiii-i, ii-ii, iti-ii, iii ~iii` -i -iii`-ii -iii-ii
(-i zi-i i ~i-ii -ii ii t( t: i`iizi-i i ~i-ii ~ii-iiii -i :-i ii-ii -i ~ii-i
-i--i-i ii -iii`-i -i ii t ~ii ~ii-iii zii i i`-iii iti-ii ii -ici iii -i
i`-i-ii -ii-ii t: -iiii-ii-i -iii-iiizi`-iii, zi-i--ii-i -i-:iii, -i--i--iii`t-i,
i`-izi-ii -iii --ii i`-i--i-i ii -ii-i i`-ii`i-i ti ~iii-i ~ii --i-i :i-i-i -i--ii`-i--i-i
-iii -iii-ii i ~iii-i -i ti -i-i-i t: ii-iii -i-ii`-i ii -i-ii ~i-iiiii :-ii
i`i-ii -i-i-i -iti t: :-i i-ii ii :i-iit iii-iii iii ~i-izi t~ii t i ii ii
-icii -iti t:
iiz-ii ii ~ii-iii i`iizi-i -iii`-ii i`-i-iiiii ~ii -iii-ii ii -i-ii`-i-i
izii`-ii i`-iz-iii :i--i-i i-ii t: -i--i-i: iti ~iii-ii -iii -i-ii ii :ii`-ii`-ii`i zi-i t:
-ii-ii-i-, --i-i ~ii ~ii`i-i-ii-i :-i zi-i i -ii`-iiii t: ~ii-ii-i-ii -iii -iiizii-i
i ii -i -i:ii`-iz ~ii`i-i-ii-i i -ii-i-i -iii ~ii`i-i-iii-ii ii ~iiii i`iizi-i
t, -i-ii-iii --iii i`-iiiii t: :-ii ii (i ziicii :i-ii`i-iizi-i t ii iizii:i-ii
ii ii-iii-ii ii -i-iiii t: :-ii i-i -i-i-ii -i --ii ~ii-i i-i-ii`-i-ii-i-i ii -i-ii
ii ~iiii -ii-ii iii, i`-ii-i ~ii ~iii-i ii -ii-ii ii: --i-i ~ii ~ii`i-i-i -i, ~ii :-i-i
i-i ~ii ii -i iiz-ii i ~i-ii ii`-iii -i izii`-ii ~ii ~iiiii`--ii ~i-ii-ii ii
ii-ii--ii -iiii i t: -i-i (-i--iii) i -i-i (-i-i-i) iiz-iii iiii i ~ii`-i
:ii-ii-i i t ii ~iii ii >ii-ii -i ii`-ii ~ii -ii-ii`-iii ii -i-ii-i ~ii-ii i i-:
t: i`iii -i-:iii ii zi-i iiz-ii ii -iii`-ii i`-i-iiiii -i ~ii-i-:ii-i t: ~ii`i-i-ii-i
ii i`ziii-ii --ti i -i-ii -i i-i -ii it-i iii ii: -i--i-i: --ii -iii`-ii zi-i
ii ~ii --ii i ~iiii i :ii`-iii`i-i -i-ii`-izi-i ii ~iii -ii -i-ii ci-i -iti ti
iiii t: ii`-i t~ii it t i`i ~ii-iii zi ii ii -iii`-ii -ii-ii ii-i -iii:
i`iii-ii`-i--iii, -ii-i-iti, :iizi-ii ~iii` --iii -i-ii( -i ii ti -ii ii zi ii
~i-i i-ii -i -iii`-ii -iii-ii (-i zi-i i -i :i-iii ~i-izi t: :-ii :iii -itiii-i i
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 123 124 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-i -i ~ii iiz -iii`-ii -i-:iiii i i`-iii-i -i iiz-ii ii ~i-ii-i --iiii i`iii ii
ti t: -i-i -i--i-i: iiz, i-i, zi-i, zii-i -iii -ii-i -ii-i-ii~ii -iii -iii-ii~ii ii
-ii-i--i-i t: :i -iii`-ii i`-i-iiiii ii ii-i-ii i -i -ii-ii -ii-i-i ~ii i`-ii
i -i-i-i -i --ii i`-i--i-i ii ii-i-i-it-ii-i-i ii i`-i ii t: iiz-ii ii -iii`-ii
i-ii ii, --ii -iii`t-i, zi-i ~ii -iii-ii ii it ii`-ii --i-i -itiii tiii:
-iii`t-i ~iii-ii, -ii-:i-i-i, -iii i`--ii -i -; -i -- i`-i-i -ii :-iiii
ii :iii -i --i. >ii tii-i- zii-ii ii --ii`-i -i ~iiiii`i-i -ii-i -iicii-ii ii i`i-i :iiz
>ii-ii~ii -i ziii`--i, ii ~ii -iii-i -i -i-ii ii -iii i`-i-izi--ii -i --i i -i-ii ii ii
--i-i -i :i-ii ii -i i-i-i t ~i--i-i: >rrr`rcrr-trarrrr`+rrrr`+rttrr rrr`r rr-rr
ttrr`trr`rrrrr+
(rrrrrrrt rrr rrr rrtrrrtr, rrrrrr rrr`rrr`rrr rstr,
r r`arrrr, {

12. +rrrrarrr
iiz-ii zi -izi -i--i -i -i-:ii` -i :i-ii` i-iii-ii-i i` iizi -i ii z-i i--iii` -
zi-ii--ii`-i-iii-i i-iii-i :ii`-iiii :i--i-ii`i -iii`-i:ii`-iz :i-ii-i-i: (-i-i zi-i
-iii` -ii-iii-iiii i` -i-iiiz-i i :iii` -ii` -ii i -i , ~iii-i-i -ii -i -i i` -i -iiii-i -i , iii` -ii-i-
ii:i-ii:ii -ii -ii i iizi-i i-ii -ii t-i-i --ii -iii` -i, -iiiii` -ii-i--i--iii` t-i-
-i-:iiii-ii-iiiiiia i`-ii`-i-ii-i, -ii`-izi--i-i izii`-iii-iiii`-i i`-ii-iii`-i: i`i it-ii,
-i-i-iii`i -i-i-i --ii-i-i -iitiiziiiiiii`-i: -ii-i-ii`iiizii`-ii`i-iii`izi-ii -i-i:
i`zi-i (-i: -ii-ii`iiii: :iiizii`-i-izii--iiii-iii`--i -iii`iii-i: --ii-i-ii -i-i-i-i
--iii-i:: :i-ii-:i-iii-:i-ii-i`iii :i-ii-ii` i`-i>ii--ii: :i-ii-ii -i --ii--ii --i-i-i-ii`-iz:
~iii-i:ii`-iz: i-ii -ii-ii -iii`i`-iz:: -i -i-i i`-iii: i`-ii`z-ii:
zi-i zizi`-i-ii-ii-ii`-ii`-i-i: i`-i-ii-i-ii`i -i-ii`-ii`-iii -i i-ii`-i; -i-ii`i
zi -i--i -i -i i` -i-iii i-i -i: -i--i-ii zi -i -ii -i i` -iii i` -iii` -i-i i -i: ii ii-it: :i` -:iii -ii
-i-iii`-ii: :iiii:: i`-i-ii-i-ii`i i`-i--i-i-i ii ii`-i-ii`iii zi-i--ii itiii`-i: -i-ii`-ii`t
i`-iii-iii -it i`-iii`iii-i-i, :--iii -it ~it--ii, :i-ii-i -it :i-ii-ii, -iii -it
ii-i-ii-i-iiiii -i :i-i-i-i: -ii (i >i-ii-i-i-ii`-ii`zii-i-i: i-i: i-i-i-iii-i-i ii-i-ii
i-ii`-i: -iiii`-iii, -i-ii`-i -iiiii -iii`t-izi -i-ii`-ii`-i-i-iii`-i: zi-i-i -i-ii`-i-i-i--ii-i
-i -i -i iii` i-i-ii -ii i` i ii-ii<i-ii` -i--ii-:ii` -i:i-ii-i i` -i--ii--i izi i` -ii:ii` -ii-ii:
-ii -i i` -ii:i-iii-ii-i-i ii-ii` --i: -i-i (-i ii` --iii` i i` -iii i` iii: :ii` -ii-ii: --i-i-:iiii-i -ii
-i-i :ii-iii ii--i: -iiii`i -ii-i -i-:iiii`-iz--ii-i --ii-ii-ii`-iz--ii--i iii`i-ii i-ii`-i,
-i -ii ~i:ii-iii`iiii`-i :izii`i-i ziii-i: -i-i (-i -i-iii izii`-iii`-ii-i-ii -i-ii-i :ii-iii
--ii iii -i : -i i-iii ii-ii` --ii ( iii` --iii -ii iii:: -i-i ii -iti-i-ii-i
ii`-iiii-iii`iiii`i-i :ii-i-iii-i: -i-i (-iit:-trr`rrrrr qr trrarrrr`trtrr.+
-iicii-iii-ii i`iizi-i-i :ii-i -ii-ii :i-iii-ii-ii-ii -i--i-ii-ii-ii -i
:iiii-i -i i -i -i , -i-i --ii-i-i i i` -izi--i i` zi-iiii-i-ii :i--ii i` -i, ii --i -i
i`zi-iii-ii-iii-iti`-i: -iii -iii-ii -ii`i: -ii-iiiii-ii: -iii`t-i zi-i -iii-iizi
i`-iiiii-i -iicii-ii`ii-iiitii -iiii iiz-ii ii zi-i i-ii :-ii:
i i -i -i --i i -i -i i i i i i i zi -i i i i --i -i --i -i i i ` -i -i i -i i i
iii`ziiiiiii-i-i-i-itii`-i<ii-ii ii-i:ii-i-i: -i-i -iiii-ii-i-iii-i--i-i-i-
i`-iii`-i<ii-ii--i-i ii`i-ii -i-ii-ii--i-i -i i`-i-ii`-i: ii-i -i-i-i:: -i -iii-ii
i-i -iii ii :ii-i:i-ii -ii` -ii` -iii` -i<ii-ii-ii-ii -i i ti -i-ii-i iii-ii-ii-iii ->ii i` -i<iii` -i-ii-ii` -i>i-
-itiii-ii -iicii-iii-i-iii-i -i-i-ii i`-ii-i: (-i -iicii-iii -i-iiit-i :iiiiii
i-i-i: -ii-it -i:i>ii :ii-iii`-i: ii -ii-i i`ii`zi-iii-i -i-i -i :i`-i i`iii :ii-i-i
-iii ii-ii:i >iii-iii-i-ii -i-ii-i trarr rttr rrr`ra tr+rrrr trrrrrr :
rrrrrr`rrrrrrr`tr rrarrrrrr r`artrrr rrr >rtrr trrr`trrrrr--r
trrrr`trtrr tr trrr`trtrr`trr`+r. rrrtr+.............
i-ii-ii-ii :iiii :ii-i: --iiiii-ii-ii-iii>iiii-iiizii-i-itiii-ii --i-ii
-i-iiiii`i-ii-i -iicii-i-ii-ii-i ii-iiizi-ii-ii -i-i-i-ii--ii: i`ii-iii :ii-i >iizi`-i
-ii--i-i ii-ii i`-iii-i -ii-i: i-ii: trtrr >rrrtr rrr.+
(r`rrrarrrrr, trrrrrrra trtrrtr r`r+rr`rcrrrrr,
rrtrrtrr, {-

-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 125 126 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
13. trttrrrrr
-ii-ii-i-, --i-i ~ii ~ii`i-i-ii-i iiz-ii zi-izi-i ii i`ii ii -ii`-iii t:
-ii-ii-i- i i`zii --i-i ii -i-ii -i-ii zi-iii ii i-iiz -ii-ii ii-ii t: :i:i-ii`i-ii
--iii -ii`-icii-i ii`-i t i`i-i-i iiz-ii zi-i zi-i ii -iii`ii -iii`-i :ii-i ii: iiz,
-iici (-i -iii zi-i, izii`-ii ii -i :i-ici -i--i i i`i-i-i i`-ii i`i-ii i`i-ii -ii
i`-izi--i ii -i-i-ii -i :ii`-ii ~i-i-i-i ii: ~ii-iii --i-i -i :-ti :ii`-iiii ii i`-iiii
i ~ii-i i`-izi--i ii -iii-ii, it-i -iii`ii i`-iz-iii i -iii, :i:i-ii`i-ii -i ii t:
i`i--i --t it ~ii-izii :i-ii-i t~ii tiii i`i -i-i-i :i-ii-ii i -iii -i-iii -i-i-ii-i-i-i i`-ii
ii i`-i>iii`--i, ii`z-ii-i i-ii i i -i i`-ii i -ii :i ii i`-ii`z -iii ~i-ii-ii -i (i-ii
i ~i-i-i-ii-ii -i-i-i i i`-iii -i -iii -i i`-icii ii(: :-i i`-iiii ii i`-i--i-i
:ii`-iii-i :i:i-ii`i-ii -i i`iii ii -iii t- :-i ---ici i -iii --ti-i ~ii:i-ii-ii,
:i -iii -i-i-i ii i`-ii`z i i`-ii ii i -iii -i i`-icii ii -it i`-ii`ziii i -ii-i
-i - -i iiz-ii ii-ii-i-ii -i :iiii`zi-i t~ii ii: --i -i-ii -ii -i-i ii-i ii ii
i`-ii`-i ii -it iii -i ~iii ii i-ii t: t: ~ii:i-ii-ii`-ii`z ii --i-ii-i -ii`-i ii
~iii ii i-ii -iti -i-i iiii t -iii :ii`-ii`z -i ii ~izi ii`-i i --t ii i-i i i`-ii
ii: -i: iii`-ii`i ii -i-ii -iti ti ii: t: :-ii`-ii --i-i ii it i`-ii`ziii iiaii
i i`-ii -ii ti i:: -i-ii-i iii`-ii`i ii -ii-iiii i ~iii-i -i, ~ii-ii i-i-ii -i iia
ii -i-i-ii i-ii -i i-i-i i iii t ~ii`i-i -it iai ~ii-i-iii i iii-i ii
i`-ii-i-iii -i :ii-iii`ii -iti ti ii-ii: :-i i`-ii`-i -i (i-iii i`-ii-i iti -i-i-i ii i`i
~ii-iii --i-i ii i`-ii` -i-ii i -i-i ii ~i-i-i-ii-i i ziii ii -iicii i -iii
--ii -ii-ii ii -i i`iii ii(: it iii ii ~i-i--i ii`a-i t i`i--i :-i ~ii-i tii -i
-i-i ii -iit-i -i i`:ii i`zii i. -ii:iiizi -ii-i -i iiii t: --i-i ii i`-ii`ziii ii
i`-i--i-i ii`-iii, i`t-i ~i-i-ii -iii i`-ii`-ii ii`i`zii i -ii`t-i :iiizi-i --ii i -iit-i ii
-ici ii`ii-i t: i. -ii-i ~ii-ii ii`-i iiz, -ii--i (-i iiz-ii zi-i zi-i i iii
-iii`i`-i-i t: :i--i-i ii-i --iii iiz-ii zi-i zi-i-i`-iiii -iii-ii ii -ii-i t:
~ii-iii --i-i i ~i-i-ii i`-i-ii-i-iii iiz i ~ii-ii ~ii -i--i~ii ii i
:icii-iicii ~ii-ii ~iii`iiiiii`-ii i ~iiii i -iii`i-i -iti i -ii-ii: iiz -i-i
ii it i`-iiii ~ii:i-ii-ii`-ii`z ii it-ii -i ~iia-ii iii`ii -ii t: :-ii ~i-i--i
--i-i -i -i-i-i :i-ii-ii i --ii-i-i ii :ii`-ii i i`-iii iti-iii`ii i zii--iiti-ii ii
i`-iiii -i iii`ii~ii -i i`iii t: --ii iii`ii -i --ti-i ~ii-ii iiii ii
-i i-i t( iti t i`i :-i ii i`-iii i i -i ii ii-ii ii-ii t --i i ii i`-i>iii`--i
-ii`-i-i -i t: --i -ii`-i-i ii ~iti -i ~i-ii-i ti i`-i-izi ii :i-i-i-izi t ii -iii i
-i--i~ii ii :i-ii-ii i -iii (i-ii -iii`i-i i --t iiii`--ii -i-i-i :ii-i i-ii t-
ar` rrtrtr r` rr` -rr` rrrrr tr rr trrr trr+
rr trtrrr r`r>rrr`trr`rrrrr trr:r`rrtrrrr++
(~ii:i-ii-ii`-ii`z, -)
ti ziiii ii :-iii -i i` -i ---i ci-ii i t - ar` rrr` tr r` rr` -rtrrr r` rrr rrtrrtr
rztr rr trr`rttrrrr`r>rrr`trrrorrrrtrrrtrr trr:rrr tr-ra+rrrr`-rrrtrrrr
trrrrrr r` tr -r trrtrrrrrrtrrartrrra -trtrrrrrrr trrr rr r` rtrtrrrr rr ,
rar>rrrrzrrr`rr rttr r`rrrtr+rrrtrrrrrrrrra+rrrr- trtrr:rztrrrrtr+rrr
qr trrtr. rrrr`trrrr r`rrr+rtr- r`tr trrtrrrrr++
~i--i: -i-i-i :i-ii-ii i -iii --iii iiit--ii:i-iii`-i -i -iii i`-iiii ii -iii--i
~ii -i-i-i ~i-ii`-i-i t: it zi-i i` iiz ~ii zii -ii--i ii i` -i -i-iii i`ii t:
ii z ii i` -i -i--i i -i-i--i ii -i-i-iiii :icii iici- ii-i ~ii-ii ~ii i` iiiiii` -ii
t: --iii -ii-ii -i :ii`-ii`-i ti-ii ii i`-i>ii--i ti-ii ii -ii--i ti-ii ~ii-izii -iti t: -ii--i
ii i` -i i`-iii ii i`-iiii i -iii, ~i-iii -i :iiizi ii -it, i`-iii t: :--ii,
~it--ii i -iii ii-ii`i -i-i-i -iti ti -ii-ii: i`-iii-ii ii ii-i iii`--i t ii i`-iii
:i-ii -i i--i -i-ii t, -i-ii i i-i-i ii iii i-i-ii t ~ii -it -i-iiii -i ~i-iii` t:
zi-i i`, :-ii aii i`-iii-i, i`-iii ii -ii`-i-i ii ---ii-i --iiii i-ii t: i`-iii-ii
ii -i-ii ~it:i-i-i-izi -i -i-i ti-ii t ~ii --ii -i i`-i-ii-i ti-ii t: ~i-i: :--ii -i
~it--ii ii -ii-i-i iiit--ii i i`-i-izi -i t: -i ti i`-ii i -ii`-ii -i :iiii`zi-i t
~ii-ii trr r`rrrrrr rrtr it zi-ii` t: -iii :iii i ~i-ii-ii ii iiii`--ii
i`-i>ii-iii`-i (i-iii -i-i-i :i-ii-iii-i t- -i -ii i`-i-ii`-i-iii-ii t ~ii -i i`-ii`-i-izii--ii
itii-ii: :iiizii`-i-izi-ii iiit--ii ~ii-i ii ii ~ii- (-iii`-i-i ii ii`i`-i-i) i -i
:ii i-ii t -ii -iti --iii ii-ii--iii-i t: ~ii`-i-i i-ii--ii iii i i`-ii --ii ~ii-i
ii i`-i-i i-ii -i-ii t: ii-ii ii ~iii i i -i it ~i-iii-i-i --iii --i-i-i-ii t,
--iii i` -iii -iti ~ii :-i :ii` iii -i i i ii-i cii` -i -iti ti -ii, i-ii--ii ~ici t-ii t -
rrr tr qrr qrrtrrr r`rrtrr:rrr`tr`rrtrttrrr+
trrrrr` arr r` rqr :r rrtrrrtrrrtrarr`ztr.++ (-iti r)
~ii -iti ii-iiii ii i`-i-i -i ~ii`-i-i i-ii ii -i ~i-i-i-ii-i t:
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 127 128 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-iiii`ii ~ii--ii -i -ii-iii` iii ii -i-i-iii -ii-i-ii t: ~ii--ii -ii-iii` -i-i-iiii
t: -iii ii ~ii--i-i-i-ii :-i i` ii ci-i ~ii-iii --i-i -i ~ii:i-ii-ii`-ii`z ii
--s iii`ii~ii -i i`iii t: --ii ~i-i-ii -iii ii ~ii--ii i`-ii`-i-izi ti-i -i i
tiii: -it ii-iii`ii :i-ii-ii -iti ti -ii-ii: -i--i-i: ~iii`i`-i ~ii ii ~itii-i ii
:ii-i -i ti-ii ti ii-iii-i ii i-i t: i--i :-i -iii i`-ii`-iii -i ~itii-i ii ii i`-iii
iii -iti ti-ii: ti, ~iii-ii ii ~i-iii-i-i ~i-izi t-ii t: ~ii:i-ii-ii`-ii`z ii -- -i
- iii`ii~ii -i ~ii-iii --i-i -i ~itii-i ii -iicii :iiizi ii ~ii--ii`-i>iii`--i,
-i-iiiiii`-iii ii --i -i i`-i>iii`--i (i`i-i :i:i-ii`i-iii`-i-ii`zi-ii -i ~i-i-ii:ii`i-ii ii
~i-i-i-ici:ii`i--i iti iii t)--ii-i-i, -ici i-i--i -iii :iii-i i i -i ii t:
-iiii i`zi-i ii --ii -i ~ii`ii --iiiii-i-iii iii t i`i-ii ii iiii-i ii ciii`-i
-iti ti ii-ii: ii-ii ii it ~iciii`-i ti ii-i t: it --i-i ii ~iciii`-i-ii t ii -i
izii`-iii i ciii`-i-iii -i i`ii t: ~ii:i-ii-ii ii i`-ii`z -i --iii -iiii -ii iti t
i`i -iii :iii i -ii-i, ~i-ii-i ~iii` i ii-iiii ii ~i-i-i-ii-i i-i -ii-ii --i-i-i,
--i-i-i-ii`-iz, (i, ~i-iii` :i-ii-i--i t: --ii -i ii-i ii ~ii ii :ii`-ii t, --ii i ii
-i--i i -i-i--i ii -ii`i ~ii -ii`-i>iii`--ii -i ti -iicii ii ii -ii-ii t: -ii`-i-i i
~i-i-i-ii-ii--ii -i-i-i -i ti ~i--i: i`-i-i ii-iii-i, -ii-i zii`-i -i ii--ii iii`-i-i ti-ii
t: i`-iii ~ii i`-iiii i -i-i-i -i, -ii-ii, -ii-i -i -ii i -i-i-i -i ~ii-iii --i-i ii
it -ii-ii-ii -ii-ii ii-i i i`-izi--i ii :ii`-iii-i t: it -i-iti ~ii i-iii ii
i i`ii iii`ii ii --iiii -iti i-ii i-ii i`i iiz ~ii -ii--ii -ii-i-i t: it
~ii-ii, -i-iti ii i-iii-ii i -iii -iii--i -iii i-iii ii -i-iti (-ii-ii--i)
ii ~ii`i-i-i i-i ii --i-i-i-ii ii -iii i-ii t:
iizi -i :i i ~ii`--i--i i :iz-ii`-i; -iii i`ii ii, -iici --iii-i-ii ii
:i ii ~iiii -i -i-i ti iii ii ~ii -iiii`iii ii :i ~i-iii ti iii ii: :-i -ii-ii
i`ii ii, i`-izii-i: -iici i`-izi--i ii ci-i i-i t( ~ii-iii --i-i -i it -iii`i-i
i`iii t i`i -ii`i-izi-i`-izii ii ii: ii -i-ii`-i-i -i-ii ii`z-ii-i i-i--i ii -ii-i i`i-ii
-i-i-i -iti t: i`-ii i ii -iii-i iii ti -ii-ii t, i`i--i t i`-ii i ii i`-ii`zi
-i-ii ii --ii iii i-i -ii-ii t- it ii-ii`i -ii-ii -iti ii -ii-ii: i ii i`-i-iii,
-ii -i-i-ii ii i-ii--ii -i-i-ii, -iii -iii-i iii ii -itiii iii -i -i-i-i
-iti: -ii`, iiii -iii -iti t, it izi-i i`-i-i ii i`-ii t i`i-i-i --iii ~i--iii-i
-ii`ii`-i t: -i--i-i: ii: ii i`-ii (i -iii i`-iiii i ~i--i:i`-i-i ii-i ii -iiii-i-
i`-iiii-i, --i-i-i izi`-i -i ~ii-i i`-i-iii t, -it -ii`i-izi i`-izii t: --iii -i i -iii
-i-i-i ii t: -it -iiiiiiiii ii-i -i (i--i -i -i-iz tii -i-ii`-i-i t ~ii
:-iii`-ii -i-iii i`-ii :i ii ti i`-ii`-i-i t: ~ii:i-ii-ii`-ii`z i :i-i -i :i i
-iicii-i ii -ii-i -i-ii t: --iii -ii`-:ii`iii i -i-i -i, i`-ii ii i`-ii`-ii`-i i
:i-i -i -iici-iiz--iii--i--i-i i`ii i -iii`-ii-ii ci-i i -iii i`-ii-i-i
:ii`-ii`z -i :ii-i ti-ii t: ~ii-iii zi ii iii`-i --i-i ii :ici -iii`ii-ii ii
-iiii-ii :ii`-ii`z ii iii`ii~ii ~ii i`-iziii -i -ii`-i -i i`iii ii -ii-ii t: :i
ii i`-ii`z -i --iii (i-iii :iii-i -ii t, i`i-iii --ti-i :ii-i -i ---ici ~ii ~i--i -i
i` -ii-i-i i` iii t : it-ii iii` ii ii :-i :iii t - trtrrr` a r r` qrrq tr tr r` rr rrr` rrr rrrtr
...........: -iii ~ii`--i-i iii`ii t-
trtrrrttrr`trq trrrr`a rr`qrrtrrtrrrrrrrr ++~-++
tr trrr+r arr` atr trr` rtrcr trtrrrrrr ++~;++
--iii it t-i ii -ii i`i-ii :iii i t-i-iii -i ii`i-i -iti ti-ii -iiii`i
--iii ii-i t i`i i`i-i-i ii ~iiiii ~ii i`-i -ii i`i ii(, -i i tii -i cii t:
-iti-i-ii`i --i :iiizi -iti ii-ii: i-i ti -it :i i-ii, -ii-ii i i -i -iii :iii`iii
i ~i--i-i -i i`-i-i t ~ii zii t i-i-i --i ii`t-ii-i-ii: --i ii`t-ii-i-ii ii ~ii-i ii
ii`t-ii-i -i-ii, :i:i-ii`i-ii ii --ii--i:i-ii`i-ii, ii-iii i-ii -i (i ti ii-i t-
+rrtrrrr r`rr`q, +rrtrrr -r rr: :i i -i-i-i -i it i` i`i ~ii--iii-i -i
i-ii--iii-i (i t, i`<i--iii, ~ii`ii ~iii` -i i-i-zi-ii -i i`-i-ii--i i`ii t: iti
-i-ii ti i-ii--ii t: -iti ~ii-ii i`-iii`-i ii i-ii ~ii -ii-ii t: -iti ~ii-i ii ii-i -i
-ii` i -i-i, -ii -i ~i--i -i i`-i-i t:
-i-i-ii`-ii`z -i, -i-i-i i i`-iii -i ~ii-iii --i-i -i i`i-i i`-izi--i ii
:ii`-iii-i i`iii t -it -iii -i :-i :iii t-trrrar trrrrr`-rrr trrrrrrrrr`-rrr
rr rr` rrr -r a rrrtrtrrr` trt-rr r rr rra rrrrtrrrrr r r` rtrrrr -r r trr
rr rrtr rrtrr+
:-ii ii ~iiii i-iii --ti-i i`-ii`ii iiii ii, i`i-i -i-i-ii ii ~ii`i-ii`-i
ti-ii t --iii ~ii -iii`ii -i-i-i ii ii --ii -ii-ii iii t, --iii -iicii ii t:
iii -i --i-i i i`-i-ii ~iii -ii -i-i-ii`-izi--i i i`-i-i-i-i -i i`-i-ii -iti ii -ii
t: :-i :iiizi-i i -iii --ii :-i ~iiiii-i ~iii`i`-i-i -i ~i-ii-i i`-izi--i ii it-i
-iii`ii i`-iz-iii ti -iiii -iii`i iiz-ii zi-i zi-i -i i`-ii i zi-i ii ~ii-ii ii
~i-ii-i i`ii t, -it ii-ii ii -ii:
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 129 130 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
iiz-ii zi-i zi-i ~iii ii ii-i -i -iii ~i-ii ~iii`i`-i-i t: :-iii izii`-ii
-iii`-iii -i-ii-i t: --i-i ziz -iii`ii-ii t -iii -i :i-ii`-i-i ii-iii zi-ii -i i`ii -i
i`-i-iii t: ~i-i; i`-ii`i-i i -i -iii t: i`i--i iiz-ii zi-i zi-i i ii-ii i -ii
ti ii-i -i, -i-ii-i -ii-iii -ii-iiii i -i-ii -i ti-i -i ~ii i`t-i, ~iiiii ~iii` -i
-iicii-i -i ti-i -i it i`-i--ii-ii`i i`-i--iii i tii -iti -ii ii:: i. -ii-i -i (i
-it--iii ii-i i -ii-i-ii :iiizi-i ii :-i i`zii -i (i :izi-i-iii :iii-i i`iii t: -i
~ii-ii i`-i--i -ii--i-i -iii-ii -i iiz-ii zi-i zi-i ii i`-ii`-i (-i i`-iiii -i-:iii-
i-ii ii i-izi i, iti -ii tii`i -i-i-ii-i-ii t: ~ii-iii --i-i ii -ii`i-i
i`i--i -it-iii ii`-i i`-ii`ziii ii -iicii (-i ii`-iii i -iii :iiizi-i, zi-i -i-:iii
ii :iii:ii`-ii i i`-i( i`iii iii it -ii-i --i-i t: ~iizii t i`i i`iizi-i ii ii
i`-izii-i ii-i-ii`zi ~i-iicii-i ii t --ii i-izi: -i-ii-i ~ii -iicii-i ii i-i
ii`i--i i. -ii-i ~iiii-i-i i`-iii-i ti: :-ti zii i -iii :-i :iiizi-i ii ii`ii i
i`-i-i-i-i i i`-i( ~ii --i-i i -i-i ii -i-i-ii--ii -i-iiii i i`-ii -i izii`-iii ii
~ii-ii`-i-i i-ii t:
(r`trr`qrrr, trrrr. - trrtrrrrrr rrtr, -rrarr+rr trtrrtr trtrrr,
rrtrrtrr, {

14. rrrrrrrt rrr rrr trr`trrrrq


i. --ii iii -i iiz-ii i -ii-i, -iii ~ii -i-i--ii ii -ii i-iii
--iii :ii-ii-i :i`-iti-i iii`-ii, -ii-ii`-ii ii`-izi -i :i--i-i i`iii t:
i<ii`i i--ii i ziiii -i (-ii :i-ii-i ti-ii t i`i :-i-i iiz-ii -i :ii-i zi-i-
:ii`-i-ii~ii ii -iiiii i`-i-i-i-i tiii i -i--i-i: :-i-i --ii iii-i, -i-iii, -i-ii`-i,
i-i ii iii`-i -i iiz-ii zi-i zi-i i -ii zi-ii -i -i ii (i`-itii`-ii ii`-ii :i--i-i
i`iii iii t: ~ii`--i-i ~iiii -i ii-iii`--ii ~i-iziii i -i-i -i zi-i :ii`-i-ii~ii ii
i`-i--i-i ---ici t ~ii --ii i -iii iiz-ii i zi-i -ii`-i ~ii izi-i ii -ii`-iii -i
-i-ii`-i-i iit ii`ii( i-izii-i i -i i t: t: -i-ii ii-i ~iii-i-iii -iii
:i`-iti-i i -i-ii -i ~i-i-i-i t i --i-i (i -izi-i ~ii :iii-ii-i i-ii ii i`-ii
-i -iti iiii t: i. i.i. iiiiii ii -ii`i-i i`i--i ~i-i--i :ii-iii`ii :i--ii-i-ii
-iiii`i-i t: -i-i ii -iii-ii i i`-ii`ii i ~iii ii >ii-ii ii i`-ii -i i-i-i`-i-i t,
--iii ii`i-i-ii ~iii ii i-ii i -iii ~ii -i-i--ii ii iti-ii it-ii t ~ii ~iii
ii -ii zi-ii ii iiiiii -ii -iii ~ii zi-i i-ii ii ~ii-ii ii i-:i`i- t: --i
:-i ii-i -i ~ii`ii -iii -iti iii t: --ii-i-ii-i ii-i -i -i-ii:iii-i ii-iii`-i -i
-i-i--ii i -ii -ii-ii`-ii -ii ii ii-i i`( t: :-i -ii-i -i-i ii (i -iii iti
t i`i ii-i i :i-ii ii i --i i`-ii ii i`i -i -iii(--i-ii ii ~i--i-i i -ii
-i -i-i--ii ii -iii :izi--i i-ii ~iiii t:
iiz-ii -i ii-i -i -iii`t-i, zi-i, -i-i--iii-ii -iii -iii`t-i--i-iiii i ii
-i ~i-ii-i iiii-i i`ii t: --i-i i`-ii`ii iii`-ii -i-iiii i -ii -ii`ti-ii -iii`i-i
i-i ii, ii-ii`i ~iii-i-:ii-i ii ~iiii i-i ii zi-iii`ii -ii i ii-i i
-i-ii :ii`-i-ii-i :i--i-i i`iii t: i`-iii -ii`ciii i i`-ii`ii ~iiiii -i :i--i-i iii`-ii,
-ii-ii`-ii, izii`-ii i`-iz-iii -i it -i ti-ii t: :-ii -i-i-ii ii :ii-i i-i -i it
(i`-itii`-ii ii`-ii -itiii ti -ii-ii t: -iii -i i`-ii`ii ~iiii-ii ii :i--i-i i-i i
i`-i( it ii-i -iiiii t: i -iii ti it ii ---ici ~ii-izii t i`i zi-i -ii`-iii ii
i`-i-ii ~ii`ii i`-i--ii i -iii ti-ii -iii`t( ii: it ii ci i -iii i`-ici-ii i-ii t
i`i ii-i i :i-ii i -i -iiii--i-ii ii -i-i-ii ii ~izii`zii t: i`zi-i, iiz-ii, >ii-ii,
~i-i-iii, -ii-i-i-iii, ii-ii`iii, -i;iii-i, -ii`-i ~iii` zii -ii -i ~izii`zii it-i
ci-i-ii t: i i`-iii i`-i-iii-i ti i-i i`i ~iii`zi ii iiz-ii-iiii, --ii ii
-ii-i-iti ii :iii-i, ~iii` iz ii i`-iii iti ~ii-ii i-ii`zi-i ii i-i-ii -i -i,
zii`-i ~ii :i-iiiii`-i-ii ii (i-ii, ~i-i-iii`i-ii, -iii, -izi>ii ~iii` ii iiii`ii
-i-ii~ii i ~iiii i ~i-iiiii: i`i-ii ii i-i ii zi-i i :iii -iii ~iiii i-ii ii
iii iiz-ii :izi i (ii--i ii i-ii-ii ~ii --iii i-i-ii ii >ii -ii ii i
-i-ii-ii -ii -ii-ii t i`i-iii ii-ii -itii i`-iii iii t: i`i-ii i`-ii ~iciii -i
:iiii`zi-i -ici ii :i-iii -ii-ii (i. -;) i`-i-i iii ii -ii-ii ii ~iii iii`i-i i
-ii -iit-i -iii t: -i-ii-i ii i`zi-i-ii ii --i-i ~iii` zi -i i`ii tiii, it ii
-ii-i-ii ii i-i-ii i -i-ii aii -iti t: -i--i-i: iiz-ii zi-i zi-i ii -i ~ii
i`-iii-i ~iii-i-i-ii ii -ii-i t: i`i-i :iii zi i ~i-i -ii--i i i`-iii-i -i ii
i`i-ii ii zi-i i i`-i-iii ~ii --ii -i i izii`-ii -iii ii ii ~iii-i-:ii-i ti-ii t,
--ii :iii iiz, -iici ~iiii`-ii ~iii` izii`-ii iii~ii -i ii iiz-ii i i`iizi-i i
i`-i-iii -i iiii-i i`ii ii: i i`-ii`i-i ti -it ~iii` zi ii ~i-i--i -i-ti-i -i--i-i:
(i`-itii`-ii i` -i ~i-ii-i iiz-ii iiii ii i-i -iti t: --ii zi ii zi-i -ii`-ii,
ii-ii, iti-ii, iiiiiii`ii -iii iizzi-i ii i`-i--i-i-i-ii -i :i-i-i t: ~i-i i
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 131 132 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
i`-ii`ii i -i i`-ii-i ~iii-i-i`-ii-i i-ii -i -iii i, --i-i -i iiti-i-ii ~i-i ii
iiz-ii i ~ii-iiii -i ~ii i`-iii-i-ii ~i-i ii i-i i i-ii-iii -i ~ii-ii -iiii i:
iiz-ii zi-i zi-i i -i-i-i -i it i` ~ii`ii -i-ii-i :i-ii-i ti-ii t:
~iiii-i :iiizii i i`-ii i, ii i:i i, -iii iiii -iiii
i--ii i ziiii ii -i-ii ~iiiii i-iii ~ii`ii -i-i-ii-i i-ii -i t: iti :ii--i
:-i-i ii icii: -ii t: ~i-i ti-ii ii` ziiiii-i i ~i-ii :-iii -i:i ~ii :iiizi-i
ti-ii ~ii -i-i ci-i -i ~i-ii-izii -ii`z -i ii ii-ii: i-i -i-i -i :-i :i--i-i i`iii ii
-ii-ii ii ~ii -ii it ~ii ~ii`ii -iii -i iiii ti-ii:
(srrr rrrzr-trrrrrr`atr Saivait Sculptures of Kashmir : A historical
Approach, rrr`rrrrrrr trrrrr, rrrrt, {-, rrttrrr rrr trrrrorr, trrtrrr
rrr`rrrr, {; rr, {;

15. rrrrrrt rrr trrr`rrr rrtrrrtr rr rrrrr+rtr


iz-ii ii i i` -i -i i` -i--i-i ~ii i-i-i -iti t : -iii` t-i, zi -i ~ii -iii` t-iziii
ii -it ziiiiia t: ii`-i-ii ~ii i-i --i-i (i -iii -i-i t: iz-ii i i`iizi-i
ii i-ii-i, -iti-i ~ii-ii :iii-ii i -ii-i -i ii-ii ii-ii t: -i-ii ii :ii`-ii`-ii`i
zi-i :-i zi ii iz-ii -i ti i`ii t:
i-i, -ii-i ~ii iiz i-ii ii iii`-i zi-izi-i ii ii (i i`-iii`-i-i ~ii
-i-i z ~iii-ii-ii t : it zi -i -i -i-i: i` -ii-i-i -ii -i ti i ~iii-i-i -ii t : -iiii-ii -i
-iii-ii-izi`-i, -i--i--iii`t-i, i`-izi ii ii-ii -i-ii-i i i`-ii -i-i ~ii-ii ~iii-i i
-i-i -ii ii-ii ~ii-izii t: iz-ii ii ~ii-iii zi-i zi-i -iii`-ii ii ~iii-i-i-ii
i`-i-iiiii ~ii -iii-ii ii -i-ii`-i-i izii`-ii i`-iz-iii :i--i-i i-ii t:
trrr`rrr trrrrr- zi-i -i i`i-i -i-ii ii -iii-ii ii t, --i-i -iii -iii
ii -i-ii-i ~ii`iii -ii` ~ii -i-ii` ii (ii--i-ii, zii`-i ii -it-ii, -iii-ii -i ii -iii
-ii-i iii`-i i -ii`-iii ii i`i ii ~iiii i`-izii -ii-i, -ii-i ii i`-ii`ii iii~ii ii
~ii`iiii i ~i-i-ii -i--ii-i, iii ~ii ii-i ii :i-ici-ii, -i-i-ii ii i`, -i-ii ii
-i-i-ii -iii i`zi-i-ii-ii, iii -iii ~i-iiit (zii`-iii-i) i -iii -i-ii ii -it--i -iii
-ii-i ~ii i`iii ii i`-iii ii -i-i--ii -iti ~ii`i-i -ii-i-i :i-ici t:
zi-i iiii ii -i-iii ziii -i-i t ii i`i iiiiii -ii`-i ii-i -i i`-iii
t: :-i :iii -i-i zi i`-i--iiiii -i-i ii-i -i ~ii-ii iiiiii ~ii-ii -iiciiii
-ii`i ~ii-ii -ii`-i ii-i -i i`-iii -ii-ii ii-ii t: -i-i zi ziii ii ii -ii-ii-i -ii-ii
t: -iiciiii`ii ii iii ii`-iii`iii -i ii -i-i i ii i-ii( i( t ii ~i-ii
(-ii-ii`t-ii, ~iiziii ~iii` -i) i`i-i -i-iii`-iii ii ---ici t, -i -i--i-i: ziii-ii-ii-i
i i`-i( ti t: -ii`-iiiii i ~i-i-ii :-ii ~ii ii ~ii t: ~iii-i i i`-i( -i-i zi
ii :iiii iii`iii`ii t: ~iii-i i (i i i ~i-i-ii ~iii-i i--ii-i i`-iiii ii
i`-iii i-i t -ii -i-i -ii-i ii ~ii ii-i-i --ti -i -i ii-i ii (:.i.(. iiii-iiii-i,
(-ii-i--i ~ii-i i`t- ~ii:ii-iiiiiii, iii , i. - (.)(-iii`-ii -ii-ii i (i
iii i i`-i( ii-i-i zi ii ii :iiii ti-ii t i`i-ii ~iia -iii i-i-ii( i( t
(-iti-i-i ~ii -ii`t-ii, --i--i<ii-i, .= i ~i-i-ii):
-i-ii ii zi-i, zii-i -ii-i ~iii` -i-:iiii i i`-iii-i -i -iti -it--i ~ii
-ii-i t i-ii i`i -ii`-iii ii ~iii`--ii zi-ii i i`-iii-i -i: ~iii-i i`-ii-i (>ii`-i),
--i i` -i, i ii -i i` ii -ii -ii i :ii` -ii` -ii` i t - +rrrtr r` rrrrrrr +rr rtr -r r` rr` trrrr ar ,
rrtr -r rrtr a rtr trtrrrarrrr-s-rtr (-i-ii --ii-i-i-i, .-)+ ~iii-ii ii -i -iiii` --iii
zi-ii iii i i -i ~i-i-iii ti-ii t ~ii --ii -iii`zi-i i-i`zii-ii-i -i i`-i-i
ti i :iz-ii -iii` --iii zi -ii -i ~iii-i- -i-i ii ~i-i-ii i-i t : ~ii i ~ii i` -i:>i i-i
i -ii ii (i -iii :iii` -i i -iii i i -i ii ~iii-i ii -iicii ii i: t -+rrr-r`tr
rr`qrrrtrr`tr rtrrra +r+rarr`r.>rrtrrrrrrr. tr +rrrrr. (-i--i-i ziii , .=):
-iii`-ii zi-i (-i -iii-ii i ~i-ii iii -ii -i i`-izii-i: ~ii-i-i -i
-i-ii t: ~ii-i-i i -i ~izi i`i-i-i ii-i-ii ~ii`i-iiii` ii ~ii-i t --t i
i`-ii-i :iiii`-itii`-ii ii ii -i ~ii i-i ii i-iii i-ii~ii ii ~iiii ~ii`ii
:ii-ii-i -ii-i-i t: --ii ~i-i-ii iiiii (-i iii`i ~ii-ii -i -i-i i`i-i-i ii-i,
i-i-i, ~i-ii~ii ii -ii-i i`-i-i-ii t, --iii -i-ii :-i-iii`ii-i ii-i ii -i t:
--ii -ii-i i -i-i -i ~ii( :iiiii`-i, :zii-i, -iti-i, -ii-i-iii`t-i ~iii` i :iiii -i
it -i t i`i ii-i ~iiii ii ti (i -iiii`-i ii, ii i-i ii i`i-i iii`-ii i-ii
-i ti i`ii ~ii-ii ii ii-i-i i-ii ii ~ii :-iii : -i i`-izii -i-i-i ii: ii-ii
i ~ii`-ii`-i -ii-i -iii >i-ii i-i i iii ii ~ii-i-i -i :ii-i ti-i t: ~ii-i-i ii
-ii -ii-i ~ii-iii`i-i ii i-ii`-i-i t: ~ii`i-i zi ii ii-i-ii, i-ii, ~ii`i-iiii`
ii -i-ii -ii-ii ii-ii t: -ii-i-i -i--i-ii -i ~ii-i-i zi ii iiiii`i-iii`i ii
-i-ii i t: ~i-i: it -ii-i-ii -i`-i-i tiii i`i i-i -i :ii-ii-i :iiii`-itii`-ii i-i i iii
~ii-i-i ii >ii`-i -i -ii`i-i t: -ii`i i-i -i iziii`-i,-i ~iii` ii i`-iii-i ((-ii
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 133 134 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
~iiii ;.-..-) -i-i ii iii`-i ~ii-i-i-i -i iii i :ii-i -i -i iii-i-i -i i-iiii
iii t: --i---i-i -i -ii-ii ~iii-i ii :ii -iii -i-ii (i-ii-i-i) ii ii-ii`i
~i-iiiii-~i-iiiiti ii-i -ii-ii t ii iiiii i-iii i ~i-i-ii iii`i:i-ii i -i-ii-i
t: ~ii`i-i-i -i :-ii ii zii--i -i ii-i-i -i-i--i -i-iti ii ~ii`-iii-i :ii`-ii`z iti t
~ii it :ii`-iiii`-i i`iii t i`i -i-iii -i-iti :i-ii ~ii-ii ~i-i-ii-i i -iti ~ii`i-i
ziii`--iii :ii`-ii`z ii ~iii-i i ~iii`>i-i t:
iiii -i -iiii`:ii -ii-ii-i i-i ii, i-i, -i-ii-i, i-i ii i`-ii`ii ~iicii-ii i
-iii -ii-i t, --i-i :ii`-iiii`-i -iii-ii ii -iti t, -i-i-~iii-i -i :ii`-iiii`-i -iii-ii(,
iiz, i-i, zi-i zii-iii` -iii -i-:iiii -i ii t ~ii it i`-i--i -i-i-i ii i`-i-i-ii t
i`i it -i-i ii -ii-i-ii-i`-izii ii i`iii iiii`-iii t: :-iii (i iii -iii-ii ii
-iii-i-iti -i i`-iz ti-ii t:
i`zi-i-ii -i-ii-i (-ii zi-ii :. :ii-i) ii --i:i -i i`-i-i i ~ii-ii -iti-ii
-ii-ii i-i-i ii i`zi-ii i --iii i -i :ii-i t( i: ~i-i: i`zi-i-ii ii ~iii-ii-i
-ii-ii ii -ii-ii t: -ii-ii-i- (-i-i-i zi-ii :. ii ~ii`--i-i iii) ii i`zi-ii` ~i-i
zi-izi-i ii -iiiii i`-i-i-i-i i-i -ii-ii :ii-i ii-i t: :-iii -i-i-i i-ii
-ii`aii -i ii: -it -ii-i ~iii`;ii -i =- z-iiii -i i`-iiz t:
-ii-ii-i- i :i-ici i`zii (-iii (-i -iiiiii i ii -i-i-i: -iiziii)
-i-i-i-i ii i`-ii`-iii-i -i-i-i zi-iii ii ~ii`--i-i iii t: :-iii :ii`-iz ii`-i
:i:i-ii`i-ii t: i`zi-ii` -iii :i:i-ii`i-ii -i -ii-i, zi-ii (-i ~iiii ii i ~i-izi
t i`i--i --iii :ii`-iii<i (i ti t: --i-i -i --ii iti t i`i i`zi-ii` -i --ii -itii
-i ii i ii i-iiii t i`i --ii -i-ii-i -iii ii ~i-iii --ti-i i`iii t: --i-i i
-iiii-i i`zii ii i-ii -iti t i`i-ti-i ii-i ii i`-i-iii i`iii ti: i`i--i -i-iii-i (-i
~ii-iii t i`i-ti-i -iii-ii:iii-i (-i -ii :iii-i i-ii iii~ii ii -i-i--ii i`iii ii ~ii
-i ~ii`i-i-ii-i i i i: :-i -it ~ii`i-i-ii-i --i-i-i i :ii`zii t:
~ii` i-i-ii -i (s-ii zi-ii : .) -i -iiii -ii-ii -i ii-ii ii -i-ii ii ii :
-i-ii-ii i i --iii -ii -i-ii ii (-i -iiiziii i ~ii` i-i-iii-ii ~iii-i -i i` -ii-ii -i ii
:ii` -iz t : ~ii` i-i-ii -i ii izi i` -ii i i` -iii -i -i-ii-ii i -ii-i ~ii` ii -it--ii i (-i
i` -izii-iiii t : it zi -izi -i, ~ii-ii, -iii-ii, ii i (-i -iii` -ii i-i ii ii i` -iiii i t :
-i-ii-ii i i :i-i ci i` -iiii ii -ii ~i-i--i -i i i -i -i-i-ii -i :i--i -i i` iii iii t :
:ii-i -i ti izii`-ii ii-ii i -iii--iii ii-i-iii -iiii -i --iii i i -i
~ii-i ii-i, -iii-ii -iii zi-i ii ~ii`i-i-i i-i i i`-i( --iii i`-ici-i ii i-ii ti
t: i-iiiii ii --i-ii`-i--ii-ii`i -i --i-i ii i`zi-i--iiii-i-ii :-ii -iiii -iti
t : :-ii i-ii -i ~ii` i-i-ii -i i i-i--ii i, i -i--i-i, ~i-i -iii` ii, ~i-i i-ii` -i-i -i--ii i,
t-i- -i-ii-ii--iii ~iii` ---ici-iii --iii ii-i t: ~ii`i-i-ii-i i iii-ii-ii -i
:i:i-ii`i-ii i i`-i-ii`zi-ii -iii i`-i-ii`-ii`-i-ii`zi-ii iii(, iiiii`ziii i i`-i-ii -ii-ii,
i`zi-ii` i ~i-i-ii-i-i (~i:iii) ii-iii-iii-iiit ---ici-iii t:
iz-ii zi-iziii ii i`-iiii i-i, i-i, :i-ii`i-ii -i i`iii ii-ii t: :i-ii
ziicii -i -iii-ii-i, i`-i -iii ii-i-i ~i-izi ti-ii t, i`i--i iz-ii-zi-izi-i
ii i`-iii-i-iiii -i -ii-ii i`-i-ii -i-i t ~ii :-iii -ii-i -it--iii :i-iii t
~ii`i-i-ii-i ii -i-ii-iii:
-ii zi-ii :. ii :ii`-iz iiiiii -i--iii, -i-i ii -i-i-i ~iii ii
iz-ii i i` t- --i -i-i-ii-ii ii ~ii-ii ii i -: t : --iii -iiii , -i--i-ici (-i--i-iii iii` -i)
ii -i-i-i -i ~i-i-ii r-ii zi-ii -i ti ii-iia -i i`iii ii: -i it-ii t-
trrtr rrrr tr arr rr r rr` rr trrrar rr-rr rt+
trr` rrrrtr rrrr rr rrr r` rrr r trr r` tr r +rrr r trr r-rrt ++
(zi-i--i -i -iti i-i -iti t -iit-i i -i -i i` -i ii i -iti ci -i ii-ii, ii-ii -i -i-ii
ii -it --i-i i -i ii-i i ii ii -iti -i--i ii i` -i-ii -i i i-ii ti):
rrr-rr r trrr -rr -rr -r ar rrr rrrr tr trr+
+rr -rar rrrrr rrrr -rr -rr ar trrr tr rrrr`rr`rr rrrr++
(-i-i ii-i ti, -i-i i-i-i ti, -i-i i`-i, i-i-i ~ii i-i ti, ~ii, -i--i, ii ~ii i-i
ti, -i-i, -i-i -ii i ti -ii iii ~iii i)
+rrrrr rrrrr tr tr rr`rrr +rrr rrr`rr trr +ra ta +
rrr rrr +r trr a rrrrr rr r +rrtrr r rrrarrr ++
(~iiii iiiii -i i t -i: t -ii -i -i iii , ~it i i ~ii --i-i cii ii~ii , i` i-i-i ~it
ii i i -it --i ii iii, --i-i ~i-ii ti -i ii i` -ii i , iti -ii ci t ):
+rtr rr a rtr rrar rr rrrrrr` t trr r r +
rr rrttr rr rr +rrtr r`rr`rr r tr trrrrtrr ++
(-it t-i-ii t, ii-ii t, iii: -i-ii t, -iiii -i i`-i-i --ii-i i-ii t, -it -ii -ii-i
-iii t-ii t, -it -i-ti ii-i t, --i it-ii-ii):
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 135 136 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
rrrr rr rrtrtr rzrr tr rrtrr rrr rr rrr trrtr ttrr`rrr r`trr+
r r rr trrrtr trrr zr r` arrtr rtr rrr` tr rrrr rr rr r` r rr rrrtr trr` trr++
(-i-i ciii-ii ~ii ii iit-ii ii i:, -i-i --iii iii i`iii ii-ii, -i-i iii`zizi
ii i`i --iii (i i-ii i`-i-i iii, i cii i`i -iii i- t, -ii -iit ~ii iti
ti i: ~ii --iii ii -i -i ~ii-i ii-i ia i:):
iiiiii i :-i -i-i-ii -i iz-ii ii -iii`-ii i`-i-iiiii ~ii ii`-iii-i-ii -icii`-i t: t:
(trrtrrr rrr`rrrr rrr rrrtrr`tr, r`arr - +r;rrtr

16. >rr +rrrtrrr+rrr-rrr tr rrrrrr rr trrorrtrrrt


-i-i-i-i: -i-i r- ii ii-i t: -i -i-i--i--i-i-i -i -ii`--ii`-i-i ti-i iizii
iii t~ii ii: :-ii ~i-i-i i (ti -ii-ii t :-ii i ~ii-i-ii-i ii ii: -ii ~i-i-i
ti iiii`i -i-i r- -i, -i ~ii-ii i--ii i :iiizi-iii ii ~ii-ii ii-ii t-ii ii)
~iiiii i. ii-iii ziiii i`ci--i -i -ii-i iti i`i (i i`-iz -itiii -itiiii
ii`-i i iti at t( t: i`ci--iii --ii -i-i, ~iii-i (-i -iii`t-i i i`-iii-i t, --ii
i`i-ii --iiii -i.-i. -iiiii ziiii i`ci--iii ii -iii`-ii--iii-ii (-i -iii`t-i -i -ii i
i`-i( i`-icii-i i: --iii-i-i: -i -i-i -i ---ii-ii ii: i-ii ti-ii t i`-iz -itiii! ......
:-i -i-i-i -i -ii ~ii-ii -i ~ii`ii ---ii-ii ii: ci, ici--iii i -iii i-i -i -iiii
ii, -i >ii ~i-i-i-iii-ii-iiiii i zi-i i i`-i( it-ii: -iti it-i -ii -i-i -i--i-i-i
ii -ii -i-ii t:: i`i ~ii-iiiii -i ~ii-ii -iii-ii i ii`-iii :i-i -i-ii(: ~iii -i
-ii :i-i (-i-i-i-i; -ii-i :i-i --ti-i -i-ii( i) -i -i-i -i i--i ti ii t: ii: ii
:i-i -i ~ii i`-izi -iti t iii t: i -ii-i it-i -i :iiii`-i-i t~ii ii, --ii -i-i
-ii -ii`-i--i -i: ti i-i, -i iii -i-ii ~ii -i ii ii, -ii ii-ii ii --i
-i-ii --iii ii ii it-i -ic-i i ~iiii -ii, ~iiii iai -ii`-i -ii ii-iii ii`-i-
i-ii ii :i-iii -iii: -iii-ii (-i ~i-ii-i i -i--ii -i-ii-i--i-ii-i -i --ii`-i-i --ii`-iii
ii ii iia i-i ii-i i: :-i --ii`-iii -i -ii i --ii ii --ii ---ici-iii t:
-i-i-i -i -ii`i-i --iii i`-ici-i ~ii --i ziz ii`-i-i`-ii-i i -iii -i-i-i -i ti -i-i-i-i
i -ii-i -ii ~ii-ii ~iii`-i ti i: ii: --ii ii i`-i-i --iii i`i-ii i`-ii-i ii`-i ii
i-i-ii -iti i ~ii`i-i -iiii-ii i ~i-ii-i ii zi--ii`-i i: :-ii`-i( -it i`-ii`zi
-i-iii t: -ii --ii ~ii-ii t i`i iz-ii -i ziii i i`iziii i -i zi-i ii --ti-i
i`i-i-ii -i-i ~ii ii-ii ii-ii--ii-ii i -iii -i-iiii ii: --iii -iiii ii i`-iz-i-ii -i
-ii-ii ii i`i it -ii -i-i tiii: i-i -i i-i --i ~i-i-i i`-iz i-i ii -i ii-i -i ii:
~i-ii-i ii ~ii -i :i-iii: -i i -iiii-ii ~ii :ii--i ii t-i i-i-i ~i-i-ii-i i
~iiii i ii iii`zi -ii-i`-i-ii -i ~ii-i i`-i( i-i ia-ii -i i i`i-i-i -iii ii-i-i
--ii --i-i-i-i i`-iz ~ii--ii-ii-i -i i`iii ti --ii iiii ii t-i i`-ii -iti -ii-i:
~ii`ii -i ~ii`ii t-i -ii iti it iiii- +rr`rrtr rr`tr rr rrr` r rrr: i
-i-ii-i ti-i ti-i, i-i iti-i -iii ii: :i-ii -i--ii -iii ~iiiii`--ii :iiizi i`-iiii
i ti ii ~ii :-ii i`-ii`-i -i it :ii-i zi-i ii ~ii`--i-i ii ~ii iii: --ti-i ~ii-ii
(i ii`-i -ii ii i: --i -ii -i -iii-i -ii ~iiii: :-ii ii -i-i ~i--ii-i -ii
--iii -i-ii -iiii -iti i iii -i-i-i ii i`-i-ii: -i-i rr -i, -i i`--ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii
ii -ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii -i-ii ~iiii: i -iii ii i. i-iiiii-i zi-ii i`-izi,
i`t-i i`-iiii, -ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii, -i it -i-i-i ii i`-i-ii i`i -i ~ii-i zi-i -itiii-i-
-i-i-ii ziiiii-i -i -itii-ii -i-i i-ii ii-i t-i t iti --t >ii ~i-i-i-iii-ii-iiiii
-i ~iii`i-i -itii-ii i`-i-i ii-ii t: i-i: i -iii ii i. i-i-ii-i iizii ii i--ii
rrrrrrrt rrr arrr +rrt rrrrrrrrr ci-i ii i`-i-ii: --i-i --iii ---ici ii: -iii
ti iiziiii -i ii i t: -ii --ti-i ii -ii ~ii-iii>ii ii --ii i`iii: :-i -iii
~i-i-ii i -ii iizii ii --ii`-i -iiii ti ii-ii ii ~ii (i ii i`i --iii -ii`-i ii
-ii-i-i-:i-ii ti ii-ii ii: -ii ~ii -iii i`i ii-ii-i -i zi-izi-i i :i-ii-:i-ii i
~ii-iii>ii >izi -ii-i t: -ii ii :-i ti-ii ii i`i ~i-i-i -iti i -i i`-i-i -ii -i ii
--i-i ziii--i-ii ii -iii -ai:
it -ii ii-ii :i-i-i ti-i -iii ii: ii: ii-iii zi-ii iii -i i`-i-i:
--ii -iii-i -i -ii ~ii-iii>ii ii -i-ii -iii`t-i i`-i-ii: --ii ii--ii ii (i -iii
-i ~i-i-i :ii-i t~ii ~ii it ii-ii -ii :i-ii-ii ~ii i i: i`i -i ~ii-iii>ii i
ii-i-i, -iii-ii ~ii -ii ii i`-i--i -iii i-i -i (i -i-ii i -iii-i -i -ii
:ii--izii-i ti: it -i-ii-i-i >izizii`-i t ii --t t-ii ii-i -ii ~i-i ciii:
(trrr`tr rrr, >rrrrarrtrrr+rrr-rrr-trrtrrr`trrr r`rrorr qr
rrrr trtrrr, rrrrt, trrtr --

-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 137 138 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
17. srrrrr
it t-ii i`-i( ii-i ~ii :i-ii-ii ii ii-i t i`i -i-i-i i -ii:ii`-i -icii
i. i`zi-i-iii i`iiiai (-i-ii-ii-i ~iii, -i-i-i i`-iiii ii-ii-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii)
iii, -i -iii-ii-i`-ii`z ~ii -iii i i`-i( -i:ii`-iz >ii ~i-i-i-iii-ii-iii ii (i
-it-iii ii`-i trrrrrrr ii, ~ii-iii-:iii-i >rrtrtrrrrr+rrrr i -iii -i-iii`-i
i --i iti-ii`t-iii (-i iti-i-iciii i-ii-i t-i :iizi-i i`t-i -i trrrrrrr (-i --ii
iii ii -ii :i--i-i i`iii t: it iii ~i-ii i`ii -i -it--iii t: ~iii ~ii-ii zi
i i i -i ~ii`--i--i (-i ~ii`--i-ii ii -iii i i`-i( -iii ~ii ~ii-ii -i i-ii t~ii
t: -ii-ii-i-i: :i-ii-i ti-ii t i`i ii-iii i ~iii`ii ~ii ii-iii`-ii ii -i i-ii t,
i ziii ~ii`ii -i-i it t i`i --iii -ii-ii`-ii -ii ~ii`ii iti iii t:
--i-i-i-ii i -iiii i i: -ii i-i >ii-i~i-i-i-iii-ii-iii ii ii--i i` -i -i-i
; -i i---ii i -i-i-i -i ~ii-i i`-i--i-i ii -i-i-i -i ~ii`i-i-i i`iii ii
i`i-iii i<ii--ii :iiizi-i ti t~ii ii: :-ii i`-i--i-i ii i`-i--ii -i-i -i --i-i-i-ii
i -iiii i iii-i ii t~ii ii: -ii -i -ii ~iii -ii ii-iii i i i -i -i--i ii
i`-i--i-i--i-i-i :i-i-i (-i -ii--i--ii ii, iiii`i -ii-ii-i i-i-ii ii :-i-i -iiii -iiii
-iti ti iiii ii: i. i`iiiai ii it -i-ii-i :iiizi-i --i -i-i-ii ii ii`-i t: :-ii`-i(
i`-iii ti it iii z-iii ii t ~ii -ii-ii`ii ii t: -i--i-i: s i<ii i iii i
-iii iiii--i -i :i--ii`-i ii it :ii-i ci -iii t: :-ii :iiizi-i i -iii ti iiai
ii ;r i<ii i ~iii zii i<ii i --ii i -i -i-ii-i (-i ii--ii ii ---ii-iii-ii
:i-iiii tii:
>ii ~i-i-i-iii-ii-iii iiz-ii i zi-i zi-i, i`i-i i`ii zi-i (-i :i-ii`i-ii
zi-i i i -i ii ii-ii ii-ii t, i i`-iz ~ii-iii i: --t -i i-i-i :-i zi-i ii ~ii`i-i
~i-i -iii-ii-:iii-i zi-ii ii ii -iti i`-i-ii-i ii: -i -iiii-i-ii-ii ii`i i i`i-ti-i
~ii-i ~i-ii ii-ii -i r`rrrr` ii ~iiiiii`-i i-iii i`-i--i-i i ii -i -i( i`ii`-iii
ii ---ii i`iii ii: trrrrrrr ii --ii :iii ii (i -it-ii ii`-i t: zi-i zi-i ii
:i-ici i`-izi--i t, --ii-i-i: it i-i--i ii iiii t: ~i-ii ii-iii zi-ii -i i-i--i
ii i`-iii -ii-ii ii-ii t, --i :i ~ii-ii ~ii--ii ii :i`zi-ii, -ii-ii, ii-ii ~ii-ii i-ii
ii iiii -iti -ii-ii ii-ii: :-ii`-i( -ii--i ii iti ~ii -iici ii ii i-ii i`-ii`-iii
t: -i i i -iti -ii-i: -iii i-i--i -iiii ~ii-ii :iii`-i ii t, iti ii :i i`-iii
-i ~ii :-ii`-i( i-i--i -i ~ii-ii`i-i t: zi-izi-i ii i` -i --ii-i-i ii i-i--i ii it
~iii-i -i-i-i ii i i-ii -ii t: i`-ii`ii -i-i-ii i-ii`i ii -it t: i-ii --i-i-i
ti-ii t-trtrr. rr-rr: ii --i-i-i -iti, -it i-ii -iti -ii-ii ii -ii-ii: :-ii`-i(
-ii--i, -iici ~ii -iii i :i ii :-i ii-i ii i-ii ~ii-ii -it-ii i-i --iiii
i`iii ii -ii-ii t! :-ii i`-iii-i i`ii zi-i i --ii-i-i-ii i ~i-i-ii -i i-i-i i-i
:i-ii-ii i`zi-i, ~ii`i-i :i-ii ii`i`-i-i :i-ii-ii (ii-i) -i-i-i (-i --i-i-i t: -it :iiizi ii t
~ii i`-i-izi ii: --i-i-i-ii (-i -i-i-ii --iii --iii-i t, ~iii--ii i-i, ii, ~i-i-i
ii -iii`i -iti: :-i -ii-i-ii i ~ii-iii -i trrrrrrr i-i-i ii-i -i --i-i-i-ii ii
i`-i--i-i-i-ii -ii-ii`-ii zici-ii ii: it iii ii ti ii-i t i`i zi ii -i-i-ii~ii
ii -ii ii --ii-i-i-i-ii i`-i--i-i :i--i-i i`iii iii ii, --iii ~ii -i-i-i -i
~iii`i`-i-i -iiii ii ii-i -iti ii -iii: i. i`iiiai ii it :iiizi-i --i i-ii ii ii
i-i ii :iiii`-ii -iiii-i t:
-i-i-i -i -ici-i ii (i -i-i-ii`-i-i ii-ii`i izi`-i t: it-i -ii ii
iii`ii -i i`-i--i-i ii iii -ii-i i`iii ii-ii t ~ii i`i -ii`-i, i`-i-ii, iii ii iii
i ii iii`ii -i i`-iiz iiiiii ii ~iii, i--i-i-i (-i iiii-i i`iii ii-ii t:
:-ii izi`-i ii ~ii-iii>ii -i trrrrrrr -i ~ii-iiii t: ii-i ii :ii-i zi-ii i`-i-i-ii ii
-i--ii -i ti-ii t ii iii -iii-i ii -i-i-ii zii`-i t: i ii i`zi-i i i -i ~ii
--ii ii -i-i-ii ii zii`-ii -i i-i-ii -icii ii i` ii :ii-ii-i ii-iii -ii-ii`-ii
i-ii -i ii-ii t: :-i :iii it ii-i iii (-i -i-ii-i i ii-i -i -i-ii-i ii iii
i-ii t: :-i-i i`i-i i`-iiii i -i-ii-i ii` ii ---ii-i-i i`iii iii t, --i-i -i i
i`-iziii -i ---ici-iii t- i, ii`i-ii, --iii`ziii, -iti`ziii, -ii`-ii i`ziii,
i iiii, i-i iiii, iii-ii i i ii -ii-i, :ii` -iiii-i -i iiazii-ii ~ii :ii` -i-i-i -i -itii` -i<ii-ii
ii -iii-ii, ~iizi i`ziiii ii -i-i-ii, ~iii`ii, iiii`-iii ~ii ~ii-i-iii`iii -i
-i-ii-ii ~ii -i i-i-i -i-i-ii ~iii`: ~ii-iii ii i` -i i ii ~ii`iiiii
-ici-i: -ii-ii`-ii t: ~i-i: :-i -i-i-i -i --iii it i<i -ziii t-
trrrrrtr trr r` trrrtrr rrrtrr r` rrtr rr r+r .+
trrrtrr +rrrrrrtr trrrrr r`rrcrtr++ tr. ;++
i-i-i-ii ii ~ii`iziii -ii-ii --iii it ii-i ii ~i-i--i -ii-ii`ii ~ii
:iii-i t-
rrrttrrtr r`rrz orrrrr`tr tr rtr.+
r tr rr r rrrr` tr rr-r rrrtrrr` rtr r` rr.++tr. {-++
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 139 140 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
iii i`ziii ~ii iiiii i ~ii`-ii`-i i ii i`zizi--i-ii`-i ~ii i-ii-
-i-ii`-i i-ii ti, :-i -i-i-i -i --iii -i-i--i i`-i--i-i i<i -icii - -i ;r -ii
i`-iziii -i ---ici-iii t:
~i-i--i -i-i ~ii :iizi-i -i-i-i -i i--i-i-ii i`-i--i-i i i`-i( -ii`-iiz
i<i -i--i-i: :i-ii ii-i-ii-ii i i`-i( ia-iii t: :-i -i-i i<ii ii iii i`-ii`i-i ti
~i-i--i i-ii t ~ii it i`-ii-ii i i`-i( ~ii`ii -iiiii i`-iz tiii: -i-i ~ii iii i
-i-i ii :ii-iii`ii i`i--i -iii ti -i-i (-i -iiii iiii -i :i--i-i i-i i i`-i( i.
i`iiiai t-i -iii i iii: i iii t:
-ii i`-iii-i t i`i i. i`iiiai ii i`-i--i ii`-izii-i -ii--i-i -iii-ii -ii-i-
i`-i-ii-i i -i( ~iiii-ii ii ---iii`-i-i i-ii tii:
(>rr +rrr trrr+rrr-rrr -trrr tr >rr tr trrr rr+rrrr rrt zr . r` rrrtrrrt r` rrrrar
rtr r`rrr`artr trrrrrrr rrttrrr tr trrrrrrrr - rrrrt

-rtrr rrr`t-a . rr r`rcrr


1. rr r`rcrr . qrr +rrrrrrrr
{. sarrrt trrr . +rrrrr rrrrrt rr trr`tr trrrrrr`rrr
ii-ii-i i i`i-ii ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii -i :iii-i ~ii-ii i-i i`-i<ii i ~iii-i
~ii ~i-i-i-ii-i ii -i-i-ii -iti ii, i<ii`i ii-ii-i :iii-i ii ~iii ii ~ii i-i
-i-ii`-i ii iii -i -ici i-: ti t: -ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii -i =s-= -i :iii-i i
~iii-i ii -i-i-ii i ii it ~ii-izii ii i`i :-i i`-iii i ~iii-i ii -iti i`zii
:ii-i i-i i i`-i( (i ~ii`ci-i ii-iii -iii ~iiiii`i-i ii ii(: it t-ii i`-iiii
ii ~it-ii ~ii-ii iii-ii ii i`i-ii ~iiii i ~ii`ci-i ii-iii -iii i ~iiiii-i ii
i`-i-ii ~iii`-i t~ii: i`i--i :-ii i -ii-ii`ii iii ii i: (i -ii it i`i :iii-i iiii
i -ii-ii-i -iii`ii ii-i i i`-ii`ii i`-iii`-i<ii-iii -i ti -iii ii i`i--i i-i i`-i<ii i
~i-ii-i i ii: -i-ii -iiii-i ~ii -i-i-ii--ii i -i i`i-ii ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii -i
~ii`ci-i ii-iii --i i -iti t: ii: :-i i`-iii ii ~ii-ii-i -i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii ~i-ii-i
~iiiii ii ii :iiii`-ii -ii-i ii i`i--i -ii it -iiiii ii i`i i-i i`-i<ii i ~ii`ci-i
ii-iii -iii ~iiiii`i-i i -ii-i ii i`-i-ii -ii-i t~ii: -ii -ii-ii`ii iii ii,
ii-ii-i -iti-ii ii --ss-i i`-i-iii -iti--i-i ii = -i ti-ii: iti it -iti--i-i
i-i-i -ii-iii`ii ---i-i i-ii -i t ii( :-iii ~iiziii -i -i-i -i ii: :-i ~i-i-i ii
-i`-i-i i -i ziii`ii ~ii iii`zi i-ii-i i i`-i( -iii :-i -iti--i-i ii -iii`i-ii i
i`-i( it ~ii-izii ii i`i i -ii i-i ti :-iii -iiii i i`-i( i`-ii-ii ii (ii i
--ii i`-i-iii ii iii-i-ii :iiii`zi-i i`iii ii -ii: it (i :iii -i -i-i-i i`-iiii ii
-ii-iii`ii ii:
i-ii i`i ~iii-~iii iti t :iii-i iiii~ii -i ii-i -iii`ii zi i i`-ii`ii
i`-iii`-i<ii-iii -i ~iiiii`i-i t: t ~ii --iii -i i`-iii t i`i i`i-ii ii ii-iii iiii
ii, -iit -it iiiiii ii`-ii ii ti ii :i`-i ii`-ii ii ii ~i-i i`i-ii ii`-ii ii, t-i
-i --iii --ii`-i ii ~ii -i --ii i`-iii-i ii it-ii-i iiii ii -ii i`i :iii-i-~iiizi
i ---i -ii -i it-i ii(: :-i i` -i :iii-i i ~iii-i ii (i i`-izii -it--i t: iti
-i-i-i iiii ii ~iii-i iiiiii ii`-ii ii iiii~ii i -i--i-i ~ii -ii-i ii ii
-i-ii-i -i t-iii -itii-ii i-ii t -iti :iii-i-~iiizi ii ~iii-i iiiiii ii`-ii ii
iiii~ii i zii zii ii -i-ii-i -i (i`i-iii -iicii -i-i-i -iti i ii-ii) ~ii :-ii
-i-iii ii`- : iiz-ii zi-i zi-i 141
~ii`-ii`-i ~i-i ~i-ii iiii-ii`-iii i zii ii --ii`-i ~ii i`-iii-i ii ii-i-i -i -it
it-i t -ii (i-iii -iii-i t: :-i :iii (i ~ii -ii iiiiii iiii~ii i -i-i -i
:iii-i ii -i-i-i i -i-ii-ii--i -it--i t ~ii -ii ~ii zii zii ii ii`t-ii-i -i
--ii (iii`iii ii ii -it--i t:
-. rr trrr`tr . rrrrrrrr rrr trarrrrrr
ii-iii -iii`t-i i`-ii`ii iii~ii -i i`-ii-i -i-ii`-iii ii -i-zi-iiti ti t:
:-i-i ii: -i-t -iti i`i ii-iii -iii`t-i -i -iii`ii-ii (-iii-ii`-i) -i -ii-i
-ii-ii i`-izii-i t: i`i--i it-i i -iii`t-i i-i, -i-ii`-i -iii zi-i i -iii ii
-iicii i i`-i( ti :iii-i t~ii t: :-iii`-i( iiz -iii`t-i i`-i-iii, ii`ii-ii, ~i-ii--ii ~ii
ziii`--i i -i-zi ii -icii`-i i-ii t ~ii iitii -iii`t-i iti ~ii-ii :i -iii ~ii--ii
ii ~i-i-ii ii -iiii :ii-i i-ii t: >i-ii -i-ii`-i ii -iii`t-i ii-i-i ii -ii`-ii -iii-ii
i i`-i ii-i i ~ii-i-i ii -i-i ~ii i`-iii i -iii-i -i --ii -iii ii i`-i--i
-iii-ii i-ii t: -ii ii, iiii-i, i`zi-i i`i-ii -iii`t-i i -i-iii -iii-i ii --ii
-iii ii ~ii`i-i-i i-i i -iii-i t: -i-iii i` -i ci -ii (-ii :i-ii-i tiii i`i i-i,
iiz, iitii -iii`t-i -i i-ii i-ii i i`-i( :-i iiii-i ~iizi -iiii ii iii -iti
--iiiii: ~i-i: i-i -i-ii`-i i ~iii`>i-i -iii`t-i ii i-: i`i- -ii i`-ii`i-i ~ii -i ti
t: i-:ii i`i- ii :-i (iiii-ii i -iii ti i-i -iii`t-iii -i i`zi-i, i`-iii ii i-ii ii
i` -i (-ii i ii -iti t i`i-i --i-i -i ~ii-iiii ti: :-i ~ii -i -it ii-iii
-iii`t-iii ii -i--ii -iti-ii ti t: -iti-ii tii ii --i-i -iii`t-i i ~i-ii i`zici
-iii`i-i i`ii t: ~i-i: iii`-ii-i ii :i-ii, iiii ii i`-iii -iii, -itiii-i ii
-i-iiiii-ii (-i i`-izii-i-ii, -iii-iii`-i->iiti, i-i ii`-iii ii i`zi-i-i`:ii-ii, i,
iiii ii i<i -ii-i, i-i-i-i, i`t-iiizi, ii-ii ~iii` ii iii--ii-i -iii ii i
i`-i( i`-ii`ii i i-i- -ii-ii -i -i-ii-ii--i i -i -i-ii t: i`zi-i i`i-ii i-ii ii
-i-ii-ii--i-ii ii -itiiii ti-i i -iii -iiiiiii ii ~ii-ii-i -i :-i -iii`t-i -i -iiiii`-i-ii
i ii -i--i -iti i -i ~iii t -i >ii`ii iiii -i, ii i`i -i-ii~ii ii iiii ii, -i-iii
ii -iti, -i-ii -iti i:
;. rr rrr-arrr . rrrrr-rrr`tr trrrrr rtr rrrtrr (rrror rrr trrr`rtr
ii-iii i-i ~ii zi-i i -ii-i i`-ii`i-i :i-ii-i t: (i -ii ziii-i ~ii--i-ii, ii
~ii--ii ii ziii-i, ~ii, ~i-i, i`-ii`-iii --iiii i-ii t: -ii t iizi ii -ii--i-ii
ii i`i ~ii--ii, i-ii--ii ~iii` i ~ii`--i--i ii ti -iti --iiii-ii: i i-ii (ii--i i`ii
t, (i--i -i i`-iii-i: :-i i (ii--i i`ii ii ci-i i-i t( i-i zi-i ii -ii-i-ii
t i`i -i -ii ~ii--ii (ii-i) ii ~i--iiii i`iii ii -ii-ii t ~ii -i --i -iii i`-ii`-iii -i
ii ~ii i`-ii`-iii -ii-ii ii -ii-ii t: iii -ii-i-i -i -i-iii -ii`-ii (-i iii`-ii -iii-ii
~ii ~iii-ii -i ii-ii ii ~ii -i-ii ii i` -i--i-i: ~iiti-i ti iiiii: --i ii ~ii
i`-ii`-iii --iiii i-i i -iii-ii ii ~i-ii-i ii ~ii-izii-ii ti -iti tii ~ii -i ii-
iii ii, -ici-:ci ii -iicii ii ii -iiii: ~i-i: ziii-i (-i i`-ii`-iii ~ii--i-ii -iii
-ii--i-ii i i`-iii-i i-i zi-i --i ii-i ii :ii`-ii`-i i-ii t, ii ~ii-ii -iii--iii-ii
-i i`-i--i -iii ~iii -i ii i-i-ii t: ii-ii ii it -iii-ii i`i-ii :iii ~i-iiit ii
ii`ii-i -i tii ii-i-i ii ~ii-ii -ii-ii ~ii -iii-ii ii ~ii`--i-i ii`ii`-i t: :-i :iii
i-i i-i ~ii zi-i -i-ii-ii`-:-i -iii-ii ii i-i ~ii zi-i t: iti iii t i`i :-i-i
~ii-ii ii ii :ii`-ii ~ii -i-i -iicii t, -it ~i-ii -i-iii -iti ti-ii:
-i-i: iti iii t i`i -i-ii zi-i (>izi), -ii-i ~ii -ii`i -ii-ii i`-i-ii
-iii ii -iii t: i`t- -iii iiz i ~i-i-ii zi-i, -ii-i ii ii`-i i -iii-i -i -iii ii
i`-i-iii ii ii -ii-ii -i-i-i t: i`i--i i-i i` i ~i-i-ii -ii`i (~ii-ii) ii i`-ii`z i
i`i-ii -iii ii-ii -i-i-i -iti t: -i-ii ii -iii--iii-ii ii i-: -ii-i-i -i it ~i-i--i
--iiiii`-ii ti iii i`i ~iiii`--ii, -ii-ii`-ii, iii`-ii ~ii-ii ~i-i i`i-ii --i i i`t-ii
ii --iiii ti -i i`iii ii -ii: i`t- i-i -i -ii`i i`t-ii ii --iiii i i`-iii iii ii
~ii iiz zi-i -i --ii -iiii-i -i i ~ii-ii :ii`-ii`-i i i`i i: i`i--i i-i i-i ii
i` it iii -iti --iiii i -ii-ii i`i (i :iiii -i :iiii i :ii`-i -i-i-ii--ii-ii-
i-iii ii ~i-i i`i-ii :iii -i i`t-ii tii ii ii-ii (-iii) ii -iii-ii i -ii-ii t:
. rtrrrrr tra+r . +rr`trr rrr trrrrr
~iii i -i-iii ii -iii ii ii` i`i-ii (i zi -i -iicii ti -ii-ii t -ii
-it t i`t-ii: ~iiii`-ii ~iii ii -iii-i, ii`-izi (:-i-ii-i-i) i i`-i ii-i ii ii,
zii`-izii-ii i (-i -i-iii ii ziiii ii iii, i`:-ii, -ii-ii`-ii-ziiii`i i`-ii-i-ii- i
-ii i`t-ii ii -i-i i-ii t: ~ii -ii` i :i`-iti-i -i it-ii ii it ii cii ti iii
t i`i iti -i-ii ii ~ii`--i--i ti i`-ii ii`-ii -i -i -i-ii-i ti ii(: :-i i`-iiii`iii ii
(i ti -i-iiii-i t ~ii -it t- ~ii`t-ii ii i`-izi--i: -ii -ii (-ii :i-ii-i ti-ii t i`i ziii
i-i iii -i i`-ii-i -iti-ii-ii-i i i-i -iiizii-i -i-iii i -i-ii :-i
~ii`t-ii ii --i-ii ~ii-izii-ii -iti ii iiii`i -iti-ii i -i-zi ii -i-ii--i-ii --iiii -i
ii ii i`-ii ii -i-iii ~ii-ii ~iii i --ss -ii -ii i`i-ii ti -iii t -ii`i-i ~iii ii
:-i-i -ii i`i-ii iiiii :-i-i -i-iii`-iii ii ii -i-t t: ~ii-ii-i-i ii -i-i ~ii`t-ii t:
-i-iii ~ii-ii-i-i --ii i`-izi--i i i--i-i-i t: i`i-ii i`-ii`zi ~ii-ii -i ii`-i ii --i-ii
-it--i -iti t i`i-i-ii i`i -i-i ii: (iii i-ii i-i ii(, zi ~ii ii-i i i`-ii`-i-i -i
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 143 144 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
:i-ii`-i-i ii: ~ii-ii t-i-i i-i ii(, -ii`i-i -i-i -iti -ici-ii -iii`t(: ~ii`t-ii -i-i t,
~ii-ii i`-izii i--i-i:
~. rr rrrrr . trrar qr +rrrtrr rrr trtrr +rr`+rrr`-r
i-ii i`i ii-iii -iii`t-i i -i-i -i iti iii, it-i i -iti i-iiii`-iii
i -i-i -i -ii`-iii t: i-ii ti ii`-i--i-i i iii i t: -iii i`ii t: -ii-i-i-i
ii -i-i (i t: i-ii ii i`-ii`-iii ii iiz ~ii i`t- i-iiii`-iii -i :ii-i ti-ii t --i
-ii ii ~ii-iii ii ~ii-ii i`-i--i-i-i` i i i iii i-i i-iiii`-iii -i-ii-i tii
ii i`-ii`zi t: -i-ii-i-ii -i it i`ii-ii --iii --i-i-i-ii ii :i-iii t: it --i-i-i-ii ti
-iii`t-i ~ii-ii i-iiii`-i ii -ii--ii`-ii --ii i`i- ti-ii t: i-i i-ii -i -ii-i ~ii
~iii--i i-ii ii ~ii`i-ii`-i -i ~ii-ii -iii`-ii-ii ii i-iii cii t:
. rr r`rcrr rrr tr-rrt-trtrrt . r` rrr arrrrrrr
i-i i`-i<ii i :i-ii-:i-ii i i`-i( -ii-i it-i -ii i-i -i-iii ii ~ii-ii i`
i-i-ii tiii, --ii ii zii -i-iii ii: i`-i<ii ii -iii-ii ii i-i-i i ii i i`-i(
iii`-ii ~i-ii-i ii ~i -i -ii-ii :-i ci-ii t-ii -i -i ii-i i i`-i( i-i -i-iii ii -i-i
-i ~ii i-i -i -iii ti-ii tiii: :-iii ~ii t i`i iii`-ii`iii i i -i ii ~iii
-i-ii -ii`-i -i -iii iii i i`-i( -ii`i-i t ~ii i`i-iii -ii -i (iii iiii iiti
i`-iii i -ii-i-i ti ii-ii t --i i i :i-ii -ii`-i ii ~iii-i ~ii -i-i-i i i`-i(
-i-ii i-iiii ii(: iii`-ii`iii i -ii`- i i cii-i-i i i`-i( ii-ii i iiii ii
-iii ti ii-ii -iii`t(: i i-i -i-iii ii it -iiii iiii -iti t: ii-i i i`-i-iizi i
i`i-i ii ~ii ~ii-ii i iii --i :-i ii-i -iii ii -ii`i-i ci-i ii iii ti-ii ii
--iii iii -i i-i-i --iii i`-i-i i-ii ii ii`-i i-i-i -i-iii ii -it -i-ii-ii`-i ii
ii i`i-i-i iti ii- r r-tr rrrrr`atrr: ~i-i: i-ii ii ti -iii -i-ii i i`-i( ~ii-i
ii -iii i-ii tiii: i`-iii`-i<ii-ii ~ii i`-i<ii i -i :ii`-ii-ii ii ii it -ii-i-ii tiii
i`i -ii-:iii`ii ti-ii (i ii-i t ~ii -i-:iiii`-izii ii -i-ii ~ii-i-iii ~ii i`-ii i
-iii ~iii-i i-ii -ii ii-i t: it iii t i`i iiiii, ~i-ii`ii ii -ii iiii,
-iii`t-i ~ii -i-iii ii ii-i-i i i`-i( ii-iii i`-iii`-i<ii-iii i iiaii-i -i -i-i-ii
~ii-ii-i t, -ii`i-i ii-iii iiii, -iii`t-i -i -i-ii`-i ii i`-iii`-i<ii-ii --i -ii :i-izi
i`-ii-ii i iii t: :-i iii -i -ii-:iii`ii-ii ii :i>ii -i ii ~iiii it-i i`iii
ii-ii t: ~i-i: -i-iii ~ii ziii`ii ii-i -i -i-i--ii ~ii`-i-iii t: -i-ii-ii`-iii i :-i
i-i-i`-i-iii i ii i`i-i iiii -i i-i i`-i<ii ii :i-ii ~ii :i-ii -i-i-i-i -ii-i ti
-iiii, --i-i -i ii`-iii i`-i--iii`-i t :
(i) >ii`ii iiii (i-iii`-ii-i -i-ii)~ii -iii`t-i i -iii :iii-i iiii ~ii -iii`t-i
ii ~iii-i iiaii-i ii ~ii`-i-iii ~i i-i:
(ii) ~iiii`-ii ii-iii iiii~ii i :ii-ii-i i i iiaii-i i -iii ~iiizi ~iii`
-i-iz iiii ii ~iii-i ~ii`-i-iii-i: i`-iiii`-i i`iii ii-ii -iii`t(:
(iii) ii-ii`-iii ii ~ii`iiii`ii -i-iiiii-i i`iii ii-ii -iii`t( i`i-t i`-ii`i-i i -i i-i
~ii i-i-i -i i -i ii i-i -ii-i iii ii iii-ii-i-ii i`ii ii-ii -iii`t(:
(iv) :iii-i i ~iii-i (-i ~i-i-i-ii-i ii -ii-ii --i :ii-i i-i i i`-i( :i-ii :izi
i i-i--i-i-i (i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii -i i-i i`-i<ii i ~iii-i i i`-i( ~ii-i-i
-iii`i-i i`iii ii-ii -iii`t( ii i-i-i: -iii`i-i -i-i-i ~ii-ii ~iiii`-ii ii-iii
iiii~ii i -iii -i-iz tii iii i:
(v) :ii-i -i --i ii (ii-ii -iii`i-i i-i i i`-i( ~ii`ci-i ii-iii --i i
-iii i -iii-i -i i`-ii`ii >ii`iii i i`-i( -i-ii-i iiaii-i ii i`-iii-i i-ii
-iii`t(: :-ii i`-iii-i i ~i-ii iiaii-i -i i`-iiii`-i i--iii i ~i-i-ii (-i
i`ii`iii i -iii -i-ii-ii-i-ii--ii -i-ii :iiii`zi-i i`ii ii( ii -i-i ii i`
-i ii iiiiiiii ti: :iii -i i -i -ii-ii ii -i cii :ii-i -i i-i ti ii :-ii` -i( it
iii ~ii ii ~ii-izii t :
(vi) ~i-i-i-ii-i ii ~iii ii-i i i`-i( -iii iii`-ii`iii ii i`-i--i-i (-i ii -iziii`i-i
ii-i--i-ii :iiii`zi-i ti: --i-i -i ~ii-izii ii-ii ii -ii-i (-i -i-ii-i i --t
:iiii`zi-i i-ii -iii`t(: ii-ii i ~ii-ii-i-ii--ii -i-ii-i -i -i-i-ii--ii i` i`-i-ii--i
~iii`i-i t -iii`i (i ~ii --i -i-i-i ii iii -i ~ii -ii ~ii ~iiii`-ii
ii-iii iiii~ii ii iii -i iii ii -ii:
(vii) -ii`i i-i i`-i<ii i -it--i ii ii-iiii ~iii ii-iii -i-iii ii -iti t :-ii`-i( it
~ii-izii t i`i :-ii i`-ii`ii iii i zi i ii-i-ii-i -i i`-i--i -iii`ii ii
ii( i`i-i-i -iti i -i-iii ii ii ~ii-i -iii -i -ii`--ii`-i-i i`iii ii( -iii`i i-i
i-i<ii i ii-i i -i-i-i -i ii-iii i-i-i-i-ii iii-i ti -ii: it iiii`-i ti i-i
i`-i<ii i :i-ii-:i-ii ii -i-ii-i-i -iii t, ii ~i-i -iii --i-i: ciii -iii:
(r r r` rcrr rrr trr trr r` trrr +rrarr, +rrarr trrr` tr tr rr -r , trrtrrr, {

-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 145 146 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
2. Contribution of Jainism to Indian Culture
A Seminar on Contribution of Jainism To Indian Culture
with special reference to the Doctrine of Non-Violence was held from
2
nd
to 6
th
October, 1973 under the auspices of the Department of Sanskrit,
University of Udaipur. About sixty papers were contributed to the Seminar
which was attended by a large number of scholars of Jainism and allied
disciplines from different parts of the country. This was the second
Seminar organised by the Department of Sanskrit; the first one was held
in December, 1968, on the Principles of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit.
The present publication comprises some of the papers contributed to the
Seminar on Jainism. I am extremely grateful to Lala Shri Sunder Lal
Jain whose encouragement is my best inspriration for work. Prof. Jagdish
Lal Shastri never fails to appreciate what I do, this accounts for accepting
these seminar papers for publication which has been speeded up by Shri
Jainendra Prakash Jain, Dr. A. Bhattacharya and Shri N.K. Jain. Seminar
papers in Hindi are being published by the Adarsh Sahitya Sangh, Churu,
Rajasthan.
The Seminar was inaugurated on the moring of 2nd October,
1973, the date rendered auspicious by the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, the
apostle of peace and non-violence. Dr. A. N. Upadhye, the doyen of
Jainological Studies in India, very kindly accepted its General
Presidentiship. He was ably and competently assisted by the chairmen :
Dr. M.L. Mehta, Dr. T.G. Kalghatgi, Professor Satyavrat, Professor
H.C. Bhayani, Pt. Dalsukh Malvania, Professor G.N. Sharma, G.C.
Choudhary and the Secretaries: Professor M.G. Dhadphate, Dr. V.P.
Jain, Dr. N.H. Samtani, Dr. K.C. Jain and Dr. V.D. Johrapurkar for
different sessons of the Seminar. Besides the General President of the
Seminar, Dr. K.D. Bajpai also delivered special lecture on Jain Art and
Architecture which was illustrated with representative slides by Dr. G.C.
Jain. As Director of the Seminar, I owe a deep debt of gratitude to these
scholars in particular and to all others who made the Seminar a great
success by their enlightened guidance and participation and now by their
permission for publication.
Colleagues of my Department dont need a special and recorded
mention of my gratitude which is writ large in the sanctum of my heart.
Many friends from other Departments, notably Dr. K.C. Sogani, Associate
Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Shri O.D. Upadhya,
Assiatant Professor in the Department of Drawing and Painting, helped
me in the orgnisation of the Seminar. Digamber Jain Agrawal Samaj,
Jain Mumukshu Mandal, Shvetambara Terapanth Samaj, Vardhamana
Sthanakvasi Samaj, Shvetambara Murt Pujak Samaj, Bharat Jain
Mahamandal and Mahavir Nirvan Mahotsava Samit of Udaipur town and
Himmat Singh Saruparia gave receptions in honour of the participating
scholars. Active participation by local Jain community was a special
feature of this Seminar. Town and gown met profitably. Thus the ideal
of the University to meet the social needs the aspiration was realised.
It was on the initial recommendation of the then Vice-Chancellor
of Udaipur University, Dr. G.S. Mahajani now the Vice-Chancellor of
the University of Poona that the University Grants Commission, New
Delhi, accepted my proposal to sponsor this Seminar. I am most sincerely
thankful to him and to the authorities of the Commission. I must mention
here without fail the names of my esteemed friends: Dr. D.K. Mishra,
Director of Extension and Shri A.C. Sharma, Comptroller, University of
Udaipur, who are always unfailing in their help in any good work that I
do. This Seminar is the best thing that could be done by any University
because here it was for the first time that Jainism was discussed in all its
bearings, comparatively, analytically and critically. I really regret that
lively and enlightened discussion that followed the presentation of papers
is not included here as was done earlier in the publication of the Seminar
on Principles of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit. This is mainly due to
the imperfect and incomplete recording of the discussion on the papers
which deal with a wide variety of subjects related to language and literature,
religion, philosophy and ethics, fine arts and sciences and finally to the
history and culture of Jainism. Indexes of authors, works and terms,
prepared by my pupil-colleague Dr. V.P. Bhatt, will be found useful by
the readers and researchers.
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 147 148 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Dissent co-existed in the intellectual and religious democracy of
India from the times of the Vedas. In the royal family of Katriyas, a
great hero, Mahvra was born in the old Republic of Vail. He was
born more than 2500 years ago, probably 20 years before the birth of
another great leader of India, the Buddha. He proclaimed: Enemies are
within and not without, real conquest is the conquest of petty self,
all absolutism is false, relativity is the truth, violence and lust will
solve no problem. Ahis and Aparigraha are the real answers to
the problems of man and his world, war against internal impurities
must be won with the weapon of renunciation and asceticism; with this
was born a new faith, a new religion that has given a new sense and
direction to our struggle. The world has won many a battle through violence
and conquest of nature but is now losing the war. We face extinction
through thermo-nuclear weapons due to personal and organised violence.
Recapitualation of Lord Mahviras message can still save us from final
death, from universal suicide.
Lord Mahvra attained Nirva on the dark night of Amvsy
in the month of Krttika (corrsponding to 13 November this year). The
nation will be celebrating the Nirva for the full one year ending on 14
November 1975, when the next Krttika Amvsy falls. Empirical night
of darkness marks the final day of his awakening. Language and literature,
religion and philosphy, fine arts and sciences, history and culture of
India have benefited from the contribution that Jainism has made through
its long course of development. Buddhism has disappeared from the
land of its birth. Jainism is firmly rooted in the soil of India.
Universities in India can no longer ignore the study of its rich
cultural heritage. If gown does not know the town, all education will be
irrelevant. Rajasthan has a large number of Jainas, living followers of
old faith now organized into differents sects. A rich treasure of manuscripts
and variety of monuments exit. But no attmept was made to introduce the
study of the Jaina language, literature and culture in Rajasthan. The
Department of Sanskrit, University of Udaipur, pioneered the introduction
of Prakrit as a special study at M.A. in Sanskrit and at Certificate level
for the beginners from the year 1971.
2500 years of the Lord Mahvras Nirva are being celebrated
in all the parts of the country this year. There is hardly nay organisation
or individual who is not contributing his best in spreading his message
throughout the length and breadth of this country and in other corners of
the world. This Seminar was contemplated well in advance so that the
papers may be published during the year of Nirva. This may be
considered our most humble offering (a Smyika) to the Lord Mahvra.
(Editorial, Contribution of Jainism to Indian Culture, MLBD, Delhi,
1975)

3. Social Significance of Jaina Ethics


Essence of Jaina ethics provides the best rasion detre for
Mahvras relevance in our times. Melvin Radar in his book Ethics and
the Human community holds in opposition to the relativist, subjective,
intutional and a priori theories that ethics should be based upon human
nature and its potentialities.
1
He finds expression of mans deliberate
attempt to make himself at home in the universe through religious sense
of community which enables, him to escape from his loneliness and self-
alienation in the ancient Egyption religion, in the Confucian doctrine of
human-heartedness and universal kindness; the Taoist sense of mystic
unity with nature; the Buddhist emancipation from self hood, the Hindu
vision of all-encompassing, all-penetrating spirit; the Moslem idea of
One God and One Humanity; the Hebraic devotion to a God of love and
justice; and the Christian fellowship of all men in God
2
.
Moral aphorism of all religions, including Jainism confirm their
community-mindedness. Religion that ignores society has no chance of
survival.
3
Ethical ideals of universal love and brotherhood, Ahis, charity,
simplicity, chastity, truthfulness and non-attachment to worldly interests
and gains are extolled in all religions. There may be some difference of
emphasis on these ideals in one or the other religion but none preaches
hatred, malice, pride, prejudice, passion exploitation of fellow human
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 149 150 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
beings or disrespect of life in all its varied and various forms. And if
religion is not to be mistaken for dogma or ritual which sometimes
sanctioned intolerance and disrespect for life, it can be affirmed without
fear of contradiction that religion is no antithesis to humanism, social
development, universal understanding and democratic spirit. True Dharma
founded on the cardinal ethical virtues is Santana, eternal and universal.
Belief in God of any description or permanence of the soul or
elaborate metaphysics and ontology can wait for their turn or may even
be discarded but concern for the alleviation of suffering of fellow human
being and his ultimate and absolute freedom or beatitute is to engage
immediate and ever-lasting attention of all religions and ethical quests.
In order to realise the Summum Bonum a seemingly negative, purely
individualistic and ascetic ethical discipline, in contrast to a more loving,
burning and joyous ethical discipline, may be prescribed. But there is no
radical difference between what is said to be the negative and the positive
ethical attitudes. If nothing else then history of the followers negates the
prejudice of superiority of Western over the Eastern ethical ideal. It is
with this basic understanding of religion or ethics that I approach to
examine the social and contemporary significance of Jain ethical teachings.
As its very name signifies Jainism stands for extreme severity
of ethical discipline both for the ascetic and the house holder. This
emphasis distinguishes it form Buddhism which stood for the golden
mean in ethical teachings and from Hinduism which in its original spirit
is less ascetic and severe is prescribing the ethical extermities. Healthy
interest is worldly gains, conception of svarga as the Summum Bonum,
elaborate rites and rituals as the means of attaining it mark the period of
the Sahits and the Brhmanas. It is not, therefore, without significance
that Indra the War-God is the hero of this period and Varua, the God of
moral virtues is less prominent. It was the souldering dissent of
contemporary free thinkers who were denounced by vedic seers as
brahmadvia haters of the Veda, devanid maligners of Gods, apavratas
men of no principles as also reaction against artificial over-elaborate
and complex ritualism, arising due to self-critical consciousness of vedic
believers which led to the Upaniadic, ethical attitude preferring reyas
'spiritual freedom' to preyas ' material prosperity' and par vidy spiritual
knowledge to apar vidy mundane knowledge and extolling tyga
renunciation, tapas penance and vairgya detachment over worldly
or other wordly pursuits. It is still a question of preference and superiority.
Asceticism is not recognized as an exclusive and absolute virtue. After
all, entire earlier tradition could not be cast off like a robe, it could at best
be critically examined and a new choice or preference was to be underlined
in the light of self-critical consciousness, and perhaps more so, because
continuing free thinking began gradually to organise itself into well-
defined movements of Jainism and Buddhism. Upaniads, therefore, speak
in the language of preference. That the Brahmanical tradition stands not
only for preference, but actually for a synthesis between vedic ideal of
svarga and Upaniadic ideal of liberation is seen in the definition of
Dharma which is described as realisation of both the abhyudaya and
nihreyas. Connection of Brahman as sat absolute reality, cit absolute
consciousness and nanda absolute bliss in the Vednta, of which the
source and authority are the Upaniads, is not a break-off from the
conception of svarga which is an abods of positive bliss but its perfection
and absolute excellence. In fact the arguments generally deduced to prove
the nature of reality are based on comparison leading finally to absoluteness
of existence, knowledge and bliss in the Ultimate. Late Hindu tradition,
as manifested through the Mimsakas notion of Moka liberation,
integral harmony of two principles smarasya, visidvita etc.
propounded by Kashmir aivism and some schools of Vaiavism,
militancy of some sects like Vra aiva, kta and Lingyatas, Tantric
eroticism and pervading sensuality of classical Sanskrit literature also
underlined that Hinduism is not preeminently ascetic in its spirit or
development. It did imbibe the asceticism and renunciation in its course
of development right from the age of the Upaniads but did never give up
its faith in the life of pleasures here and beyond. It is, therefore, no
mistake to declare Buddhism and Jainism as revolt against Vedism. Denial
of God and the authority of the Vedas, revolt against ritualism and class
distinctions are points of agreement between dissenting religious of
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 151 152 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Buddhism and Jainism. They prescribe ethical discipline and subscribe
to the belief in the transmigration and the law of Karman. Sin in their
view is no offence against God or against the injunctions of the Vedas
which assigned different duties according to the distinction of caste, age
and sex. Man is solely responsible for his actions. He is his own refuge.
The whole course of moral discipline is his sole responsibility. There is
no divine intervention to obstruct this progress in ethical discipline. Nor
is there any succour to him if he falters. Interference is from within
either psychologically or physically or even spiritually. Man is endowed
with freedom and responsibility to embark upon the course of his ultimate
perfection. This is the original attitude of Jainism and Buddhism which
may have been compromised or modified in the course of long history of
perpetual encounter with Hinduism, but was never totally rejected or
replaced in theory.
Between Jainism and Buddhism there have been claims of
superiority of ethical teachings of one over the other. Thus for example,
Nahar and Ghosh speaking of Buddhism say that its philosophy of
momentariness has undermined its ethics because such a philosophical
speculation, by the perfect frankness with which it eulogies the life
of momentary experience and undermined importance of calculating
wisdom so essential in life, takes away from man what is of worth
and dignity to him and thus bears its own condemnation. Contrasting
Jainism with Buddhism they conclude that the Summum bonum of life
is here in Jainism not the gratuitous enjoyment of the present in
utter disregard of the future as Buddhists hold
4
. This is complete
misunderstanding of the Buddhist philosophy as it renders the latter to
hedonism. Buddha propounded a comprehensive ethical code which was
summed up in Eightfold Path: right belief, right aspiration, right speech,
right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right thought and right
concentration. Refutation of permanent self has an ethical motive. Existence
of suffering is the fundamental fact of human existence. Its recognition
is the first Noble Truth, the second Noble Truth is that is caused by
desire or craving which is based on intellectual and moral error of self-
centredness. The very notion of the self, as abiding, permanent and eternal
is an illusion. There is no self, ones life is just an unbroken steam of
successive states that are casually connected and behind this stream there
is no permanent ego, no self-contained entity independent of change and
independent of ones fellows.
5
To consider his self supreme, to be selfish
about it is the root moral error of life. The third Noble Truth teaches
emancipation from the sense of self; Nirva is the result of this
emancipation from self. So long as individuality, ego or selfishness persits
there is no freedom, no Nirva. The Fourth Noble Truth tells the way,
the eightfold path to remove the suffering through extinction of self-
centredness. Thus the theory of anatta no self in Buddhism has a very
profound meaning and is not to be confused with the claim of the present
even of the momentary present imperious and supreme beyond all
others as Nahar and Ghosh do.
6
However, what distinguishes Jain ethics
from that of Buddhism is its strict asceticism and non-absolutistic
relativism reconciling opposites between Hinduism and Buddhism.
Buddha practiced ascetic life for six years and then declared that the
truth cannot be attained by one who has lost his strength. There are
two extremes which he who has gone forth ought not to follow habitual
devotion, on the one hand, to the passions, to the pleasure of sensual
things and habitual devotion, on the other hand, self-mortification which
is painful, ignoble and unprofitable. There is a middle path discovered
by the Tathgata
7
.
Jainism prescribes strict and, in fact, extremely severe ethical
discipline for the house-holder and the ascetic, the rvaka and the ramaa.
It lays equal emphasis on faith, knowledge and conduct which together
constitute way to individual freedom.
8
The Jain philosophy divides the
world primarily into the duality of Jva self and ajva not self with
their inherent pluralism. The self is infinite, alike eternal and of various
forms implaying different stages of development. Its intrinsic nature of
perfection, infinite intelligence, infinite peace, infinite faith and infinite
power is obscured by its union with matter. Its ethical aim is to cast off
this malignant influence of the not-self and realise its real nature which
is perfect enlightenment. Perfect knowledge is never inactive. Knowledge
does not exist without right action and right conduct. Enlightened self
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 153 154 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
leads active life for the good of others, as he can do no more of good to
himself. The seven tattvas postulated by Jainism, namely Jva, Ajva,
rava, Bandha, Savara, Nirjar and Moka underline all-absorbing
concentration of Jainism on the ethical perfection of the self as the real
objective of metaphysical or philosophical enquiry. This is in bold contrast
to other systems of Indian philosophy where ethics does not occupy such
an important place in the scheme of philosophical categories. It is,
therefore, no surprise that Jainism has propounded in great details the
path of ethical discipline both for the clergy and the laity.
Jainism lays down five vows for the ascetic and the same are
prescribed for the house-holder with some modification. They are ahis
non-injury, Satya truth, astey Chastity and aprigraha renunciation.
While an ascetic has to fulfill these vows fully and completely, the same
can be achieved only partially or in small degree by the house-holder.
Thus the mahvratas great vows in the case of the house-holder become
anuvratas. These vows have significance only in relation to the community.
Without social reference the vows lose their virtue. Amongst these Ahis
occupies the foremost place. And in a way, all others are a means to
achieve the perfection of Ahis which, though apparently a negative
term signifying non-injury to life, is in essence positive as it will include
respect for all forms of life through love of not only human beings but
also of all the creatures and plants and in fact, any form of creation
vibrating with life. The one word that sums up the whole of Jaina ethics
is ahis which inspires a Jaina for active social service and makes him
to pray for the good of the all: Let there be rain in every proper season.
Let diseases dies and famine and theft be nowhere. Let the law of
jaina give all happiness to all the living beings of the world.
The vow of truth enjoins upon the ascetic that he will not resort
to falsity either for his own sake or for the sake of others through fear or
frown. Even the truth that hurts others is no truth.
9
The Asteya is an ethical discipliene of neither accepting even the
most insignificant thing without the permission of the owner nor approving
such an act of stealing the articles which belong to others.
The ethical vow of Brahmacarya is the cultivation of good moral
character, of celibate life renouncing all forms of sensuous pleasures and
company of prostitutes or conclubiens. Wine, Meat, gambling, erotic
music with song and dance, personal decoration, intoxication,
libertines and aimless wanderings, these ten are the concomitants of
sexual passion
10
.
Parigraha is characterised by attachment to wordly gains.
Problems of modern Indian society, nay, of all the nations are rooted in
the spirit of acquisition. The world today is divided in to two classes of
exploiters and the exploted. There will be no final redemption from this
evill unless the vow of aparigraha is observed both in letter and spirit.
Creed for amassing wealth, hoarding of goods of social need, cornering
the material and intellectual wealth of the world for the good of one
against others mark our age. Parigraha acquisition has resulted in the
depletion of natural resources and pollution of atmosphere. The mandkind
faces in near future the problem of its extinction. Scientists are worried
over the enviornemtal catastrophy. What has brought about this sorry
state of affairs in the planet which has been ruled since long by scientic
slogan of conquest of nature which has been achieved through fierce
spirit of competition and unprincipled greed and suicidal violence?
As a result of His violence, asatya falsity of various
ideologies based on some or the other kind of violence, Steyas,
enslavement of nations, abrahmacarya permissiveness of sex and a
life of luxury and indulgence and parigraha amassing of physical and
intellectual wealth by a nation or a group of nations,the world is now
sitting over volcano of its own making facing its extinction through its
own instruments of death and destruction. What can save us from this
mad pursuit?
Lord Mahvra preached the ehtical discipline of five Vows not
merely for the salvation of some individuals but for the survival and
devlopment of the whole world through the cardinal doctrine of ahis
and its other correlaries. The social good in its ultimate analysis depends
upon the perfection achieved by an individual. There is no opposition
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 155 156 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
between the good of the community and that of the individual, the two
are inextricably inter-linked.
Those who followed Mahvra during the 2500 years of his
Nirva perfected the details of essential ethical descipline only in relation
to the spriti of his message. Many of these details are also significant as
they underline the social and objective content of the virtues to be cultivated
by a true Jaina. Thus it was to perfect the cardinal principle of Ahis
that the concepts of (i) Mlaguas Primary moral virtues, (ii) the seven
lavratas Vows of conduct educating the individual for the life of
renunciation (iii) the elevan Pratimas and of the (iv) Sallekhan spritual
preparation for individual extinctionwere developed for the house-holder
by a galaxy of Jaina thinkers. For ascetics, the ethical discipline is more
regorous as is evident for the description of (i) five great Vows, (ii) the
five Samitis carefulness, (iii) the six vayaka Karmas essential
actsconsisting of Smyika Stut, Vandan, Prati-karmaa Pratykhyna
and Kyotsaraga,
11
conquest of twenty-two pariahas
12
obstacles of various
kinds caused by others, (v) and six kind of both the internal and external
austerities, (vi) enjoining of various types of meditation, and finally (vii)
espousing the sprititual death by a Muni.
While Jainism prescribes individual and spiritual values which
seem to have an indirect relation with society it does not in any cage
ignore the social values which have been listed by Dr. K.C. Sogani in his
book entitled Ethical Doctrines in Jainism (p. 266). These are Bhta
Anukampa and Maitri, universal compassion and friendship, Dna
Charity, Nirvicikits Non-hatred towards the diseased, Pramoda
Commendation of the meritorious and Karu Active compassion for
the distressed or helping those who are miserable, thirsty and hungry,
Madhyasata Indifference towards the arrogant, Aparigraha Non-
acquisition, Ahis Non-injury, Kam Forgiveness and Prabhvana
propagation of moral and spritiual values through adqeuate means.
The concept of Puya Merit and Ppa Demerit again bears a
social objective. There are nine ways of earning puya: through service
of anna food to the needy, Pna water to the thirsty, Vastra clothes to
the poor, Layana shelter to the needy and the monk, ayana providing
beds, and social service through manas mindrra body, vacana
speech and namaskra a sense of hunility.
His or infliction of any kind of suffering has been considered
the greatest sin. The other seventeen sins are untruthfulness, dishonesty,
unchastity, covetousness, anger, conceit, deceit and cheating, avarice,
attachment, hatred or envy, quarrelsomeness, slander, false stories to
descredit others, finding fault with others, lack of self-control, hypocricy
and false faith. The cultivation of the puyas and abstinence from the
sins, enumerated above, do not only lead to the spiritual fulfilment but
goes to make world perfect and worth living. This then underlines the
relevance of Mahvras teachings and social significance of his ethical
discipline.
Dr. Schweitzer distinguishes Indian, more particularly Hindu,
thought from Western thought mainly on the basis of antagonism between
what he describes world and life-negation, and world and Life-
affirmation.
13
According to him Indian religion is other-wordly and life-
denying, while the Western religion affirsm life. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
has adequately met his criticism by pointing out the central features of
Hindu thought such as the four stages of life, the doctrines of Karma and
rebirth which imply action in a real world, and by under-lining the essential
unity of all religions in denying the reality of the world
14
and by contrasting
religion and humanism. Criticism by Dr. Schweitzer will be apparently
more pertinently applicable to the Jainism and Buddhism on account of
their more pronounced emphasis on asceticism which is the essence of
life-negation. A similar criticism is voiced by henri Bergon in The two
Sources of Morality and Religion (See pp. 216 and 227) wherein be
terms Indian mysticism negative as against the positive mysticism of
Christians. As pointed out earlier in introductory passage of this paper
there is no radical difference between what is described as positive and
negative mysticism because in their essence these are rooted in the basic
unity of all and are ultimately concerned with the good of the individual
and the community. Moreover positive mysticism is not necessarily
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 157 158 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Christian. It may have different forms. Mahyna Buddhism has no less
concern, love and compassion for the mankind than the Christianity. The
five Vows, the conception of puya and ppa and active social service by
Trthakaras make the Jainism equally positive, Hinduism as understood
and practised by servants of our age such as Ramkrishna, Vivekananda
and Gandhi underlines that what seems to Western critics as inferior
religion is nothing more than their cultural prejudice. Accidents of an age
or defilement by the professed votaries of a religion dont mark its essence.
Otherwise the life-affirming, positive religion of Christians would appear
more exploitative as its avowed followers enslaved one nation after the
other, shed more blood than the water in the Ganga, even though
Christianity preaches love and service. Essence of all religions is social
good and individual freedom. Jainism shows an important way of
achieving it through regorous discipline of body and mind.
The noted American physiologist, Prof. M.B. Visscher declared
in his plenary lecture (reported briefly in the Times of India, Delhi, dated
24th October, 1974), at the 26
th
Internaltion Congress of physiological
Scientists meeting at Delhi that one of the most pressing problem for
human society today is the kind of organised violence we call war.
Personal violence, too, is not an insignificant problem as the increase
in the incidence of kidnapping, skyjacking, murder, robbery and
rape all over the world indicate. He said that a world in which
thermonuclear weapons existed in such a quantity as to be capable of
destroying all life on our planet, it behoved society to learn more about
violence and how to control it. Information gained from behaviour science
that violence has biological roots is not sufficient. It is true that human
animal has tendency towards violence and lust for power and money.
His and Parigraha, to use the words of Jainism, are biologically rooted
in man; should we hence give into despair because of the tendency of
human animal to use his intelligence in the large number of scientists
that the future prospect was hopeless? Mahvra would say No. His
indispensable ethical teachings of ahis and aparigraha to name only
two out of the five cordinal Vows are the way for the freedom, peace and
prosperity of the world troubled by excessive violence and over-powering
spirit of exploitation and acquisition.
Notes
1. Published by Holt, Rinchart and Winston, inc., 1964, see, preface p. v.
2. Ibid., p. 417.
3. See, Pratt, The Religions Consciousness, pp. 7-12.
4. See, Nahar and Ghosh, An epitome of Jainism, p. 468.
5. Malvin Reader, Ethics and the Human Community, New York, p. 915.
6. Op. cit.
7. First sermon on Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Law. See,
Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy, Vol. I, Macmillan Company,
London, 1956, p. 420.
8. Umsvti, Tattvrthdhigamastra, I. 1.
9. See, Daavaiklika, VI. 11.
10. Yaatilaka and Indian Culture, p. 267.
11. See, for details Dr. K.C. Sogani, Ethical Doctrines of Jainism, pp.
88-89, 138-141.
12. Indian Thought and its Development, 1936.
13. Eastern Religions and Western Thought, Oxfored University Press,
1940, pp. 64-114.
(Indian Philosophical quarterly, University of Poona Vol. III, No. I,
October, 1975)

4. Jain Definitions of the Prama


Definitions of the Prama proposed by the Jain logicians may
be broadly divided into six types, the first two of which are simply
derivative, such as:
(i) trr`rrrrr`tr trrrrrtr:rr trr`trr`trrrrr rr trrrrrrr
(Pjyapda Sarvrthasiddhi, 1.12)
(ii) trrrrrr trrrrrr`arr-ar rrrrtr rrr`tr`-crtr rttrtr-r rr trtr
trrrrr, trrrrrr trrrrrtrrrrr+
(Hemacandra, Pramamms)
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 159 160 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
These follow the Nyya tradtion first recorded by Vtsyyana
1
and continued through the ages
2
down to the times when popular handbooks,
like Tarkabh
3
ruled the day.
1. Defining the Prama derivatively, that it is the unique and
active cause (karaa)
4
of valid cognition, serves the purpose of excluding
such general condtions of all knowledge as subject (pramt), object
(prameya), time, space etc., within the scope of the means of knowldege.
Prama being the source, means instrument or organ of valid congnition
its supreme value in ascertaining and comprehending the truth can hardly
be exaggerated.
5
Philosophers of every shade agree that Prama is the only source
of valid cognition, knoledge or truth. This initial agreement is followed
by sharp disaggrement on major issues involved, namely, the nature of
instrument (karaa) and of the knowledge (pram).
2. Vidynanda, who follows gamic tradition or more precisely
Gddhapiccha (Tattvrtha-Stra 1.9-10) defines prama as right or valid
cognition.
6
In order to assert the Jain view even the term prama is taken in
the sense of abstract state (i.e. pramiti or valid congnition
7
); knowing,
according to Jainism, is a consious act, the means of knowledge, thereofre,
can be knowledge itself which is of the nature of cessation of ignorance.
According to the Nyya, the means of perceptual knowledge is threefold,
namely, sense, sense-object-contact and cognition. In indeterminate
knowledge, sense-object-contact is the means and it is only in generating
the attitudes of rejection, acceptance or indifference, as the case may be,
that indeterminate congnition is the means.
8
As both congnition and non-cognition are admitted to be
instrument of knowledge in the Nyya system, Jayanta Bhaa accepts
collocation of the two as the nature (Svarpa) of prama.
9
According to
the Nyya, an object is not known without its contact with the sense. If
object unconnected with the senses were to be cognised then all the objects
will be known, but no object, which is beyond our ken is ever known.
10
Moreover the instrument is always different from the subject and object.
I see the jar with the eyes. In this example the eye is the instrument
which is different from both the agent, I, and the act of seeing. Therefore,
knowing itself cannot be the instruement.
11
To this the Jainas reply that
even when the eye is in contact with the ether, along with a jar, there is no
knowledge of the former. So far as the difference of means and result is
concerned, it can be maintained otherwise. It is only the sentient cognition,
which can, like light, illuminate the object and not the insentient sense-
contact. Similarly, collocation of different causes including cognition,
admitted by Jayanta Bhaa as the means of knowledge, cannot be so
regarded. Collocation of causes, like sense-contact, is insentient. Only a
sentient cause can produce sentient knowledge. Moreover, the collocation
will not be a direct cause because it will first produce cognition and then
only will lead to knowledge. An indirect cause is not a karaa.
12
The Vaieikas also define prama as the flawless knowledge.
13
However, the author of the Vyomavat, following the line of the
Naiyyikas, regards contact and cognition as the prama.
14
Skhya
15
and Yoga
16
consider prama to be the modification
of intellect, which assumes the form of object. This is also not acceptable
to the Jainas, firstly because no blind modification of unconscious
principle of intellect can create sentient knowledge, and secondly, it is
against our experience to say that intellect or sense can assume the form
of an object.
According to the Prbhkaras the function of knower
(jtvypra) producing knowledge is considered to be prama.
17
This
is refuted by the Jainas on the ground that the entity named as the fuction
of the knower cannot be established by any of the pramas.
18
Like Jainas, Buddhists also define prama in terms of valid
congnition and do not regard sense, contact or modification of blind
intellect or activity of the cogniser as the means of knowledge. However,
the Buddhist contention that cognition of the unique particular (svalakaa),
being devoid of all construction, is indeterminate (nirvikalpaka) and there
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 161 162 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
is no determinate perception, is unacceptable to the Jainas on the ground
that prama must be definite and competent to decide good and bad so
as to be empirically useful.
19
Morever idealstic Buddhists regard identity
between cognition and its content as the organ of knowledge
20
, i.e. object
and its cognition are not different. This is clearly unacceptable to the
Jainas who consider object external and independent of cognition.
Cognition reveals itself and the content, but does not assume the form of
the object because the abstract cognition cannot become concrete. Also,
in the case of an illusion, the cognition, even if it were to assume the
objective form, does not become knowldege. Hence, Buddhist view of
identity between cognition and its object or assuming the form of the
object
21
is clearly untenable.
A question may be asked that if valid congnition is the means of
knowledge, then what will be the result, i.e., how can the differnec in the
means and end be maintainted? The Jain reply is that cessation of ignorance
or creation of attitudes of rejection, acceptance or indifference on knowing
the objects can rightly be taken to be the end of knowledge.
22
Thus, the second type of definition underlines the instrumentality
of cognition which is sentient, determinate and different from the object
and refutes contact etc, as the prama.
23
3. Samantabhadra is the first Jain logician to define the prama
as the knowledge which illumines itself and the object.
24
This definition
was modified by Siddhasena by adding a new term without obstruction.
25
Although this definition bears the impact of Buddhists inasmuch
as they had characterised knowledge as self-illuminating
26
and of the
Bha Mmsakas who had used without obstruction in their
definition.
27
Yet it sets aside their views as also those of others. While
Jains consider knowledge as illuminating
28
both the self and the object,
the realistic Buddhist, the Naiyyika
29
and the Bha Mmsakas hold
that it illumines the external object alone, as it cannot illuminate itself.
The Jainas assert that if knowledge cannot illumine itself, it cannot cognise
the external object either. It should therefore be admitted that knowledge,
like a lamp, illumines itself as well as the external object. The very
nature of cognition is self-manifesting. It is the manifestation of the
object, however, which determines a particular cogniton to be valid or
invalid.
30
The Jain view of Prama also sets aside the Yogcra view
which maintans that knowldege illumines itself alone because there is no
object idenpendent of it. The Upanidic view of Reality being
consiousness
31
and all else apperance stands similarly refuted according
to Jainism which maintains the reality of the external world.
In order to differentiate knowldege from false cognition illustrated
in the cases of false images, wrong beliefs etc., the term without any
obstruction has been used. A valid cognition is never erroneous that will
be a contradiction in terms.
32
This third type of definition thus emphasises the character of
knowledge as determinant of both the self and the object and asserts the
reality of external phenomena.
33
4. Akalaka maintained true cognition to be manifesting both
the self and the object.
34
Further, he proposed another definition of
prama
35
by incorporating the term avisavdi
36
of the Buddhists and
anadhigata (unknown) or aprva (novel) of the Bha Mmsakas.
37
According to the Buddhists, knowledge, being practically useful should
lead to the realisation of some end, be harmoneous with experience and
favour successful volition. The Bha Mmsakas consider it necessary
that the content of knowledge should be unknown, or previously
unacquired and hence novel. Mikyanandin combined the opinions of
Samantabhadra and Akalaka by including sva and aprva in his single
definiton. Use of the term vyavasya
38
(determination) by him bears
further the influence of Nyya where this term occurs in the definition of
perception.
39
If the object of cognition must be novel as admitted by Akalaka,
following the Mmsakas and the Buddhists,
40
how can continuous
cognition (Dhrvhika jna) of an object be regarded as prama? The
Naiyyikas have not to bother themselves on this question because
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 163 164 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
cognition of even previously known object can be prama in their
opinion.
41
The Mmsakas also admit the validity of continuous
cognition. According to the Prbhkaras the prama is experience
42
and
therefore there is no problem in admitting a case of continuous cognition
udner the prama. The followers of Kumrila who insist on the novelty
(anadhigatatva or aprvatva) of the object, however, say that subtle
difference in time makes the object novel. likantha, a follower of the
Prabhkara School, has a better explanation to offer. He says, each
individual cognition in the series of continuous cognition is idependent
of the other. None of them can be distinguished either in its awareness or
creation. Hence, each one of these cognitions is valid.
43
Digambara logicians admit continuous cognition to be valid only
if it cognises the moments also, otherwise it is held to be invalid. This
view corresponds with the one held by the Buddhist Arcaa
44
who conceded
Yogic continuous cognition to be valid as it can cognise the difference
wrought by time and regarded an ordinary mans continuous cognition as
invalid. In the Jaina system, memory is also included under valid
knowledge and hence the element of novelty in the definition of prama,
accepted by Akalaka and Mikyanandin, stands in a different sense of
novel in some aspect and not that of 'totally novel'.
45
5. Vidynanda discards the element of novelty in his definition
of prama
46
which follows largely the views of Samantabhadra and
Siddhasena, accepting the term vyavasya introduced by Mikyanandin.
Abhayadeva, the commentator on the Sanmati, follows Vidynanda with
the only difference that he substitutes vyavasya by a synonym Nirti.
47
Vdi Devasri, however, accepts Vidynandas definition as it is.
48
All
the vetbara logicians accept continuous congnition and recollection
as prama. They see, therefore, no need to keep anadhigat or aprva in
their definitions of knowledge.
6. Hemacandra defines Prama as authentic definitive congnition
of an object.
49
His definition follows Umsvti,
50
Dharmakrti,
51
and
Bhsarvaja
52
in using the term Samyag, and Abhayadeva in using the
term niraya, which stands for cognition devoid of the chracteristic of
doubt, indecision and indeterminate cognition, and negates the status of
prama to the sense-object contact (admitted by the Nyya) and to doubt
etc., though they are included under the category of cognition of the
Jainas.
53
The prefix pra in the term prama signifies the same.
54
Hemachandras definition is important for excluding the term for self-
illuminating character of knowledge in the definition of prama. It is
true that knowledge is self-manifesting as is revealed in introspection
which illuminates cognition alongwith its subject and object. Cognition
cannot be held to be revealed either by second cognition or by presumption
or be made dependent on the cognition of the object, because that will
involve either an infinite regress or a logical see-saw. Therefore, the
cognition must be accepted to be self-illuminating, says Hemacandra.
55
However, he objects to the inclusion of this well-established self-
illuminating character of the cognition in the definition of Prama because
this overlaps cases of erroneous cognition,
56
such as doubt which are
equally self-revealing as there is not a single case of cognition which is
not ipso facto self-manifesting. The old masters included this character
of cognition for clear understanding of the learners.
57
Hemacandras definition is also significant on accout of exclusion
of the term aprva (novel) or anadhigata (unknown) admitted by the
Buddhist, the Bha Mmsaka and the Digambara school of Jaina
logicians. According to him cognition of an object cognised before, as in
the case of continuous cognition, determinate perception and its judgement,
as also recollection, may legitimately be considered valid cognition. The
term anadhigata will serve no purpose either with reference to the
substance which does not vary, being self-same unity and eternal in either
state, qua cognised before or to be cognised hereafter.
Nor has this term any significance with reference to modes which
are temporary. Because, then, even the case of continuous cognition cannot
be regarded as cognising the precognised object.
58
The qualifying proviso
of anadhigata is, therefore, unnecessary with reference to both the eternal
selfsame substance and the changing modes.
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 165 166 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
In recollection which is admitted to be prama, there is cognition
of the pre-cognised. Even those, who regard recollection to be invalid,
do so on the basis that it is not directly derived from an object and not on
the basis that it congnises the pre-cognised object.
59
An exposition of the six varieties of definitions given here gives
the Jain view of pram (knowledge), prama (means of knowledge) and
Jna (cognition). Salient features of this view may be summed up as
follows:-
1. Cognition illumines itself and the object. This is a synthesis of the
idealistic view of the Buddhist, the Prbhkara and the Vedntist
(also the Kashmir aivaie), which regards knowledge to be self-
evident and of the realistic view of the Sautrntika, Nyyavaieika,
Skhya-Yogin and the Bha Mmsaka, which asserts that the
knowledge illuminates the object alone.
2. According to Jaina, authentic cognition alone is the instrument of
knowledge. Sense, sense-object-contact (Nyyavaieika),
modification of intellect (Skhya), or identity (Srpya, idealistic
Buddhist) cannot be the source of knowledge.
3. Source and end of knowledge are different. While authentic cognition
is the source of knowldege, it is the cessation of ignorance by
removing the Krmic Veil enveloping the individual soul which is
the ultimate end. In empricial state, however, forming the attitude of
rejection, acceptance or indiffernece; as the case may be, is the result
of prama.
4. Prama is comprehensive as it reveals the object fully.
60
Even when
one perceives the colour of an object one knows the full object and
is thus aware, for example, that this is the jar, whereas Naya reveals
only a particular aspect of an object. This jar is possessed of colour.
This exmaple illustrates that Naya focusses its attention only on the
colour, but when through cognisance of different aspects, the object
jar is known fully it becomes the case of prama.
5. The Jaina view of prama accepts all shades of definitions without
compromising its independence. In its philosophical dialogue with
the non-Jaina thinkers, it maintained its idealistic realism by defining
prama as knowledge illuminating itself and the object but did not
hesitate to benefit from the wisdom of others. This explains the
impact of the Buddhistc, the Nyyavaieika and the Mmsaka
definitions, both in form and idea, over the Jains whose contribution
to epistemological problems is massive and significant for properly
constructing the history of Indian wisdom in all its details.
References
1. srrrrr`rtrrrrrr`r trrrrrrrrr`tr trrrrarrr`rr-rrtrrrrrra rrqr trrrrrtr:rrr`tr
rrtrrrrr`+rrrrr r` trrrrrrra.+ Nyyabhya, I 1.3
2. (i) trrrrtrrrr r` trrrrrrr ......... trrrrrrrrorr tr trrrrrrrarar trrrrarr-
r`rr-rrtrrrrrtrr`trrarrrrtr+ Nyyavrtikatparyaik, p. 21.
(ii) trrrr rtr r r trttrrrrrr` rrr` tr rrtrrrr r` +rrrr` rr. trrrrrrrartr trrrrrrtr
trrrrrrrrrrrtr+ Nyyamajar, p. 25.
3. trrrrrrtr trrrrrrr+ Tarkabh.
4. rrrrrtratrrrrtr rrrtr rrtrrr+ or trrrrrtrrr rrtrrr+ The term Prama
is formed by suffixing lyu (aa) tom (to measure) prefixed by pra.
5. (i) trrrrrrartrr`trr`qttrar+rrtrrr`rrrr.+
Mikyanandin, Parkmukha, verse 1.
(ii) trrrrrrr` atr r` trr` qtrrrr` trtrtr rtr.+ Vidynanda, Prama-park,
p. 63.
(iii) trrr;rrrrrr`rrrr trrrrrrrrr`trr`qr`tr`tr trartrrrcrtr: Dharmakrti,
Nyyabindu, I. 1.
(iv) rrrrrrr rr rr rr` trr` q.+ Nyya maxim.
(v) trrr rr` trr` q. trrrrrrr` q+ Skhyakrik, 4.
6. trrr;rrr trrrrrrr + This simple definition partly echoes the Buddhist
definition:
(i) trrrrrrrrr` rtr rrr` a ;rrrrr + Dharmakrti, Pramavrtika, 2.4
This definition has been adopted verbatim in the Nyyvatra, p. 3.
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 167 168 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
7. Besides Pjyapdas derivation, the following may also be noted:
trr`rrr`tr. trrrrrr`rrr`tr +rrrrtrr-rr trrrr;rrrrrr trrrrrrr+
Bhvasena, Pramprameya, pp. 1-2.
8. (i) rrar rr rr` tr` r rrtrrr ? rar r` rr` r rrrrrrrrrr trrrr rrrrrr +... rar
r`rr`rrrrrrrrrrtrt trr` rrrrrrrr ... ;rrrrr trrcrtr , tra r` rrr trr` rrrrr . rrtrrr +
... rar s-rtrr` rrrrrrrrrrtrt rrrrrrarrrrrorrrqrr rrrtr trar r`rr`rrrrrrrr
;rrr rrtrrr+ Tarkabh, pp. 48-49.
Earlier also, in the context of definition of prama it is stated that
sense-contact etc. is the instrument and not the subject or the obeject.
trtrr`rr trrrrtrr`t trrrr -r trrrrrtrr-rr`tr`rtrrrrrar trr`tr +rr`rrrrrr trrrrtrr-rttr
r`trrrrrr`atr rrtrrr+ ibid,. p. 45.
(ii) rar trr` rrrrr ttrar ;rrr trr` rrr` tr., rar ;rrr trar rrr rrrarrr rr orrr qr. rrrrrr +
Nyyabhya, I. 1.3
9. +rrr`+r-rrr`trrrrtrr`arrrrrrrrrrr`r r`rartrr rrrrrrrtr+rrrr trrrrrrr trrrrrrr,
rrrrrrrtr+rrrr r` trtr trrrrr+ Nyyamajar, p. 12.
10. rr trr` rrrrr r` rrrr r` rr rrr` trrr rrrrr` rr` tr` tr r rr.+ rr` a rtrr` rrr rrr` rr
-rortrarr`rrrr rrrrrrtr rrr`trr:r`rr trtrr:r srrrr+rtr, r -rrrrrr+rtr,
trtrrrar`ttr trr`rrrrr.+ ibid, p. 69.
11. Vide, ibid, pp. 66-67.
12. For detailed criticism of the Nyya view of prama, see,
Nyyakumudacandra, pp. 40-41 and Prameyakamalamrtaa. P. 19.
13. +ra r`rcrr+ Kada Stra, 9.2.12.
14. Vide, Vyomavat on the Praastapdabhya, p. 553.
15. (i) trr arttr r r` qr r` -r. trrrrrr` rrr` tr trr` trrrr. r` rrrrrrrrtrrr` trtr r` rrr` ar -rr rrrr` trrr
rr`qrr`-rtr rrrrrrrrtrrtrr trrrrrrr+ Nyyamajar, p. 24.
(ii) r`rtrrrr`rrrrrrrtrr`rrrrrr r`rrzr;rrrrr`arr rr rqtrrrrrtr rr`-rrrrtr+
Skhyapravacanabhya, I. 87.
16. trrrrr rr`-rtr -r+ Yogaviha, p. 16.
17. ;rrr r` rrrr r`rrrtrrrr, r`rrr -r rrrrrrrrrr, ;rrtrrrrrrtr rrrrr`rrrr-i ::
Nyyamajari, p. 16
Later on Jayanta concludes Mmsakas view: tra rr rrrrrr rr rr
;rrrrrrrrtr ;rrrrr`arrarrrr, trrrrrrr+ ibid
18. See, Nyyakumudacandra, pp. 42-45 and Prameyakamalamrta,
pp. 20-25.
19. rtrrr`trtrrr`rtrrrr`trttrrrr r` trrrrr trtrr ;rrrrrr trtr+ Parkmukha, I. 2.
20. (i) r`rrrrrr`rrr`tr;rrr trrrrrrrrrr`rrrrtr+
trr` rr` -rrr trrrrr tr trrrr rr rtrrr` rr rr+
ntarakita, Tattvasagrahakrik, 1344.
(ii) rrtrtrrrrr rrrrrrar trrrrrrorr trrrrrrrr`+rrrrtr+ Dharmottara,
Nyyabinduika on Stra, 3.
21. trtrr`rr`-r. rrrr -rrr trrrrrarr`r;rr.+
r`rrrrrrrrt qrrtr trrrrr trr rrrrtr++
Dinga, Pramasamuccaya, I. 10.
22. (i) rr -rr-r ;rrr trrrrr trr`tr rrrrr+rrr r`tr+ rrr arrr., +rrrr`rrrr trrr`trarrrrtr+
trr rrrrr` rrtr -rtr , srr orr:;rrrrrrrr rr rrrrrr + Pjyapda, Sarvrthasiddhi,
I. 10.
(ii) +r;rrrr` rr r` -rr rr rrrarrr rr orr;r rrrrrr + Mikyanandin,
Parkmukha, V.1.
23. trr`rrrrrrat;rrrtr trrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrtrtrtr+ I. 3.
24. trrrtrr+rrtrrr rrr trrrrr +rr`r rr`qrrorrrr+ Svayambhstotra, 63.
25. trrrrr trrrtr+rrr`tr ;rrr rrrr`rrr`rtrrr+ Nyyvatra, 1.
26. trrrtr trtrr rtr.+ Also trrrrr`rrtr. rrtrr+ Dharmakrti,
Pramavrtika, II. 4.
27. trrrrrrrrr`r;rrr r`rr`;rtr rrrrr`rtrrr+
+rarrrtrrtr trrrrr rrrrrtrrrrtrrr++
Ascirbed to Kumrila but not found in the extant lokavrtika. Quoted
and criticized by Vidynanda in the Tattvrtha-lokavrtika. I. 10. 71.
28. (i) +r;rrtrrr;rrrrrr trrrrrrr :
(ii) +r;rrtrrrtrrrrrrr rr+ Dinga, Pramavrttika, II. 5.
29. (i) +rrtrrrrrrr rr`q.+ Tarkakaumud, NS. Ed. p. 6.
(ii) r` r;rrrrrrrtrrtr r arrr + Nyyavrtikattparyak, p. 4.
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 169 170 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
30. +rrrtrrr rr rr orrrr trrrrrr+rrtrr` rr.,
rr`. trrrrrrrorrrr trrrrr trr`r+r -r tr+ ptamms, Verse 83.
31. (i) trtr ;rrrrrrtr rrr+ Taittirya, II 1.1.
(ii) r`r;rrrrrrra rr+ Bhadrayaka, III. 28.
32. (i) r trtrorrrr`rr +rrtr trrrrrtrr`rr`r;rrrtr+
+rrtr trrrrrr`rrtrtra r`rqr-rr rtr.++ Nyyvatra, 6.
(ii) +rrrrrr tra+rrtr trrrrrtrrtr trrrorrtr + ibid, 5.
33. trrrrrtrr`tr+rrtrtr +rrtrtrrr`trr`qtr. trrrr+
trrrrr trrtrrr;rrr`rr rr`trqr trr`trarr`tr+ ibid,7.
34. r`trqr rr rrtrrror r`trqr trrrtrrrr.+
trtr trrrrr trtrr rrrar`rrrrrrrr-rtrrrr++ Siddhivinicaya, p. 175.
35. trrrrrrrr`rtrrrr`a ;rrrrrrr`rrtrrrrr`rrrrrrorrtrrtr+ Aaat.
36. (i) trtrr:rr`rrrtrrrrrttrtrrrrrrrr trrrr;rrrrr+
(ii) rtr;rrr r` trr` qttrtr trrr;rrrrr ++
(iii) +rr`rtrrrarr ;rrr trrr;rrrrr+ rrrrr -r rrrrrrrar`rrtrrrr trrrrrtrrrarr
s-rtr+ tr;rrrrrr`rr trr trar`rrtrrrr trrrrrtr trrrarrrr-rtr+ trar`rrtr -rrr
trrtr rrtrrr r trrrrrrtr rrrr+ Nyyabindutk on Stra, I.
37. (i) trrrrrrrrr`r;rrr ....... quoted above.
(ii) rrrrrrrrtrrrrr` ;rrr trrrrrrr+ stradpik, 45.
(iii) +rr trrr` -rrrr rtr ar rr. rrrtrtr r` rrrr tr + +rrr rr rr` trt rr r trtrttr r trrrrrtrr++
trrtrrrrrrrr:r trrrrrr trrr`trtrrr+ lokavrtika, 10-11.
(iv) qtr--r r` rrr rrrrr rrraarrr tr rrrrt r rrrtrar rrrrrrr;rrrtr` trrrr r trrrrr`
;rrr trrrrrr`rrr`tr trrrrrrrorr trr`-rtrrr+ stradpik, p. 123.
(v) +rrr`rrtrrrrtr trrrrrr`rrr`tr +rrrrrrrrtrrrr +rr.+Siddhacandrodaya,
20.
38. trrrrrrrrrtrrrrtrrrr ;rrr trrrrrrr+ Parkmukha., I. 1.
39. r`rrrtrr`rrrrrrtrrr ;rrrrrrrrarrrrrr`+r-rrr`t rrtrrrrtrrrr trtrtorrr+
Nyyastra, I. 1.4.
40. (i) +r;rrtrrr;rrrrrr trrrrrr`rrr`tr trrrrrtrrrrrrrrorrrr+ Dinga,
Pramasamuccaya.
(ii) +rtr qrrrr`rrtrr`rrrrrrtrrrrrrr+ rrr r` ;rrrr trrrrrrr`rrtrr:rttrrr
trrr` -r tr. rr rr. trrr` rtr;rrr . trr rrr r` rrrrr r ;rrr rrr` rrr rrrr rr ,
trtrr :r` rrtrr` rrrrrrtrrrrrrr +
Dharmottara concludes this in his explanation of the term
avisavdaka in his k on the Nyyabindu, p. 3. while the
term Anadhigata excludes both vikalpa and Smti in Buddhism, in
Mms it excludes only the cases of recollection and not
Vikalpa.
41. +rrr` rrtrrr rtr tr -r rrtrrrr` rrr` r;rrrrrrrrr` rrtrrr rr -rtrrr rrr rrr` trq-
trrrrr+rrrrrr trrrrrr r`rtrrr`tr rrr`rrrr+ Nyyavrtikattparyaik,
p. 20 See, also Kandal, p. 61. Nyyamajar, p. 22 and
Nyyakusumnjali, 4.1.
42. (i) +rr+rr`tr;r r. trrrrrrr+ Prabhkara, Bhat, I.I. 5.
(ii) trrrrrrrr+rr`tr. trr trrtrtrr+ Prakaraapacik, p. 42.
43. +rrr rr` rtrr orr rrtrrrr` rrr qr. rrr` trrrrrr r` rr rr -r;rrrrrrtrrrrrrrr
s-rt rrrrrrr trrr` -rr` tr` tr r trtrr r` trtr. strrr` -rtrr rr rrtrrrr` rrr` r;rrrrr` r
rrttrrttrrr`trrrttr r`tr r-rr trrrrrrrr`rr trrrrrtrr+ Prakaraapacik, p.
42. See, Bhat also p. 103.
44. Vide, his k on the Hetubindu, p. 39.
45. (i) rrtrrrrrtr rr trrr rr`a rrtrr`tr+
trr rrrrr r rrrrrr r`rrrr`tr trrrrrtrrrr+ Tattvrthaloka, I. 10.78.
(ii) trrrrtrtrr r trrr trrrrr` rrtr trrr&rtr.+ trrrrrr -r r r trrr rrrr` tr :r` rr rrr -rr+
Ibid.
46. trttrrr rrtrrrrtrr;rrr rrrrr` rrtrr rtrr+
rrorrr rtrrrtrrtr rrrrrr`rrrrrrr++
Tattvrthaloka, I, 10.77. See, also Pramapark, 53.
47. trrrrr trrrr`rrrr`trtr+rrr ;rrrrr+ Sanmatik, p. 518.
48. trrrtrrtrrr` r ;rrr trrrrrrr + Pramaniraya.
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 171 172 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
49. trrrrrr`rrr. trrrrrrr+ Pramamms, 2.
50. trrrarrr;rrr-rrr`trrr`r rrrorrrrr.+ Tattvrthastra, I. 1.
51. trrr;rrrrrr`rrrr trrrrrrrrr`trr`q.+ Nyyabindu, I. 1.
52. trrrrr+rrtrrrr trrrrrrr+ Nyyasra. P. 1.
53. trr r` rr r. tr rrrrrrrrtrrrrr` rrr rrrrr trtr` tr ;rrrrr + trtrr
r`rrrrrarr;rrrrrtrr`rtrr`rrrrrra. ;rrrrrtrrr`rr trrrrra. trrrrrtrr`rrrr.+
Pramammas, p. 3.
54. trrrrrr trrrrrr`arr-ar rrrrtr rrr`tr`-crtr rttrtr-r rr trtr trrrrrrr+
ibid, p. 2.
55. trtrrrarr rr artrr r trr rr artrrrr` rr ;rrrtr trr` tr+rrtrtrr trr` rr rrtrrrrtrrrrrr` ttr-
tr r` rtr trtrrrrrrr +rr trtrr r` trtrrtr , r. trtrrrrrrr r +rrr` tr rrtrrrr trtrr r` tr., rrr
rr.+ ibid, pp. 3-4.
56. trr`rrr. trrrrrrorrrr, +rtrrrrr:r`rr +rrrrtr+ ibid, p. 4.
57. trr`rrrttr +rtrrrrr:r`rr trrrrrar rtrtr, r r` rrrr`-rtr ;rrrrrrrr trrr`ttr rr r
trtr r` rr` atrr rrrr trtrr r trr` rr rr rrorrrr -rrrtrrrr` +r., r q ttr
rrtrorrrrrrrr`orrtr.+ ibid, p. 4.
58. rrr rrrrrrrrrr` r r r r trrrrr` rr :r` rr rrtrrrrrrrr + Pramamms, 4.
See, also the Vtti.
59. See, Pramamms, p. 5., which quotes the following at the end
of the discussion on this point:
r trrtrttrrrrrtr rrtrrrrr`trrrrtrrr,
+rr`rr trrrrrtr tratrrrrrrrrrtrrr++ Nyyamajar, P. 23.
60. trrr -rr-r trrrrrrarr. trrrrrrrrr.+ Sarvrthasiddhi, I. 6.
(Amritdhara, Prof. R.N. Dandekar Felicitation Vol., New Delhi,
1984)

rr&rrr rrr`t-a . rrq r`rcrr


1. The Origin of Buddhism : A Tale From
The Haracaritacintmai (HCC)
Jayadratha or Jayaratha of Kashmir (1200 A.D.) wrote a poem
called Haracaritacinatmai (HCC) to glorify the deeds of lord iva.
The poets descriptions of the glorious acts of iva are based on the
tras
1
or on the mythological accounts is found in extensive religious
literature in Sanskrit centring round the personality and the cult of iva.
The poet had written a scholarly short commentary namely Viveka, on
the Tantrloka of Abhinavagupta (1160 A.D.) the encyclopaedic
philosophical work on Kasmir aivism. Jayadratha is thus a celebrated
and devoted scholar of Trika philosophy. The Haracaritacinatmai bears
out the impress of the philosopher-poet. The extant poem, as published
in the Kvyamla (No. 61), abruptly ends with the 45
th
verse in the 32
nd
flash (Praka or canto). The editor of the K.M. text is uncertain about
the extent of the poem.
2
His uncertainty is quite reasonable in the face of
the abrupt end of the poem. Owing to the fact that this poem lacks the
unity of theme and is avowedly a collection of the deeds of iva gathered
from the different stras for making the devotion of the wise steadfast
3
,
it is understandably difficult to pronounce any decision on the number of
Flashes that this poem originally contained. However, the introduction
or upodghta, summing up in order the contents of the whole work, does
not leave us in much doubt about the extent of the poem. From the 46
th
verse of the upodghta, it is clear that the story of iva-rtri (the night of
iva), found in the 31
st
flash of the poem, formed the last story that
Jayadratha had planned to narrate. The 32
nd
flash seems to conclude the
poets work with the mention of the merits (Mhtmya) of iva-worship.
It briefly refers to the stories already told in the former flashers. It should
therefore be clear that the poem was originally written in 32 flashes. But,
the loss of quite a few verses of the 32
nd
flash is beyond any doubt,
because one can not think of this poem ending without any mention of
the poet or without any concluding note on the poem.
-i-ii ii`- : i-i i`-i<ii 173
The poet Jayadratha, who is conscious of his philosophical
scholarship and great proficiency in learning or vutpatti skillfully avoids
the display of his knowldege. He directs the learned highbrow readers to
study his other works
4
to satify their desire for higher learning. Intoxicated
with devotion, the poet of HCC prefers to be simple and direct in his
description. He employs simple language and deliberately avoids the ornate
style. He says that he would prefer laxity in style and diction to a display
of his proficiency.
r trrrrtrr rrrr rrr+rrrr`-rrrtr. trr`tr+
trrrttrrrrrrtr+rrr rrr`rrrrr rrr+rtr++
(Introductory, verse no. 8)
This poem is, nevertheless, a forceful expositon of the
philosophical docrtines of Kashmir aivism, particularly the Kula system
of philosophy. The introductory verse found at the beginning of each
Flash gives a philosphical explanation of the contents or the stories in a
particular Flash. There is hardly any rival system of life or thought,
philosophical speculation or religious discipline which does not find,
directly or inderectly, a forceful refutation in this poem. The poet-
philosopher, in his zeal to establish the supremacy of the religon and the
philosophy of aivism, has invented ingenous ways to bring all other
gods under the suzerainty of iva, in making all the important religions
of this country pay their homage to iva and in describing all the gods
paying their homage to the God of gods, Mahdeva. This ideal of the
poet has rendered the Haracaritacintmai a mythico-philosophical poem
of Puraic character.
In the 13
th
Flash of this poem, Jayadratha recounts the stories of
three invincible devils, namely Vidyunmlin, Traka and Kamala who
had acquired the boon from Brahm to become the masters of all the
worlds. They had also got in boon three wonderful cities of three worlds
combined in one and known as Tripura. The perforation and cohesion of
this Tripura by a single arrow and the existence of two akaras were
almost impossible conditions which warranted the death of these demons.
Armed with these boons from the creator, all the three began to propitiate
lord iva on the advice of their guide and philosopher, ukra. They all
resolved in association with Maya that iva alone will be their sole
refuge whose free will is followed by Brahm and all other gods.
+rcr tr+rr`tr trrrrr rr`trttrrrrrrrr+rt.+
rr`a-rrrrrtrtr rrr`rrrrar. trtr.++ (HCC, 13.29)
The demons made up their mind to be devoted to iva and never
to swerve from the path of that devotion or show any indifference to the
worship of ivaliga and they remaind deeply absorbed in His worship
in mind, action and speech.
5
The mighty demons, powerful and invincible, wer ready to attack
the world of gods. The gods were pale wit fear and they approached iva
to seek his protection from the three terrible demons. But, akara refused
to help the gods against his own devotees.
Who, where, when and how can be conquered these demons,
whose daily rite is the worship of my Liga alone? asks iva-
arrrrttr r`rrrrtr rrr rrr rrar rrrrr+
rrr`rrrr-rrrrrrr`ttr rrrr rrrr r`ar r`ar ++ (Ibid, 13.43)
Finding it impossbile to destroy the devotees of iva, Brahm
requested him to attend to his prayer when these demons began to abuse
the faith and turn into heretics. Amen, said iva. Brahm and the other
gods returned to their homes with a sad heart. The heaven had lost all its
prime majesty because it remained under the constant threat of attack
from the most powerful demons. Visualizing his kingdom of heaven
shorn of all glory, Indra sought in private the counsels of his teacher,
Bhaspati. He analysed the chief cause of the invincibility of the demons
to be their steadfast devotion. Any plan to enfeeble their faith, to shake
their beliefs, to swerve them from the path of devotion to Lord Siva
would meet with no success in the presence of ukara who could penetrate
the heart of things with his keen perception. He would understand,
Bhaspati was sure, the secret plans with the help of his penetrating
intellect and would frustrate them easily. However, Bhaspati unfolded
his plan to Indra.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 175 176 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Generally, all and sundry aspire for easy success in life. Ambition
fires the imagination of all. A desire for acquiring more and more power
and a position of superiority corrupts all souls. This leads to the worship
of the high and mighty. Everybody is interested to know about the superior
and the powerful and is always delighted to listen to the deity of power.
But none else other than Lord iva is supreme. He alone is at the head of
all. However, I shall contrive to propound a superior god, says
Bhaspati, and will write imaginary Sstras and the ways of meditation
wherein Mahevara will be reduced to a secondary position.
6
This
novel scheme will slacken the un-swerving faith of the demons and,
consequently, lead to their death and destruction. Thus Bhaspati
planned with Indra. The new hereticism was given the name of Buddhist
philosophy as it is rooted in and originates from the intellect or Buddhi.
rqtrrtrr`rrtrtrzrrr rrqrr-rtr+ (Ibid, 13.74.)
Buddha is the god of this religious philosophy. And, Viu
himself appears in the form of Buddha in all the yugas. It is to put the
world in distress, to destroy the institutions of the sacrifice and life, to
spread the horror of the age of strife, Kali, that Viu appears as the Buddha.
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrr`rtr tr r;rrr`arrr. r`rrr.+
rrrt rrr`rr trrr`rtr rqtr rrr`tr rrrrr.++ (Ibid, 13.91.)
If Viu does not assume the form of the Buddha, how then can
there be terrific disorder in the age of strain and strife?. The Buddha of
this new heretic order is the same as Viu; the other gods who will
bring about the lack of faith in the demons
7
are imaginary and fictitious.
Buddhas supremacy over all other gods is maintained on the strength of
intellectual convictions and the power of argumentation. The aivite gods,
Gaapati and others are declared to belong to the Buddhist pantheon.
8
The dhynas or meditations of these new gods, falsely imagined, will
lead the demons into the delusion of regarding these gods as superior to
iva. Once the worship of these gods is made popular and celebrated,
Bahaspati plans to render the aiva Tantras and Mantras into Buddhism.
From the different parts of aiva scriptures, rites and rituals will be
taken out to be grafted on this novel discipline meant for slackening the
faith in aivism.
9
The intellectual delight and a sense of possessing a
keener intellect will satisfy the new converts. The intellect will rule over
the faith and would finally destroy it. In this newly propounded Buddhist
literature, the worship of ivas symbol will be declared to constitute
bondage. The zero-ness (nyat) which strips off all the obligations of
religious life would be regarded as liberation.
r`rrr-rrrr`arrttrr rrttrrrrrrcrtr+
rrr`-rttr rrrtrr trrr`ar`trrrtrrrr`trr++ (Ibid, 13.81.)
The institution of sacrifice is to be given up. The belief in the
existence of the self and the supreme self (Pramevara) is to be abused
and controverted. Such a fictitious and imaginary treatize propounding
the new faith, which will be the denial of the old faith, is designated
Mytantra by Bhaspati.
10
He believes that the practical demonstration
of new ideals will certainly delude the demons. It will indeed be impossible
even for ukra to prevent the effect so created in the minds of the demons.
To preserve faith is difficult, to fall into doubt is easy. It requires much
effort to go up but none to go down. How hard is it to climb the mountain
but how (easily) may one fall down from it?
=rrtr rrrr rtrr rrr.rrrtr rrr. rrrr`-rtr+
rrrrrrrtr rrrr. rrr rrtrrrr`rrrtrtr++ (Ibid, 13.86. )
Having prepared his plan in all the details Bhaspati waited for
an opportunity to execute the same by propagating Buddhism amongst
the demons and Maya. Incidentally, ukara left for performing a sacrifice
to be completed in a years time. This was a golden chance for Bhaspati
to win over the demons and to make them give up the worship of iva
and to draw them into the fold of Buddhism. He approached them in the
disguise of their teacher ukra, who had left earlier. The demons were
surprised to find the disguised ukra. They anxiously asked the cuase of
their teachers return. To this, Bhaspati, disguised as ukra, replied that
the interest of his disciples was always uppermost in his mind. It was to
tell them a secret that he had come back immediately. He says, This is
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 177 178 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
a more powerful god, namely Buddha, whose standard and umbrella are
carried by iva. He alone can fulfill all the desires. ukara adevised
them to propitiate the Buddha and give up the worship of ivalinga. At
first, Traka resisted the new teachings of his master. He was greatly
disturbed by and rather annoyed at his teacher propounding a new god. It
agitated his mind to hear something against his old belief and way of
worship. But, Bahaspati converted him to Buddhism with his powerful
words and clever arguments. He expounded the Buddhist philosophy to
Vidyunmlin and Kamala, the other two associates of Traka and succeeded
in weaning them away from their old path, their old religion and
philosophy.
Now, the demons, having left the worship of iva, did not tolerate
even the mention of Him. They became the most zealous opponents of
iva. They began to oppress the world and grabbed all that fascinated
their imagination. These adventures of the new converts greatly agitated
the gods who went to iva to seek His protection from the oppression of
the demons. Now that the demons had turned away from His devotion,
iva promised the assembled gods to burn the trio of Cities, Tripura. A
chariot was prepared for iva to proceed for the battle against Traka and
the others. The earth was the chariot, the Vedas were the horses, Meru
held the standard and the Sun and the Moon acted as the wheels of the
chariot. The mountain Mandara was the lofty bow with Vsuki as its
strring. Brham was the charioteer, Viu was the arrow with Mruta as
its feathered part and fire as its point. Under the leadership of iva, all
the gods united to fight the common menace. ukra had returned by now
after performing the sacrifice that had lasted a year. He understood the
situation and realized what a great delusion had been created by Bahaspati
in his absence. He tried to mitigate the vicious effect of Bahaspatis
plan. But, it was too late. His counsels fell on deaf ears. The disciples of
ukra were no longer in a mood to hear the voice of their master. He was
abused and humiliated and none was ready to listen to his wise counsel.
The master was disappointed and frustrated in his efforts to bring them
back to the old fold. The demons in their fury had destroyed all the
symbols of iva. They were going to kill Maya whom they held in
bondage. ukra helplessly tried to prevent them from following the course
of self-destruction. But, none of the demons paid any heed to his words.
The three cities were reduced to ashes by iva. Maya was freed from
bondage by Nandin, who is in reality another form of iva. The demons
were consumed by the blazing fire of Tripura.
This, in brief, is the story of the burning down of Tripura.
Jayadratha has philosophically explained this. According to him the triple
forms of the knower, the known and the knowledge, are the evil creations
of My. My in aivism is the power of iva. It constitutes the
limitations of the ultimate. It veils the real powers of the Absolute and
manifests the objective-ness of Idant. It makes the perfect to appear as
imperfect. The creations of My or a sense of Idant implying distinctions
of the subject, object and the means of cognition or the cognition itself
can be destroyed or consumed by the fire of perfect monism. Tripura is
the triple form of the objective (or My) consciousness. Its burning
leads to the revelation of the Absolute.
11
And it is the fire of real knowledge
that burns down the distinctions of the subject etc.
The tale of the origin of Buddhism intertwined with the story of
the conflagration of the collection of the three cities has a few important
points to make. Firstly, the poet considers Buddhism or its religion and
philosophy a rival system opposed to the ultimate of aivism. It also
points out that the Buddhism, its literature, mythology, its religious
practices etc., are the outcome of a sprit of revolt against Hinduism or,
more particularly, aivism. Nevertheless, Buddhism greatly resembles
the aiva traditions. The statement of Bahaspati that the Buddhist
scriptures will be created out of the different parts of aiva scriptures is
significant from this point of view. It makes out a case for a comparative
study of the aiva and Buddhist literatures, their religion and philosophy,
particularly their schools of mysticism. Bahaspatis plan to make the
aiva deities like Ganapati belong to the Buddhist pantheon has been
successful in a large measure because some scholars of Buddhist theology
and mythology sincerely believe that many gods and goddesses of
Hinduism like Gaapati and Kl, are originally Buddhist divinities, I do
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 179 180 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
not want to dispute their contention here. But, it can be safely said that
the Mahhna school of Buddhism was born in Kashmir to which our
past belongs and the scholars of Kashmir brought aivism to bear upon
this new religion of Buddhism with its ideal of Bodhisattva-hood working
for the welfare of all. Kashmir was the senai where the gospel of karu
or compassion was preached. Tntric Buddhism was an outcome of and
growth within this new religion, the Great Vehicle. The philosophical
doctrines, theology, mystic practices, rites and rituals of the one informed
and influenced the other in the long history of these two important religions
of India grown in the cradle of Kashmir. There has been large-scale
borrowings of ideas and ideals, symbols and images and esoteric practices.
There was indeed a Bahaspati (who he was we shall never be able to
know) or many more who cleverly intermixed the two disciplines of life
and thought. And his mission of fusing the two streams of Indian culture
has been largely successful.
References
1. -rr`trrr`r r`rrrtr rrrrrr`r rrrrr, Introductory verse, No. 5 b.
2. Vide, editors footnote, HCC, NS. ed ., p. 281.
3. sr`-rtr trtr -rr`ttrrrrrr trrr`r rrrrtr.+
rrrrrr r`rrrrtr +rr`-rarorrr rrrrtrrrr++
4. Vide, introductory verse, No. 7.
5. Ibid, 13.30-37.
6. H.C.C., 13. 68-69.
7. Ibid, 13.93.
8. Ibid, 13.75-76.
9. H.C.C., 13.79.
10. H.C.C., 13.85.
11. qtrarrrcrrarrrr arr rrtrrr rrrr,
rrrrtrtrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr++ HCC, 13. Ia.
(Printed Matter)

2. Introduction to Jtakaml
The Jtakml of ryara or ryasra is also called
Bodhisattvvadnaml which title explains the nature of this work being a
collection (garland) of the great and glorious acts (avadnas) of Bodhisattva.
1. Inspiring ideal of the Jtakas
It was the Bodhisattava-doctrine of the Buddhists that inspired
the creation of extensive Jtaka literature. The ideal of Bodhisattva de-
veloped under the impact of Mahyna (or Great Vehicle). In earlier
Buddhism or Hnayna the Bodhisattva was conceived simply as a pre-
vious incarnation of Buddha. According to this concept the Buddha, in a
long series of transmigrations as a Bodhisattva, did many deeds of
kindness before achieving his perfection or the Buddhahood. The early
Jtaka tales illustrate that Bodhisattva can be incarnated as men or animals,
but the more advanced Bodhisattavas were to be adored and prayed to for
achieving ones nirva.
The concern of the Hnaynists was for individuals perfection
and his own arhathood or final extinction. He followed the example of
Bodhisattva, the previous incarnation of the Buddha, to win his nirva.
as quickly as possible. This concern for his own nirva and per-
fection was replaced by a new ideal of Bodhisattva. In Mahyna the
Bodhisattva was conceived not as a being who was anxiously working
and awaiting for becoming Buddha, but as one who would wait until
even the smallest creature had won the highest Sumum bonum of his life
and would work for the welfare of all for the same ideal.
The is ideal of Bodhisattva working for the freedom and good of
all, and not merely striving to win his own freedom made the old ideal of
arhant, who achieved nirvna for his own self and would be born no
more, appear as rather selfish.
Men should aim at becoming Boddhisttvas, beings who have
attained their own perfection and are still striving for the freedom of all,
and not arhants.This was the new message of Mahyna.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 181 182 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The following declaration of Lord Ka. in the Bhagvadgt
manifests the same ideal :
r rr rrrrrr`ttr rrtrr r`rrr rrrrrrr r`rr&rr+
rrrrrrtrrrrrrtrr rtr qr -r rrrrr`r++ (Gita, III. 22.)
He inspired rjuna for effective participation in war for the good
of others, for the lokasagraha, the welfare of the world, even if rjuna
had noting to gain or nothing at stake.
In Tantric culture also the only duty of a guru or spiritual guide,
who has attained perfect purity and realized his perfect identity with the
Ultimate, is considered to be the welfare of all the worldly beings.
1
However, the ideal of Bhagvn of Gt or of a gur of Tantric
tradition is different in one important respect from the ideal of
Bodhisattva. In Brhmaical (popularly but wrongly called Hindu) tradi-
tion, as distinguished from the Buddhistic, Bhgavan or gur, who is not
considered different from the ultimate iva or akti, is a Perfect Being.
He is the personification of the Absolute. He admits of no evolution. But
the Buddhist tradition cannot, on theoretical considerations, regard
Bodhisattva as perfect incarnation of the perfect absolute. The state of
perfection is to evolve gradually within him. Perfection is not his inher-
ent or constant state. But it is the very nature of the Bhagavn of
Bhgavatism. Bodhisattva strives to ascend the ideal of perfection, and
once he has achieved it he works for the welfare of all others. A Bhagavn,
on the other hand, descends down in the form of Ka or even as an
animal, a boar, fish or the lion, and may choose to continue doing good
to others, mainly his followers. But a Bodhisattva slowly and steadly
cultivates the good nature, setting his example for others and in the pro-
cess of his perfection is shown to be born as animal, bird, ordinary
subject or a king. He attains the state of perfection through the anterior
births which are of far lower nature. However, the concern for the free-
dom of all is common ideal espoused by the Mahyna, Bhgavatism,
Tantrism and the later Vednta.
2
The Bodhisattva is thought of in the Mahyna not only as a
spirit of Kindness and compassion but also of suffering. We often meet
the resolve of the Bodhisattva ready to take upon himself the deeds of all
beings even of those in the hells, in other worlds or in the realms of
punishment.
This concept of Bodhisattva as a Suffering Saviour, which closely
resembles the Christian God who gives his life as a ransom for many,
reminds us of the famous Sankrit Sloka:
r tr rrrrrr trr r trr rr rrr+rrrr+
rrrrrr a.artrrtrrrr trrr`rrrrrrr`trrrrrrrr++
ibi, when strongly advised by his Minister against giving away
his eye to the mendicant, repeats the same resolve of saving the suffering
world and fulfil the desire of akra, the begger of his eyes:
rrr rtr. trrr+rrrrtrrrrrtr rr trr rrrrrr r rrrr`trrr+
rrtr r rrrr` rtrr trratr rr rr&rrrrrr rrr rrr -r +r atr rrr rr.++
;
This is no effort for attaining emperorship, nor fame, nor
Heaven, nor liberation; but I am interest only in saving the people.
Morever, let not this persons trouble of preferring the request be
frustated.
Immeasurable charity and compassion, purity of mind and in-
difference to the pleasures of ones own self are the sine quo non of such
a Saviour.
4
In his thought, word and deed he is ever inspired by friendli-
ness, good will and benevolence.
5
The generous hospitality of a
Boddhisattva knows no limits. He would gladly offer even his body when
he has nothing else to offer. Thus Bodhisattva, born as a hare, resolves:
trrrr`rrtrr`rra rrrrr`trrr arr`rrr&r rtrr r`rrrraarrr+
trrr rrrtrrrr r trtrrr` trrrrrrrr` trr` rtrrr rrtr trr r

++
"I posses this means of entertaining guests. Hence, O heart, give
up your wretchedness of grief. I shall statisfy the request that is made,
with this little body."
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 183 184 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The same resolve to sacrifice his body for the good of others is
repeated in the Hastijtaka. Bodhisattva, born as an elephant, offers his
body to the travellers, who had lost their way in the jungle, so that they
may cross the occean of misery:
rrtr r` rr trr` aa a r tr rrrtrrrrrrr +
qrrr a .arrrtr trrrrrrrrra -rtrrrrrrr ++
Here also Bodhisattva-elephant makes it clear that he is striving
for the welfare of others and that he does not care either for liberation or
for the emperorship of the world or for the attainment of the bliss of
heaven, etc.
rrr trrtr. trrr`tr rrrrrrtr rrrrtrrrtrr rrrrrrorrr+
tr artrrrrr rrttrr r -r crr r rrr r` >rr r r r rrr ortrr arrr

++
(Hastjtaka, verse no. 21)
Thus we find that Jtakas are narrated to glorify the ideal of
Bodhisattva, a being of immeasurable charity and compassion who is
unconcerned with his self and is ever striving to save the world from the
toils of transmigration and the sufferings of the world. It was to nourish
this new ideal of Mahynism that the works like Jtakaml, describing
the glorious and benevolent acts of Bodhisattva, came into existence.
2. The Source Literature
The source of the Jtakaml in Sanskrit is the extensive kin-
dred literature in Pli. The Pli canon consists of three sections called
piakas (baskets). These three are known as the Vinaya, Sutta (Sanskrit,
Stra) and Abhidhamma. The largest and most important of the Tripiakas
is the Sutta pitaka. It is divided into five Nikyas (Groups):
(i) Dgha (Drgha, i.e. Long) Nikya, a collection of long sermons.
(ii) Majjhima (Madhyama, i.e. Medium) Nikya, shorter sermons.
(iii) Sayutta (Sayukta, connected) Nikya, brief pronouncements.
(iv) Aguttara (Graduated) Nikya.
(v) Khuddaka (Minor) Nikya, miscellaneous works in prose and
verse. It contains fifteen works
8
including the Dhammapada,
the Theragth and the Thergth. The Jtakas occpuy the tenth
place among these works.
This grouping of the Khuddaka Nikya into fifteen works was
done at a later date. Originally the Jtakas formed one of the nine types
of composition of the gam pika
9
which was the only compilation of
the First Buddhist Council. The tales are told in full in a prose com-
mentary attributed to Buddhaghoa which is invariably published
with the verses. Most of the tales are secular and they do not convey
a very exalted message, but they have all been given an odour of
sanctity by being ascribed to Buddha, who is said to have told them
as recollections of his previous birth as a Bodhisttva, a being des-
tined to become a Buddha. These easy and vivid stories are great as
literature
10
Written in simple Pli language, which was understood by
the ordinary man, the Pli Jtakas were simple in style, as different from
the ornate charcter of classical Sanskrit. They contained many fine pas-
sages but were largely prosaic and repetitive. This character of simplic-
ity in style and prosaic repetition of stock phrases and descriptions is
found in the Sanskrit of Jtakaml also. Many ideas, morals and de-
scriptions are repeated without any care for the offence to style. Thus for
example, the charity and compassion are glorified, usually in the same
tone and tenor, on the slightest pretext. The gift for eulogising the ethical
and moral virtues, like charity, hospitality, friendliness and compassion,
exists in rather uncomfortable abundance
11
. The tale recedes to the back-
ground and gives way to the repetitive descriptions in verses. The suc-
cession of events and interest therein are sacrificed for the versification
of ideas and events.
The Pli Jtakas are 547 in number. The number does not
correspond to exactly 547 tales, because some of these are repetitions in
a different setting or in variant version.
The Jtakaml consists of 34 stories. Many of these are trace-
able to the Pli Jtakas and the works like Cariyapiaka and Apadna.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 185 186 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The author of Jtakaml may have also drawn upon the Sanskrit ver-
sions of the Vinayapiaka. Given below is the list of 34 Jtakas of the
Jtakaml with notes on identification of their source
12
:
1. Vyghrijtaka. This Jtaka is not yet traced to any Pli source. In
this story a Bodhisattva is described to have given his body as food
to save the life of newly born young ones of a tigress. The first
trace of this Jtaka is found in Mlsarvstivda Vinay from which
Avadna No. 32 on Divyvdna seems to have been taken.
Kemendra in Avadna-kalpalat refers to this Jtaka in Avadna
No. 51 and also again in Avadna No. 95. He also bodily takes two
stanzas which to Prof. Vaidya appear to be from the pen of ryara.
The case of the few other Jtakas, about 6 in number which are not
yet traced to Pli sources, may be similarly explained that they
were the speciality of the period of transition from Hnayna to
Mahyna and of ryara.
2. ibijtaka. The story of ibi is well-known to the Puras. It is
found in Pli Jtaka no. 499 and in Cariypika 8. Avadnakalpalat
by Kemendra also, in Avadna no. 91, refers to king ibi in a
slightly different way.
3. Kulmapiijtaka. This corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 415.
4. rehijtaka. This corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 40 which ap-
pears there under the title of Kadiragra Jtaka.
5. Aviahyarehijtaka. This corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 340
where it appears under a slightly different title of Viahya-
sehijtaka.
6. aajtaka. This corresponds to Pli Jtakas no. 316 and
Cariypiaka no. 10 where its title is Sasapandita.
7. Agastyajtaka. This corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 480 and
Cariypitak no. 1. Where it is called Akitti or Akatti.
8. Maitrbalajtak. The Pli source is not traced as yet.
9. Vivantarajtaka. This is one of the most popular tales of Buddhist
literature. It corresponds to Jtaka no. 547 and Cariypiaka no. 9.
It also figures in Mdhyamaka Vtti 30.88 called Prasannapad of
Candrakrti and in Avadnakalpalat no. 29. The story has been
sculptured in the Relic chamber of the Mah Thpa in Ceylon and
elsewhere.
10. Yajajtaka. Pli source not traced. The censure of animal sacri-
fice is so vehemently done in this story that much of it seems to be
of late origin and speaks of the encounter between Buddhism and
Brhmaism.
11. akrajtaka. This corresponds to Plijtaka no. 31 where its title is
Kulavakajtaka.
12. Brhmaajtaka. Not yet traced to Pli sources.
13. Unmdayantjtaka. This corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 527.
14. Supragajtaka. Corresponds to Jtaka no. 463.
15. Matsyajtaka. Corresponds to Jtaka no. 75 in Pli and Cariypiaka,
no. 30.
16. Vartakpotakajtaka. Corresponds to Jtaka, no. 35 and
Cariypiaka, no. 29.
17. Kumbhajtaka. Corresponds to Jtaka, no. 512 in Pli.
18. Aputrajtaka is not yet traced to Pli sources.
19. Bisajtak. Corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 488 and Cariypiaka,
no. 24. At the end of this Jtaka there is a remark that this Jtaka was
composed by Bhagavan, followed by the stanzas
13
giving the past
and future identifications of the characters of the story. Such a
description is invariably found in all the Pli Jtakas but ryaura
does not include such a description in his Jtakas. Hence Kern has
rightly regarded as spurious the portion at the end of this single Jtaka.
20. rehijtaka. Corresponds to Kalyadhammajtaka in Pli, no.
171.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 187 188 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
21. Cuabodhijtaka corresponds to Pli Jtaka, no. 443 and
Cariypiaka, no. 14.
22. Hasajtaka corresponds to Pli Jtaka, no. 502.
23. Mahbodhijtaka corresponds to Pli Jtaka, no. 528.
24. Mahkapijtaka corresponds to Jtaka, no. 407 in Pli. This story
is sculptured in the Bharhut Stp.
25. arabhajtaka corresponds to Pli Jtaka, no. 483.
26. Rurujtaka corresponds to Pli Jtaka, no. 482.
27. Mahkapijtaka corresponds to Jtaka, no. 407 and Cariypiaka,
no. 27 where it is called Kapirja.
28. Kntijtaka corresponds to Pli Khantivdijtaka, no. 313. The
story is sculptured in Ajanta Caves wherein stanzas 4, 15, and 19
from the Jtakaml are engraved.
29. Brahmajtaka is not yet traced to Pli sources.
30. Hastijtaka is not yet traced to Pli sources. This may be the origi-
nal creation of the author of Jtakamla himself.
31. Sutasomajtaka corresponds to Jtaka, no. 537 and Cariypiaka,
no.32. The story is well-known in the Puras under Kalmapda
and also in works like Avadnakalpalat, 53 and 91.
32. Ayoghajtaka corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 510 and Cariypiaka,
no. 23. where it is called Ayoghara.
33. Mahiajtaka corresponds to Pli Jtaka no. 278 and Cariypiaka,
no. 15.
34. atapatrajtaka. Corresponds to Pli Jtaka, no. 308 where it is
called Javasakuajtaka.
At the end of the 34 Jtakas, Kern has appended the Kacchapa-
Jtaka which he found in one of the manuscripts (P) after XVI. His
opinion about this Jtakas is quoted here:
The spuriousness of this, ...... is clear at first sight, since it
is written in a totally different kind of language, something like the
so-called Gth-dialect. The official number of the Jtakas is thirty-
four according to Northern Buddhists. Buddha is known by the epithet
Catusriajjtakaja.
14
We have indicated the relationship of the thirty-four stories of
the Jtakaml to its source literature in Pli. Very few of the tales of
ryara have their parallels in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature, The
Vartakjtaka is related to the ragopkhyna in Mahbhrata I. 229
(Bombay ed.), the story of Unmdayant is repeated thrice in the
Kathsaritsgara where the principal female character is called Unmdin.
15
The tale of Trvaloka in the same work
16
corresponds to the
Vivantarajtaka. In Taraga 28 we find the outlines of the Knti-jtaka.
We have discussed above the source of the Jtakaml in Bud-
dhist Pli literature, mainly the Jtakas, and have also indicated in brief
their relation to non-Buddhist works and their impact in far lands. The
impulse for creating tales is a feature of general human nature and there-
fore to suggest, as Benfey did, that the existing folktales of Europe and
Asia originated in India in Buddhist circles or that many of the non-
Buddhistic Indian tales in the works like Pacatantra and Hitopadea
bear traces of Buddhistic influence, will be too naive. Dr. Hertel who has
edited and translated a much earlier version of Pacatantra, than the one
available to Benfey which version had been prepared by Buddhist or Jain
editors, has competently proved the Brhmiical origin of the Pacatantra.
This suggests that the tales, Buddhistic and non-Buddhistic had
their independent origin and the parallelism
17
do not qualify for a valid
theory of dependent origin. Although Buddhism was a great source of
tales, the bulk of those occurring in the Jtakas are pre-Buddhistic and
merely adaptations of Indian tales. The rich Indian folklore is the real
and ultimate source of the Jtaka and other Fable literature of India. And
so far as the stories of the Jtakaml are concerned it has been shown
that they are traced to Pli sources. Though the stories are old, the treat-
ment given to them by ryara varies with the subject-matter.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 189 190 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The relationship of the Buddhistic Jtaka tales with the non-
Buddhistic literature was made complicated to settle by the observations
of Benfey who had concluded that the origin of the Pacatantra, the
Hitopadea and Vetlapacaviatik was Buddhistic. Franke in his ar-
ticle Jtaka Mahbhrata Parallelen in German has shown by a critical
and detailed examination of a number of parallel tales and verses that
neither work directly borrows from the other and both draw upon a com-
mon source. This is equally valid in reference to Pacatantra also, three
of the frame stories of which occur in the Jtaka as well as a variant of
the fourth.
18
A detailed comparison proves that these tales had a common
source of inheritance and that neither borrowed from the other. The bulk
of stories occurring in the Jtakas are pre-Buddhistic in their origin, and
merely adaptations of the ancient Indian tales. They sprang from the
common folklore of the fabulous (punningly) India, the home of fables.
Some stories in Aesop
19
(i.e. the Greek fables of various dates
collected under that name) and Arabian Nights have close parallels to the
Jtaka tales.
20
We also find definite influence of Jtaka stories in medi-
eval and modern European literature, such as that of the robbers and the
treasure in Chaucers Pardoners Tale (Pli Jtaka, no. 48), or of the
ploughshares eaten by mice (Pli Jtaka, no. 218), and the tortoise and
geese (Pli Jtaka, no. 215) among La Fontaines fables To sum up the
Jtakas of ryara, 28 of which are traced to Pli sources, were largely
the adaptation of Pli Jtakas. The latter had a common source of their
origin, along with works like Pacatantra, Hitopadea and
Vetalapacaviatik in Indias fabulous folklore. The Jtaka tales have
close parralels in non-Buddhist works like Mahbhrata and
Kathsaritsgara and in Aesop, Arabian Nights and in medieval and
modern literature.
3. Characterstics of a Jtaka
A typical Jtaka, according to Prof. Rhys Davids, is one which
has (1) an introductory episode, (2) the story of the past being the Jtaka
proper in prose (3) the verse giving the moral in archaic language and
many times appearing redundant for presenting the same facts of the
story (4) an explanation of the verse or verses and (5) identification of
the actors of the past story with the present one among whom Buddha is
the principal character.
21
Prof. Davidis has further advocated that the
verse or a group of verses by itself cannot be a Jtaka. Prof. Winternitz
also holds the same view. Not one, but several literary types are rep-
resented in the Jtaka collection. There are some Jtakas he ob-
serves, which were prose stories with one or two or a few verses
containing either the moral or the gist of the tale. In these cases it is
likely enough that the commentary has preserved more or less of the
old prose stories. Another type of Jtakas is that of Camp, in which
the story itself is related alternately in prose and verse, in which
case the commentary is often an expansion of the original prose text.
But there are other Jtakas which originally consisted of Gths
only : Some of them ballads in dialogue form, others ballads in a
mixture of dialogue-verses and narrative stanzas, others again epics
or fragments and some even mere strings of moral maxims on some
topic. In all these cases the entire prose belongs to the commentary.
22
Among the literary types mentioned by Prof. Winternitz it will
be found that the Jtakaml follows the Camp style in which the story
is introduced in prose, and verses repeat and support the description of
the ideas and events contained in the prose. An analysis of the five sto-
ries included in the present selection will give an idea of other important
features of the stories of Jtakaml.
In the very beginning of each Jtaka, ryara eulogizes the
moral virtue which he intends to bring home through the story. Thus, for
example, the Noble Dharma in ibhijtaka, the habit of charity in aa-
Jtaka, purity of intention in the Yajajtaka, infallible character of the
noble even though plunged in calamity in Hasajtaka and accepting
suffering for the good of others in Hastijtaka, are eulogized. The begin-
ning of a story is then introduced with stock phrase: trcrrrr>rrtr or
That is as it is heard traditionally. The moral virtue eulogized in the
very first line of a Jtaka, is brought home again in more words at the
end of a story. Kern thought that the epilogues or concluding statements
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 191 192 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
(vide his Introduction, p. x) are spurious or later additions. This view is
controverted by others who believe rightly that epilogues are intrinsically
part of the story. Then follows the introductory episode that describes
the birth of Bodhisattva as a king, Hare, Swan or Elephant. This intro-
duction is immediately followed by the description of the qualities of
Bodhisattva in verses. In each Jtaka, here and there we find great say-
ings of universal validity (vide Inde to Subhitas). Another important
characteristic of these Jtakas is the felicitations offered to Bodhisattva
at his moral victory by siddhas, devas, ngas. These descriptions etc.
follow one uniform patten reminding us of the similar descriptions in the
Puras. The heavenly deities gather all of a sudden to offer Bodhisattva
their hearty feliciations and the story is close to its end. For a comaparison
of such verses please see the following.
Q ibijtaka,verses no. 38-43.
Q aajtaka, verses no. 18-21.
Q Hastijtaka, verses no. 23-30.
In Hasajtaka the glorification and eulogy of Bodhisattva by
gods, etc. is summed up in such phrases:-
r rrr` trrrrtr+rrrr` rr` trrtrrrrtr. r` trqr` rr r` rcrrrta rtrrrrttrrr .
rrrtrr>rrrr`+r. rrrrr`+rttrr trrrr`+rtr`rrt
23
:

p. 47
Another important feature of the Jtakaml is that in many sto-
ries it is akra, the Lord of gods, who appears in disguised form to test,
as it were, the moral virtues of Bodhisattva. This feature is introduced to
suggest the supremacy of Buddhism over Brhmaism or it may be the
common pattern which was followed by the Puras also. In Purnic
literature we know akra or Indra is not a very respected character. The
hero of gveda was no longer held in the same honour by the time of
Puras. He is no doubt the Lord of all gods but is usually shown asso-
ciated with mean display of lust, jealously, deception and other bad traits.
The sketch of his character is not much different in Buddhist or
non-Buddhist literature. It is difficult, therefore, to say that Jtaka had a
deliberate scheme of looking down upon the deities of Brhmaism. The
censure of animal sacrifice in the Yajajtaka also does not prove con-
clusively that it was Buddhism which spearheaded the criticism of Vedic
religion and philosophy. In fact, revolt against sacrificial form of reli-
gion is heard even in the Upnisads
24
, the principal ones amongst which
are decidedly pre-Buddhistic in origin and these had given up regarding
karman (symbolised by sacrifice) as a means of spiritual freedom. Knowl-
edge became means of liberations.
25
Another striking feature of the Jtakas is their belief in the ethi-
cal and moral supremacy of the animal world over men. Man may de-
ceive, and he does, but animal or bird will never. In animals are shown
the qualities which are difficult to find even in men. The description of
the Hare in glowing words bears it out:
rrr`tr. rrrr trr`trr`r rrr -ra trrrrarr -rtrtr. rrrr -r+
r`rtrrr:r rrrrraratrrr trtrrarrr artrrrr rrr -r++
(aajtaka, 35.)
Hasjtaka makes the supremacy of the animals very explicit:
rrtrrrrrrtrrr-rrtr-rrtr-rtrrorartrtrrrr`r -r trrrr rrrrrrrrrr`r rrarr`r
rrrrrrarrr`r+ rrrrtr trrrrr+
rrr` rrtrrr trarr. trrr r rr rrrr` orr+
rrr rrr. rr rt rrr rrttrr` rrr rr rr rr.++
s-rtr rrrr rrr t trr rr` r r` rttrrrr +
rr` rrr :r` rr r` rr r r` tr rrr+rr` trqrrrrrr rrrrrr ++ (Verses 19-20)
In Hasajtaka again the king of Vras,Brahmadatta by name
is shown to have deceived the aquatic birds by creating an artificial lake
and by getting the Bodhisattva-swan and his companion caught. There-
upon the Swan says:
r`rtrrtrrtrrrrrr trorrr`r+rrtrrrrr.+
r`rrrtrtrr r`rtrr+r. trrrrarrrrrrrrt.++
In the story the companion of Bodhisattva-swan, Sumukha by
name, is shown to have never left his Lord in distress. And even a hunts-
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 193 194 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
man is won over by unfailing sincerity, integrity and faithfullness of
Sumukha. The huntsman praises him thus:
rrrr rr rrrrr rrr +rr;rrr a rtr rr rr +
trrrrr trrtrr trrrrr rttrrrr trar`rrtr.++
and shows how the conduct of birds far excels that of men. Thus
in animal stories there is little or no evil, but when the stories deal with
human beings we see cruelty,deception and evil in abundance.
26
Jtakas are important for reconstructing the history of India's
culture and civilization. We learn much about the social, religious, eco-
nomic and political situation of the age when Jtakas were written. How-
ever what interests us here is the long versifications of the theories or
principles of polity. Duties of a king are, for example, listed in so many
verses in the Jtakamla. We would request the reader to refer to verses
67-70 and 97-98 of the Hasajtaka and verses 22-24 of the Yajajtaka
to form his own idea. Given below is a verse describing the festive and
happy folk in colourful costumes when a king had succeeded in his re-
solve to eradicate poverty from his land:
+rr r`rrr rr. tr ar`ttrr trrrrrrrrtrrtrrtrrrr`rrrrtr+
r`rr`rrr`-rrrrr`t-a+rrrr. trr`rtrtrrttrrrrr+r rr+rrtr++
(Yajajtaka, verse 25.)
Another tells the duties of a king in simple and effective words:
trrrr` tr rr trtrrr rrr rrtr ttratr rrrr r +rrr +r trr +
+rr--r trrrr`r rrrrttrrr rrrtr r-r r` rrr:rrtrtr++
(Hasajtaka, verse 98.)
4. Life, date and works of ryara
We know very little about the life of ryara. According to
Taranath, the famous Buddhist historian, ryara readily resolved to
sacrifice his life and give his body as food to save the tigress and her
newly born young ones. This may perhaps account for the inspiration of
ryara and his Jtakaml. Benedictory verses here state the nature
and purpose of this work and speak of his devotion to the Buddha
(Sarvaja) Dharma, and Order (Sagha).
>rr rrr` tr tra r rrrr` trrrrrrrr` r rrr trr trrarrrrrr trrrrr trr` r+
rr r trrrrtr rr r;rr` ttrr trrr` r +rrr trr trrrrrrr tr rrrrr` rrrr-r r` rrr ++{++
rrrrrr trrr r` +rtr` +rrrr` ortrr` -r+r tr tra r` rrtrr +rrr` tr rttr rtrtrrrrr .+
trra rorrrrtrrrrr` rr -r trtrrar rrrr . rrrr;r trrrr rtrttrrrr r .++-++
rrr rrrr r` rrtrr` +rtrrrr or rrr` trrtr :r >r trrrr r rr trr` rr r r rrrr trrtr.+
rrr rrr -rrrtr -rr` ttrrr` trrrrtra rr .tr trrr` tr+r rrrr` rtr >r r` trrrrr+rtrrr ++;++
trrrr crtr tr` rr rrtrr -rttr rtr r rrrrrrtr r rtrr` trrrr` -rrrr +rr+
trr;r trr`rtrrrortarrtrrrrr`tr rrrr rrr trrrtrrr trrrrtrrrrr++++
The poesy of ryara is the precussor of classical, chaste and
ornate Sanskrit. The poet is indebted to Avagho and Kumralta (author
of Kalpanmaitik). Some of his verses and phrases
27
seem echoed in
Klidsa. The image of moving cluster of lotuses can be compared with
moving dpaikh or better with moving creeper (Sacri pallavin
lateva). Description of the king of Yajajtaka as a seer
28
(muni) reminds
us of cognate description of Duyanta. Fondness for the uses of Upam,
the alakras based on similitude, and Arthntaranysa (vide Subhitas)
is common to both the poets. What strikes us most is the very poetic
description of nature in the Jtakaml ryara. The description of the
lake in Hasajtaka (verses 2-3, 8-16) is particularly striking for its
beauty of imagery. The descriptions in prose (pp. 51-52) are equally
elegant and indicate the future of Sanskrit prose. ryara is justly famous
for his chaste Sanskrit. Abhinanda says:
tr rrr +rr` -rr . rr trr rrrt r trrtr r r` trar orr rr r tr` tr r` t-rr :r` rr arrr +
r` rrr qr -rr rr t. trrr r` trtr +rrr +rrtr` rr` rt, trrrrrtrrrr a rrrrr` rr +rr+r r` trr` r trr tr ++
(Subhtaratnakoa, 1968; Saduktikarmta, V, 26.5)
The Jtakaml had two commentaries; one by a Dharmakirti
and the other by an unknown author. Its Chinese translation, containing
14 stories only, was done some time during 960-1127. A.D. The influence
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 195 196 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
of Kumrlta on the Jtakaml makes it evident that the latter cannot be
much older than the beginning of the 4th century A.D. and as one of the
works of ryara was translated into Chinese in 434 A.D. he cannot be
placed later than 400 A.D. Prof. P.L. Vaidya assigns the author of
Jtakaml to 350-400 A.D. It has already been mentioned that some of
the stories and verses from Jtakaml were sculptured in Ajant caves,
which fact testifies to its popularity by the 6th century A.D.
ryara is credited to have written the following works:
1. Pramitsamsa tr. by A. Ferrari, published in Annali Lateranse,
Vol. X., Citta Lal Vaticano, 1946. It consists of six Samsas or
chapters, namely Dnapramit, ilapramit, Kntipramit,
Vryapramit, Dhynapramit and Prajpramit and has 364
verses. It advocates the same ideal of ethical and spiritual perfection
which is the aim of Jtakaml.
2. Prtimokastrapaddhati. It is available only in Tibetan translation.
Vide Tohoku Catalogue, no. 4103.
3. Bodhisattvajtakadharmagai. This work also is available only in
Tibetan translation. Vide Tohoku Catalogue, no. 4157.
4. Supahanirdeaparikath. This again is known from Tibetan
translation. Vide Ibid, no. 4175.
5. Subhitaratanakaraaka-kath is published for the first time in
Appendix IV of Buddhist Sanskrit Texts- no. 21, and edited by Dr.
A.C. Banerjee. His opinion on the problem of authorship of this
work is quoted below:
Considering the elegance of style of the Jtakaml, the
question naturally aries in one's mind whether the author of the
present text is identical with that of the Jtakamla. We know that
there were two distinguished Ngarjunas. One was the promulgator
of the Mdhyamika system of thought and the other was a great
Tntric teacher. The two Ngarjunas lived about four hundred years
apart but they have been carelessly mingled together in Tibetan
traditions. Similar may be the case with our poet ryara. There
were very likely two individuals of the name of ryara. One was
the author of Jtakaml and the other was that of
Subhitaratnakaraaka-Kath. In Tibetan accounts the two have
probably been mistaken as one person.
29
It would thus seem that the fame of ryara as poet rests mainly
on the Jtakaml which, in fact, qualifies to be the immortal monument
of his glory. .............
References
1. tr rrtr r r` rrrrr` rr rrrrrrrrr rr qrr trrtrrrr rrrtrrr trr` trrrrtr rrr&rr trrtrrr r` -rrr +
rttr rttrrr` trrr+rrrrrrr +r trr +rrrrr r . rr tr trtr trr ttrtr` rra rrr rrrrtr rrrrrrr ++
2. Some of the later Vedntists, like Appayya Dikita, say that liberation
is truly possible only when all are liberated.
3. ibjtaka, verse no. 28.
4. Cf. +rr rtrrarrrrr rrrrrrrtrr r`rrrqtrr rrrr rrrtr -rtrtr.+
+rr trtrrarrr r`rttrrrr rrr`tr. rrrrttr tr:+rartrrrr`rrrr++
Ibid, verse no. 42.
5. Cf. trtr rrrrartrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr+ aajtaka, verse no. 3.
6. Ibid, verse no. 17.
7. Cf. ibjtaka, verse no. 28.
8. These are: 1. Khuddakapha, 2. Dhammapada, 3. Udna, 4.
Itivuttaka, 5. Suttanipta, 6. Vimnavatthu, 7. Petavatthu, 8.
Theragth, 9. Therigth 10. Jtaka, 11. Niddesa, 12.
Paisambhid, 13. Apadna 14. Buddavasa, 15. Cariypiaka.
9. The division of the Pli canon into the three piakas was done in the
Third Buddhist Council. Prior to that it was divided, in the Second
Buddhist Council, into Sutta and Vinaya only. The First Council
constituted the Pli canon in the shape of gampiaka only. The nine
types of the composition of this original gampiaka were: 1.Sutta,
2. Geyya, 3. Veyykarana, 4. Gth, 5. Udna, 6. Itivuttaka,
7. Jtaka, 8. Abbhuta and 9. Vedalla.
10. A.L. Basham. The Wonder that was India, p. 267.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 197 198 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
11. Vide Index to Subhitas.
12. This note is largely based on P.L. Vaidyas Critical Notes in his edition
of the Jtakaml.
13. +r rrrttrr rr rr rrr a rrrrrrrrrrrrrr +
rr rr r` rqrrrra trrtr +r r trtttrar++
+rr`rrtrrrrrrrrtrrzrtrr rrrr-rtr+rrtr+
r` -rrr r rrr` trar trr ror. trrtrrr` rr` tttrar++
rrrr` trr rr :+rrrrrr rrr artr r rrrt.+
rrrrrrarrr -r rrrr:+rqrrtrrr`rrr`tr rrtrrrrr++
14. Hemacandra in his Abhidhnacintmai uses the above epithet for
the Buddha and explains the same as follows:-rtr r` r rrtr rrtrrr
rrrrrtr+rtrrr`r rrrrr`tr -rtrr`rrrrrtrrr;r.+
15. S. Taraga, 15.
16. Taraga, 113, 17-95.
17. Bhadanta nanda Kausalyyana, in his Introduction (p. 24) to the Hindi
translation of the Pli Jtakas (Vol. I), has noted the following parallels
of the verses of the Jtakas and the Rmya of Vlmki:
(i) rrrrrr r rrrrrrrr r`r--r rrrrtrrr +rrrr+
qr rrtrrr rr--rrt r`r--r rrtrtrr +rrrr++ Dasaratha Jtaka, 5
Cf. rrr rrrrrrr rrrrrrrr rrrr rrtrrrrrr+
qr rtrrr rrtrrrr rrrr rrtrrrrr++ Rmya
(ii) qrrr r rr--rr +r--rr`tr, qrrr r rrrtr rrrr+ Dasaratha Jtaka, 10
Cf. rarrr rrrtr rtrtrr qr r`rrrrr`tr+ Rmya
(iii) atrrttr trttrrr`r trr` rttr trtrrr`r -r+
rrrrrrrrr rrrrr trrrr tr +rrrrtr`r++ Dasaratha Jtaka, 13
Cf. arrrrrtrtrrr`r arr rrrrrtrrr`r -r+
rrtrrrrrr+rrrrrr trrrr trrrrrrrtrtr++ Rmya
In the absence of a critical edition of the Rmyaa it is difficult of
pronounce any opinion on such parallels. The following verse where
Buddhas name occurs in the Rmya has been shown to be spurious
interpolation:
rrr r` -rrt. tr trrr r` rqttrrrrtr rrr`ttrrrrrr r`rr`q+
trtrrrr`q r. rrrtrrr. trrrrr r rrr`ttrrrrrr`+rrrarr rr. trrtr++
Ayodhykda, II, 19.34.
And the case of the former three verses, quoted here, may not be different.
18. Vide, Pli Jtaka nos. 141, 206, 208, 349.
19. Mr. Jacobs quotes Jtakas 30, 32, 34 (with 45), 136, 143, 146, 189,
215, 295, 308, 375, 383, 426 for parallelisms with such fables as The
Ass in the Lions Skin, The Wolf and the Lamb and the Fox and the Crow.
20. Indebtedness of Aesop to the Jtakas or to Indian fables is open to
question. Benfey believed in the Greek origin of Indian fables.
Rawlinson, who holds the view of Indian origin of Aesop, points out
"that the migration of fables was originally from East to West and
not vice versa, is shown by the fact that the animals and birds who
play the leading parts, the lion, the jackal, the elephant and the
peacock are mostly Indian ones. In the European versions the jackal
becomes the fox: the relation between the lion and the jackal is a
natural one, whereas that between the lion and the fox is not". -
quoted in The Wisdom of India , p. 361.
21. It will be noticed that the above-mentioned characteristics of Pli Jtaka
are equally valid in the case of Jtakas by ryara. We do not, how-
ever, find the last part so elaborately (it is some times even absent) as it
was found in the Pli.
22. M. Winternitz, Jtaka Gths and Jtaka Commentary, Indian
Historical quarterly, Vol. IV. No. 1. 1928.
23. Cf. p. 46 trttrtrr`orrr arrrrrorr`rcrrrttrrrr`trrr rrt r`rtrrrrrrrrtr.+
24. (i) rrrrr rtr +ror r;rrrr +rrarrr-rrrrt rrr rrrr+
qtr- rr r:r`+rrar`tr rror rtrrrtr rrrtrrr`rrrr`tr++
Muaka Upaniad, I. 2.7.
(ii) rrrtr rrrrrrrr rr`t rrr-rr rartr trrror.+
rrrrtr rr tr trrrtr:r+rtrrr rrrrr rrtrt r`rrrr`tr++ Ibid, I.2.10.
(iii) qtrqtrr r trr`rtr +rrr(rrr. rrrrrrrr. r`rrrrrr rrrrrrrrrr r`rrrrrr
rr rorrrr? Bhadrayaka Upaniad.
(iv) trcrr rrrrr`rtrr rrrrr. orrrtr qrrrrrrrr rrrr`rtrr rrrrr. orrrtr+
Chndogya Upaniad, VIII.1.6.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 199 200 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The Bhagavadgt also declared: qr rrr rrr rrr trrrrr rtrrrtr
rrrrrrrrrrr rr+rtr+ IX.21.
25. (i) r qtrr`atrrtrrttr +rrr`tr+ Bhadrayaka Upaniad, IV. 4.23.
(ii) trtr`tr rrrrrrrtrrr`rtr+ Chndogya Upaniad, . VII. 1.3
(iii) r`r-rrr trrrtrrrarrttrrr-rtr+ Kahopaniad, I.3.15.
(iv) tr rr r trtrrtrr rr ra rrr +rrr`tr+ Muaka Upaniad, III.2.9.
(v) trr rrr rrr. rr. rrrrr. qrrtrrrrrrtr.+ I, 7.
(vi) r`rcrrrrrtrrrrrtr+ Ibid,11.
26. Accusation of akuntal by Duyanta, in words with double entendre
implying the animal world also, is noted here along with censure of the
king by akuntal.
(i) trrrtrr`torrrrrrttrrrrrtrrrtrrrrr`r. rrt+rtrr. arrr rrrrrrr`tr++
Menak, before leaving for heaven had left the care of akuntal
to anoter dvija i.e. Kava.
(ii) +rrrrrr. rrrarrrr`rrr`ortrr r. trtrrtrrrrr r-rr rrtr+
rrtrr` trtrrrrrrrr rtr r r` r cr r` tr tr trtr r` rrrrrrtrrr-r.++
27. rrrrrrrtrrar trrrr trr trtr+
rr ztr rrrr r r t r tr&rrr` trr trt.++
28. rrr. rr r` rrr. tr r` rtr r` rrr` t+r -rrrrr tr rr rrrr rrtr-r.+
trrrr`trrrrr`trtrr+rrrr rrrrrrrrrr rrr`rrar+rr++ Yajajtaka, verse1.
29. A.C. Banerjee's Preface to his ed. p. 278.
(The Jtakaml of ryara : A Selection, Introduction, MLBD,
Delhi, 1966)

3. Buddhist Mysticism
There are conflicting opinions about the nature of Buddhist
mysticism. This is mainly due to the possibility of different interpretations
of metaphysical postulates involved in the doctrines of anatt and nyat.
Buddhism itself is not a single system. It admits of all facets of
philosophical thought : Realism, Idealism and Absolutism. Then there is
a pathetic anxiety to give metaphysical labels to an experience which
defies all such labels and all the categories of intellection. The inherent
imperfection of our linguistic tool does not permit us to go beyond the
terms of no and yes. No wonder, therefore, the nivic experience is
spoken of and interpreted as annihilation or as bliss. Our notions about
religion that it cannot be conceived without a God and Soul and some
natural relationship between them add to our problem of understanding
the nature of Buddhist mysticism. Indias characteristic and much talked
about spirituality based on the recognition of supremacy of sprit over
matter seems to be offended when the permanence of and privileged
place to spirit is denied. Thus the difficulties created by the established
concepts of religion and philosophy, and imperfections of language are
great hurdles. Buddha kept silence on many of the issues with which
philosophy and religion had traditionally concerned themselves. I would
also prefer silence. This choice may be allowed so that I may not be
tempted to add to the confused noise. An exercise of such a choice here
means restricting oneself, so far as possible, to a practical (as distinguished
from speculative) analysis of experience that the Buddha had and his
conservative (Hnaynist)
1
compassionate and catholic (Mahynist) and
errotic and asoteric following (Tntrika) preached and practiced; that
means taking experience as forming a concrete way of life and not as
leading to a way of thought. If this be granted i.e. if mysticism be
understood as living and leading others to live a life of new experience
(nirva in the case of Buddhism) that gives freedom from suffering,
then ineffability would be considered the mark of expression but not a
characteristic experience, leading to a lasting experience and passively
will have to choose a different meaning for itself when serene
contemplation is object of denotation. The so-called characteristics of
mystical experience, namely, ineffability, transiency and passivity are
not valid characteristics for nirvic experience. Once a Gautama becomes
the Buddha, the Enlightened, he is Buddha for ever leading others thereafter
to the same goal. Buddha is to know and to wake up. Buddhahood is thus
knowledge and awakening. It is enlightenment, experience. And that is
nirva. Dhammapada describes this experience of Buddha in the following
hymn of victory which echoes the immediate reaction of Buddha to his
experience :
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 201 202 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Looking for the maker of this tabernacle
I ran to no avail.
Through a round of many births;
And wearisome is birth again and again.
But now, maker of the tabernacle, thou hast been seen;
Thou shalt not rear this tabernacle again.
All thy rafters are broken;
Thy ridge-pole is shattered;
The mind approaching the Eternal,
2
Has attained to the extinction of all desires.
3
This symbolised expression of experience underlines (i)
weariness of existence through the symbol of repeated births (ii) seeing
of the gahakraka, i.e. the ego that binds us to a life of suffering, and
(iii) freedom or sense of release symbolised by a mind free from all
conditions or impressions or compounds. (Pot has been emptied of all its
compounds, contents). This is then suchness (tathat), egolessness (anatt)
and nyat. But all this sounds merely negative. A positive and more
dynamic expression of experience is recorded in the Vinaya and the
Majjhima Nikya which runs as follows:
4
I have conquered and I know all,
I am enlightened quite by himself and have none as teacher.
There is no one that is the same as I in the whole world
Where there are many deities.
I am the one who is really worth,
I am the most supreme teacher.
I am the only one who is fully enlightened.
I am tranquilized.
I am now in Nirva.
5
This records the conquest of all knowledge whereby the
conquerer
6
becomes enlightened, an absolute I, worthy, and tranquil.
He is now Eckharts man of freedom, who clings to nothing and to whom
nothing clings.
7
For this conquest of enlightenment Buddha revealed the four
Noble Truths and prescribed the Eightfold path as a part of last Truth; all
in a meaningful order of succession. These truths are on the (i) existence
of suffering, (ii) cause of suffering, (iii) ending of suffering, and (iv) the
path leading to the end. Majjhima Nikya, 141 describes these as follows:
1. What then is the Noble Truth of ill? Birth is ill, decay is ill, Sickness
is ill. Death is ill. To be conjoined with what one dislikes means
suffering. To be disjoined from what one likes means suffering. Not
to get what one wants also that means suffering. In short, all grasping
at (any of) the five skandha-s (involves) suffering.
2. What then is the Noble Truth of the origination of ill? It is that
craving (tah) which leads to rebirth, accompanied by delight, now
here, now there, i.e. craving for sensuous experience, craving to
perpetuate oneself, craving for extinction.
3. What then is the Noble Truth of the stopping of ill? It is the complete
stopping of that craving, the withdrawal from it, the renouncing of
it, throwing it back, liberation from it, non-attachment to it.
4. What then is the Noble Truth of the Steps which lead to the stopping
of ill? It is this Noble Eightfold Path which consists of (i) right
seeing (Sammdassana) (ii) right knowing (sammsankappa) (iii)
right speech, (iv) right conduct, (v) right life, (vi) right action, (vii)
right thought, (viii) right concentration.
Buddhist mysticism starts with the recognition of suffering, it
finds tah (t in Sanskrit) as the cause of origination of suffering, it
holds the hope of rooting out the cause of suffering and finally prescribes
the ways of overcoming it. Dhammapada declares :
8
He who overcomes this contemptible thirst, sufferings fall
off from him like water drops from a lotus-leaf.
It would be pertinent here to remark that the first item of the
Noble Eight-fold Path is Sammdassana, right seeing. The right
knowledge follows it, which in its turn, controls speech, conduct, life,
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 203 204 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
actions and thought. This control leads to concentration. The basis of
Buddhist mysticism is seeing or experiencing things as they really
are. This was later on explained as anatt (egolessness), (tathat) suchness
and nyat (vacuity, zeroness). From this proceeded the notion of a
world of particulars. All this would debar any description of Buddhist
mysticism either as Soul-mysticism,
9
or as pantheistic kind of God-
mysticism. Buddhism admits no soul, no God. Realisation of self or
return to God is not its ideal. Hence it would be inapt to give Buddhist
mysticism labels such as mentioned above. But as proposed at the outset
I would not like to go in my analysis beyond the periphery of purely
religious or philosophical speculations. It is safer to remain at the coast
when so many others are busy measuring the metaphysical depth of the
Buddhism. At the end of enunciation of Four Noble truths Tathgata
warns the followers of his path to avoid two extremes. He says:
There are two extremes, brothers, which must be avoided
by one who is striving towards liberation. The one, the desire to
gratify passions and the desire for the joys of the senses which is
low, vile, degrading and pernicious and is the path of the children of
the world; the other that of violent mortification which is sad, painful,
and useless. The intermediary path alone, which the Buddha found,
avoids these two extremes, opens the eyes, enlightens the mind and
leads to peace, wisdom, light, nirva
10
However, Buddhism, as it is generally understood to have
emerged in the first phase of the Hnayna and the last phase of the
Tntricism, seems not to have scrupulously adhered to the golden rule of
avoiding the two extremes. The Hnaynist appears to have taken to the
rigorous asceticism for his own perfection and the Tntrika seems to
adore the path of gratification of passions and the enjoyment of senses.
Both are the Buddhists and yet standing apparently on the two extremes
which the Buddha had enjoined upon all to avoid. A simple and somewhat
naive way to get out of this difficulty is to explain away Hnaynism as
a somewhat unfaithful representative of Buddhas teachings
11
and to
discredit Tntricism with stock belief that it is corrupt form and
degeneration of pure Buddhism. A similar difficulty (in the area of
metaphysics) of undertaking Buddhist mysticism without firm belief in
a permanent Soul and God leads to the transformation of views in a
modern exponent like Mrs. Rhys Davids
12
who changed her earlier
interpretation so as to admit the possibility of Soul and God and the
positive state of bliss in nirva. Some others, such as Dr. S.
Radhakrishnan, find it safer to use from the very beginning the magical
wand of Upanidic ideas and thus pave the way for others to confound
the Buddhist mysticism with Vedantism.
13
However, there are some
scholars, like Prof. T.R.V. Murti, who have boldly asserted the central
doctrine of Buddhism being fundamentally different from the Brhmaical
(Hinduism as a common denominator has led to many confusions about
the different point of views which Indianism has upheld) doctrine of
soul. But presently we are more concerned with the mystical experience
than with its various metaphysical labels. It is necessary to restrict the
scope of mysticism to a trans-philosophical and trans-psychological as
also trans-moral analysis of experience. Metaphysical interpretations vary
from school to school and also within the same school, psychology has
not so far reached a stage beyond the ego,
14
and morality is bound with
shifting stands of social whims. The salvation is aimed at by all sorts of
system, such as, by pluralistic realism of the Nyya-Vaieika, dualistic
idealism of the Skhya-yoga, monistic absolutism of akara, qualified
monism of Rmnuja, and by the inconceivable difference-non-difference
(acintybhedbheda) of the Chaitanya School, and so on. aivism and
Buddhism, through their different schools, admit of realism, absolutism,
monism, dualism and pluralism. The Kaivalya-experience of the khya,
Apavarga experience of Nyya Vaieika, Moka-experience of the akara
Vednta, Slokya, Syujya, Smipya and Srpya varieties of the
Vaiavism and nirvic experience of Buddism do not give warranty
for any one particular type of philosophical description. This becomes
evident when we realise the contradiction cotained in the concept of
salvation and the philosophical notion of a system. Take for example
Skhya and the Nyya Vaieika systems. According to well-known
philosophical position of the Skhya, there are two ultimate principles,
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 205 206 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Purua and Prakit, but the mystical experience of kaivalya is final
separation of Purua from Prakit.
15
In experience the second ultimate
should not figure. The Prakit must disappear immediately when she is
seen. Philosophically the ultimates are two and this is supported by the
Vivekakhyti (Discrimination), but the salvation is an experience of being
only one. The Nyya-vaieika philosophy admits seven ultimate
categories, namely, Dravya (substance), Gua (quality), karman (Action),
Smnya (Universal), Viea (Final differentia), Samavya (Inherence)
and Abhva (Non-existence). tman (Soul), according to this system, is
a dravya, a substratum of consciousness- a quality arising in it under
certain conditions. Realisation of the self, which is its goal of mystical
experience, is a state when soul is in its true nature. The soul is a substance
and the true nature of it can be being without quality (or a number of
qualities). The Philosophical foundation of pluralistic realism must vanish
in the mystical experience of the apavarga or Salvation. Apavarga-
experience, thus does not found or sustain the philosophical system of
either dualism of Skhya or realism of the Nyya-Vaieika. Mysticim
does not establish any particular school of philosophy. Mystical experience
is the common goal of all the philosophical systems of India. It is the
common (or rather universal) aim, not because it gives credence to a
particular shade of philosophical opinion but because it may admit all
schools and transcend them all. It would be unwise, thefore, to insist on
holding one particular philosophical explanation of mysticism in gneral
and more particularly Buddhist and aiva mysticism which have, in fact,
admitted a variety of followers, realist, idealist, absolutist, in their fold.
Philosophical interpretations of Four Noble Truths being a doubtful guide
or at best being of equally good value let me prefer the scope of this
article to methods of attaining the Enlightenment-experience by the ideal
men of the Hnayna, Mahyna and Tntrism.
The Noble Eightfold Path explained earlier forms the part and
parcel of the last among the Four Noble Truths, indicating thereby the
inseparability of Truth and the Path leading to it. If this inseparability is
not adhered to, we will be cruelly defeated in our defence of mysticism
against induced or artificial experiences and the veriegated forms of
psychism, such as clairvoyance, psychometry and the like. The concept
of ideal men of Hindu mysticism, such as Arhant in Hnayn,
Bodhisattva in Mahyna, Arhat in Jainism, Sthitapraja in the
Bhagavadgt, gur (spiritual teacher) in aivism, esoteric Buddhism
and ktism, Bhagavn in the Bhgavat cult, and the doctrine of Jivanmukti
(liberation while alive) will have no value and universal validity if
mysticism be understood as a way of thought as opposed to a life of
new experience. Mysticism be understood as a way of thought as
opposed to a life of new experience. Mysticism ought to concern itself
with a way of thought. This will establish its independence from
philosophy as also from artificial life created by drinks of various sorts.
16
Difference of phisolophical opinion or its interpretation is not material
for mysticism. A mystic may hold any opinion or none. The crucial point
will be whether he has pursued relentlessly the sprititual path and attained
a life of awakening, of larger awareness, of cosmic consciousness. The
new life is then the natural life of the mystic. Artificial life created by
the hypnotic devices or by any kind of psychism can never produce a
Buddha or a Mahvra.
The Fourth Truth which is actually the Truth of the Way is
generally summed up and elaborated in terms of the triad, ila (Moral
and ethical Discipline), Samdhi (contemplation) and Praj (wisdom).
This moral discipline is commonly accepted by all the schools of Buddhism
of all countries. The ila has ten items and is spoken of Daa-ila. These
forbid, (1) killing of any being (pntipta); (2) taking what is not given
(adinnadn); (3) indulgence in sexual desires, (4) miscounduct, (5) telling
lies (musvda), (6) Slander (pisunavc); (7) frivolous and senseless
talk (samphappalpa); (8) covetousness (abhijjh), (9) malevolence
(bypda) and (10) wrong views (micchdihi). The first four of these
ten ila-s, together with the abstinence from any state of indolence arising
from the use of intoxicants (sur-meraya-majjapa-dahn-vermai),
constitue what is known as pacala which is the minimal moral
requirements
17
of Buddhism. Moreover, all Buddhists take the three
Refuges in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sagha. The monastic rules
were minutely elaborated. The Theravda prescribed 227 rules and the
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 207 208 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Mahyna 250 rules.
18
The first path of ila is the fundamental basis to
enter the second path of meditation. That the moral discipline is
indispensable for the practice of meditation can be referred to from what
are known as the four kinds of Pariuddhi-ila (morality of purification),
namely, the Ptimokkha savara-ila (restraint with regard to the the
monastic obligations), Indriya-savara-ila (restraint of the senses), jiva-
pariuddhi-ila (purity of mean of livelihood)and paccayasannissita-ila
(morality in respect of the four monastic requisites). The rules of Vinaya
are with slight difference in detail, common to all the schools and emphasise
the ethical perfection as the invariable pre-requisite for embarking upon the
spiritual journey to the path of meditation or Samdhi. The traditional
definition of Samdhi is citas ekggat or one-pointedness of the mind.
Literally it means firm fixation and can admit of a wide and
diffuse connotation and is generally used in the sense of concentration of
mind on a single object. Buddha has described it as follows in its sense
of mindfulness and self-possession:
"And how, O king is a monk endowed with mindfulness
and self-possession? In this case a monk is self-possessed in advancing,
in with-drawing, in looking forward or looking around, in bendeing,
or stretching his limbs, in wearing his inner and outer robes and
bowl, in eating, drinking, masticating and tasting; in answering the
calls of nature, in walking, standing, sitting, sleeping, waking,
speaking, keeping silence. Thus, O king, is a monk endowed with
mindfulness and self-possession.
19
"
Buddhaghoa, in the II Ch. of his work, Visuddhimagga, has
given a very lucid and extensive information about the practice of
meditation. He has collated from the Pli texts forty supports or divisions
of meditation, under the term kammatthna which comprises the ten
devices (kasina), the ten Recollections (anusatti), the four sublisme abodes
(brahma-vihra-s), the four formless spheres (arupyatana), perception
of the loathsomeness of food and analysis of the four elements. The time
and space at my disposal will not permit me to give any description of
these. These, however, are essentially the elaborations of the four dhynas
described by the Buddha.
20
The first dhyna emphasises reasoning,
investigation, joy and concentration. In this the mystic "suffuses,
pervades, fills and permeates his body with the pleasure (sukha) and joy
(pti) arising from seclusion, and there is nothing in all his body untouched
by the pleasure and joy arising from seclusion." In the second dhyna
there are joy and pleasure arising from concenrtration and freedom from
reasoning and investigation. In the third the mystic experiences the
pleasure that the noble ones call dwelling with equanimity, mindfull
and happy. The fourth dhyna is without pain and pleasure and with
the purity of equanimity, mindfulness. Some other texts by reckoning
the cessation of reason and cessation of investigation give a scheme of
five dhyna-s instead of four. The Jhna in Prkrit is dhyna is Sanskrit,
Dzyan in Tibet, Chan in chinese and Zen in Japan. It corresponds to the
Via Mystics of Christianity. It begins with the discipline of mind,
body and senses and can be paralleled with Via purgativa. The fourth
dhyna, in which, as J. Evola has remarked,
21
the body is not only pervaded
but also covered by the new force, leads to states of development of
liberating insight or the wisdom begins and the transcendental path
(lokottara-magga) begins to bloom. It is thus Via Illuminativaof
Christianity.
Beyond the paths of ethical perfection (ila) and meditation
(samdhi) there is the Path of Praj or Wisdom. It is through this wisdom
that a Buddhist mystic realises the impermanence of all composite things
(Sakhra), that all composite things are sorrowful and that all things are
egoless. And it is this realisation which leads to the disconcern from
suffering.
22
It is through Wisdom as D.T. Suzuki has explained, that the
doctrine of non-ego, impermanence of things and a spirit of detachment
are obtained.
23
The wonder that Praj performs lies beyond the domain
of psychology. It catches the ego, not from outside but from within;
catches the actor in the midst of his action, he is not made to stop acting
in order to be seen as actor. The actor is the acting, and the acting is the
actor and of this unification or identification Praj is awakened (p. 40),
Praj institution is the same as Eicharts love with which he (God)
loves himself. In it opens the Praj-eye which can see the world beyond
the reach of psychology.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 209 210 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
1. Hnayn Mystic and the Ideal of Arhant
ila, Samdhi and Praj are thus the Pathways to Nirva. The
last has been held as the path par excellence. The Hnayna mystic passes
through four stages. These are:
(i) The stage of the Satpanna or one who has entered the stream.
(ii) The stage of the Sakdgmin or of one who will return only once
to this world.
(iii) The stage of Angmin or of one who will not be reborn in the world.
(iv) The stage of the Arhant who is completely free from error, free
from delusion and ignorance.
The Buddhists texts speak of the stage of Asekha i.e. a stage
which lies beyong teaching and may perhaps be regarded a stage beyond
that of the Arhant, but the transition from the later to the former is natural.
After the mahparinirva of the Buddha a number of Buddhist
communities came into existence, which differed in their understanding
and interpretation of Buddhas teachings. Different versions of scriptures
followed. Sriputrs version of Law, which was followed by the
Theravdins and Sarvstivdins was one of them. It held Praj to be the
highest of the five cardinal virtues, which are Faith, Vigour, Mindfulness,
Meditation and Wisdom. According to this school of Sriputra, which
was later called Hnayna, Wisdom can assure final salvation. Wisdom
is used here in a special sense. It is a "kind of methodical contemplation
based on the rules of the Abhidharma" (Donza). It was to pursue this
path of Praj that the old school of Buddhism dedicated itself. The final
goal was to attain Arhanthood which is thus described in the Dhammapada.
24
"To him who has finished the path and passed beyond
sorrow, who has freed himself on all sides, and thrown away every
fetter, there is no more fever of grief". "For such there are no more
births. Tranquil is the mind, tranquil the words and deeds of him
who is thus tranquilised and made free by wisdom." They, having
obtained the fruit of the fourth path and immersed themselves,
have received without price and are in the enjoyment of Nirva."
The above description of Arhant brings out two important
charactertistics of Nirva-experience: (1) The cessation of suffering
through freedom from fetters and (2) The tranquility of mind. Nirva is
extinction only in so far as it relates to the extinction of hoarded desires,
extinction of the law of Karman, and the extinction of phenomenal
existence.
Negative moment generates the freedom and leads to experiecne
of perfect peace, bliss and perfect knowledge. The idea of Jvanmukti
and Videhamukti is also to be found in the distinction between nibbna
and parinibbna.
"When a Buddhist has become an Arhant, when he reached
nirva, the fruit of the fourth path, he has extinguished updna and
klea (error) but he is still alive." It is the same as the state of Jvanmukta.
When updi, the skandha-s, the body with all its power passes
away, "There will then be nothing left to bring about the rise of a new set
of Skandha-s of a new individual and the Arhant will be no longer alive
or existent in any sense at all, he will have reached parinibbna, complete
extinction or nirupdiea nibbnadhtu extinction not only of Tah and
of the fires of passion but also of the Updi and the five skandha-s."
25
The Avadna ataka
26
brings out the freedom from suffering
through struggle and strain and attainment of super-knowledge and powers
of an Arhant in a fuller description of an Arhant:
He exerted himself, he strove and struggled and thus he realised
that this circle of Birth and death, with its five constituents (Skandha-s)
is in constant flux. He rejected all the conditions of existence which are
brought about by a compound of conditions since it is their nature to
decay and crumble away, to change and to be destroyed. He abandoned
all the defilement and won Arhantship. On becoming an Arhant he lost
all this attachement with the Tripleworld (i.e. the world of sense, desire,
the world of form, the formless world). Gold and clod of earth were to
his mind the same. He remained cool (in danger) like the fragrant
sandalwood to the axe which cuts it down. By his Gnosis he had torn the
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 211 212 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
eggshell of ignorance. He had obtained Gnosis the super knowledge
and the powers of analytical Insight. He became averse to worldly gains
and he became worthy of being honoured, saluted and revered by the
Devas, including Indra, Viu, Ka.
2. Mahyna Mystic and the Ideal Bodhisattva
The two words which occur almost on each page of the Mahyna
literature are the words Bodhisattva and nyat. Literally Bodhisattva
means an elightenment-being. Early Buddhists, particularly the
Sarvstivdins, also conceived the idea of Bodhisattva. Abhidharmakoa
27
has given a fine description of him. He was conceived to be a previous
incarnation of the Buddha who took good of others as his own. However,
it is only in Mahyna (also known as Bodhisattavayna) that the
conception of Bodhisattva becomes valid ideal of the Buddhists. The
concern of the Hnaynists was for individuals pefection and his own
Arhanthood. He followed the example of Bodhisattva, the previous
incarnation of the Buddha, to win his own nirva as quickly as possible.
The concern for the individuals nirva was replaced by a new ideal of
Bodhisattva, conceived not as a being anxiously working and awaiting
for becoming Buddha, but as one who would wait until even the smallest
creature had won the Summum bonnum of his life and would work for
the welfare of all for the same ideal.
The ideal of Bodhisattva working for the freedom and good of
all, and not merely striving to gain his own freedom, made the old ideal
of Arhant, who achieved nirva for his own self and would be born no
more, appear as rather selfish. A passage from the Prajprmit brings
out this differnce in the two ideals:
How do the person belonging to the Vehicle of the Disciples
and Pratyekabuddha train themselves ? They think, one single self
we will tame, one single self we fill pacify, one single self we will land
into nirva. Then they undertake exercises which bring about
wholesome roots for the sake of taming themselves, pacifying
themselves, nirvising themselves; certainly, the Bodhisattva should
not train himself like that. He should undertake exercises for bringing
about roots wholesome with idea; Myself I will place in suchness
and for the sake of helping all the world I will also place all beings in
suchness; the immeasurable world of beings I will lead to nirva.
28
In Tibetan, Bodhisattva is translated as a Being with heroic mind.
The hero does not abandon the fellows caught in suffering.
29
The Hnayna
mysticism aimed at arhanthood as the state of highest perfection and
knowldege by an individual. It was individualistic quietism. Wisdom
was taught here as the highest virtue, compassion was relegated to
background or regardeed as a subsidiary virtue. The ideal of Bodhisattva
in Mahyna mysticism integrated the ideals of compassion and wisdom.
This Boddhisattva had no concern for kingship of world, for heaven,
salvation or glory, his simple concern is the suffering people. He suffered
many hardships and remaind ever prepared to sacrifice his life for the
good of others. He undergoes all privations, hardships and troubles for
the sake of others and declares:
This effort of mine is not for attaining better existence nor
for monarchs unrivalled imperial status, nor for unalloyed exalted,
pleasures nor for spiritual glory or the happiness of libration.
30
The Bodhisattva does not only set himself free, he devises to
make all others free. As Prajprmit puts it:
Doers of what is hard are the Bodhisattva-s, the great beings
who have set out to win supreme enlightment. They dont wish to attain
their own private nirva. On the the contrary, they have surveyed, the
highly painful world of being and yet desirous to win supreme
enlightenment, they dont trouble at birth and death. They have set out
for the benefit of the world, for the ease of the world, out of pity for the
world. They have resolved: We will become a place of rest, the final
relief of the world, a refuge for the world, the worlds place of rest,
islands of the world, lights of the world, leaders of the world, the world
meaning of salvation.
31
As contrasted with ethico-religious rigourism and quietistic and
individualistic mysticism of Hnayna which Asaga characerises narrow
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 213 214 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
in its aim of self-liberation, narrow teachings to realise that aim, narrow
method applied for this realisation, insufficiency of equipment and the
shortness of time which final liberation is guaranteed
32
the Bodhisattvayna
preferred attainment of perfect knowldege as associated with Karu.
Bodhisattvahood means the attainment of the Bodhimind which is defined
as unified state of nyat and universal compassion.
33
Integral function
of the philosophical truth or wisdom (nyat or Praj) and universal
welfare is what we must understand from the Boddhicitta.
Thus Bodhisattva is a heroic being full of knowledge and
compassion. For him then Sasra and nirva cannot be different. It is
the doctrine of Karu which is a key to the understanding of the classic
statement of Ngrjuna that there is not even the slightest difference
between sasra and nirva. The quiestist Hnyna mysticism now enters
the phase of activistic in its second phase of Mahyna. The mysticism
of knowledge and understanding is combined with the mysticism of love
for the fellow human beings of the world which then cannot be conceived
different from the nirva, the mystic ideal.
Another noteworthy feature of Mahyna is its conception of the
three bodies of the Buddha. The Buddha is, according to this concept,
not a particular historical personage, he is but the ultimate principle as
the totality of thought and beings in an unconditioned state of all-existence.
This principle has three aspects or bodies. Viz., Dharmakya (primordial
body or thatness of all existence), the Sambhogakya or the body of bliss
and Nirmakya (i.e. the body of transformation).
With universal freedom as their ideal the Mahynists made
their religion catholic enough to make it accepatable to even ordinary
person. It was in this stage of Buddism the popular relgious beliefs and
practices began to be incorporated that a new school developed which
introduced Mantra-elements, like the Dhri-s, into the province of this
religion. The Tattvaratnval, in fact, divided Mahyna into two schools,
viz., Pramitnaya, or the dicipline of Supreme Virtue and Mantra-naya
which introduced all sorts of esoteric principles and practices in Buddhism.
The Mantranaya was the precursor of Tntric Buddhism which was mainly
divided into three vehicles, viz., Vajrayna, Klacakrayna and Sahajayna.
Belief in the efficacy of the mantra, etc. had existed even in the times of
Buddha himself,
34
and Tntric ideas of sexo-yogic practice leadings to
blissful union were present in the strlakra itself. Belief in mysterious
power of Mantra, worship of the Stpa, reverence for the mystic
Bodhimaala, or the Circle round the holy tree beneath which Buddha
had attained his bodhi, were handed down from earlier tradtions.
35
They
paved the way for the vigorous propagation of the Mantra, Mudr (posture
and gestures) and Maala (Mystic diagram) by Tntric Buddhism. Once
the portals of Buddhism were flung open to esoteric elements the beliefs
in gods, demigods, demons and ghosts, magic, charm and sorcery
followed. To these again were added elements of yoga-Hahayoga,
Layayoga, Mantra-yoga and Rjayoga. In the earlier phase of Tntrism
the emphasis was laid on Mantra, Mudr, Maala and Abhieka but
later on the sexo-yogic practice was held as the most important for the
attainement of supreme bliss. It was through the enjoyment of the five
objects of desire (Paca-kma-gua) and of the five accessories beginning
with the syllable m (Pacamakra-s), namely madya, msa, matsya,
mudr and maithuna that the perfection is said to be achieved.
This erotic mysticism is known as Vajrayna or the Adamantine
way. It is generally divided into four classes. The first two namely
kriytantra and carytantra are considered lower as they are concerned
with rites and ceremonial worship of Gods, etc. and the last two, viz.,
Yoga-tantra and Anuttaratantra are considered higher inasmuch as they
describe Yogic processes for the consideration and realisation of the
ultimate truth.
36
Another school of Tantra, which is not considered independent
from Vajrayna by Dr. S.N. Dasgupta is known as Klacakrayn. It lays
emphasis on the control of vital winds and results attained thereby.
According to this school the universe with all its objects and localities is
situated in the body and time in all its divisions is within the body in the
processes of vital wind. The stress on body-centred yoga seems to be a
special feature of Klacakrayna. Abhinavagupta in his Tantrloka
37
has
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 215 216 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
similarly explained the functioning of time within the body with reference
to vital winds and the process of controlling time through the control of
vital wind through yogic practices.
Buddhist Tantrism appears to have transformed the philosophical
concepts of Mahyna. Thus nyat is spoken of as Vajra-firm,
substantial, indivisible, impenetrable, incapable of being burnt and
imperishable. The transformation of nyat into Vajra explained how
all the Gods, articles for worship, yogic practices, rites and rituals were
regarded of Vajra nature. The supreme deity of this Yna is Vajrasattva
which resembles the pure consciousness of the Vijnavdin and the
Brahman of Vednta.
38
The Mahynic idea of Bodhicitta as attainment
of perfect wisdom combined with universal compassion was identified
in Vajrayna, more particularly in Sahajayna with Praj and Upya
conceived as female and male respectively. Bodhicitta is thus a state
produced through the union of passive female principle of Prja with
active male principle of Upya. The doctrince of nyat through its
equation with Praj (feminine gender) was rendered female and the
doctrine of Karu, which was a dynamic principle for inversal salvation,
was transformed into male through its equation wity Upya (mas gender).
Thus the union of nyat and Karu or Praj and Upya translated
into the mystic union of female and male through sexo-yogic practice.
This union known as Yuganaddha or non-duallism (advaya) is
described in terms of population of conjugal union in Buddhist, aiva
and akta Tantras. It results in great bliss (Mahsukha). There have
always been two opinions on the nature of Nirva being a negative or
positive state. Some passages in Pli texts do describe it as a state of
inifinte bliss.
39
Vijnavdin also described it as the Immutable element
which is beyond the reach of all good, permanent, perfect bliss-it is
liberation, the substance itself.
40
However, Buddhist Trantrism is very
positive about the positively blissful state of nirva which it calls
Mahsukha. It is described as satata-Sukhamaya or eternally blissful, the
place of both enjoyment and liberation, changesless, supreme bliss, the
seed of all supreme bliss, the seed of all substance (Vastu).
41
To conclude Buddhist mysticism aims at nirva, the
Enlightenment-experience through ethico-moral discipline of mind, body
and senses (as understood by the way of ila), through elaborate process
of meditation (Samdhi) and finally through the insigt into the nature of
Reality (Praj). A Hnayna mystic attains the individul nirva and a
Mahynist is busy working out the salvation of others. The good of the
world is his own summum bonum. The world and nirva are not different.
The Hnaynist is only a step behind the Mahyna mystic. While
the former stops when he has realised his own nirva, the Mahynist
goes a step further to lead the world to the highest goal of human life-
freedom from suffering and peace of mind.
42
Individuals freedom and peace is the goal of Hnayna
mysticism, the goal of Mahyna is universal freedom and universal
peace. The path leading to this is common-
The threefold path of ila, Samdhi and Praj.
References
1. The consensus among the scholars prefers the use of Early Buddhism
for the Hnayna but I have retained in this article the word of common
parlance.
2. The original is Visankhragatam cittam. Henry Warren translates it
This mind Jhas demolition reached. Suzuki has pointed out how both
the translators read their own meaning; one pointing to positive and
the other to nihilistic or negativism.
3. The Dhammapada, V, pp. 153-4. tr. by Irving Babbit (Oxford University
Press, 1936)and quoted by Suzuki in Mysticism, p. 44.) (Harpr and
Brothers Publishers, New York, 1957), (hereafter mysticism).
4. The Vinaya, I., p. 8., The Majjhima Nikya, tr. by Lord Chalmers
(Oxford University Press), 26, p. 12.
5. There is similar Gth in the Dhammapad, V. 353, which echoes the
dynamism of experience. It runs as follows: I have conqured all, I
know all, in all conditions of life I am free from taint. I have left all, and
through the destruction of thirst I am free. Having by myself attained
specific knowledge, to whom can I point as my teachers- quoted by
Suzuki in Mysticism, p. 68.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 217 218 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
6. The conqueror is thus described in the Dhammapada, p, 179,
He whose conquest noboday can conquer again,
Into whose conquest nobody in this world can enter-
By what trace can you trace him,
The awakened, of infinite range, trackless?
7. Maister Eckhart, tr. by C.da B. Evans (Hohn M. Watkins, London, 1924),
Vol. I, p. 146.
8. The Dhammapada, tr. by Radhakrishnan, Verse 336.
9. F.C. Happold in his book Mysticism:A study and an Anthology,
Penguin Books, 1963, divides mystical experience into two types;
namely, the mysticism of knowledge and understanding and the
mysticism of love and union (vide pp. 40-42). Approaching these
varieties from a different angle he considers mysticism in its three
aspects of nature-mysticism, Soul-mysticism and God-mysticism.
Nature-mysticism is characerised by a sense of the immanence of God
or Soul in nature. At its heart lies what Zaehner. Mysticism: Sacred
and Profane, calls the panen-henic experience, that is the experience
of the All in the one and of the one in the all. It may also be called pan-
theistic. In the soul-mysticism the idea of the existence of God is, in
any expressible form, absent. The chief object of man is the quest of his
own self and of right knowledge about it,. In God-mysticism the basic
idea is that of the return of the spirit to its immortal and infinite ground,
which is God. The mystical schools of akara and Meister Eckhart
combine, according to him, the Soul-mysticism with God-mysticism.
Happold labels Buddhist mysticism as analytical Soul-mysticism. The
qualification to the nomenclature is added because he found it difficult
to ignore the analytical and scientific foundations of Buddhism.
10. Stra of the foundation of Reign of law Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta
as quoted by Jacques De Marquette in Introduction to Comparative
Mysticism, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 1965, p. 58.
11. To quote Janques De Merquette, It has become evident that Hnaynism,
far from being the most faithful representative of the early teachings as
it claims to be, is on the contrary an entirely new version and quite a
perverted travesty of the tenets of Gautam. Ibid, p. 83.
12. Disgusted with the Buddhism where God plays no part and man is
denied any personal reality, Mrs. Rhys David approves its description
as barely hanging on the fringes of the world religions and being
sacred more than a system of ethics. Quoted in the Original Gospel
of Buddha, p. 13.
13. The interpretation of nyat as an attributeless Reality escaping the
grant of intellectual comprehension and verbal exposition, the
description of dharma-s (things) as unspeakable, unchanging, all-void
quiescent and pure by Ngrjuna, admission of the Tathat-nature of
things to be something substantial, permanent and unchanging,
Yogcras conception of the ultimate reality as the Abhta-parikalpa
or as pure consciousness (Vijptimtrat) drive us very near to the
Vedntic conception of the ultimate Reality as the Nirgua
(attributeless) Brahman who transcends all knowledge, knower and
the known. Similarly the conception of Dharmakya or cosmic unity
or the organised totality of things seem to be just the same as that of
the idea of the nirgua Brahman of the Upanids. Summed up from
Ch. I. pp. 29-32 of An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism by S. N.
Dasgupta (University of Calcutta, 1958).
14. D.T. Suzuki has said it aptly: The psychological analysis that cannot go
further or deeper than the egolessness of the psychological ego fails to
see into the egolessness of all things....... Mysticism, p. 42.
15. Vivekahyti or discriminating knowledge which distinguishes the two
ultimates and is conscious of the two, must ultimately lead to the
mystical experience of the kaivalya.
16. In fact may mystics openly abuse the philosophical speculations.
Sahajaynists among the Buddhists are known for such a revolt against
all passion for philosophy. Chaitanya is credited to have said that it
would be better to throw off the stras. When Upaniads declared
(Vide a up) that Vidy (Philosophical knowledge included) leads to
greater darkness than the Avidy (Ignorance) they did realise the utter
meaninglessness of the philosophical opinions. akara also makes a
similar sense when he says (though in his own framework of
matephystical commitment) that all epistemological knowledge leads
to ignorance: avidyvadiayni tvad pratyakdni (akaras
Bhya on Bdaryaa Stra).
17. Members of the Sagha are further enjoined to follow a discipline
implying vows of chastity, humility and poverty which correspond to
the vows of Christian monks.
i~-i-i ii`- : iiz i`-i<ii 219 220 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
18. Buddhism does not only prescribe negations for moral discipline but
also lays down the six Pramit-s (perfections or virtures). These are
perfections of (1) giving (Dnapramit), (2) Morality (ila), (3)
Patience (knti), (4) Vigour (Vrya), (5) Meditation (Dhyna) and (6)
Wisdom (Praj).
Each of the six perfections has been dealt with at enormous length in
extensive Mahyna literature. The extent of Prajprmit texts
available in Mahyna seems to give a paramount emphasis to Praj.
The Lakvatrastra speaks of three degrees in each perfection, viz.,
ordinary, extra-ordinary and superlative; when practised by ordinary
people for the sake of wordly gains a perfection is said to be ordinary,
when cultivated by the Hnaynists for the attainment of individual
nirva, it is extra-ordinary but when developed by the Bodhisattvas
not for their own nirva alone but for the sake of all it is superlative.
Closely paralleling this is the distinction of mundane practice of a
perfection and the Transcendental given in the Pacaviatishasrik.
19. Dghanikya, I, 47. (tr. by Thomas in Early Buddhist Scriptures).
20. Vide, ibid, pp. 63-64.
21. The Doctrine of Awakening, p. 196.
22. All composite things (sakhra) are impermanent. When a man by
wisdom realises (this), he need not (this world) of sorrow, this is the
path of purity. All composite things are sorrowful. When a man by
wisdom realises (this) he needs not (this world of) Sorrow; this is the
path to purity.
All things (dhamma) are egoless. When a man by wisdom realises
(this) he needs not (this world of ) sorrow: this is the path to purity.
The Dhammapada, tr. S. Radhakrishnan (Oxford University Press,
1951) verses 277-9, pp. 146-7
23. Mysticism, Christian and Buddhist. Pages withing bracket in this
paragraph refer to this book.
24. Dhammapada, verses 90 and 98.
25. Quoted from Fundamentals of Religion by Dr. N. Brahma, University
of Calcutta, 1960
26. Avadnaataka, II. 348.
27. Abhidharmakoa, III. 94; II. 191-2.
28. Aashasrik XI, 234-35. Quoted by Conze.
29. The heroic nature of the Bodhisattva is finely woven into the texture of
Jtaka-tales.
30. Hastijtaka, verse 21
31. Quoted in Buddhism by Conze, p. 128.
32. Mahynastrlakra, Chap. I. verse 10.
33. nyatkarubhinnam bodhicittamiti smtam.
rguhyasamjatantra (G.D.S. I., p. 153).
34. Tattvaratnvali in dyavajrasagraha. P. 21.
See, also An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism by Dr. B.
Bhattacharya, p. 48 and Introduction to Sdhanaml (Vol. II), Dr.
Bhattacharya, pp. xvi-xvii.
35. For occasional references to Tntric practices including the sex-element
see Dghanikya, Brahmajlasutta; Kathvatthu, xvii. 6,7,8,9,10,
XXIII.2. Majjhmanikya., Pali Text Societys ed. I. p. 305.
36. Cf. division of Vaiavatantra into jnapda, yogapda, Kriypda,
and carypda (found in the padmatantra).
37. Tantrloka, Chap. III.
38. Vide Obscure Religious Cults by S.N. Dasgupta (Pirmal K.L.
Mukhopadhyaya, Calcutta, 1962) pp. 24-28.
39. Milinda-panha ed. Trenckner, pp. 315-26. See also A Dictionary of
Pli Language under the word nibbna. Other references (i)
Suttanipta 1933, (ii) Aguttara. IV, 239, (iii) Vimnavatthu, 51
(iv) Thergth, 350 (v) Dhammapada, 285.
40. Vasubandhus Vijptimtratsiddhi, Triik, verse, 30.
41. Guhyasiddhi of Padma-Vajra quoted by Dr. Bagchi, p. 33.
42. Boddhisattvabhmi (edited by Dr. Nalinaksha Datta) describes the
Sixteen Bhmi-s or grounds. Out of these fifteen are common for all
Buddhists, only the Bodhisattvabhmi expounding the ideal of
universal freedom through compassion is exclusive to a Bodhisattva.
(Akhil Bharatiya Skt. Parishad, ATM, Shri Gopal Chandra Sinha
Commemoration Volume, Lucknow, Vol. xvi-xviii, 1984-86)

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(ttrr` rrr` artrrr

3. The World of Vlmkis and Klidsas Poetry


Vlmiki is a seer and a poet. His poem the Rmyaa, is the
first Kvya integrating insight with art, perception with presentation of
tattvadaran (philosophical vision) with Varan (aesthetic description).
1
Literary critism in Sanskrit, both formal and informal, derived its
principles from the readings of the Rmyaa. This is particularly true
of the theory of dhvani propounded by nandavardhana (9
th
century A.D.).
2
The nature and definition of the Kvya, more prominently of the
Mahkvya, took shape in the light of the works of Vlmki and Klidsa.
3
The pathos felt by the first poet at wanton killing of a bird in union by a
hunter turned it into loka.
4
This leads the poet to search for a perfect
human being, an ideal man, a paragon of virtues who could make this
very world better and worth living, the characteristics of such a man are
given in the opening verses of the Rmyaa. The very first line of these
verses is worth quoting in original:
rrrrr`trrr trrrtrtr rrrrr rrrrr rr;rrrrrrr
(who in this very world and now is virtuous and valiant?) Other verses
are also with quoting.
5
This shows real concern of the poet with the problems and issues
of his times and with the world around him. The Vedic poetry was basically
focussed on eternal world of Gods. It was religious in nature and lacked
the sorrow, suffering and frailities of human characters. Man on earth
was afraid of Gods and prayed for their benevolence and gifts. The ideal
man of Vlmki is not afraid of Gods, instead Gods are afraid of him if
he is angered in a battle:
rtr r`r+rr`tr arr;r rrtrtrrrtr trrr+
Emotions of man rule the poetry of Vlmki, the first poet of classical
Sanskrit, who is distinctly different from the Vedic poets singing the glory of
the Gods. Human emotion of pathos as abiding feeling manifests itself as
Karua rasa in the Rmyaa. That is the dominat sentiment here; other eight
rasas are its parts which nourish organic unity of the poem as a whole.
6
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 231 232 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The greatest gift of Vlmki to the world is the character of
Rma. He is characterised as embodiment of dharma, devotion to ones
duty and to the ethical virtues of truth, self-control, firm resolution,
sense of gratitude, beneficence for all being and so on.
7
Yet he has
weakness of a man in flesh and blood. He weeps like a child embracing
every tree and creeper when St is abducted by Rvaa, he loses his
control when Lakmaa is unconscious after he was knocked down by
Indrajit. His weekness for public opinion is demonstrated when he gave
credence to the gossip of a drunken fisherman even after the chastity and
fidelity of St had been tested in fire and her purity had been accepted by
Rma. The killing of Vlin out of friendship for Sugrva and killing of
ambka, the dra engrossed in austerities, have raised questions which
have received no satisfactory answers.
8
Rma considers himself as a mere man, a son of Daaratha even
when sages, celestials and others extol him as divine being.
9
His learning,
intelligence, invincibility in war, simplicity, goodness, consideration for
others, many virtues and philosophic wisdom are all essentially humane.
His relationship with his parents, wife, brothers, friends, sages and even
with those hostile to him or public at large are unique set-off against the
prevailing norms of relations in Ayodhy, Kikindh and Lak. This
entitled him to receive boundless affection of his parents, devoted love
of his wife, devotion and service of brothers, Bharata and Lakamaa,
friendly help from Sugrva and Vibhaa, dedication of Hanmat and
active help from sages like Vivmitra and Agastya who gave Rma
weapon and the mantra to overcome evil of his times. His life was not a
bed of roses but a continuous struggle spread throughout his life. This
was accentuated and made intensely internal as well by the loss of his
beloved in the forest, her fire ordeal and her repudiation just to maintain
dharma of a king who must be above all suspicion. It is the uniqueness of
his character which has inspired generations of poets, artists and dramatists
of India and far-eastern countries to recreate and enact Rmyaa in their
languages, and cultural settings and made Rma a household word and
his life and character as a model for solving even current problems of
life. Hence the dictum in Sanskrit criticism: Ramavad Vartitavyam.
Ayodhy, Kikindh and Lak were the three pre-eminent capital
cities, ruled over by Daaratha, Vlin and Rvaa respectively. All these
cities were rich, prosperous, mighty and powerful kingdoms. The rulers
of these cities were learned, invincible in wars and belonged to the
celebrated line. Yet, all of them were infatuated by passion and in the
case of Vlin and Rva uncontrolled pride and prejudice against
wholesome advice of their near and dear ones led to the fall of their
mighty empires. Daaratha, overcome by passion (Kmtman) and under
the control of Kaikey
12
had to banish Rma even at the cost of his life,
Vlin was not prepared to accept his brother Sugrva as heir-apparent
even though Tr pleaded his case strongly and he had taken his brothers
wife Rum, and Rvaa drove out Vibhaa for his dissent against
immoral action of his brother in keeping anothers wife under his captivity.
Each ruler suffered for being over-powered by passion, lust or strong
pride and prejudice. Kma was saught to be replaced by Dharma.
In the eyes of Vlmki, the kings of the three capitals worked
against the dharma, the basic norm prescribed for them. Rma inflicted
the punishment of death on Vlin and Rvaa in order to establish dharma
on earth. Daratha died out of grief for his son, the embodiment of dharma,
who was exiled to give way to Bharata to rule and finally to establish rule
of Rma on earth, which could be a model for others. Although Rma
killed Vlin and Rvaa for their immoral actions, he installed their
brothers as their successors to the throne as he had no intention of putting
Kikindh or Lak under the rule of Ayodhy. It was clear from the
time he befriended Sugrva and Vibhaa. In fact it was to secure their
rights that Rma helped them. Rmas victory over Kikindh and Lak
can not even be spoken of as cultural conquest or imposition of a superior
culture on the inferior cultures of the Vnaras and the Rkasas. There is
no empirical design, no sense of racial superiority or conquest, no practice
of division of cultures into main culture and sub-cultures. What is defended
is svadharma and what is punished is deviation from the basic norm of a
given society.
A theme recurrent in the Rmyaa is the defence of the sages
and hermits and their institution of sacrifice. Rkasas are described as
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 233 234 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
destroyers of sacrifice (Yajaghna). The godly persons helpless before
the mighty power of the Rkasas, pray to Rma for their life and for the
defence of their centres of learning and culture. Rma renders help to all
of them. The Rkasas also resorted to tapas and sacrifices. They used
the rites and rituals for gaining magical powers. This was abuse of dharma.
All Rkasas got some boon or the other for their invincibility. Yet the
magical or tmasa use of dharma did not help them and they were finaly
vanquished. Good intentions and beneficial use of dhrmic or ethical
power is necessary. Otherwise it becomes selfdestructive.
The Rmaya is a mix of khyna
13
myths and legends, itihsa
14
and Kvya
15
or purely Puranic legends, repetitive descriptions of battles
and battle-scenes, motif of boons and curses, descriptions of the
hermitages, etymological legends explaining significance of epic chracters,
geneological lists, exaggerations in describing physical forms of the
Vnaras, rkasas, daityas, introduction of supernatural elements,
incorporation of didaetic material, ethics, philosophy and polity, elaboration
of descriptions of seasons, mountains and rivers have enlarged the world
of Vlmki and made it more comprehensive. Description of the cities,
capitals and courts, forests, hermitages, mountains, rivers, ponds, trthas
and the sea; men, devas and demons, birds, beasts and animals, of dawn
and moon light, of seasons and varying moods of nature, of human feelings
of love and hatred in mellifluous metre and in similes heaped on similes
make even original text of the Ramyana unrivalled. Daaratha keeping
his word Rma obeying his father, his exclusive love in a polygamous
society for Sit, Sit a symbol of purity of womahood and suffering in
love, Lakmana as embodiment of unfailing service, Bharatas renuciation
of empire, devoted service of Hanumat, Rvaa's ego, conceit pride and
learning are unique creations of the poet. Exalting dialogues and maxims,
seraglio of Rvaa, the coronation crisis in Ayodhy, the meeting of
Rma and Bharata, Darathas grief and death at his sons exile, Rmas
love for the humblest of the humble, his unfailing archery, repudiation of
his mother Kaikey by Bharata, Sts forgiveness for the demonesses,
the unity of purpose among the gods, sages, birds, beasts and monkeys
in helping Rma and finally the conception of Rmarjya or kingdom of
God on earth have made this epic immortal.
Vlmki is still unsurpassed in the treatment of the theme of
triumph of good over the forces of evil. His metre, figure and diction, in
fact, the whole art of poetry, has inspired generations of poets including
Klidsa. References to Rmas story in the beginning and the end of the
Meghadta
16
leave no doubt that this lyrical poem was inspired by the
incident of delivering the message of Rma to St by Hanmat. Klidsa
recalls Vlmki as prvasri in Raghuvaa (I.4) at the very beginning
and also in the 14
th
canto (verse No. 70) to indicate his indebtedness to
the poet, Vlmki, the muni whose pathos became loka. His vision of
Lak in the Sundarka must have inspired Klidsa in his description
on Ayodhy in human form. His elaborate descriptions of the rains, autumn
and winter must have generated the idea of composing the tusahra,
the cycle of six seasons peculiar to the climate of India. This is just
illustrative. In fact, the form, content and even message of the Rmyaa
served as a model to succeding generations of poets. Poetry of simile
elegance (Vaidarbh kavit) was born with Vlmki and got weded to
Klidsa- out of own choice.
Vlmki began his poem with a search for an ideal individual;
Klidsa set out to illustrate a number of virtues in the family of Raghu.
17
An individual, howsoever, great, may not be an answer to the problems
of society and a nation so he placed his faith in the institution of family,
represented by the line of Raghu. His enxiety for a worthy heir-apparent
is clearly expressed in Raghvaa, and akuntalam and is also implicit
in the other two drams, namely Mlavikgnimitra and the Vikramorvaya.
While respect for the sages and the hermitages is shown in all his works,
the problem of destruction of evil, Traka, in his view, required the
union of divine iva and Pravat through tapas for the birth of Kumra.
Klidsa viewed literature as integrating of word and meaning
comparable to the harmonious union of iva and his consort and its
dramatic form as a peaceful visual sacrifice. His faith and philosophy
were anchored in the Vedas, Smtis and the Puras. He advocated an
orderly progress in the four stages of human life divided into hierarchical
system of the four varnas. He found the old scheme of trivarga (dharma,
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 235 236 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
artha and kma) with the superemacy of dharma sufficient to meet the
challenges of life. This is in bold contrast to Avaghosa. For him poetry
is only a cover, a device to facilitate understanding of the significance
and essence of liberation preached by a supremely great and enlightened
soul, the Buddha. Avaghoa believed in the excellence of a great
individual leading to the path of life-denying asceticism: Klidsa, on the
other hand, made the great ascetic iva to unite with Prvat in a wedlock
so that a brave warrior-god could be born to save the world from the
attacks of the great demon. Even a Buddhist nun, Kauik is made to
help in the union of the lovers. Kma is not conceived by Klidsa as
Mra, death or destruction as in Avaghoa but as a desire whose
sensuality is burnt for gaining spirituality of love. All women characters
in Klidsa are partners of their husbands in achieving the goal of dharam
in harmony with artha, material prosperity and kma, desire fore love.
Klidsa is a master poet of ngra. His cycle of seasons is
soaked in earthly universal love between men and women set in the natural
environment. Nature, man and the divine are one whole in his view. The
lamentations of Rati at the death of her husband, kma, pronounce in the
Kumrasabhava (IV.33) the inseperable conpanionship in nature-
After the Lord of Night the moonlight goes,
Alongwith the cloud the lightening is dissolved:
Wives even follow in their husbands path;
Even things bereft of sense obey this law.
19
Nature is the central concern of the poet in all his works. It is
conceived both in divine and human terms. The real hero of Meghadta
is the wandering cloud, rivers are his spouses waiting in separation and
suffering in his absence. ankuntal is described as daughter of nature.
More than the union of lovers, their separation heightens the intensity of
mutually felt love. In Vlmki, St was a symbol of suffering in
separation . In the works of Klidsa there are a host of others, besides
St, who represent her symbol. akuntal repudiated by Duyanta, Prvat
failing initially to gain the love of iva, Rati left behind by her love
reduced to ashes, the death of Indumat at the touch of a floral wreath,
Mlavik reduced to the position of a maid-servant, the widowed queen
of Agnivara, the voluptuous last king in the line of Raghu, Yaki in
Alak represent suffering in love. Constant companionship of Dilpa and
Sudaki is a rare example which again is bedevilled by moments of
anxiety for obtaining the heir-apparent for the kindom.
The fourth, sixth and 13
th
cantos of Raghvaa, the first part
of Meghasandea and the first can to of Kumrasambhava describing the
Himalayan region reveal Klidsas knowledge of several parts of India,
its country side, cities, capitals, people of different ranks, confluences of
rivers and its presentation in eleganet and polished form are unique
creations of beatuy. Through the descriptions of romance in nature, human
and semi-divine worlds he has created poetic beauty, par-excellence.
Although he has portrayed ideal kings in his treatment of Dilpa,
Raghu, Aja and Rma in Raghuvaa, his ciriticism of the court and the
kings is hardly hidden from the discerning eyes of a critic. Rma is
followed by nearly 25 non-descript kings and the curtain is drawn on the
dynasty of Raghu with the portrayal of the licentious life of the king
Agnivara who was consumed by the fire of his lustful passion and died
leaving behind his widowed queen in the family way suggesting some
hope for the future. Ayodhy, once the prosperous and mighty capital of
the Ikvkus appears wailing in a dream. Ayodhy had a glorious hoary
past but its immediate past and future are no good. This is veiled criticism
of the illustrious family which had already been indicated by St when
she was forsaken in the forest by Lakmaa at the command of Lord Rma.
20
The fifth Act of kuntalam opens with a rebuke of the king
Duyanta by Hamsapadik. The two bards bestow full-throated praise on
the king,
21
a service for which they were employed. ragarava and
radvata, two brother-like companions of the heroine, akuntal, have
no good opinion of the Court
22
or the chamber where the king is seated
alongwith the priest. Their sharp censure of the conduct of the king in his
very presence and finally wrathful rebuke by ankuntal by describing
him as a wicked rougue putting on the garb of virtue and resembling a
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 237 238 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
well covered with grass, is unmitigated criticism of the institution of
kings and their trecherous ways. The hero of Vlmki is Rma who
renounced the kingdom offered by Bharata, the hero of Avaghoa is
Buddha who had renounced the world. The hero fo the Kumrasabhava
is the the great ascetic Lord iva. Although kings are the heros of three
plays of Klidsa and an epic poem he has also voiced his criticism of the
kings and the courts. Many later Sanskrit poets received no patronage from
the kings. They preferred mythical beings or epic characters like Arjuna
and Rma as the heros of their poems, yet they introduced cantos on polity
so that the degenerate kings of their times might imbibe certain instructions.
This is inspired by presentation of ideal kings and their polity in Vlmki
and Klidsa and not by their desire to seek the patronge of the kings of
theiry days. The writers of historical or carita-kvyas or praastikvyas, as
distinct from mahkavyas, may have been a different class. I therefore, fail
to appreciate description of the mahkvyas as court-poetry. No concrete
evidence of royal patronage to mahakavis has been furnished so far.
The ideals which inspired the artistic creation of Klidsa are
briefly and succintly stated in the benedictory verses of his three plays
particularly Vikramorvaya and kunmtalam. In the former, union of
wealth and learning for the prosperity of good people, and the welfare of
all are prayed for; in the latter play maintenance of law and order, social
welfare of subjects; by the kings, cultural progress of society and finally
personal freedom of the individual and the poet, are advocated. The poetry
of Vlmki and Klids was born in different ages. Yet their purpose was
the same as is enshrined in the famous verse of the Bhagvadgt, IV.8:
rrr` trrrrr trrr rr r` rrrrrrr -r a rrr trrrr+
rrrtrtrrrrrrrrr tr+rrrrr`rr rr rr++
(For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the wicked
and for the establishment of virtue I am born age after age). This Klidsa
does by seeking the beautiful through the romance of nature and of human
and divine beings.
The monistic school of Kashmir aivism developed by
Somnanda, Utpala and Abhinavagupta propounded harmonious
integrality of iva and akti, as of word and meaning, or moon and her
light. The distinction of one being real and consciousness (chetana) and
the other being unreal matter was not accepted. The duality of bhoga
(sensuality) and moka (spirituality) was denied, the good and the beautiful
were not opposed in this view. The higher self is active consciousness
and not a passive witness devoid of all attributes. Freedom is the very
essence of the spirit. Recognition of ever-present self, covered by a veil
out of spontaneous desire for sporting, is the goal of human life. Um (a.
u, m or Praava arranged in irregular order of syllables and representing
akti or dynamics within) could not recognise iva who was disguised in
the form of Brahmacrin. Her recognition and union with him represent
realisation of the highest by the dynamic power of the self. In akuntalam
akuntal was not recognised by Dushyanta representing a, iva. Finally
he recognised her in the hermitage of Mrca with the help of their son
Bhrata. This represents realisation of akti by iva.
23
The allegorical significance and suggestiveness of Ramas story
is indicated by akara in his tmabodha. According to him the soul
(Rma) after crossing moha in the form of the sea and killing attachment
and hatred (raga and dvea) represented by the rkaas, shines
respledently united with quietitude (nti in the form of Sit).
24
The
Vednta of Rmnuja looked upon the Rmyaa as a gospel of aragati
(absolute surrender to God).
25
Such a tradition of interpretation is diametrically
opposed to the modern view of considering it as a precursor of court-poetry.
The spirit of renunciation and tapas in the midst of material well-being
and prosperity, a kind of harmony of trivarga (group of three ends of human
life) and the fusion of abhyudaya (worldly progress) and (nireyas) (Summum
bonnum of life) are clearly brought out by Duyanta when he observes the
penance-groves of the venerable sages in the kuntalam (VII. 12):
trrrrrrrrr` rrr r r r` -rr` -rtrr trtrrrrrr or rr
trr r rrr=-rrrra rrt r rrr` rrrr rrrr r` +rrr rrr` rrr +
rrr ttrr` rrrrrtrrr rr r` rr rrr trr` rrr tr rrrr
rtrrr orr` tr trrrr r` +rtrrr rrttrr` trr ttrrrtrtrrrr ++
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 239 240 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
(The necessary (or habitual) maintenance of life on the wind in a grove
abounding in the desire-yielding trees, the performance of ablution for
religious purposes in waters fragrant with the pollen of golden lotuses;
mediation practised on jewel slabs, (thus) these (sages) are practising
penance in the midst of objects which other sages desire (to attain) by
austerities- tr. M.R. Kale).
The first poet found the truth through the search and success of
the good, the mahkavi who followed him closely realised it by beholding
the beautiful. Poetry of simple elegance born with Vlmki was wedded
to Klidsa out of her own free will on attaining her youth.
rrrrrrrrtrr`r trrrrr`rrtrrrr rrtrr rrrrrrrtrr+
ra+rr rrr`rtrr trr rtrrtrr >rrrrrr`rrartr rtrr++
Notes & References
1. Bhaa Tauta, the teacher of Abhinavagupta (10th century A.D.), as
quoted by Hemacndra in his Kvynusana (ed. Parikh, Vol. I, p.
433) maintains that the first poet, the seer, had a clear and uninterrupted
vision of things but it was born as poetry only through its artistic
presentation:
trrrr` arrr tr- r`rtr:rrrr`arrrrrr.+
rrr`atrr rrr`rtrr rrrrr rrrrrtrr r rrrr++
Bhavabhti spoke of this vision as irresitible light (avyhata Jyoti)
and described Vlmki as the first poet (see, Uttararmacarita, II.5
and Mlatmadhava, I.7). Indian tradition unanimously holds him as
the first poet. Dain in Avantisundarkath (opening verses),
Soddhala in Udaya- sundar (opening verses), Dhanapla in
Tilakamajar, Kemendra in the Rmyaamajar (+rr rrrt r
rrrrr rrrrrr trrrrr rrr`r. ) and a host of others hold him as the first poet
and a seer.
2. The following extracts from Dhvanyloka of nandavaradhana
clearly spell out the indebetedness of the dhvani theory to the
Rmyaa:
(i) ......trrrrrrrrr+rrttrtr+rr`trr`r rror trrr trr`trqrrrt rrortrr
trarrrrrrrrar rrrr`tr rr+rtrr trr`trrrr ++ Ch. I
(ii) rrrrtrrtrrr tr qrrrttrrr -rrr`arrr. rrtr+
rr=-rr`rrrrrtr. rrrrr. rrrrrrtrrrrrtr.++ 1.4
(iii) rrrrrrr`rrrr`trr`t-rtr rcrrrtrrr`rr rrtrr`-rtr+
rrtr trr`tr+rrrrr tr-rarrtrrrorrrr++ Ch. Iv
(iv) rrrrrr r` rrrrtrrr arr;r r trarrtrr. rrrr +rtr.+
trar`+rtrrrrrrr:r rrtrrrr`+rar`rrtrr rr.++ CH. 3
3. It would appear from the reading of Dhvanyloka (see, Vtti on 1.6,
2.19, 3.14) that nandavardhana considered Vlmki and Vysa
followed by Klidsa as the only Mahkavis, great poets, and their
works as mahkvyas, deserving his highest respect. This is also borne
out by his remark:
r`rr. rr-rrrr rr rrrr. rrrr`rrartrrcrr.+ CH. IV.
Description of the cities of a worthy hero intent on harmony of the
three ends of life, description of the seasons, mountains, rivers, woods,
groves, lakes, deserts, oceans, continents, even worlds, setting of the
sun, rising of the moon, excitement of women, and such other features
which constitute a mahkvya are present in the Rmyaa and the
mahkvyas of Klidsa.
4. oka, grief, pathos, pity or sorrow is not without an intense sense of
karu, compassion. Rmas unceasing oka at the seperation from his
love is described by Vlmki:
rrrrr;r r`rrrr rrrrrr r-trr rrrr-r`tr+
rr rr -rrrrrrtr. rrrtrrrrrr` r rr tr ++
VI. 5.5 and see, also 6.9-11.
Klidsa in his Raghuvaa, nandavardhana in Dhvanyloka (IV
ch.), Rjaekhara in Kvyamms (Ch. III, Baroda Ed. p.7) hold
that the oka of the poet turned into loka. Anutubha metre, though
Vedic in origin, was perfected and made classic by the poet. loka also
stands for glory or fame of the poet, Hence the primary and basic purpose
of poetry is Krti (karoti Krtim, Bhmaha; kvya yaase (Mammaa).
5. The opening verses of the Rmyaa even if treated as interpolations
are the nearest and closest creative interptation of the poet's intention
in composing his poem. These may be quoted in full as these underline
Vlmkis concept of the ideal man (nara) :
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 241 242 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
rrrrr`trrtrrrtrtr rrrrr rrrrr rr;r rrrrrr+
rrr ;r;r rr tr;r;r trtrrrrr rr ortr.++
-rrr` tr r -r rrr r -r. trr +r tr rr rrr r` tr.+
r` rrr rr. rr. trrrr ;r rr;r rrr` trrarr r.++
+rrtrrrrr rrr r`rtrrrrr crr`trrrrr rrr:rtrrrr.+
rrtr r` r+rr` tr a rr;r rrtrtr rrtr tr r r ++ I. 1-29
These verses emphasise virtue, valour, knowledge of law, sense of
gratitude, truthfulness, firm resolve, impeccable character, beneficence
for all beings, wisdom, efficacy, charming appearance, self-control,
lustre in anger, being a terror for Gods in a battle. Various episodes of
the Rmyaa amply illustrate the presence of these qualities in the
character of Rma.
6. rtrrr rrtrrrrtr rr t+rrrrrr .+
rr+rttrrr`attrr-r rrrrrrtrarrrtrrrr++ ibid, 1.48
nandavardhana holds that karua is the dominant rasa in the
Rmyaa. This is hinted at by the first poet himself. The poem ends
with the final separation from St and the Karua has been
consummated in the epic: trrrrrr r` rrrr ttr. trrrrrr`arrr`rrr trr`-rtr.
rrrrr. rrrrrrtrrrrrtr. trrrrr`arr+ Dhavanyloka, Ch. IV; also r`rro;r
tr qr trrtrrtrtrr`rrrrrrrtrrrr trtrrrrrrrt-rrtrr+ Ibid, Kuntaka also
held the same view (Vakroktjvita, Krishnamoorthy, ed. P. 276). The
oka of Daaratha and of the inhabitants of Ayodhy at the exile of
Rma to the forest for fourteen years, that of Rma and St in their
separation (once when St was kidnapped by Rvaa and again when
she was abandoned by Rma himself on accout of the scandal) make it
abiding in the Rmyaa from the beginning to the end.
7. He is usually described as dharmtman, anchored in dharma, dharmaja,
knower of dhrama. Daaratha considered him wise elder in the practice
of dharma; Kaualy testified to Rmas impregnable faith in dharma
which will protect her son even in the wild forest; Mrica clearly
perceived him as the embodiment of dharma (Ramo vigrahavn
dharma), Vivmitra found him to be the refuge of the entire world
(sarvalokaaraya), so did Tr (see, Kikindhka, 15.19), Vlin
thought dharmaja can not sin against him (Ibid, 16.5). Mandodar
was full of praise for Rma and like Tr advised her husband not to pick
a quarrel with him.
8. Vlin asked Rma: I have committed no offence against your city or
the people nor have I humiliated you then why have you killed me who
has committed no sin (ibid, 16.20)
The repudiation of St by Rma after killing Rvaa is very harsh and
inhuman:
(i) trrrrrrr` t+r r r a r -ror rrr+
rrr trr rrrtracrr rrrr rrrr`arrrrtr++ Yuddhaka, 38.20.
(ii) rrorrr +rttr rr tr rr rr`q rrrtrarrr+
tr rrr r rrrt rr trortr r` r+rr rrr ++ Ibid, 22.3
He is chastised by Klids for abandoning a fully pregnant queen in the
deep forest without any help and security. Bhavabhti also implies his
disapproval when he says: trrrtr rrtr`tr r`r+rtr+rr`arrtrrtrrr`rrrtrrrrr.
rrrr rrtrttr+ Uttararmcarita.
9. Rmyaa, 16.117, 6.11.
10. (i) +rrrrrtrrrrrrrr. >rtr rrrrr arr. rrrr.+
trrrr rrr+rrtrtr rrzrrr. rrrrrr+r++ Ibid, 2.33,12
(ii) rrrr rrr. rrrrrrrr rrrtrrtr rrrcrr`tr.+
rrrrr rrrr -r rrr -r rrrarr;rrtrtrt rrr.++ Ibid, 15
11. Ibid, 4.15, 17-22 and 10
th
, 35
th
, 63
rd
and 111
th
sargas of Yuddhakda.
12. +rrrr;r r` rq;r rrrr -rr r`rrrrrtr.+
r`rr rrr`trrr`tr rrrrrrtrrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrtr.++
a rtrrrrrrrrrrr tr;r;r rrr`trr`r+rrrrr+
rrrrr qrrrrrrr+rr rtrrrr`rr`tr rr rrr`tr.++ Ibid, 2.47.6.13-14
In his reply to dying Vlin, Rma made it clear that indulgence in lust
by taking the brothers wife is the real reason for awarding the
punishment of death.
13. Ibid, 1.4-11.
14. Ibid, 6.131-114.
15. Ibid, 1.4.6
16. rrrrtrrrrtrrrrrrarrrr I.1 ;
rcr. rrtrr trrrrr`trrratr`tr rrarrrrtr I.12 ;
trrarrtr rrrrtrrr rrr`rrrrrrrrarr trr II. 37
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 243 244 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
17. Raghuvaa, I. 5-9.
18. Ibid, I. 25; xiv. 21.
19. Ibid, Iv. 33, tr. By A.A. Macdonell, A History of Sanskrit Literature,
Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1962, p. 277.
20. Raghuvaa, xiv. 61.
21. kuntala, V. 7-8.
22. Ibid, 10-11; 25.
23. For detailed treatment see R.C. Dwivedi, Kashmir K aiva
Parampar, National Publishing House, New Delhi, 1990.
24. trrtrr rrrrrr r`trr trrrrrr`atrortrrr+
rrrr`trtrrtrrtrrrrr-r +rrtrrrtrrrr r`rtrrtr++
25. The wife of Vlin had declared Rma as:
r`rrrtrror. trrrrrrrrrrrrrr rrtrrr`tr.+
+rrtrr rr tr >rr;r r rrrtr;r rr+rrrrrr ++ Kikindhknda, 15.19.
(Typed

4. +rr-rrr +rrrarrr
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ii -ii`i-i zi-ii -i -ii`iiz t: ~i-iiiziii ii :iii ii` i-i i -iiiziii -i -ii-i
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~ii-iiii t i`i--i i. -i-t i -i-ii -i it i`-i-ii ~iii -ii iii`-i-i t i`i iii`iiii
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-iii -iii i trrrr` trr r`rrr`ortrrrrrttrr trar. rrrrrtrtrrr`r r`rr`rrtrr
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tr r` tr` +rtr tr trtrrt ttrra rr;rr r r` rtrrrr .++
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i`-i:-ii-i t, --iii (i-iii :iiiii`-i t ii`-i: i`-iii-ii i i`-ii ii -it ~ii-ii i`-i i
~i-i-ii i -ii t-ii t -
+rrrrt rrrrtr trrt rrr` rt rr. trrrrrr` tr.+
rrrtrr tr-rtr r`r+r trra rrr`trtrtr++ (-i-ii-iii, ;)
ziiii ii`-i, ii-i-iii ii -i -i i -ii t: i-i-i-iiii ii i`-ii-i
iii-ii-ii i`cii ....... ~i-ii -i -i ii t, -i ~i-iii, --iii ri ii--ii-ii`i i-i --i
ii ii-i -i -iii t, :ii-ii i i`i-iii -i --i -ii iai-ii -ii i`-ii-iiii ii ti -ii-ii t:
tr-rrrr >rrtrrattrrtr arrrrrttrrr+
r`rrrrrt r`trrrrr r`rrr`rrtr rrtrrrrrrr++
(-i-i-i-iii, -i-ii-iii, -)
z-iii -i- t, i ~iii -iiii i -ii iiii`i ii`-i ii it-ii t, ii -iii ii
t ii -iri --iii :izi-ii i: -ii ii i`iii ii ~i-iiit iii ti i-i-i -i-i-i-i
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tr` rr` rrtrrr rrr trrr` r +rrr` tr rrrrrrrr` r rrrrrrrr r++
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ii ~ii --iii ziiiii i`-i-i-i-i ii: iii`-ii-i ii ii`-i-ii -i-ii ~ii-i--ii-i ii i`i-i-ii
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ii`-i-ii -i-i i -ii-i ii, ziiiii zii -i ~ii-i--ii-i -ii, -i-iiii -i -iicii
ii: -i i -iii ii: -ii`-ii`-izi--i ii i`-iii--i -iii-ii -iii ii-i-i-iiii i ~i-i -i--ii
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ii ii ~ii-i--ii-i ii :i-ii ii`-i -i ~iiii t i`i i`-iizii ~ii ~i-i-ii ii -ii-i i`i
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r trra. rrtrr. rrr`rr`+rtrrr trr`rrrr+
rrttrrarr -rr` rttrrrrtrr rttr tr rrr .,
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:i-ii ii`-i -i t:
(r`tr)

5. trtrrtr trrr`tr rr trrrrorr rrr rrrrrr rrr


rrrr`-rrrr`rtr
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ii i. -ii-: ii ;ssii ii i`-izii-i ii`-iii i -iii -- -i i`t-i -iiii`-iiii`-i-i i
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:iiizi-i ii iti-ii: -ii`i (-i -iii`ii -i-i-i i ~i-ii -i-i:iii ii-ii ii -ii`i-i
ci-i ii >ii ii-ii-i ii :ii-i t: -iiii`-iiii`-i-i ii --i-i -i (i t:
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-ii`-ii`-i-ii

-i i iiii-i -iii -ii-ii ii ii-i:iiizi -iicii


-
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(ii-i-ii
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s-ii zi-iii i -ii-iiii -i :-i-i -iiii`-iiii`-i-i i`-icii tiii:
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 249 250 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
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rrarrr trr`trr rrrrr`rrrrrrtrrrr`rrr`r+
ra rrr`trtrr rrrr trr`arrarrrr`tr`r++
i--ii i ~i-i-ii i-i-i zi ~ii-ii i-i-i ~ii i`i-i-ii ii -i-i-iii iii -i
ti ii-i -iti ti -ii-ii: ii-i i i`-i( ziii ii i`-ii`zi -iii`t-i ~ii-izii t: it
i`-izii-ii -ii-ii i i`-ii`-ii ii (-i ~i-iii -iii ii i-i -iii -i ~ii-ii t i`i-i-i
zi -iii ~ii -i iii ii -ii-i t ~ii -i iii ii -ii-i t: zi ~ii ~ii ii
ii-ii`i ziiii ii-i -ii-ii i`-i-ii-iii`i-ii ti -iii`t-i t: -iiii ~iii` ii, i`-ii`-ii
~i-iii-i`-i-ii-i, -ii`-iii i ~iii`-i-i i -iii -i-ii`iii :-ii ziii--iii`t-i -i
-iiii-ii i`-i<i-ii-i t-i t: :-i ~i-iii`ii -iii`t-i ii -ii` -i ~ii-ii ziii -i -ii-i
-iti t: it -ii i-i-i -ii ii`-i -iiii ii ti ii`ii-i t: ii`-i-:ii`-iii i -i-izi -i
ii-i -i -ii-ii ~ii-ii t: it -ii-ii iii t i`i-i i--ii -i ii-i ii ~ii--ii iii`i-i i`iii
t: -iiii`-i ii -i i-i i i`-i( --ti-i i`i-i ~i-ii iiii-ii-ii zii ii :iiii i`iii t
--i-i i`-ii`-ii ~ii`iii, -iii -iiiiiii`ii`-i :i-ici t: it-i ii ~ii`i:iii t ii ziiiii`
-i :ii`-iz ziii-i`-i-ii-i -i i`-i-iii -ii`-iiii ~ii`iii-i -iiii`-i t: -i -i -ii
~iii-i ii`-i-iizi-i ii i`-ii`i`-i -i -i-iitii ii`ii`-i ~iii-i -i`-i ii -iiii`-i iti iii
t: --ti-i --iii-iii`-i ii i`-iii i-i t( ii --iii-i i -i-i-i-i i ii`iiii ii -ii-ii
ii i-i t-i iii`i-i i`iii t: it ii iti t i`i -iiii`-i -iii ~i-iiii ii -ii-ii-i
i t: -i--i -i: i --ii -i ~ii-i ii-i ii -ii-i ti ii-ii-ii ii i` i-i i` iii ii ~ii
zi -iii ~ii ii ~i-iii -ii-i i --ti -i iti t i` i -iii i` -i ti --iii (i-iii
~i-ii t -
s+rrrtrrrrrrrr trrr. rrrtrrzrrr`tr.+
rrrr`-rr`tr rar+rr+rr`rr`tr-rtr++
-iii -i -iiii`-i ziiiii (-i -iitii`i zi-:iiii -i i`-i-iii ti-i i iii
i`-ii`-ii ~ii`iii t ii ii`-i--iiii -i :i-i-i ti-ii t, -i--i i --iii-i ii i` -ii` -i` -i :ii-i
i-ii t -iii -iri i ri ii ~i-ii i` ii ~iiyi ~ii-ii -i-i-ii ii ~i-i i-i ii-ii t :
:-i -ii i : i t ii -ii -i -ii :ii-i -ii -ii-i t: ~i-i: it-ii i
-ii-ii-ii t ~ii ~ii`--i-i :ii-i-ii-ii: -ii i ii i ii -ii-i t: i ii i`-i-iii
:iii`-i ~ii :i-ii -i ti-ii t: :iii`-i i ii i-iii t -ii :i-ii iii: :-i :iii i-i-i
-ii-ii i ~iiii i i i t(-i-i-iii--ii-ii -iii i-iii--ii-ii: ii ii
-i-iii -iiii ti-ii t: ~i-i: -iiii -ii-ii t -iiii--ii-ii: -iiiii ii -i-iii :iii
it-ii-ii t ii :ii-i ii ~ii ti-ii t: :-i i ~iii`>i-i -ii-ii :iii--ii-ii it-ii-ii t:
ii-i ii -it-i-i i t :ii-i: :-ii ~iiii i :ii-i--ii-ii it-ii-ii t ii ai
~ii ~ii`--i-i i t:
-ii-i`-i-ii-i--ii-ii ~iii-i ~iii i i`-ii`zi i`-i-ii-i -i --ti-i :ii-ii-i ~ii-iiii
i ii -i--i-i ~i-i:ii-i -iii i-ii ii -ii`i-izi i`iii t: :-iii -iti :i--i-i t-
trrrrrrr-rrttrrrtr trtr. rrrrrrr+r.
trar r` rtr -rrrrtrrr rrrrr rrtrrrcr r` tr.+
trtrtr`tr trtrr rrtrorraorrr. orrarrrar
trttrr` rr` trrr -rra- a-r` rrr rrrr=r.++
:-i i<i -i i`-ii`ii -iii ii >ii`-i-ii -i-ii-i -iii`-i-ii-i-ii-ii ii -i i-ii
t: :-i i`-i-ii-i -i ii`-i -i -i -ii :ii--i i`iii t ~ii -i --iii ~iiiit ti t: ~i-i(-i ziii
-iii`t-i -ii`i-i t, :ii--ii-ii ~i-i:ii-i ii i`-i-iii ti-i i ~iii`-i-i i-i ti ii-ii t:
i-ii -i ii :-ii :iii :i-iiii, >ii`-i-ii-ii-ii -iii ~iii`-i-i ~ii-izii t:
-iiii`-i ii -ii i t ii-iii-ii-ii i`i-ii ~i--ii-i i--ii -i -iiii-i-ii
-ii`-i i -itii ii i`-ii`-ii-ii-ii i :ii -i i`-iii t: :-ii ii -ii :ii t
iiii-ii-ii: ~ii-ii, -iii, i--ii, iiii ~iii` ziiizi -i iiii t i -i-i-i-i ii`-iiiii
-i i`i-ii ii zi ii ii: iiii -iti ti-ii: ii`-i--iiii ii -ii-ii -i`-i-i zi ii
ii`t-ii-i -i-ii t i`i-i i`i-ii -i iiii -i i-ii -iti ii -ii-ii: -ii`--ii ii ii zii i
~i-i-i i`-it -i ~iiii--i i i`-iii t, i`-iii --iii ii -i iii -i-ii-ii -iit-i t: i`-it
it-ii t - +rrr rrrrrrrr trr >rrrr+
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 251 252 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
i-ii ii ii-i-i i-i -ii-i (-itiii-i) ~ii-ii >i-i t-i i: iii i ~i-ii
iiii t: i iti -itiii-i i ~i-ii-ii -i -ii i`-iii -iii`i-i tii: :-ii ii-iii-ii-ii
ii -ii-ii :ii t -i-ii-ii-ii: i`ii iiii -i iii`z i`-iii ~ii:i-iii`-i ii-ii
-i-ii it-ii-ii t: iti ii ~iii` ~i-iii ii :iii t: -ii`i-ii -i ~ii`i-iii`ii(
i-i i -ii`-ii<i ~i-iii -i ~ii-i i`:ii-i-i i ~ii-ii-i ii-ii t: iii`-ii-i -ii -i it-i t
i`i -i-i --t i`ii-ii -i i-ii i`cii -ii, i-i-ii-ii-ii ii -iti iiii`i iti -i izii-i -i
ti ii(-
r-trrrr trrrrtrr`tr rrr`rrtrr trr r-rrr
qrrrr rr rtrrr` trrrr tr r` -r+r cr ttrrrr r` +r.+
trr arrrrr rrrrrr` rrrrrr` trrrr arr rr rr
trr rr ttrr ttrr` rtrrr artr rrr trr +r r` r rrrrrrttrr.++
-i: -i ai-i iii ii i ii -ii-ii t i ~i-iii i-i ~i-i-i iii ii
-ii i -i ~ii iii ii-ii ti t: :-ii -it ii -ii-ii -i i`i i-i it-i t i`i
~iiiizi i` --ii ~ii zii-i-i iii` --i -i i` -iii t ~ii t - r` trrrrrrrrr-rrrr` trr` rrrtrr` rrtr.
-ii -iri ~i-i-i iii`--i ii ~i-i-i ~iiiizi i -ii-i ii -i-ii-ii-ii -i -i-i-i-i ti ii-ii
t: ii ii ii-i t i`i i--ii -i :-ii -ii-ii i ~i--ii-i -i-i--i -ii`-ii ii ~i--ii-i
i i`-iii t: ii-iii-ii-ii i ~ii ii :ii -iiii`-iiii`-i-iii -i i`-iziii, -i-ii`-i
~ii-ii iii-i, :i-ii, -ii`-i ~iii-i -i-ii-i, -ii`z-i, -iiii-i ~iii`, ii-i ~iii-i i`iii,
i`-i, ~iii` ii -ii-ii i -iii-i -i i-i-iii t:
-ii-i i iiii-ii-ii i ~i--ii-i i--ii -i ii-i, iii, -icii, ii,
-iiit (~iii-i ii-i i i--ii -iii ~ii--i-ii), :i-ii, -i-ii -iii i`-iii-i ~iii` ii
-ii-ii -i -ii`--ii`-i-i i`iii t: i--i ~i-i-iii -i it-ii t: -i --i i-i-iiii zii--i-ii ii
i-i ii ~ii -ii -it i`i-ii :iii -ai iiii ii i -i-i -iti iiii: iii`-ii-i ii ii
i<i :-i :iii t:
rr t r r` rrtr r trrrtr trr` trrr rrortr` rrrrrrrr` +rtrrrrr +
rr arrr trr` rrr` tr rrorrrrrorr. rrrrrrr rr` rrtr r -r r` rrtr tr ++
:-iii tr zi i--i i ~i-i-iii, -i-i-ii, i`-iizii ii (i-iii -izii t:
it -izii-ii -i--i-i: ii`-i--iiii ii -ii-ii t: -i-ii-iiiii ~ii-i--ii-i -i ii
-ii-ii ii i`i ~i-iii-i -ii`-i -ii--i, i`-i--i, -i-i-i, -iii, iii zii`-i, i--i, -ii`z-i
-iii -i-ii-i -i ~ii`i-i-i ti-ii t:
ii-i-i i -iiii-ii-ii i ~i--ii-i i--ii -i -i-iii ~i-ii-ii ii -i-iii`t-i
~i--iii-i -ii-ii t: :-iii`-ii -iiii`-iiii`-i-i ii -i-iii ---ii i`-i--ii -i -ii-i ii t:
--ti-i ii-itii`--i--i-i -i-i-i, :ii, i--ii ~ii -i-iii`t-i ~i-iiii ii :-i ~iiii i
ci-i i`iii t i`i :-ti-i ~i-iii -iii` ii ~i-ii i -i -i i`-iii t: --iii it-ii
t i`i iti -i-iii` ~i-ii i -iii -iii` ii i`-iziii -i -i-ii-izi ti -ii --t
-i-ii-ii ~iii` -ii-i -i iti ii-ii -iii`ti -i i`i -i-i-i ii i`ii ~i-ii -ii-i-ii -iii`ti:
i--ii -i -i i-i-i ii-it, i ~iii` ii :ii`-iiii`-i i`-ii`ii ~i-iiii i --ii ii
~i--iiii i`iii t ~ii`i-i ~i-iii ~ii-ii --i-i-i -ii-i-ii -iii`i-i ii t: :-i :iii -i
i`iii i ~ii`-ii`-i -i--i ii ii iii -ii-i-i t: -i-iiii-ii, -i-iiii`i-ii, ~i-i--ii,
ii`-ii`-i, i`-izi-ii -iii ii-it--i--i-i -itiii-i ii -i-ii -i ~i--iii-i i-i t: -i-ii-iii`-i
ii z-ii i ~i--ii-i -ii-i-i t -iii -itii`-i ii -iii -i-ii-iii`-i i i -i i-i t:
--ti-i ~i-ii ~i-iii ii --i-i-i -i-ii ii ci-i i i`-izii-i -icii ii i-i i`iii t:
~i-ii-:iiii i -iii -i -iiii`-iiii`-i-i ii ~ii`i-i-i t i`i ~iitii -ii-i ii --ii
i-i i i`-ii ti -ii-ii`-iii ~i-iii ii :iiii i-ii -iii`ti: -i--i i --iiiii`-ii
-iii-iii ii ---ii-i-i ti ii`-i ii -ii ti-ii -iii`ti -i i`i ~i-ii i -ii`-ii ii
:i-ii i` -i-iii: ii` rrarr` -ra rrr` rrrtr tr-ra r trr+rrr` rrr trr rr rrrr tr trtr trrr rrr rrr` rtr
r rrrtrrrtrr`-rrtrr`trrr-rr+
-iiii`-i ii ii-i-ii i t-:iii-ii-ii i`i-ii -ii :ii i`-ii`i-i t: :iii
:ii-i ii ~ii ti-ii t: ~ii ii -ii-i ~i--i-i:~iii i -ii-i -i ii`-i-i ti-ii t: i`i-i
:iii -i -iiii i -ii`i -i ii`-i ii ---ii ti, i-i-iii-ii ii :iiizi-i ti -iii -iii`-i-i
ii -iii ti -it :iii-ii-ii ii (i :iii t: i -iii ii--i ii :i-i :-iii -iti
t: ziii--i-i ii ziiii-i-ii, --ii-i-ii`-i i :ii-i ~ii -i i`-iizi-i, i-izi i -i-i-i
~ii -i -iiii-ii-i, ii-ii-iiii -iii --ii-i-ii`-i -i iiii ii iii-ii iii-i--i,
-ii`i ~ii-ii ii-iiii -i -ii-ii ii ~iiii-i i-i t:
~ii`--i-i i t :ii-i-ii-ii i`i-iii :ii-i-ii`-i i i -i ~ii-i--ii-i -i
---ici i`iii t: (i :iii ii :ii-i-ii-ii -it t iti -i-i i -i ii ii`-ii`-i-i i
i`ii ii-ii t i-i i`i -itiii-i i zii--i-i ii -iii-iti -i -ii -i -i ii`-ii`-i-i i
i`ii iii t -iii -ii :ii -it t iti :i`-iti-i-:ii`-iz -i-i ii :iii -i -iti -i-ii-i
i i`ii ii-ii t iti -it --ii ii iiiii i it-i iii: :-i :iii -ii-ii -ii i
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 253 254 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-ii-i-i i -i -ii :ii-i ii -it-i-i -i-ii -ii ii`-ii-i t: -iiii`-i ii -iiii
ii`i-i-ii -i ~i-iii, ii, -i, ii`-i, -ii`-i ~iii` i -iii -i--i -i-iii`-i t: ~i-i: it
~i-iiiii -iiii`-i i (i -iii`-i-i ~i-iii ti-i ii i-i-ii -i -i-iii i`ii t: :ii-i
~ii-iiii`i ii-it -i iti ii- :-i -iiii`-i ii -i-ii -ii-i t :-ii -i ~ii ii i`-iii-i-i
ti-ii t, ii`-i ii :-ii -i :ii--i i-ii -iii`ti, :-ii i`i-ii ii: ~i-ii -ii-i -iti t:
tr rrr trr r rrr r` -rtrrrrr r` r+rrrtr +
rtrr:trr rrr`rrr rrrr. rrr:rrrrrtr:rrr r`rrr++
ii-it ii it -iiii`-ii-i-ii -iiii`-iiii`-i-i ii :iii iii ~i-izi t i`i--i
-iii ii-i-i--ii i -iii i`-iziii -i -ii`-ii`-izi--i ii -i-ii-i -iii-ii~ii i -iii -iii`-i,
-ii-izi-i (-i -i-i--ii -iii`i-i i -iiii`-i i`-izi--i ii -iiii-ii i--ii ii ~ii-ii -i
t: i :ii-ii-i ~ii-iii ~ii -i-ii-i -icii i--ii ii -ii`-ii`-iiii -i-ii -i -i ii`-i-iii
~iii-i -iiii`ii :iiii -i -ii`-i ii ~i--iii-i -ii-i-i -ii-ii -ii-i-i t: it iii`--i t: -i
-ii`-i ii --i-i-i i`-izi--ii -i --iiii -iti i-i, -iii ti ii-it ~iii` ii ii
~i-ii-i`-i-i-i-i i :i-i -i ci-i i-i t-i t: :-i :iii -iiii`-iiii`-i-iii --i-i-i
i`-i--ii t ii :ii-ii-i -iii ~ii-iiii ii -iiiti i -i-ii-i -iiii ii-ii`-izi--i ii
:ii`-ii i-i t: it i`-izi--i t: -iiii`-i: ii-iiii`-i-i-i: -iiii`-i ti ii-i ii iii`-i-i,
:iii ~ii-ii ~ii--ii t:
tra+r
. rrrrrrr&rrrrrrrrrrrrrr` rrr rr trrr r r` rrrrrrrrorrr` r+
rtr trrr`rtrcrtrrr`atrr rrrrrr qrr tr r`rar`rrtrr rrrr++ i. - :
-. (i) rrrrtrrrrrr`-r -r&rr`rrr rrar rr+
rrtrrr. rrzr`tr trar rrrr`trtrrr`rrrrrt++ iiiii-i, :iii`-ii i<i -i. - :
(ii) trrrrrrtr`tr rtrrtrrr.+- -ii-ii: :
;. qtrr rr rrtrrrr +r-rrrtr+rrr`rtrr rr`rttrar`rr trtrrarrtrrr+ i. - :
. (i) rar rrtrrr.+
(ii) rar rrtrrrr-rrr.+
(ttrr`rrr`artr, +rrrrrrrrrrr sarrrt, rrtrr, r`trtrrrt, {~)

6. A Critique of the Anumana-theory of


Mahima Bhaa
Mahima Bhaa ( C-1020-1050 A.D.), the author of Vyaktiviveka
belongs to the school of theorists who believe that art is an imitation of
reality. He holds that the relation between the situation (Vibhva) and the
basic mental state (Sthyin) is that of cause and effect.
1
According to
Mallinthas Tarala (p. 85, 191-7), a commentary on Ekval, akuka
an exponent of Rasa-stra, was an anumitivdin. Mahima Bhata
undertook the task of demolishing the dhvani-theory expounded by
nandavardhana (850-84 A.D.). The former is, in principle, a follower
of akuka, though he nowhere indicates this fact. According to him,
the vibhvas, anubhvas and vyabhcribhvas are quite different from cause
etc. in as much as they are artificial and pratyamna or gamya (inferable) i.e.
existing only in pratti or apprehension. The consciousness of this pratti is
the enjoyment of rasa prattiparmara eva ca rassvda.
2
To show that rasa-realisation can not go beyond the inferential
cognition, Mahima Bhaa has built up his theory from the base. Language
is a rational tool for communication of ideas which should be meaningful
to be convincing. According to Jaimini, no vedic passage can be said to
have any meaning unless it refers to some action or to some means or
fruit of action. Action is the sole end of ruti, and so those ruti passages
which do not aim at action are useless.
3
The purpose of the Veda is to
give the knowledge of some activity.
4
Activity being the aim of ruti,
passages which have no such aim are useless.
5
In the fashion of the
Mmsakas, Mahima Bhaa also believes that the principle of activity
and passivity or nivtti, by and large, governs the function of language.
6
The verbal expression is of two kinds: the word and the sentence. The
latter consists of two elements, the Sdhya or probandum (the thing to
be inferentially established) and the Sdhana, or probans or reasoning.
As every sentence has these two parts, it is inferential in character. It's
meaning also is primary or inferable.
7
Since a word is a simple thing,
devoid of parts, it cannot have the Sdhya and the Sdhana and therefore,
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 255 256 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
its meanings is always primary.
8
Each of the primary and the inferable
meanings of a sentence consists of Sdhya and Sdhana. The relationship
of these two is again, of two kinds, verbal and ideal. And each of such a
Sdhya and Sdhana can be the meaning of either a word or a sentence.
As the latter two have different varieties, the relationship of the former
two is manifold.
9
Thus the ideas conveyed through a sentence involve the
relation-ship of the Sdhya and the Sdhana, and are, therefore, inferential
in character. It should be stated here that like nandavardhana, Mahima
also subdivides the poetic meaning into three types, namely, Vastu,
Alakra and Rasa, etc. and admits that though the first two can be
directly presented, the last is always inferable only.
10
While a word or a
sentence are directly and indirectly significants of the Sthyin, a letter or
a combination of them is only indirectly significant of it. It is only through
the meaning of words, which are coloured by the letter that the basic
mental states of love etc. are inferable. The significance (gamakatva) of
the letters is tenable only indirectly, but not directly.
11
Mahima recognises
only one power in words, namely Abhidh or denotation which arouses
the conventional meaning. He includes Laka,
12
Ttparya,
13
as well as
epistemological means like arthpatti
14
or presumption and Upamna
15
or
comparison and Kuntakas Vakrokti
16
in inference.
According to the Dhvani-theorists, Abhivyakti (a technical term
for Dhvani in its implication as a process) is the rise of the manifested
meaning, real or unreal, simultaneouly with the manifester without the
intervening memory of the relation between them.
17
In order to refute the
Dhvani-theory Mahima Bhaa analyses its nature as follows. First of all
the manifestation of realis of three types:
18
1. The effect exists potentially in the cause and is imperceptible. Its
having become perceptible is one type. Thus, curd for instance,
potentially and imperceptibly exists in milk and becomes manifest
and perceptible. This is the Skhya-view which holds the pre-
existence of effect in the cause (Satkrya-vda); the Naiyyikas,
however, believe that effect does not potentially exist in the cause
(asatkryavda) and that effect is a new thing. According to them
curd is produced from the milk.
2. The manifestation of such a manifested one which was not
perceptible on account of some impediment, through a manifester,
relegated to the secondary position, but shining simultaneouly is
the second type. Here the manifester is spoken of as the vyajaka
cause as opposed to a kraka or material cuase. The manifestation
of a jar by a lamp, for instance, belongs to this second type.
3. The manifestation of an object that has already been experienced
and lies in the mind in the form of latent impressions is the third
type. This is brought about by either the perception of another
invariably concomitant object or by a denotative word. This is just
the awakening of the latent impression of the subconscious mind.
The manifestation of fire by smoke or that of an object by a portrait,
painting, image or imitation or a denotative word, may be cited as
illustrating the tird type.
The manifestation of the unreal is of one type only. It may be
illustrated in the appearance of the rainbow by the light of the sun.
Mahima Bhaa asserts that none of these types of manifestation
of an object are applicable in the suggestion of meaning. It can not be
admitted that like curd, suggestion is also directly perceptible. He is not
prepared to allow the suggestionist to choose even the second type
illustrated in the manifestation of the jar by the light of lamp. For, in this
case the consciousness of the two is simultaneous, while in the case of
Vyajaka and Vyagya, the order of succession is clear and distinct.
Secondly, the apprehension of the Vyagya from the conventional meaning
of the Vyajaka is not possible without the apprehension of invariable
concomitance between them. Otherwise the consciousness of the
suggested meaning from the apprehension of the conventional should
arise in all persons irrespective of the fact whether they know the
invariable concomitance of the two or not.
19
The suggestionist may say that though there is admittedly a
distinct order of succession when a fact or a poetic figure is suggested
when Rasa is suggested there is no order of succession, or atleast it is
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 257 258 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
not discernible and hence the definition of abhivyakti is offered for rasa-
dhvani. This point is inadmissible to Mahima Bhaa firstly because it
would then exclude the cases of Vastudhvani and alakra-dhavani and
secondly becuase even in the case of rasa-dhvani the synchronous
consciousness of the Vibhva, etc. and the basic mental state is logically
untenable as the cause and the effect can not shine simultaneously.
20
In order to show that Dhvani in its meaning of manifester cannot
be admitted, Mahima Bhaa discusses the fundamental character of the
manifester. The manifester is of two types, one that appears as Updhi or
adjunct to something which it illumines and the other free or independent,
not Updhi to anything. While the first envelops the illumined, and is
illustrated in knowledge, word, light of lamp, etc, the second precedes
the illumined which is apprehended in succession and is illustrated in
smoke etc.
21
The theorists of Dhvani cannot admit the first type, for by
doing so they will have to acknowledge an object of perception and a
conventional meaning as piece of poetry. This will defeat the very purpose
of the Dhvani theory, for, that would include only the compositions based
on primary sense under the sphere of poetry and exclude Dhvani-kvya
from the same. If the Dhvani-theorist were to identify Dhvani as
manifester with the second type, then his manifester will not be different
from an inferential sign, and he will be compelled to give up his Dhvani
theory and will have to accept the theory of inference.
22
In his refutation of abhivyakti as discussed above, Mahima Bhaa
does not deny the capacity of words or ideas for manifestation but he
wants to stress that the light of lamp, etc. are primarily possessed of
vyajakatva and its application in the sphere of poetry can be accepted
only in the secondary (bhkta) and not in the conventional sense. A poetic
word or idea can be metaphorically said to be vyajaka and the purpose
of such a metaphorical use is the clear apprehension of the conventional
meaning.
23
By offering the analogy of the lamp and the jar, the Dhvani-
vdin also wants to make the point that the apprehension of the suggested
meaning cannot be without a manifester or vyajaka.The analogy is not
stretched beyond this point.
24
But it would be clear that Mahima Bhaa
wants to emphatically controvert the belief of the Dhvani-Vdin that a
manifester is suggestive of a different meaning than the conventional. As
the lamp illumines only the well-known nature of the jar and not its
hidden or unrevealed aspect so also a suggestive word can manifest only
a well-known and conventionally fixed meaning of a word. it is here that
his objections against the Dhvani-vdins conclusions on the strength of
analogy are pertinent and fundamental.
In order to show that Vibhva, etc. and the Rasas stand in temporal
sesquence like cause and effect and that they can be treated as the inferential
signs (like smoke in the inference of fire), Mahima Bhaa reproduces
the words of nandavardhana: Nobody feels that Vibhva, Anubhva
and Vyabhicrins are nothing but rasas. As the consciousness of rasa,
etc. is invariably dependent on the apprehension of Vibhva, etc., the
apprehension of the two sets stands in relation of cause and effect;
therefore, the temporal sequence is inevitable. It is, however, too quick
to be perceived; hence the dictum that the suggested Rasas are devoid of
a perceptible temporal sequence.
25
In brief, Mahima Bhaas theory is that Rasa is essentially a
reflection of Sthyin
26
, inferred from the artistically presented cause;
aesthetic experience, (rassvda) is the inferential consciousness, non-
empirical in nature, of a basic mental state that shines in an aesthete in
consequence of the awareness of the vibhva etc., and when it is so, the
situation, (vibhva), etc., and rasa must be considered to be conjoint like
smoke and fire. His thesis has advanced two most important points: (i)
the aesthete experiences rasa only cognitively and not effectively (ii) and
there is a temporal sequence not only in the apprehension of what suggests
and what is suggested but also in the experience of a sthyin from the
situation etc. because both are invariably related as cause and effect. Let
us now examine these points. A cognitive experience, for example the
inferential knowledge of fire, involves several parts. Even svrthnumna
or naturalistic syllogism, as internal thought
27
as Benedetto Croce
terms it, should consist of the knowledge of the invariable concomitance
of, say, smoke and fire, leading to universal generalisation, and the
consequent sub-sumptive reflection of the probans (Liga-parmara).
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 259 260 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Rasa is a single experience. And it is effective in its character. Inference
is a cognitive process devoid of all effective character. Hence, the first
point is untenable.
The second point, stressing the causal and invariable relation of
the Vyajaka and the Vyagya and of the Vibhva, etc. and Sthyin,
actually superimposes a technical meaning on simple and unsophisticated
expression of avinbhva occuring in Dhvanyloka. nandavardhana had
made it abundantly clear that the Vyajaka and Vyagya are not invariables
like smoke and fire. Their relationship depends on several things, the
context, etc. A word is merely a base or ground to get at the hidden
meaning. Even if it be admitted for arguments sake that a particular
expression is the inferential sign (Liga) of the suggested meaning, the
Vyajan or power of suggestion can not be regarded as the process of
inference becuase the latter is based on invariables alone, while the former
operates between variables as well as invariables. Since the conventional
meaning is not related to the suggested sence either by the relation of
identity, or self-sameness (tdtmya), as for instance whatever is produced
in non-eternal, nor by that of cause and effect, as fire and smoke, it is
inconsiderate to regard the primary sense as the inferential sign of the
suggested.
28
The reply of the Dhvanivdin to the point of a temporal sequence
in the vibhvas, etc. and in the sthyin raised by Mahima is that there is
a logical sequence between the two because the apprehension of the former
precedes that of the latter but the simultaneity can not be denied. The
apprehension of the Vibhvas, etc. must continue for the continuation of
rasa-consciousness. This is illustrated through the analogy of the lamp
and the jar. The light of the lamp precedes the perception of the jar
which, for its continuation, is dependent on a simultaneous cognition of
both the lamp and the jar. Furthermore, even the first consciousness of
rasa through the apprehension of the vibhvas etc., is too quick to be
perceived. This is the reason why the term Alakyakamavyagyadhvani
is applied to the consciousness of rasa etc. It is strange that Mahima
Bhaa does not concede this point of simultaneity advanced by the
Dhvanivdin, which he has himself followed in another context. According
to him, particles like ca, etc. prefixes like pra, etc. and the attributatives
like blue in the example of nlotpalam are dyotakas (of course in the
secondary sense or upacrata). There is a sequence in the meanings of
the attributives and the substantives. But it is so quick that the sequence
is not noticed and, therefore, the apprehension is of simultaneity.
29
Mahima Bhaa maintains that the aesthetic level is different
from the empirical level. The cuase and the effect are not real, and are
therefore, designated as Vibhva, Anubhva and Vyabhicribhva; the
basic mental state (sthyin) is also not the real but only an imitation
thereof. If such is the case, then what is the point in importing the logical
inference, based on the invariable relation of the reals, in the realm of
poetic creation. Art is an imitation of life. Its effect is not unreal. Aesthetic
experience is an experiental reality. How would he then explain the real
effect from the unreal cause?
If we examine the theory of inference advanced in opposition to
the theory of suggestion, in the light of modern researches in the realm
of the nature and function of mind with special reference to the theory of
apperception, it would be clear that the case of the anumitivdin does not
find support. The mind is interpretatively active in cognition of an object
but it is also a tabula rasa, a recorder of impressions. Memory is active
as well as passive. In the latter, the various associations arise so quickly
that there is no before or after in the experience............... it is a case
of simultaneous association. This would explain how the second type
of memory can not be an impediment for aesthetic experience (rassvda).
It also offers a plausible explanation for the Alakyakramavyagya type
of Dhvani. If we follow the theory of inference, we have to accout for all
the steps of the cognitive process and term them as inference. All artistic
expression and aesthetic experience would be treated as inferential.
Thinking and imagination would form part of inference. This view can
not be supported by modern psychology, where the cognitive process has
several aspects and innumerable phases. Even perception is a mixed
state, a cerebro-sensory phenomenon produced by an action on the
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 261 262 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
senses and a reaction of the brain.
30
Now, even if we extend the limits
of inference, how can it exhaust them all, As Woodworth would put it,
inference is a response to two facts and the response consists in seeing
a third fact bound up in the other two.
31
This characteristic may be
found in associative activities yet thinking and imagination can not be
included by any psychologist in inference. This supports the case of the
Dhvanivdin and goes against the inferential theory of aesthetics so
ingeniously built up by Mahima Bhaa.
References
1. Comparative Aesthetics, (revised ed.), p. 335.
2. Vyaktiviveka, (V.V.), chowkhamba ed., p. 73.
3. Jamini-Stra, 1, 2, 1.
4. bara Bhya, 1, 1, 1.
5. Jamini-Stra, 1, 2, 1.
6. tasya parapravtti-nivtti-nibandhanatvt..... nahi
yuktimanavagacchan kacit samyag pratyayabhg bhavati, V.V.,
pp. 21-22.
7. arthopi dvividho Vcyo numeyaca, Ibid, p. 39.
8. padasyrtho Vcya eva nnumeyas taya niraatvt sdhya-
sdhanbhvbhvatah, Ibid, pp. 39-40.
9. sa hi dvividho bdacrthaceti. sopi ca sdhyasdhanayo
pratyekam padrtha-vkyrtharpatvt......................
bahuvidha, Ibid, pp., 45-6.
10. Ibid, p. 39.
11. varasaghaanaayorapi gamakatvamupapannameva
pramparyea na tu skt, Ibid, p. 443.
12. Ibid, pp. 110-121.
13. Ibid, pp. 112-24.
14. Ibid, pp. 121-22.
15. Ibid, pp. 78.
16. Ibid, pp. 124-127.
17. Ibid, pp. 76-7.
18. Ibid, pp. 77.
19. V.V., p. 79 and Comparative Aesthetics, Vol. I, p. 358.
20. V.V., p. 79.
21. Ibid, p. 80.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid, p.131.
24. Vide, V.V. Vykhyna, pp. 58-9 and 81.
25. nahi vibhvnubhvavyabhicria eve ras..... ityalakyakam
eva santo vyagy rasdya, V.V., p. 80.
26. sthyyanukaratm nohi ras iyante, ibid, p. 71.
27. Croce, Logic As the Science of Pure Concept, trans. by Douglas
Ainslie, p. 584.
28. vcyasya pratyamnena saha tdtmyatadutpattyabhvt
avicritbhidhnam- Alakrasarasva, p. 12 and Jayaratnas
comments thereon.
29. vieaavieyaprattyorubhvitay kmnupalakat
sahabhvapratti, V.V., p. 131.
30. Robinson and Robinson, Readlngs in General Psychology.
31. K.C. Woodworth, Psychology, p. 465.
(Bulletin of the Institute of Post Graduate (evening) Studies,
University of Delhi, 1963)

7. rrrrtrrrrrrrrrt +rr-rrr rrrrr rrr rrrr`ztr


ii-i:iiizi (s-s-ss :.) ii -iii-iii iii (=----; :.) -i
ii-i-i-i -i -i--i ii -ii-ii ii ~i-i-ii ii -ii-ii --ii -ii-ii t: -iiii-ii-i
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(-i ii-iii, i . ):
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ii-i:iiizi i ~ii`--i-i z-iii -i :-i ii-i i -ii--ii`-ii --ii (-i :ii`-ii`z i
iii ii -iicii ii i: t:
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(-ii i`-ii`-i -i ii-i-i`-iiii i`-i-iii -i -i-i--ii ii ~ii-izii-ii ii: i`-ii-ii
ii ii-ii-ii-i-i ii iiii i ti-ii t~ii i`cii: i`ii iiii`i ~ii -ii i i`-izi--ii -i
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iii`ii~ii i --ii -i -i -ii`-i i`-icii (-i iii rss -itii -i ~ii-i i`-izi--ii ii
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:ii . (-i.(-i. -i i i-i -i ii-i:iiizi i zi-i ---ii-i (Karnatak Publishing
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-iii i iii`ii( -- -iii -i i`-iiii`i-i t: i`i-i i rss -itii -ii`t-i it-i -ii`i-i
-ii`-i i`-icii t: t: ii-i:iiizi it ziiii ii-i ziiiii -i -i :ii-i i ii-i -iii
~i--i -i -ii ziiii ~ii-iii (-i-ii-iii -i) -ii`t-i ii-i (-i -i-ii-i i -i-i--ii ii
-i-i -ii t: ~ii-iii zi ii-i i ziiii i -i :ii-ii-i ~i-iii zi i -iii-i i
~iiii t: it -izi-ii ii --iiii`-i i -it--i ii <iii`-i-i i-ii t i-i it ~ii-i--ii-i i
ii-ii-iii ii ii-ii-i-ii t: ii-i:iiizi ziiii -ii`-ii`-izi--i i ~i-ii-i-i -iii :-i
-i-i ~iiii -ii-i-i ii --iiii`-i t:
ii-i:iiizi ii`-i-ii-i ii --i-i-i-ii ii iiiii i -iii :ii-i ti-ii t -
r` rrr` trrr trr` rrrrtr` trr ra rrrrrr rrrrrrttrrrrr +
rrttrr`-rtr r`rr`rrr`trrrrartrr +rrttrr rrrrrr`tr++
--i -ii-ii-ii -i i`zi-i i -iii -i-ii i -i-i -iii--i i -iii --iii -ii-i
~ii i`iii ii --i---ii ii iiz-iii zi-izi-i ii zii-i-ii -i ~ii`i-i-i i`iii t:
(i i-iiii i -i-ii-i ii`-i ~ii-ii :-i -i -i-ii ii -i-ii i-ii t: ii`-i ii --i--
i-i-ii ii`-i-zii`-i ii i`-i-i -iii`ti`-ii -i-ii ii ~i-iii`-i :cii-iii`-i -i i`i-i -iti
ti-ii t: -iii`ti`-ii ~i-iii`-i ~ii`-i-iii-i: ~ii-i--ii ti-ii t: -iii`t-i ii-i --ii -i i`-ii-ii
-ii`i-i i`iii ii-ii t, -it i`i-ii ii :ii`-iii`-i -iti ti-ii t: ii`-i ~ii-i ~ii`iiii -i
-ii`i-ii ti-ii t, -it --ii`-i-i, ii-i i --i-i: i`iii -iti i-ii t: ii`-ii-i ii-iii-i
ii -i-ii--i-ii ~ii ~ii-ii --i-i-i -iiiii~ii -i -izi-i ti-i t:
ii-i:iiizi -ici-i: ii`-i-ii i i`-izi--ii i i`-i-iii -i -i-ii`-i-i t: :-ii
-ii ---ii-ii i i`-itii-i-iii-i :-i -ii ii i-iiiii`-i :ii iii:
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 267 268 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
trrrr srrrrtr . ii-i :iiii-i, ii-i t-i ~ii ii-i-iii i ~i-i--i ii-i
i -ii-i i i`cii( ii t: ii-i -ii-ii-i ii -iii :-i :iii t- traarrrr rrarrr
trr rrrrrr rr r` tr. rr r. rrrrr` rr :
r`trrr srrrrtr . zi ii -ii-ii, -iii ~ii -izii i -i i`ii`-ii i`-iiii
~ii ~ii i ii -ii-i, -ii ~ii -ii i -ii -i i` -iiii t : -ii -ii :iii i ~iii ii -izii-ii
~ii ~ii`iii, -iiii -iii -izi-ii -ii-ii zi zii`-iii i i`-i-ii :-i ---ii-i -i t:
trtrrr srrrrtr . :-i ---ii-i -i -irii ii -i-ii, iizi, iii, -iiii,
-ii-i, -i-iiiz-ii`ii-ii`ii`i, :i--ii-i, zi, ii-i ~iii` i iii ti-i -ii-ii ~ii-izii-ii
ii -iiiti -ii-i t:
-rtrr srrrrtr . --i-i ii-i ~ii-ii -ii`-i i i ii, --ii -iii, -i ii
:iii`-i, -i i i`-ii`ii i`-izi--ii, --ii -iiii ii-ii ;; -i-iii ii-ii, zii--i-i, -iiii-i,
ii-iiii-i, ii-i, ii-i-ii`i, ii-izii-i-ii ~iii` -i-ii`-i i ~i-ii iiiii ii i`-i-i-i-i
:-i ---ii-i -i i`iii iii t:
rr&rrr srrrrtr . -ii-iii-i (iiii-i-ii) ~ii --ii ~ii, ~iii,
-ii-ii`-izi, ~i-i, -ii`i, -i-i:iiii-i iii-iii`i-i ~ii ~i-i- :-i ~iia ii ii
i`-i-i-i-i i`iii iii t:
rr srrrrtr . i`-iiii-i ii ~ii-iii-i -iii zii`-ii ~ii ~iii`-ii, --ii
:-i ii ii -ii-i:
trrtrrr srrrrtr . ii-iii ii ii`iiii zi i r ii, -iiii ii, ~ii
i -; ii, iii i ii i -i i-i-i ii ii`i`-ii`-iii, -i i ; ii:
+rrr srrrrtr . ii-i i iii ii ii`iiii, ~i-iii ~ii iii -i ii-ii,
zi iii ii i`-iii i-i t( -ii-i iii ii -iii-ii, iii i -izii zi -i-i--ii:
rrrr srrrrtr . r zii-iii ~ii -ii-i -ii`-iii:
arrrr srrrrtr . -ii`-iiiii -ii`t-i r- ~iii-iii:
ii-i:iiizi i i`-iiii i -ici i`i-~ii ii -ii`i-i i`-i-ii it -i i-ii t
i`i -i--i -i ---ii-ii ii i`-iiii-i ii-i-iii i ~i-i-ii ti i-iiii ii: ii-i-iii i
~i--ii-i ~iii zi ~ii ~ii --ii ii-i i -i-ii i-i-i ii ~ii-ii`-i i -i-i t:
i<ii`i --iii -ii-i i`-iii (-i -i-iii ---ii-i -i -icii -i t~ii t: :ii-i ---ii-i -i-i
~iii-i ii-i -i -i-ii`-i-i t: ii, ii ~ii ~i-iiii ii -ii-i i-izi: -ii-i-i, ~iia-i,
-i-i ~ii zi-i ---ii-i -i t~ii t: ii`-i-ii ii ii`iiii i -i-i -i ---ii-ii ii i`-iiii-i
-i--i ii (i -iii`-ii -ii t:
;
it -iicii ii (i :iii-ii :ii-i i-ii t: ii-i ii
ii`iiii -i it ~ii-i i-i-i-ii ~ii-iiii -i ~i-ii i`i-~ii i -it-i-i t: -iiii :-i i
i -iii-i -i -it ii-i -i -i ii -i-ii ii --iiii i-ii t, iiii`i ii -i i
~i-iiiii i-i t:
-i--i i-i-i-ii ~ii-iiii i i`-i-iii ii, i-i-i (i -it--iii ~i--i ii
ii, ~ii-i ii-i-iii -i -iiti-i i -i-ii t: ~i-iiii ii ~i-iii`-ii`-i -i ii -it
ii-i i --ii ii -ii-i-ii t: it --i -iiii ii i`-i-iiiii i -izii-i i`-iz t ii
~i-iiii i i`i-ii ii-i ii -ii-i-i ti -iti:
ii-i:iiizi ii it it-i i`i-i-i ~ii-ii -i-i i`-i-iiiii -i i`i-ii -it-ii`-i i`ii
i`-ii`ii i`-i-iiiii~ii -i -ii-izi-i -iii`i-i i-ii ~ii ~i-ii -i-ii i :-iii -iiii
i-ii --iii ~i-iiiii-ii, -iii`-ii-ii ~ii (i i`-izii-ii t: i`-ii`ii i`-iiii i -i--i i
iiii-i i -ii`i-i i`ii`iii -ii-i i ii ti t-
(i) rrrr-trrrrr . ii-i i izi:iii`-i, -i-iti-ii-i, ~i-i-i-iizi, -i<i:
i i`-i-ii`-i ~ii ii--ii-ii`-i-i -izi :-i : :iiii-ii ii -ii-i i-i -i-ii -i--i -i i-i-i
i-i, ii-it, ~ii-i--ii-i ~ii ~i-i ~ii-iiii i -i-ii ii -iii`-i-i ti i-ii t, ~ii`i-i
:-iii -i-i-i ii`-i ~ii -iri -i -iii`i-i i-i t( -i<i: ii`-i-ii`-i ii -i-ii--i-ii
(trrrrrtrrrrrrrrr`rr+rtrrr) (-i ~ii-izii-ii ii --iiii i-ii t:
(ii) rrrr-tr . ii-it

, iizici
-
~ii ~ii-i--ii-i
;
i`i-ti-i ii-i
i`-i-iii -i :ii`-iii ii -i-ii--i t-i -ii-ii ii, i i`-iz -i--i

-i :ii`-iii, i`-iii-ii ~ii


~iii-i ii -ii-ii-i -iiii-i-ii -ii`--ii`-i-i t-i -ii-ii t: i ~ii : ii
~i-i-ii i-i t( -ii-itii`i i` ~ii-iiii ~ii it --iiii i`iii i`i -ii--i-i -i
-ii--ii`-ii ii-iii`-i -i -ii-ii t-i~ii ii i`-i-ii-i-ii :iii-i t:
(iii) rrrr rr trrr +ra . -i--i ti -i-i:ii-i i -i zii -i ii-i i
-ii-i :iiii i i`-i( --i-i, -ii-i ~ii ~ii-i zii ii :iiii i-ii t: -iit ~ii-i--ii-i
i`i-i-i -ii`-i ii ii-i iti t, ii-i i -ii-i ii ii i`i-ii i`t-ii`i-iit i --iiii -i
i, i<ii`i --i-i -ii-i ~ii ~ii-i ii-i i i`-i( i-izi: iiii-i-ii ~ii i`-ii zii
ii :iiii i`iii t: -i-i-i ii-iziii -i -iii`t-i i :ii`-i -ii-itii`i i` ~ii-ii-i t(
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 269 270 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-i--i -i ii-i i -ii-i ii ii -iii-ii ii t: -i-i--i iii -i -i-ii -i-i-i -iii`t-i -i
ii-i --i i`-ii`-ii-ii( :i--i-i ii i: t: -i i-i-i -ii`-i i ti -iti -iti t: i`i ii
--ii ii-i--i ii -i iii` -ii ~ii -ii-i i` ziii -i --ii ii i` iii iii t : :-iii -ii -ii--ii
zii-i-ii -i ii`iii`i-i i-i t(, i`-iii i (i -ii-ii i ~iiii i :-t ~i-ii iii`ii
-i i`-ii-i i-i t(, ii-ii ~ii ~i-iii`-i ii -i-iii`-izii`i-ii -i i`-iii-i i-i t(, ii-i i
--i i ii-ii`i i -i ~ii`-ii`-i i-i ii i`-iii -i i-i t( -i--i -i ii-i ii
-iiii i`-ii`-iii~ii i -iii -iii i`iii t:
(iv) rrarrr`-r . ~ii`iii ~ii -iiii ii -ii-i i-i t( -i--i -i-i-i:
~ii`iii-ii`-iiii`iii i -icii -ii-i i ii ~i-i-ii i-ii t: i<ii`i -it -ii-i i
i -i-ii-i -iii ii ~i--iii-i ~ii`iii -i --iiii -iti i-ii t: -ii-i ii ~i-ii-i-i i-i
t( --i-i -iii i : i i`ii t: i`i ii -i--i ~i-ii -i-ii i -ii-i -i ~i-it-i-i
t: -itiii- -ii-i i ~i-i-ii rrtrrrr -i iii`-i -i -i-iiit ti-i i iii
-iii-i -iii ii iii`-i -i -ii`-i ii ~iiii ti-ii t: i`i--i -i--i i ~i-i-ii iti i`
ii :iiii-ii -iiii i t-i i ~iii-i -i -iiii ii ~i-i-i -iti t: ~ii`i-i ~ii`-i-iiii-i
ii-i-i-i-i i ~iiii i ~iiiii`-i ii -ii`-i ii ~iiii ti-ii t: -ii-i i i -i-i -i
rrrrr ara-rr r`arr r +rz-r (-iii -i-i i`-i -i -iti cii-ii t:) :-i -iti -i
ii`iiii-i -iii-i -iii ii <iii`-i-i ti-ii t: iii`i -i--i i-iii`-i, i-iti` ~ii
~ii`i-i-ii-i ii ~i-i-ii i-i t( ii`i iii-i ii ~iiiii`-i ii i`-iii -ii-i-ii t:
-i--i -izi-ii i i-iz :i--i-i i`ii ii -iii i`iiii ii ii`zi-i i-i i
i`-i( ~ii :-ii -i-ii-i -i -ii -i -i it-i ~iii i ii-ii t: -izi-ii i i`-iiii
-ii-ii-iii, -iiiiii, -iii`--iii ~ii :ii-ii-i ii-iziii`-iii i i`-i-iii ii --iii :ii-i
ci-i, ~ii`iii, -iiii ~ii -izi-ii i ~iiiii`-i t: :-i ii ii -iii-ii i i`-i(
~iiii -iii ii :i--i-iiii ~ii-ii i`-i-iiii ~ii`i-ii`-i i ii`ii-i --ii ---i
iii` ii t: +rrr rrr`rrrrr`r>rr. ~ii r`r.rrrr-rtr-rar... ~iii` -itii -i i`i-i
~ii ii -i--i -izi-ii ii -ii -ii-i-ii t, --ii ~ii ii -ii`t-i i ~i-i-ii-i ii
:ii`iii ii ~i-ii`-i-i -ii-i-i t: -i--i -ii`t-i i i -i-i ii ci-i i-i t( i`-ici-ii t
i`i :-i -i-ii i ii t-i i`i ii t -i -iz-i -i tii ~i-iiii`--ii, i`-iz ~ii ~ii`-iz
t--iiii-i t: -izi-ii ii i`-ii`z ~ii --ii i`-iii i i`-i-ii--iii -i -i--i -i ~ii-i
:ii-i -iii i i-i i -izi-ii ii i`-iz i-i t( -ii`-i-i`-izi--i-iii`ii i ii -i i`-iii
i i`ii i`i-i-i -i--i i iii-i zi-iii`ii -ii :-i i`-izi--i i i`-iiii i`-i-ii -ii-i
-iti-i ~ii-iiii i-i i--ii, -ii`t-i ~ii iii ii -ii-i -i-ii ii -iti ti:
(v) rr`r +ra . -i--i it -ii-i-ii t i`i -iii` -iii-i ii i`-iii -iti t
ttr+rrrtrar+rrtr +rrrrrrtrrr`atrrr.~ii`i-i-ii-i -i :-i i`-iii -i ~ii-i--ii-i i -i-i
ii -iiii i-i t( -iii` ii -iii-i ii ii i`-iii -ii-ii t: ~ii`i-i-ii-i i
~i-i-ii -ii`-i i -ici ;- i t: -i--i -i :-i -icii ii iii - i i`ii t:
-ii-i-i i ~i-i-ii -ii`-i i -iii ii -icii =-s t ~ii -i--i i ~i-i-ii :-iii
iii s-- t

:
(vi) rrrrarrr . ii-iiii i i i`-izi--ii i ~iiii i ~ii`--i-i i -i
i`-iiii-i ii >ii ii-i:iiizi ii ii-ii t i`i-i-i -ii-i-i i -i-i ii ~ii`ii i`-i--ii i`iii
iii t: -i--i -i -i-ii -i -- ii-i-iii

ii :ii`-iii-i i`iii t: ii-it, -ii-i-i ~ii


~i-i ~ii-iiii ii :ii` -iiii` -i ~i-i ii i ii ii -i--i -i -ii-ii-i i i` ii i ~i--ii -i cii t :
(vii) rrrrrr . ii-i:iiizi -i t-i ii ~ii ~i-iiii i i ii -i
i -i ii-i t: -ii-i-i zi ~ii ~ii -i :i-ii i zi-zi i --iiii i-ii t iii`i
-i--i -i :-i -iiii ~i--iii-i :i-ii, -iiii, ~iii :-i -ii-i iii -i -ii-i-i t( -icii ii
-iii`-i-i i i`ii t: ~ii-i--ii-i ii ~i-i-ii i-i t( -i--i -i it ii iti t i`i
zi, -i i` -i ~ii -i i-ii i ii i ti ~iii` >i-i t : rcrr` rr r rr. rrttrrr. tr rrrrarttrrrr` rr
s -ii -ii`-i:
(viii) rrrrrrrrrrt . ii-i:iiizi -i -iiii`-i, ~i-i:ii-i, i-ii, z-ii,
i`-ii ~ii i-ii`-i-iiii-i :-i : zii-iiii ii -ii-i t: :ii-ii-i ii-iziii`iii ii
it-i -i -itii ii :ii`-iiii`-i :-ii iiiii ii ~i--iii-i i-i t( -i--i -i :-ii
-ici ii ii ti --iii-i i`iii t: --i :iti`-iii ii ii-i it-ii i :ii`-i ii: -iti-iii`-i
-iti t: it -i-i-i:ii-i i ii -i ti -i-iiii`ii, iii ~ii ii-i-ii :-i -ii-i -ii`-iii ii
-ii-i-ii t iii`i -ii-i-i ii i` -i i ~i-ii -i -ii`-i --iii-i t: ii-i:iiizi -i r-
~iii-iiii (-i--i -i i-ii i`i i-ii-i-ii ii`i -ii ti i`-icii t)ii --i-ii ~i-i
i`-iz-iii -iti t i`i-i-ii i`i ii i ~i-iii-i-i--i -i t: i`i ii zii-iii ~ii
~iii-iiii ii i`-ii-i i-i i i`-i( ~i--ii--ii`-ii ii ~iiii -ii-i-i, ~i-iiii ii
-ii`i-i ii`iiii( -i, ~i-iii-i iiiii ii ti-i ~ii -ii -ii --iiii i-i i
i`-i( it z-iii-iii t: -i--i ~i-iiiziiii ti-i i ~ii`-ii`-i (i -iiiii ii: -i-ii
i it-i -i i -iiii i i`-izi--ii i ~iiii i i`ii ii t: -iiiiii ii --iii-i
zi i -ii ii i ~iiii i -i--i -i i`-iii ~i-iii ii -
rrr` tr;rtr r` +r rr trrcr r` r qr trra r rrr` rr` +r.+
r`rrrr r+rrrrr`rr r rrrr`tr tr arr++ (-i. r)
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 271 272 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
:-i :iii zi ii -i i`-ii-i i`iii t: :ii-ii-i -i-ii ii ~i--iii-i i-i -i
-i--i iii -iti : -it :ii-ii-ii ii --iii-i -ii-iii-ii ~ii -i-iii-ii ii --iiii -iti
i-ii t: -it ii, i`-izi-i, :ii`-i-i--ii-ii, -ii`-ii ~ii iii ~i-iiii i -ii-iii
ii --iiii i-ii t: ~i-i--ii ~ii -i-iiii-ii -i-ii i ti i t: : i :-i -i-i i
i`-iz -i--i -i :-t --i-i-i ~i-iii -ii-ii t: --iii it -ii-i-ii t i`i ii`i, i`-iii ii
~iiii ii ~iii-i -iii -iti t ~ii`i-i i`-iiii ~i-iii t: t-i ii --i-i-i ~i-iii
-ii-i-i -ii-i i ii i`-iii i-i t( -i--i -i :-i ii-ii`-i -i -i-iii`-i i i`ii t:
-i--i ~i-iii ziii ~ii -iiii -ii`t-i ~i-i ziiii i i-i-i-ii ~ii-iiii ii
~i-ii`ii iii t: i`i ii -it i`i-ii ii ~i-ii-i -iti t: -i-i-i ii-ii-ii-i-i ii
~i-ii -i-i-ii~ii ~ii i`-iiii ii -ii`z-ii -i i`-i-i-i-i i-i t( -it ~ii-ii -iii`-ii-ii
~ii i`-i-ii---ii-i-i ii i-iii ci-ii t: it ii-i :-i -ii -i ii i -i :i-iii`i-i ti
ii-ii t i`i -it ii-it, -i, -ii-i-i, :, ~ii-i--ii-i, ~ii`i-i-ii-i ~ii -ii-ii i
i`-izi--ii ii i`-iii i-i -i iii -iti i t: iii`-ii-i ~ii i-iii`-i i-i -iti-i ii`-iii
i ii-ii -i ii i`cii-i -i ii -i--i -i -iit-i i`ciiii t -iii (i ~ii i`-iii-i--i ii
-ii`i-i :ii`-iii-i i-i t( (i ii zi ii ~ii-ii -iti i-ii t: ziii ii`z-i-ii ii
~ii--ii t: ~i-iiiziii i ~ii`iiiii i`-i-i-i-i -i ii-i:iiizi ii itii ~ii -ii`i-i-ii
i i`-i( ii-i-i-i ii`i-i -i --iii -i-iia -i :izi-ii ii t-rrartrrrtrrtrrr
rrrrrr-rrrr rrrr rr r rr r r` rtr rr rrr` rrr r rr r +rrrrr r` rrrr tr rr` a +rartr .+
tra+r
. ii-i-i-i ii ii-i - r r` rr rr rr trr :r` rr >rr rra rtrrrtrrtr r` -rrrror rtr tr+rrr` tr
r` rr rr rrrr r rrrrrrrrr.+
-. trrr rrrrr r`rarrr r`rr`+rrr:rrr`+rrrr. trr`tr+rrtrtr rtr+
r tra r`rr`-rr rarrr trrrr`rr`rr`rrtrr trrrrr tr.++
;. -ii-i -ii ii rrrrtrrrrrr i :ii-i -iiciiii :-i :iii -i-i i-i t- traarrrr
rrarrr r` rr` tr-+rr rr rrrrtrarrrrtr tr or rr r tr rr rr trrr + trrr -r trr` ar` tr
trtrrr rr tr tr rr trtr+r a -r rrrrtrrr trrrrr rrrrtrr` rr` a tr r` rtrrr +
rrarrrr`rr`tr rr`rr+rtrrr. rrarrrrr`trrrtrtrrrrrrrrrtrr`rrrtrrr. trrrrrrr+
+rrtrt trr` atrr r r trtr+r a rtr rrrrtrrrrr r` z trtr rrr +r ar.
trtrrr&rrrrrrrtrrrr trr`trrrrr`atrr.+ +rarrrrr`rr`tr arrrrrr rrr`trrrtrr trr`rtrrrr
trrtrrrr rrrrtr r` rr r. trr rrr` rtrr r tr r` rtrrrrrrrr trrrr` &rtrrr + +rrrr rr trr
rr rrrrr r` tr r` rrr rrtrr` trrr r rr rrr+rr ;rrrr` rrr` tr rrr rr r` rrtrrrr r rrr
rr ar r r rr r tr r r r rr r r r rr arr rr r rrr r tr r r r ` r r r .+ qr &r
rrarr&rrrrrrrrrtrarrrr trr`rtrrr+ The Poetic light, Vol. II appendixe p.
544-45.
. rrrr tr rrrtr rrtr rrtrr`-ra trr`tr+rrrtr.+
-. trr (rrr`-r. rrrrr rrrr tr.+
r. +rrtrrr`-rrrtrr arrr, rrrrtrr trr`rrtr rrr.+
rttrrrr` -rrr trttrtr tr rr` trr+rrtrtr ++
=. rrr`-rr`rrrrtrr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrcrrrorrrtr+
rrrr;rr` rrorrr+rrtr r` tr tr ttra a +rr ++
. rcrr`rr ttr+rrrrr`atrr rrrrrr qr +rrr`tr, r rr-r. rrarr`-rar`rr trrrr`rr r
trrr:rrorrrrtr r`rrrr.+ -ii-i-i, --:
. trr`trrrrrrr, rrrtrr`rtrr, trrrrrtrrrrtr-r, +rrrtrtrrrr-rrr, +r+rrrrtrrrr,
+rrr`+rr`trrr-r, +rtrrrtrrra, +rtrrrtrtrrrrtr, +rrrrrrtr, +rr`rrrrrrr`tr-r,
rrrrrrrrr`tr-r, +rr`rrrrrrrr`tr-r, trrrrror, +rrrar-r, rr`+r-rrr`t-ttr-rrarr-rtrr,
srrr` trr` rtrr , trr` rrrrrrr` tr -r, r-rrr r.trr rr tr, tr-rtr` +rr, r` rrr -r,
+rr rrarr -r+
(ttrr`rrr`artr

8. Mammaas originality as Revealed in the


Kvyapraka
Bhmasena in his commentary, Sudhsgara (1722-23 A.D.)on
Kvyapraka (KP) of Mammaa (1050-1100 A.D.) describes him as an
incarnation or personification of the Goddess of Learning. He earned
this praise from the medieval scholarly tradition on account of the
extraordinary nature of his work: r`rr&r rrrrrr-rrrr rrrrrr. r`rrtr rrartrr
trrrrrtr rrrtrrrrrr`rrrrtrrr
{
(Sudhsgara p. 4)
The concluding verse
2
of KP itself brings out the real character
of this work and explains the cause of its popularity. Diverse opinions,
approaches and attitudes concerning literary criticism existed before
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 273 274 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Mammaa wrote his magnum opus. Readers were confounded by
exposition and opposition of these various schools of critical judgment
of literature.
A bridge for understanding literature was needed particularly
after nandavardhana demolished the old concepts and established his
own theory of Dhvani which was immediately opposed by equally learned
critics like Kuntaka, Mahima and Bhoja (11
th
century A.D.). The highway
of literary criticism appeared split up to the learned without revealing the
underlying unity in aesthetic judgment. Klids was considered the best
poet and dramatist by all the schools of criticism. This, in a way, underlined
a certain unity in different critical opinions. Yet, on reading the theoretical
discussions of various critics, this unity of judgement was not manifested.
A comprehensive view of literature seemed to suffer. Emphasis on
transcendental meaning of poetry did not do justice to the beauty of words
and their primary meanings. A certain imbalance in critical judgement
might result if one or another of the theories of Suggestion, Inference or
Strikingness were followed exclusively.
Practical criticism and the practice of understanding poetry
through the traditional method of a commentary generally integrated
different aesthetic categories and thus took a comprehensive view in
understanding literature. Exclusive works on particular theories seemed
to change this outlook. It was Mammaa who realised that the confounding
diversity may do much harm to the discipline and built a bridge of
understanding, composing the diverse elements into one whole and giving
an integrated and comprehensive view of poetry (Kvya) in his celebrated
Kvya-praka. It proved a real illumination (praka) for literature
(Kvya). The scholarly tradition of India has celebrated his 'poetic light'
by uninterrupted and continuous offerings of commentaries to this day
by a galaxy of scholars, two of whom, Ruyyaka and Mikyacandra,
may have been younger contemporaries of Mammaa.
The comprehensive treatment of the topics of alakarstra in
KP does not lack a basic standpoint. The Author of KP does not present
a weak compromise of principles. He takes a principled stand on the
basis of the novel theory of nandavardhan expounded by an equally
original and erudite thinker, Abhinavagupta (10
th
century A.D.) Mammata
is therefore also spoken of as the great crya of the dhvani-school,
Dhvani-prasthna-paramcarya, who, through his original thinking
integrated the diverse principles of Sanskrit poetics on the anvil of the
dhvani-theory and constructed a comprehensive critical theory of Kvya.
His well-executed scheme of integration (Samyag-Vinirmit Samghaan)
derives its strength and inspiration from his mastery over the works of
his predecessors in alakrstra and various other disciplines, such as
grammar, Mms, Nyya, Vaieika, Smkhya, Buddhism and Saivism.
Mammaa's acquaintance with Sanskrit literature is pervasive,
although one would always wish that he had selected more suitable literary
illustrations. Bhavabhtis Uttrarmacarita, for example, deserved to be
quoted in preference to or in addition to two other plays of the same
dramatist. One might even say that even the best of Klidsa has not been
noticed. The selection of examples to illustrate the highest kind of poetry
does not speak highly of the literary sensibility of Mammaa. However,
such criticism of KP fails to realise the basic fact that Mammaa was pre-
eminently engrossed in a scholarly pursuit of legislative criticism
concerned chiefly with giving concise definitons, and systematic
classification, divisions and sub-divisions and fundamentals of various
concepts, so concise that they are packed in a small confass of 142 Kriks,
supplemented with a brief auto-comment (vtti) thereon and nearly 600
illustrations.
Dr. S.K. De makes the following observation regarding the chief
merit of KP : As it combines the merit of fulness with that of
conciseness, it became one of the classic works of Sanskrit Poetics
and Rhetoric which has always maintained a great authority and
popularity through India. It sums up and explains in the succint
form of a brilliant text-book all the previous speculations on the
subject, becoming in its turn the starting point of endless exegetic
works and text-books. As such it occupies a unique position in the
history of Sanskrit Alakra literature (History of Sanskrit Poetics
Vol-I, P. 154, forma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, Calcutta, 1960).
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 275 276 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
M.M. P.V. Kane makes similar observations when he says: In
the alakr literature Kvya-praka occupies a unique position. It
sums up in itself all the activities that had been going on for centuries
in the field of poetics, while it becomes itself a fountain-head from
which fresh streams of doctrines issue forth. Like the Srirakabhya
in Vednta or the Mahbhya in grammar, the Kvyapraka
becomes a starting point for future exegesis and expansion. The
great merit of the work is that it combines fulness of treatment with
conciseness (The History of Sanskrit Poetics, P. 255, Bombay 1951).
Prof. S.S. Sukhankar in his introduction (P.vi) to the
Kvyapraka, Ullsa X (Karnatak Publishing House, Bombay, 1941)
explains Mammaas phenomenal popularity by pointing out that he was
firstly, a man of wide learning, secondly a staunch advocate of a school,
the dhvani school, which had a strong hold on the minds of scholars after
nandavardhana and thirdly one who tried to bring together in his
Kvyapraka all that was best in the systems that preceded him. Similarly,
A.B. Gajendragadkar in his introduction to Kvyapraka (Popular Book
Depot, Bombay, 1969 p. 27) analyses the causes of the immense
popularity of the KP.
First his Kvyapraka, as we saw before, epitomizes all the
important theories, and doctrines that were developed before his
time....... Secondly, his treatment of the various topics, though full,
is concise. Practical considerations, rather than a desire to secure
theoretical exhaustiveness, evidently prevailed with him in dealing
with different subjects. Commenting on the numerousness of
commentaries on KP, Kane says: Except the Bhagavadgt there is
hardly any other work in classical Sanskrit that has so many
commentaries on it. (Ibid., p. 263).
In fact, Mahevara, a commentator on KP remarks that in spite
of commentaries in every house, KP remains as difficult as before
testifying thereby to its popularity, univeral acclaim and the scholastic
toughness of the text.
Mammaa does not lay any special claim to originality, perhaps,
no great Indian author, poet or philosopher ever did. This is true of
nandavardhana, Klids and akara. What is proclaimed as original is
not really original in the sense of being truly new or novel without any
links with the past. The ideas found in KP have a history but the order,
form and construction of these ideas are new. Old ideas are cast into a
new form and shape in order to construct an integrated poetic theory on
the solid rock of the dhvani-theory. Mammaa does not, therefore, merely
sum up old ideas without any objective in view. KP is neither mere index
nor an anthology of critical principles. It represents a fortification of the
dhvani theory against the onslaughts of rival theories on the one hand
and conserves the best of all other thoughts in its vast sweep of Sanskrit
Poetics. Its originality lies in establishing a meaningful synthesis of all
the aesthetic categories along with the supreme significance of rasa-dhavni
in literature.
Thus, it affirms the relevance of all the three kinds of poetry,
with or without a transcendental meaning. This novelty of approach
provided the raison dtre for the diverse traditions of Sanskrit literature
which equally revelled in descriptions of nature, fanciful imagery and
delineation of emotions.
KP is divided into ten chapters (Ullsas) in 142 Kriks, split up
into 212 Stras supplemented by very brief explanations in prose (vtti)
with nearly 600 illustrations from Sanskrit literature. The title Kvya-
praka itself symbolises the sysnthesis of the old titles beginning with
'Kvya' with the new title ending with 'loka' ( as in Dhvanyloka). loka
replaces the use of the old term Alakra in the title of the book. It
signifies acceptance of Vyajan. As a paraphrasing of Kvyloka of
nandavardhana, the title KP affirms its following of the dhvani school
in its basic stand.
KP begins with a charter of independence for the poetic world.
The benedictory verse is couched in popular terms of Ksmr aivism
which propounded freedom of Man in his knowledge and action through
his ultimate identity with iva who creates the world out of His free will
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 277 278 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
as does the artist. The experience of the aesthetic world created by the
free imagination of a poet is not bedevilled by the sense of sorrow. The
aesthetic experience is essentially blissful. The literary world is
presentative and not representative. The poet is creater in his own right,
he is not a co-creater with God. The benedictory verse and auto-comment
thereon are forceful in their well-pronounced proclamation of the
independence and autonomy of literature.
KP is mainly concerned with building up a theory of poetry. A
quick glance at the contents of the ten chapters of the this work will
amply reveal this.
Ulls 1: Purposes, causes, definition and three kinds of poetry as
word and sense without poetical flaws, with poetical
excellences and embellished with poetic figures.
Ulls 2: Words, expressive, indicative and suggestive, yielding
expressed, indicated suggested sense, consideration of
powers of words, namely, abhidh, lakan and vyajan.
Ulls 3: Circumstances making the sense suggestive.
Ulls 4: Two kinds of dhvani or best poetry; their sub-divisions,
the nature of Rasa; different theories of rasa; eight rasas
their corresponding. basic moods (Sthybhvas), thirty
three Vyabhicribhvas, nta rasa, Bhva; rasbhsa and
bhvbhsa; further sub-divisions of dhvani.
Ulls 5: Second kind of poetry (Viz mediocre) and its eight varieties.
Ulls 6: Citra or lowest kind of poetry of word and sense.
Ulls 7: Definition of poetic flaw; Sixteen flaws of word; flaws of
sentence; twentythree defects of sense; circumstances of
flaws turning into excellences; thirteen flaws of rasa.
Ulls 8: Poetic excellence defined and distinguished from
embellishment; three kinds of excellences established by
refuting ten; combination of letters revealing excellences.
Ulls 9: Six figures of words and three styles (Vttis).
Ulls 10: Sixty two figures of speech with sub divisions.
This brief statement of the main contents of KP makes it clear
that Mamma planned the divisions of his chapters according to the terms
of his definition of poetry. Word and Sense, the substantive terms in
defining poetry, pervade the entire frame of his text although the same
are dealt with exhaustively in the second and third ullsas.
The first ulls is devoted to the tat, the Kvya. Doaj guas and
Alakras occuring in the epithets are treated respectively in the seventh,
eighth, ninth and tenth ullsas. Conceiving the chapters in terms of the
definition of poetry is an original approach by Mammaa
3
. It gives a
system to the treatment. In the definition of poetry he reconciles the
different points of view of his predecessors. Through the epithet of
Saguau he suggests the presence of rasa in poetry to which guas are
intrinsically related as attributes. On the face of it, the definition of poetry
is otherwise a mere summing up of old views with one important
difference. He visualises poetical character even in the absence of a distinct
figure of speech. This is in bold contrast to the opinion of those who
could not conceive of poetry without alakra. This approach of KP in
achieving harmony of various views on a subject without compromising
his basic stand and making it explicit on various occasions marks its
uniqueness, originality and speciality. Some brief comments on the
contribution of Mammaa in dealing with different topics are given below:
(i) Purposes of poetry
In stating six purposes of poetry, Mammaa does not merely
sum up the views of Bharata, Bhmaha, nandavaradhana and others, he
relates them to the poet, the patron and the aesthete and proclaims the
supremacy and immediacy of aesthetic rapture (Sadya paranirvti).
(ii) Causes of poetry
Mammaa declares collective causality of poetic genius, erudition
and practice against the opinion of Bhmaha
4
, Rajaekhara
5
and
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 279 280 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
nandavardhana
6
who had emphasised predominant role of pratibh in
poetic creation. Mammaa, following Dain and Rudraa, takes a
practical view and holds that the three together constitute the cause of
actual poetic activity.
(iii) Three kinds of poetry
It is Mammaa who, for the first time, very clearly uses the
terms uttama, madhyama and adhama for the three kinds of poetry.
nandavardhana who designates dhvani as kvya may not unhesitatingly
accept the three divisions of poetry even though he had himself used the
terms gubhtavyangya and citra for the second and third varieties of
kvya. KP propounds three divisions of poetry taking again a practical
view of literature in Sanskrit. After all, the great variety of Sanskrit
poetry in all ages and times could not be an illustration of dhvani only.
Yet, its claim to poetry is validly and universally accepted. Mammaa
does justice to the vast variety of poetry by defining it in descriptive
terms and by grading it acccording to a standard of judgement believing
in the supremacy of feelings and sentiments without denying the status
of poetery to other forms accepted in a hierarchical order.
(iv) Powers of words
In dealing with Abhidh and Lakan Mammaa primarily follows
Mukula Bhaa, the author of Abhidhvrttimtk, although he does not
accept that Lakan can be subsumed under Abhidh as Mukula does.
Mammaa patterns his six divisions of Lakan following Mukula.
However, Mammaa disagrees with Mukula, in many matters of detail.
For example, according to Mukula the individual in gauranubandhyahs is
indicated but, according to Mammaa, it is presumed through arthpatti.
According to Mukula, updna Lakan yields the 'sense eating during
the night' in the famous illustration of a fat Devadatta not eating during
the day time, whereas, Mammaa follows Kumrila, Bharthari and
Abhinavagupta in holding it to be a case of arthpatti.
Mammaa excels in advancing arguments in favour of suggestion
and in demolishing all the views opposed to this theory. His refutation of
the various shades of opinion of the Mimsakas, grammarians, Vedntins
Naiyyikas and old poeticists opposed to the vyajan and advancement
of arguments in favour of vyajan based on Abhidh, Lakan and
vyajan is marvellous for its scholarly exposition.
He demolishes the theory of inference propounded by Mahima
Bhaa by analysing the examples of bhrama, dhrmika and niheacyuta
and by concluding that the hetu in such cases in anaikntika, viruddha
and asiddha. The powerful defence of suggestion by Mammaa finally
settled the war in favour of the Dhvani theorists and great master of
opposite thought like Kuntaka, Mahima and Bhoja were left without much
following in the centuries succeeding Mammaa.
(v) Varieties of Dhvani
Mammaa finaly holds that in rasdi sequence is imperceptible.
Abhinavagupta in his explanation of nandavardhana's view on this point
accepted perceptibility of the sequence in rasdi
7
:
According to Abhinavagupta there are thirty five main divisions
of dhvani, Mammaa extended this number to fifty one. The subdivisions
of dhvani numbered 7420 in Locana whereas in Mammaa they make a
total of 10455.
(vi) Poetic flaws
The credit for final classification of poetic flaws on certain
principles goes to KP. which makes a great advancement over the views
of Vmana. Nearly twentytwo poetic flaws
8
are propounded originally by
Mammaa taking one from their vague outlines in earlier literature. The
flaws relating to alakras described by Bhmaha, Vmana and others
were put by Mamma under the general scheme of defects.
(vii) Poetic Excellences
We owe the clear-cut formulation of the distinction between
guas and alakras to KP. Moreover, KP establishes firmly the
number of guas and restrict it to three, prasda, mdhurya and ojas
repudiating successfully the position of Vmana who had admitted
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 281 282 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
ten guas each of word and sense. Following nandvardhana, Mamma
also holds that letters, vtti and sanghan (compostion) are dependent
upon guas.
(viii) Poetic figures
KP deals with six sabdlakras, Vakrokti, Anuprsa, Yamaka,
les, Citra and Punaruktavadbhsa. He gives only the main divisions
of these figures discarding many subdivisions so assiduously illustrated
by the old poeticists. He has no sympathy for prahelik or poetic puzzles.
In the scope of the Vttynuprsa he includes three vttis, upangarik,
paru and komal which are known to be three styles according to Vmana.
The treatment of 62 arthlakras (Mammaa, wrote only upto
parikara in KP) is not as remarkable as in Alakrsarvasva of Ruyyaka.
However, it is significant for holding anvayavyatireks as the basis of
their division into that of word and sense, for formulating concise
definitions of the alakras, for discarding unimportant sub-divisions
and in propounding new sub-divisions. Besides being an lakrika,
Mammaa was a great grammarian. Most of the divisions of upam are
based on the principles of grammar. Mammaa divides the figure virodha
into ten kinds. These are based on the four classes of words accepted by
the grammarians. Mammaa is never afraid of repudiating the old opinions.
He does not accept Mlopam and Raanopam accepted by Dain and
Rudrata. He believes, however, in Ml form of Rpakanidaran,
Prativastpam, Vyatireka and Dpaka. He establishes distinctiviness of
Ananvaya and upameyopam against the opinion of Rudrata who included
these under the varieties of upam. He maintains that parikara is a positive
alakra and not merely negation or absence of apurtha. By including
Hetu under the Kvyalinga, KP refutes the opinion of Dain who
maintained its independence.
Mammaa is greatly indebted to his predecessors in alakrastra
and to various other disciplines including grammar.
He is by no means a slavish follower as he retains his
independence of thought and originality in systematically dealing with
the various problems and aspects of Sanskrit criticism. This is amply
proved by the fact that he was never afraid of controverting the views of
Bhmaha, Udbhaa, Vmana, Rudraa, nandarandhana, Abhinavagupta
and Mukula Bhaa. He shows courage in finding faults in great poets
like Klids and Bhavabhti. He wastes no words in expressing the subject
in hand concisely. Brevity is the soul of wisdom. Bhmasena Dkita
offers full-throated praise for this quality of bravity and conciseness of
KP in its masterly treatment of alakrastra:- rra rtrrrtrrtrrr
rrrrrr-rrrr rrrr rr r rr r r` rtr rr rrr` rrr r rr r +rrrrr , r` rrrr tr rr a +rartr .+
References
1. Bhmasena says: r r` rrrrrrtrr:r`rr >rrrrartrrrtrrtrr`-rrrrorrtr tr+rrr`tr
r`rr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr.+
2. trrr rrrrr r`rarrr r`rr`+rrr:rrr`+rr rr. trr`tr+rrtrtr rtr+
r tra r` rr` -rr rarr rtrrrr` rr` rr` rr trr tr rrr r tr .++
3. Ruyyaka the first commentator on KP notes the above fact thus: traarrrr
rrarrrr`rr`tr- +rrrrrrrrtrarrrrtr trorrrr trrr rrtrrr+ trrr -r trr`ar`tr
trtrrr rr tr tr rr trtr+r a -r rrrrtrrr trrrrr rrrrtrr` rr` a tr r` -rtrrr +
rrarrr r` rr` tr rr` rr +r trrr . rrarr rr r` trr rtr trr rr rrrrtr r` rrr trrr . tr rrrr +
+rrtrt trr` atrr r r trtr+r a rtr rrrrtrrrrr r` z trtr rrr +r ar.
trtrrr&rrrrrrrtrrrr trr`trrrrr`atrr.+ +rarrrrr`rr`tr arrrrrr rrr`trrtrr trr`-rtrrrr
trrtrrrrrrrrtr r`rrr.+ trrrrr`rtrrr trr`-rtrrrrrrrr trrrr`&rtrrr+ +rrrrzrrtrr
rr rrrrr r` tr r` rrr rrtrr` trrr r rr rrr+rr ;rrrr` rrr` tr rrr rr r` rr trrrr r rrr
rr ar r r rr r tr r r r rr r r r rr arr rr r rrr r tr r r r ` r r r .+ qr &r
rrarr&rrrrrrrrrtrarrrr trr`-rtrrr+- Dwivedi, R.C., The Poetic light, Vol.
II. Delhi, 1970.
4. rrrr tr rrrtr rrtr rrtrr`-rtr trr`tr+rrrtr.+
5. trr (rrr`-r. rrrrr rrrr tr.+
6. +rrtrrr`-rrrtrr arrr. rrrrtrr trr`rrtr rrr.+
rttrrrr` -rrr trttrtr tr rr` trr+rrtrtr ++
7. rcrr`rr ttr+rrrrr`atrr rrrrrr qr +rrr`tr, r rr-r. rrarr`-rar`rr trrrr`rr r
trrr:rror-rrrtr r`rrrr.+ Locana, 248-49.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 283 284 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
8. trr` trrr rrrr -rr rtrr` rtrr -trrrrrtrrr rtrr-+rrr trt rrrr-rrr-+r+rrrrtrrr r-
+rrr`+rr`tr-rr-r-+rtrrrtrrra-+rtrrrtrtrrrrtr-+rrrrrrtr-+rr`rrrrrrr`tr-r,-
r` rrr rrrrr` tr -r-+rr` rrr rrrrr` tr -r-trrrrr or-+rrrar -r-rr` +r-rrr` t-ttr-
trrrarr-rtrr-srrr` trr` rtrr -trr` rrrrrrr` tr -r-r-rrr r.trr rr tr-tr-rtr` +rr-
r`rrr-r-+rrrrarr-r....... :
(Typed)

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~i-iiiiii, ~i-iii--iii, -iiii`-i-ii iii ~iii` i -i-ii ii -ii-ii-ii iiai ii
:ii-i ii iti i`-i-iii: ~i-iii (i :i-iii`-i t: --ii :i-iii`-i ii -i-ii-i-iii`-ii (-i izii`-ii
i`-iz-iii i-i ii -i-i :iii-i i`iii t: :-i-i -ii i`i-i-ii -ii-i-ii i`-i-ii t :-ii i`-iii
ii ~ii`iii i`-ii-i iiaii ii t, -ii -iti:
:-i ii-i -i iiai ii -i-i-i i -zi it-i-ii -i i`-i-ii: -i-i-i ii -icii
rrrrrr r`rrartr r`rrr&rtr ii ii-i-ii -i -ii :ii`-i t-ii t: --iii -iii`-ii-ii ii i
-i ~i-ii-i -i ti-ii t; -it ~i-ii-i ~ii -i-i-ii-i -i, :ii-ii-i ~ii -i-ii-i -i, -i-ii`-i ~ii
:ii`-iii -i -ii -i-i--ii ciii-i ii ~ii--i ti t: -zii ii it-i-ii ii (i :ii-i
iii ii t: :-i ii-i ii -i-i --ii ziiiii -i-iiii ii t: --iii-i-i: ~i-iii-i-i--i
-iii --iii iii~ii i -zi -ii ~ii`ii ~ii-izii ~ii ~iii`i-i ti ii-ii t: :-i-i
ii` iiai ii i ~i-ii`-iii tiii -ii --i ~ii-ii i`-iii -i-i ii --i-i-i-ii ~ii -ii`-iii
ii i-ii t ii : i` t-i ii iiai -i -i i -zii -i -iiiii` --i-i ti ii, :-iii -i i i` -iii-i t :
-i :ii. ii.~i.-iitii ~ii, i-ii-i -ii-iii`-i, -ici-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii -iii
-iiii-ii -i-i-i i`-iii`-i<ii-ii i :ii`-i >izi-i-i-i t i`i-ii i`-izi-i -i -ii ~iii-i,
~i-i-i-ii-i ~ii ~iiii-i ii -iiiii i`-i-ii ii: -i-i-ii--ii -ii-iziii -iii iiz-ii
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 285 286 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
zi-izi-i i ~i:ii`-i-i i`-ii-i i. iii`--i-i-: iii -i -ii -ii--iii-ii ii -ii :iii
i t: :-i ~i-i-i i -i --t ~ii-i :iii-i ~ii`i-i i-ii t: iizii -i ti i`i-i ii-ii
-i -i-i -iii`t-iziii ii ~iii-i i`iii t --i-i --iiii -iti-itiiiiii -iiiii ziiii
i`ci--i, :ii. -ii-ziiii i`ci--i -iii i. ii-iii ziiii i`ci--i i -ii-i -ii ---ici-iii
t: ii-iii -iii`t-iziii ii ~ii-ii :ii`-iii -i ~ii-iii`i-i i-i -ii-i -iri -i-iiii i.
-ii-: ii -iii ~i-i i`-ii-ii ii -i ri -i i-i-i t i`i-ti-i :-i ziiiii-i i -i-i-i -i
~ii-ii ~i-i-i -i--ii`-i -i-i ii t: .....
(+rrrrtrrrrrrtrr, rrrtrrrrrrr rrrttrrartr, {~

10. +rrrrrrtrrrrtr arrrtrtr`r.


+rrr r rttr trrrr` tr r` rrr rrrtrrrrrr
rra rrrrtrar r` rrttr+rtrtr trrtrr` tr -r+
rrrrttrarr rrrarrtrtrttr +rr +rrtrrr` tr trtr
trttrtrrttr-r rrr` rtrarrar r` rrrtr ++
r` rrr` trrr trr` rrrrtr` trr ra rrrrrr rrrrrrttrrrrr +
rrttrr` -rtr r` rr` rr r`trrrrartrr +rrttrr rrr r rr` tr++
-iti-iit iiii ~ii` i-i-ii -iiii-ii , -ii` -i:i-ii-ii-ii-iiii ii -i ii-i:iiizii -ii
-i--iii-ii -ii --iii` -iii i<iii -i iiziii-i zi -ii` i --ii i` -i-ii i-ii` -i: -iii` t-i , -iziii ,
ii-iziii, ii-i-ii-ii-ii, ~i-iiiziii, -iiiziiiii`i -ii-iiiziii-i-i -ii-ii--i-i:
ii--ii-ii` --i-i-iii zii-i-ii-i , -iii` t-i-i--i-i zi -i-ii , i iii i` i-iiii` -ii i -i ii-i-i :iiii-i -i
:ii` -iiii--ii-i iiziii-i ziii--i

-i -ii -i i-i : (-i--i ziii -i-iiiziiiiii


-i-ii`i`-ii-ii`-i :ii-ii -ii-i: :i-iii-i--i-ii`: -i-iziiiiii -iii`t-ii`-ii`-i iii-i: izi-ii
-iii`t-ii`-i<ii`-i iiii-iii:: -iiiziii i -it i` -i--i-i -ii i ii ii-ii-i-i-i iiziii --i-i
izi-i -i--i ciiiii` -i: iii-ii-i :i-i -i-i ii-i-ii i-izi i-i-i : ii ii iii` i-i -i -i, -i i` ci-i :cii -i-i
-ii-i -ii` i i-i -ii i-i i-iiiii -iiiziiii` -i-i -iii` t-iziii-ii` i :i-i -ii` -ii` -i:
+rrrrtrrrrtr rrrrtrr rrrorrrr
Q +rrrr. - trrarrrrttrrr`rr>r rrrtrrrrrrrrrtr+
trrrrrrorrrr. r`rrrr`tr rr+rrrrrr++
Q r`r+rrrr. --rtrrrrrrrtrrr`rtr. trarrarrrr`rrrrrr`rr+
rrrrrar rtrttrr trttrrr r`rrcrtr++
Q rrr`rr+r. -trrrrrr rr +rrrrr` rr -r trtr rrrtrra r` rr` rr` rrr rr trrr` -rrrrrrr +
Q +r+rrrrrr: - rrrr orrtrr trrrrar r` rrrr trtrrrrrrrr trr trrr +
rrtr r`tr-rr`rrrrrrr rrrrtr arr rrr trrr`ar`tr++
Q . - rr rrrr r` rrtr trttrrrrrrrrrr;rtr r r +
rrrrrra -r rrttrrrttr r` trrtrr`rrrrr+rr.++
Q rrrrrrrrrrtrrrr sartrrr -+rttr rrrr r` rttrr rrr +rr trrr .+ r` rrtr r` rr
qrrtrr r` r-rrr` ttrtr tr. +rr` r-rrr` ttrtrrrr r;r+ trrr .
rrrrrrr`>rtrrr`r rrrrrr`r tra-rt rrrrrr`r+ trrr.+
i-i-i-ii i` ii -i -i zii-i : -it -::i-i ci -i : :iii` i -i: i` i-ii-it: izi-i
-ii-i-ii`ii-iii-i -i-ii: -iii i`t i-i: -
rrrrrr rrrtr -r trrrrarr trtrrrrr+
+rr`rrrtr;r rrrrrtr trrrrrrrrarrrrrr++
trr rrrtrrr trrrrr trr r` rrrrrtrarr rrrr +
rrrrar rr&rrr ra trr`trrtr rrtrrrrr++
-iiiziii-i-i ii-iziiii`-ii`-i -ii`-ii`-i-iiii: -i-ii-icii- i-i-i
-i -ii<ii-iii i-ii-i-iii iii ii-i-ii iziiiii t i-i iii-iiii i -i i-ii :
iizicii:i`i izi-ii -iii`t-ii`-i<ii -ii-i :ii`-iiii-i-i-iiii-i-i :i-iiiiii`-iiii-i:
~i-i ii-i-i:iiiii` -iii -iti
-
i-i:ii-iii -i -ii-iiziii-i -i-i ziiii` -ii---i
i i` -iiiii-ii-i-
r tr rrar r trr-r r tr rrrr r trr rrrrr+
rrrtr rr rrrrrrrr +rrtr rrrr rrr .++
;
-iiiizi -i :ii` -iiii` ii i i-ii-iiiiii -iiiiziii -i-i -i iii` i i` -i-iiiii-ii-i-
-i-i -i iii`i ti ziii-i : -ii -i i: i-ii: zii i ~iiii-i -i : (-..-s -itiiii) -iii -i-
zi:i-iiiii -ii-i : i- ~iit -i--iii :i-iii-i (.--- -itiiii):
~i -i -i -i i i -i --i -i i -i -i ti ` --i i i i i i i :
;
-i i -i -i i ` i i
-ii-iziii-i-ii`--ii-ii`i -ii-i-ii-iiii`i-ii`i -i-i-i-i--i-i-i i`-i-i-iiziiii`-ii`-i
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 287 288 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
i--ii-i :ii`-iiii`ii-i: (-ii`--i-i iii:iiizi -i:iiizi-i-iiziiziiiii-iiii`-iii-i
~ii`ci-ii-iiii-iii`-i-ii-i-i i`t--ii-ii -i -ii`i-izii zi-i (i`i- -, i. ;s):
-i-i -ii i:i-ii ii -iicii-i -i--i -ii i` -ii -i :i-i-i --i zi -iii` -i: i-ii-ii ii-i-i
-i i` i -i--i , i` i -ii-i ii-i-ii i i` -ii` -i :ii` -iz zi -i -i-iii` t-i :iz-i
-i-iiii-i -i iii--i-i-iiziii-i : ii-i iiit i-i-i iii-i -ii -i -i-ii:: :i` -i -ii-i-i-i i i:
-ii-i -ii -ii iiii i--i -i i i` ii-i : -i -i -i >ii i` -i<ii-ii-ii` -i -ii ~i-iii i` t i` -ii` -i` -i-
i` -i-ii ii iiii:-i <i-i : ziii -iii` t-i-ii -i i -iri i tii--ii-iti -ii-i--i-i ii-ii-i
ii-i i`i-iii i--i-i ii, iizii -ii`: i`iiiiii:-ii-i: (-i i`-iii-ii :iz-ii-ii
-i-iiii-i ~i-iiiziii -i-i-i-i--i-i-ii ii-i-i zi-i-ii`i --iii-i: -ii-izi-iiii -i
i -i-i ii zi ~ii -i iii` iii: ~i-i -ii -ii -iii: i -i-i -ii ciziiii` -i: it-ii, i` iizi -ii` -i:
: i i i -i i i ` -i : i ti i -i -i i i ` -i i -i i i ` --i -i i ~i i -i -i : ........-i i i
it i` -iii` -ii-ii-i-iii` ii-ii i -i-i-i iizi -i --i-i-ii -ii` i -i-ii i` -i -i -i i` iiii iii -ii -i-i -i
:ii`-iiii`i-i -izii-i:
tra+rr .
. r` rr` rr r` rrrr rratrrrrrrr rrrrrrr +rrtrrrr -r r` tr+ trr rratrrrr
rarr`a+ +rrrrrarr+rar>rrrrtr rrrrrr`rr rrrar`rrrrrtr trtrrrr>rrrr--r+
+rr trrrrr` rrr` trrtrrr trrrr` a trtr +rr rrarrrrrrtrra +rrtrrrr
trrrrrr`arrrr, trtr ttrrtrrrrtrrtr ttrtr -r s+rrrr`-rtrr rrr`trrrrrarrrrtr+
rrrrtrrr`rr rrrtrtr trr`trrrrr`atrrrr+ rr`-rr`rrrr.+
-. r rarrrtr:r tr>rrr. rrrrr`trrr+
trtrrrttrrrrrt ra rr-rrr trrrrr`rrrrr++
;. -i-i-iii :-i-i-
r tr;rrr r trr`-rrr r trr r`rcrr r trr rrrrr+
r tr rrrr r trtrrrr rrr:r`trrr rr rrtr++
. (i) trr rrrrr a r a rrrr rrarrr :r r` tr rrtrr rrtr rrr + rrrrrrrar r , .. :
(ii) rtr. trrrrrrra r` rrrrtrrrrrrr+ trrr:
(ttrr`rrr`artrrr

11. Percept-like Experience in Bhvika


The Poet by virtue of his poetic intuition which is described in
mystic language as the third eye of Trilocana (Three-eyed) directly perceives
every form of existence
1
past, present and future. Sometimes, the poet
delights us by the picturesque presentation of the things gone by; on
occasions, he paints a vivid and striking picture of the shape of things to
come.No doubt, a historian also unfolds the past and a prophet gives the
glimpses of the future but, matter-of-fact as they are, they can not present
the past or the future as though it were present. Only a poet can do it.
rrr:r. rrrrrrrr`trrrtr rtr trtrortrr orrr.+
rrr`rtrrrrrtrrttrrrtrr trrr`rrrrrrrrr`rrr.++
(Rjatarangii,1.4.)
This present-like representation of the past and the future, which
is the tangible result of the poets power of visualization, is technically
called Bhviklkra
+rtrrtrrrrrtrrr. trtrorrrrrrrtr +rrr`rrrrr :
(Alakrasarvasva)
Older poeticians like Bhmaha and Dandin described it as a quality
pervading a literary work.
2
+rrr`rrrtrr`rrr`tr trr. trrrr`rrrr rrrr Here the
use of Prahuh suggests that even before Bhmaha this concept of Bhvika
was well-recognized though probably for the sake of classification, the
learned poeticians were obliged to include it under alakras:-
+rrr`rrrtr -r r`rrrrrrrrrrt trrrrtr.
Udbhata, however, was the first lakrika who assigned to it
the status of a definite alakra of a Vkya, albeit, Pratihrendurja, his
commentator struggled to retain its old concept like Atiayokti of Bhmaha
and lesa of Dandin. Bhvika in its early development enjoyed a superior
status than a mere Alakra. It was probably because it is concerned with
the presentation of not an aspect of a thing as the Upam etc., are but
with the presentation of the whole event, past or future. Ruyyaka (1200
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 289 290 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
A.D.) in his exposition of this Alakra explains the word Bhvika in
two ways. They are as follows:-
(i) rrr`rrtrr +rrr +rrrrr. >rrtrr`t trr`trr`rrrtrrrttrrr`tr+
(ii) +rrrr +rrrrr rr rrr. rrr;rtrr`tr r`rr`rrrrr trr:rrttrrr`tr +
The first idea partly originated in Dandin
3
who said: ii-i: i-ii`i:iii:
ii-i-iii`-ii`z-ii`-i-i:: And this embodies the well-known theory of poetics
that poetry is the representation of the poets vision (ii`-i--i i`t i-iii-i).
In dramaturgy the term Bhva which Bharata classified into fortynine
types, has a technical sense with which we are not particularly concerned
at present though it may be noted in passing that the dramaturgical Bhvas
or mental states which suggest Rasa into being have their origin in the
poets mind.
rrrttrrtr +rrr +rrrrr +rrr s-rtr+ (~ii`i-i-iii-ii)
The term Bhva is used here in its more popular sense of a
poetic idea. The reader with aesthetic susceptibility throbs with poets
ideas which are reflected in him. Bhvika is thus a reflection of the
poets vision in the readers mind.
rrr` r+rrrtr >rr trr` t trr` trr` rrrtrrrrr` -r.+
trrr rtr >rr trr` t rrr` rrtr+rrrtrr` trr` rrrrrr ++
This reflective unity or the infusion of the spirit of the poet and
the reader (ii`-i>ii-iii-ii`-ii-ii`-i-i-i- :ii`-iti-ii) makes it possible for the
latter to witness the poets creation as his own. This accounts for the
visualization of the poets idea by the reader.
The second explanation of Bhvika viz., +rrrr +rrrrr rr rrr.
rrr;rtrr`tr r`rr`rrrrr trr:rrttrrr`tr draws attention to the important role that
Bhvan plays in the preset alankara. In the case of such scriptural texts
as ii`iii-i-i and ~i-ii :iii-i mimamsaka admits a transformation of the
literal meaning the past tense and the third person, etc., used in these
sentences are turned into the present tense etc. This change is given the
name of Bharana by the followers of Kumarila (Jayaratha in his comment
on Tantrloka 1, p. 177). Bhvan involved in the concept of Bhvika
has some affinity with that of Mmsaka in-so-far-as it means the
apprehension of the past or future as if it were present. The meaning and
the function of Bhvan with reference to Bhvika will be better understood
by the epistemic analysis of the aesthetic cognition of this Alakra. To
begin with Bhvika is the consciousness of the not-present as present. It
is an almost perceptual cognition of the past or future i.e., mediate objects
presented in imagination. An act of cognition presupposes the triple form;
(i`iii) the subject who knows, the object that is known and the means of
cognition and perception is distinguished by its directness or immediacy
(-iiii--i or ~iiii--i). In the first explanation of the term Bhvika which
explained the unification of the thought and feeling of the poet and the
aesthete, we were given the clue to the subject who knows. It is the
Sahradaya or aesthete-who in his mirror-like heart receives the reflection
of the poets intention. It is the cogniser or the subject. The events or
ideas described in Bhvika are the objects. And they are mediate since
they belong either to the past or the future. What does then make them
shine as if immediate? To this Ruyyaka replies that either the theme is
inherently charming or even when it is not the poets pictorial style
(Varan) present it so beautifully that it seems to live before our eyes.
According to Bhmaha, the contributory causes to this are the presentation
of a picturesque exalted and wonderful idea, the adaptability of the story
to being presented on the stage or conveyed by gestures and a harmony
of words.
4
To this list Dandin seems to add 1. i-ii iiii` --i -i-i ii -i--i i-i ii-i
2. i`-iziiii-ii -iii-ii-ii`iii 3. -ii-i-ii-ii 4. -ii`-ii`-i i-ii-ii i-ii-iii`i
-i--i-i::
(1) Artha or idea should be extremely striking (~i-ii-i) and
that (2) they should be presented in perspicuous style (-ii-ii-i-iii-i-i).
This emphasis on zii-iii-i-ii or perscuity of words by Bhmaha on
-i`-ii-ii-ii -ii`-i: by Dandin and on -ii-ii-i-iii-i by Udbhata has led
Ruyyaka to believe that Bhvika is essentially a description of such
characteristics of an object which are given to it by the force of poetic
style (Varan) though he has not denied that even a real theme which
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 291 292 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
is not poets creation or :iiii`-ii`-iii can come under Bhvika. From these
observations it follows that the extremely striking ideas or events couched
in beautiful words and help to make the objects as if immediate. Jayaratha-
a commentator on Ruyyaka has laid a special emphasis on the charm of
words and meanings-Vcyavcakaramanyaka. According to him there
will be no Bhvika if either the word on the meaning is not beautiful
ziii-iii`t-i or ziii-iiiii to borrow the terminology of Kuntaka and
Prara Bhatta are particularly desirable; strikingness of the idea and
the charming effect of the words are the modus operandi for the present-
like representation of the objects. So far we have discussed the subject
who knows and the objects that are known. Bhvan is the means. For
normal perception we need the aid of an organ of sense to perceive an
object which should be in immediate vicinity of the perceptive sense. In
his ordinary perception the cognizer is conditioned by time and space and
the law of cause and effect, an aesthete with the help of peculiar poetic
power called Bhvan raises himself above all these. Like a mystic the
poet and aesthete with aesthetic susceptibility visualize as actually present
before him a thing of the past or the future. Bhvan is the contemplative
power innate in the poet and the reader. Perceptuality in Bhvika is thus
the result of this Bhvan coming in contact with mediate yet wonderful
objects beautifully presented by the poet.
Now we might discuss in what respect the poetic cognition of
Bhvika differs from the consciousness that results from such alakras
as iii`--i-ii-i, ~ii`-iziiii`-i, :i-iii-ii-ii-:iii, ii-ii`-ii, --iii-iii`-i and -i-i-i. In
both iii`--i-ii-i and iii`-ii there is a cognition of a thing which is not there
but while in the former where one thing is mistaken for another similar
to it the cognition is erroneous and based on similarity, in latter the
reader gets the vision of a thing exactly as it was or as it would be. Thus
iii`--i-ii-i represents a mistaken identity and consequently that cognition
thereof is erroneous; Bhvika gives immediate vision of mediate and is
not erroneous in its cognitive results.
In Atiayokti the i`-iii`i swallows up the i`-iii e.g., in -i-:i:i-i the
Upamnas moon altogether takes in the -i-ii, the face. Hence Atiayokti
is a consummated introsusception of Siddha Adhyavasya. The process
of Bhvika-cognition has no ~ii-iii when a thing of the past or the
future is visualized; the reader is conscious of its pastness and the futurity.
The past and future are invariably presented here in their relevant forms
which avoids the element of ~ii-i-iii or ~iitii --i in the process or resultant
cognition of Bhvika.
Bhvika vs. trtrrrrrrrrttrorr
When the poet presents to us a past or future thing as though it
were present one is likely to mistake it for utprek i-i of course, because
the words :-i, -i-i , zi , etc., are absent. But there is a fundamental
difference between the two. Whereas in utprek there is introsusception
in process of completion (-iii ~ii-i-iii) and --:iii is -iii-i-ii which like
knowledge and the feelings of pleasure and pain is essentially an attribute
of the self. But in Bhavika the immediacy is not the form of -iii-i-ii and
thus it is not the exclusive attribute of the self because it has reference to the
objects also which Bhvan makes to shine distinctly before the minds eye.
Udbhata has put ii-ii`-ii and iii`-ii in one group. Mammata
describes ii-ii`-ii immediately after Bhvika. Are they similar in any
respect.? The t-i in ii-ii`-ii and the ideas in Bhvika must be striking to
be poetical. But the strikingness of ideas is not an invariable sign of the
signet-the immediacy. Bhvika-consciousness is essentially characterized
by the immediate vision of the mediate. This is like a mystics visualization
of the objects of his own creation. A striking theme and an attractive
style present the picture clearly but there is no invariable relation (poetic
of course) between the two. Hence the cognition of Bhvika and
Kvyalinga are different.
The distinction of Bhvika-cognition from Svabhvokti and
Rasavad will be of greater interest. Svabhvokti is a penpicure of such
actions and dispositions of an object which must be characteristic of it.
The theme must be poetically striking and should bear testimony to the
poets power of minute observation. No doubt, Svabhvokti is based on
realism yet none but a poet can effect it. The matter depicted should be
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 293 294 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Suksma which Ruyyaka interprets as ii`-i--i-iii-i i-i. It requires a poets
power of observation to observe it in every detail-small or big. And
further, it requires the poets power of expression to present the object
with perfect vividness. Take an example of Svabhvokti:
-rrrrrrrrr r` trrrrr`tr rrrr rrrrrrtrr
ttrrarrrr r trrr` tr rr a rrrr r` trrr-rt.+
rrt rrrrtrr. r`rrrr`tr tr`trtrrtrrrrt
rr tr-rrr rrrrrr rrt! trrttr arrr rr trr ++
Here the picturesque presentation of the action of a bee seems to
dance before our eyes. An aesthete who has the faculty of self-
identification with the events feels that this is so natural of a bee. Ruyyaka
calls it -i--i -i -ii. Now so far-as perfect vividness is concerned svabhvokti
and Bhvika resemble one another. But while the former is based on
realism the latter has a striking theme as its starting points and thus
--iii-iii`-i is the cognition of -iii`ii -i--i or ordinary objects possessed of
subtle characteristics, the iii`-ii is essentially the cognition of strikingly
wonderful or -iiii-i. There is one more important point of difference
between the two which we shall take up in the course of distinction of
Bhvika from Rasavad. In both Rasvad and Bhvika what is described
shines as if dancing before our eyes (i:-i-i) and in both there is an
element of relish (-i-i-ii). Beyond these there is no point of similarity
between the two. Rasavad has Rati etc., which are particular mental states
as its content and these are evolved by appropriate vibhvas etc. Bhvika
describes events or ideas and does not have the particular mental states
as its content. This, then is the difference in respect of the content. From
Rasavad, Bhvika differs in respect of the form of cognition too. Rasavad
implies the presentation of that Rasa which happens to be subordinate to
another Rasa. In this cognition, neither there is any reference to the
temporal and spatial distinctions nor the cognized is known to be different
from the cognition. This is in the words of Ruyyaka -iiiii-i :i-iii`-i as
distinct from -ii-i:i-iii`-i in Bhvika. This universalized cognition is the
result of ri-i-ii or the correspondence of heart to the aesthetic object.
And the form of cognition can be represented simply as I ~it-i. This is
like the experience at the state of i-ii-i or supra-monism where this
merges into I. Thus while the cognition of Rasavad involves no
distinctions, that of Bhvika does. Bhvika-cognition refers to the past
and the future. Here the cognizer is conscious of the distinctions of the
subject, object and the process of knowledge although he regards them
essentially non-different. The Bhvika-cognition can be represented as
I know this :-it ii-iii`-i. Here also I is the substratum of the this,
because ultimately this or :-i is the manifestation of I or ~it-i to be
explicit. Bhvika represents the objective apprehension of the events which
are poets creation and therefore ultimately rest in the poet. Ruyyaka
calls it -ii-i-i :i-iii`-i which his commentator Jayaratha explains as :-it
ii-ii-iii`-i -ii-ii-iii`iii-i :i-iii`-i. This cognition resembles the experience of
the subjects who belong to the vara category of aiva system and who
are technically called vidyeswaras. It follow from this that speaking in
philosophical term of aiva-monism, Rasavad apprehends or cognizes
I; --iii-iii`-i vividly represents thisor and Bhvika is the cognition of
I thisor ~iti`-i-i perhaps evenly balanced. The following example aptly
illustrates the Bhvika
a+rr rr t r -rtr. ortr trrrrz
trrr r`trtrr rrr`trr`-rar rrarr`r rtrr+
+rrtrrar`rr-rrarr -r r`rrrr-rrtrr
rrrarrtr rrrrrrrrtr-rrrr`rr rrrrrrr++
Here Dusyanta narrates to his companion Vidaka the love-
sweet actions of his cherished one. Such as, the foot being pricked by
Darbha sprouts. The event is past but Dusyantas emotionally ornate
representation makes them live again. Vidakas reaction to it is quite
appropriate. r`rra tr srrr trrrrrr r`tr rrrrarrr`rr+
Here the use of rr rr arrr` rr (I perceive) is very significant. It
represents the form of cognition that arises from the vivid description of
the past and the future.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 295 296 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
References
1. trr r` -ror+rrrtrttrtrrrr`rrr`tr rrrtr+
rr trrorrtrrtrtrrr +rrrrrrrrrrrrr`trr.++
2. The commentator on Bhatti would interpret the word :ii-i as the part
of poetic composition and not a literary work.
3. It is significant to note that Bhoja radically differs from all alamkarikas
in his description of Bhvika. But his definition of it as
trrr`+rtrrrtr rrrr rr`a rrrrr+rrrrr+
rrrrrarrr rr rttr r`rr`rr +rrr`rrr r`ra.++ trttrtrrrrar+rtr, -=r
Clearly follows the etymological meaning of Bhvika but which is
otherwise substantially different from its generally admitted concept
as the presentation of past and future as if immediate.
4. r`-rrrar-rra+rtrrrtr rrrrrr. trr`+r (r`r rrtrtrr+
rrarrrrrrrtrr -rr`tr trtr tr tr-rortr++ +rrrrrrrrrrt-;--.
(S.V., University Oriental Journal, Vol II, 1959)

12. +rrr`rrr trtrorrrrrrrtrrr


ziii-i--iii-iii-i i`iii i-ii`-i ii-ii-ii i`-i:ii--i-i: ii-ii i-i-ii`-i:
--ii--ii` -i --iii-ii-iii izi ii` -i-i -i-i -ii-ii :-ii -iii` i :i-i-i ii` -i: i -iiii` -i-iii iii` -iii
i`-i:iii: :iiii-i-i i`-ii iii`-i: ~i-ii-ii-iii-iiiiii: :i-ii-ii-i :i-iiii-iii--i
iii`-iii`-i-i-iii`-i:: ii`-ii`t ii`ii`-i i-i ii`-ii--i -iii :ii`-iii-iiii :i-iii`-i-i
izii` -i: iziii -i (-i iii-i i i i i` -ii` -i -ii -i : i` -ii-ii -i -i ii -i -ii -iii` -izi i i -iii` -ici
-irii-i zii-i-iii-iii`-i -ii-
+rr` rcrrrr rr` rr trrarrrrrr r -ror rrr+
rrrrrr +rtr+rr`rrrtrr rtrrrrrrrrrr`rrrtr++
(~i-iiii-i, -/;)
~iii-irii i-ii`-i i`t ii`-iii-i-i :ii`-ii`i-i-i-i: -iiii-i-ii-iii`-iii-i ii`-i-ii
-ii` i -ii ii-ii: -iri : >ii -i i` i zi i -ii ii-i -iii -i -iiiii -i -ii-i -i -ii -iiii-i i` ii--i :
i-ii`-i i`t ii-i-iiii ii-iiii`-ii-i-ii-i:- r`-rtr`rr-rrrrrtrtr trtrorr`rrr ar`rrtrrr
(-ii--iii`ii-ii, //=) -iiii-iiii -ii-iii-i iii`-iii`-i-iit:: iai`--i -i-
gr trrr r`trr rr rrarrrrrtrrr`rrtrr+
rrtr r` tr r` rr` rrrr +rrrrr tr +rrr` rrrrr -rtr ++
(i-i-iiiziii, -s/--)
i-i ii -i:, ~iizii:, ii-i-ii -ii iii--i -i iii` -ii-i : ii-izi-iii i
iii`-iii-ii ii-i :i`-i >iiii-i -i i`-ii`-i- rrr`rrtrr +rrr +rrrrr. >rrtrr`t
trr`trr`rrrtrrrttrrr`tr, +rrrr +rrrrr rr rrr. rrr;rtrr`tr r`rrrrr trr:rrttrrr`tr
(

~i-ii-i-i--i, i. --): ii-i:iiizii-ii iii`-ii-i-i-ii i-i-i :ii-iiii iti-i:-


+rrr. rrr tr` +rtrrrr rrrr` ttr (ii-i:iiizi , . -.): >ii -i--i: ii-iizi zii-i -ii-i -ii` -i-
+rrr. rrrtr`+rtrrr.rrrrrrtr rrr`trtr.:: :i`-i: -iri :ii`-ii`ii`-i-ii ii`-ii-ii ~iii:
:i-iii :-i zi--i :i`-i ii`-i-iii:: i:ii: -ii`t -i--i-iii-ii-i ii`-iiizi-i i`ii`zii -ii
-i--i -ii` i-i i` zi-ii i-ii ii -ii -iii--ii-iii:, :i` -iti-ii -i -ii` --iz :: -ii iii-iii : -i--i :i-ii
-i -i--ii-i:, :ii`-ii-ii, ii -i i`-ii`-i-i-i: i-i-i-i--i-ii-i (-i -i :i-ii:: -ii`t :i-ii--i
i-i-i-i--ii-i:: :ii`-ii-ii-i-iii -iii`--i -i--ii`-i :i-ii-ii -ii-i iii`-i-i: iit:- trr rr
;rrrtrr`tr+rrtrrrtrrrr:rrrr`trtrrrrrrrrtrr`tr tr trtror. (~i. -i., i. ---)
:i`-i: ii-i ii`-i-ii-ii -i--ii`-i i-ii: -i-ii--i -ii--i -ii: :ii`-ii-ii -iii :iii-ii
ii`-i-i: ii -i ii-i-ii: riiii-ii i-iiii-i ii-i -ii-i-i izi-i-i-i- +rr`+rrr
+rrrrr -rrrr tra+rrrr rrr`trtr -r+ -i-i-iiiii`iiii -iiii-i -iii`-i-ii ~iii:,
ziiii-ii-iii ii-i-iii ii-i--i: iiit-+rr`+rrrrrrrtrr rrtr rrarrrrrzrrtrr
trtr.+ +rrrrr+rrr.....+ iii -iii i:i-ii ii-ii: ii`-iiiiiiii i-ii:, :i-ii-ii,
-ii ii i` -:i -i ii-i ii i--i , iii -i ii ii:i-iii` -iii ziii-i-i-iii-ii-ii i` -:i :i
ii i` i-ii-i iiii ii--iiii-i-iiii -iiii-ii-ii-iiii -iii` :ii-i , +rtrr trrrrrtr;rrr trtrorrr
r`rr`rrrrtr :-i-i:, -ii-i ii`-i-i-ii`i-ii-ii-iii-ii -iiii-ii ii-i-i--ii`-ii -irii-ii-ii`i
ii-i-ii--iii-ii -iiii-ii-ii-iiii : i` i-i -ii ii-i-ii-i --ii -iii` -i ~ii i-i zii-i -i i-iii ii-i :
-ii-i-ii-iii-iiiii-i ii`-i-i-ii`-i -i-i-ii`ii-ii -iiiii-ii-ii -iiiziiiiii`t-iii
-i-i<i-i -iririi-iii--i-i: -ii:i -iiiziii-itii-i: >iiiii`-ii-i-i-rrrrrr`rr
trrr-rr :-ii, -ii`-ii--i-r:rr:ortttrrrrr. :-iii`i, iiii- +rr. rrr+r. r`rrrr
rrrr :-iii` -ii, >ii i --ii -i rrarr trrr` trr` rrr` tr, -i i-iii` -i-ii iiizii -i rrarr rr .
trr+rrrr`rrr`tr, iii-i rrarrtrr`rrtrtrr`rrr`tr -iii -iiiii`i:iiii i`-ii-i: iii`-ii -i
ziii-iii`t-i-iiiii ii-ii`--ii-iii`-i :ii-ii-i-ii-ii -i iii`-ii-iiii`-i-izi-i -iii-ii`-i:
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 297 298 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
r` -rrr ar-rr trrr tr rrrrrr. trr` +r (r` r rr trtrr+
rrarrrrrrrtrr -rr`tr trtr tr tr-rortr++
(ii-itii ii-ii-ii, ;.-;)
ii-iti-i -ii ii` -i-i-ii` i -ii-i -i-ii -i--i -ii :i-iiii-iii--i -. i` -iii i-ii -iii --i-i ,
-. iiiii: --ii`i (i`-i)-ii-i-ii, -iii ;. zii-iii-i-ii -i iiiii`-i: iiiii: --ii`i-ii-i-ii
-ii-i -iiii-ii (ii-i-ii): i`-i: ii-iizi i`-ii`zi i`ii`zii-ii-i iiii`--i ii-itii
-iii : -i-i -ii-i - . i-ii iiii` --i -i-i ii -i--i i-i ii-i , -. i -izi iii-ii -iii -ii-ii` iii,
;. -ii-i-ii-ii, . -ii`-ii`-ii-ii-ii i-ii-iii`i -i--i-i: (ii-iizi -/;r-
;rr) ii-i:i-iiii-iii--i iiiii`-i: :-i: i-iiii iii`-ii-iii ii-ii-ii-i-i-i--i
-ii-ii-i-iii -ii` -i-i -i -i ii-it -i zii--i i :iii` -ii` -i--ii-i i-ii-i : -iii i` t ii-it:-
trtrorr r rrrrr rrtr +r tr+rrr` rr.+ +rtr trrttrar rr-rrrrrrrr rr r
+rrr`rrrrr++(ii-ii-ii-iiit, r/-): -ii-ii-iii-i i`t ii-iii:i-iii`-i -iii-iii`-i
-i-i- trrrr rrrrrrr+.... tr trarrrrrtrrrtrrtrrrrrtrrr. trtrorrrrrrrtrrrr
r trrtr (i` -i. i . --) :-i--iii-i :iiii-i-i : ziii i-i--i -i i` i` -ii -ii-ii-i-iii -i--ii` -i
>ii-i-ii :ii`-iti-ii-ii iii`-ii-iii i`-i-i-i-ii i`-izi i`-i-ii`-i-i-i: ~ii`--i i`t -ii`-i-i-i
-ii i` -ii -it-iii` -ii` -i-ii` -ii-i-ii -i--i-i-i i` --ici-i - rr-rrrrrrrr rrtrr
rttrtrrrtr`trrrrrrtrr`trqrrarrrr`rrrrra rr`rtrrtrtrrr`trrrrr`ttrr+ -i-ii i`t
-i-ii i-i: -ii-ii ii ii-i ~iizii: iiii`-i-i-ii`-i-i-i-i-iiiiii-i-ii`-ii`ziiii--icii
-i ii`-i-i-i -iri: >ii-ii`i: --iii`i:iiiii-i -i-i-ii-i:ii`-ii`ii-i-ii-iii -iiiii`-ii-i:
>ii-iii-ii`i i`t -iii-i`-ii--i-zii-ii-i:ii`-i-ii--ii--i-ii -irii-ii --iii`i:iii:ii`-i-i:i
-ii -i ii-ii` -i: ~i-i: i-i ii :-ii-ii` i:iii--i ii -ii i -ii i -ii iii` -i-ii :i` i iiii --ii >ii -i i` i:
--iii` i:iiiii -i :i-iii :-i zi--i :....-i -i i` -iit -i i` -ii-i-i ii` -i>ii -i ii-ii` -ii-i -ii -(i` -i)
-i-ii--ii iii` -ii :-i-i (i . =-s): ~ii-i -iii : >ii ii -i iii` -ii-i i -iii` -icii-i-ii
-i -i ii-i (-i -i-iii --ii i` -i-i: (izi--i , ~i. -i. i . --): -ii` -i :i-i -iiii-i:iiiii-iiii--ii
~ii`i ii-ii: ii-i i -i--iii` i--i-ii` t--ii -i-i::i-ii-izii--i ii` -i-i -i >i iiii` :i-iii :-i
i` ii--i :-ii ii-i i-i-i : -ii-ii-i-iii -i-ii ii` i-ii -i-ii i -ii :i-iii i :ii` --i: -iii i` t -i--iii-i -
rrrrrrrrr`rrtr tr-rrrrtr trtrr r.+
rrrrrtrrttrtrrar:trr trrr r`rr`trr`trr`tr.++
iii` -ii-i -i i -i: ii` ii` -i -i-ii` i -i-iii -i -i --i -i :i-ii -ii -i-ii --ii:ii` -i-i-i::
--ii -ii-i >ii -ii` ii` -ii-iii-i:ii` -ii` ii` -i-i-i ii -i:i -i -i -i -ii` -i i` -ii` -i-i zi-i -i i` -i ii-izi-i
-i -ii` -i:i-i (-i iii -ii i` -i-i-i : -iiii` -ii-i -i ii-i-i :ii` -ii` i-i-i -i :i-ii -i -iii-i-i -i:
~i-i: trtrrar :trrtr r trrrr r` trr` qrr.+ ~ii -i -i ii -i: -i-i-i--ii` -ii` zi
(>iii`-i<ii-ii-i-ii) :-i--i-iii -i-iti-i i:: ii`-i-ii -iii`t-ii`-iti-ii`-ii`-iii i
iii`-ii--i :iiziii-it:iii`-ii`i:-trrrr`rrrr rrrr :-iii`-i-i, ii`z :iii: z-ii :-i
iiii`-i i`i-ii`i ii-i-iiii ii-i-i: :i-iiiiiii`i-iii ii-i-iiiii`-i-i-iii -iii`--i iii`-ii-
rttrtr rrtr` trrratra+r -trrrr` rr trtrrr : -i ri -i i i ` -i -i i -i
i` -ii` -i` -ii` -izi i-i-ii-i-ii -ii-iii-iiii -ii :i-iiii-iii--ii` -i -i iiziii -itii-i -i
(-ii-ii-i-iii-i-i -ii)ii-i-ii-itiii -i i`ii-i :i`-i ii`-i-i-i: ~ii :i-iiii-iii--i
i ii` --ii-i-iii: -i ii-i-ii:-i i` -ii` -i: i -i: -i i-iiii` :i` i-ii` -i: :i-ii i` -i-ii
i-iiii`-i-iii-iiii`-i-ii-i :iiizi-ii -ii ii--ii :ii`-iii`-i:: -iii i-i-ii-i--i-i iii`-i
-ii:iii`-i--i-iii-i-iii-i, -i -ii::i-ii :i-iiii`-i i-ii:i-i-iii: -i--i-ii:-i-i--ii
i-ii` -i -iiii ri` -i iii-i : -i--i -i i-ii-i-iii :i -i ii-i-ii--i-i iii-ii i` -i ii-iii i` -ii
ii i` i-iii` -i-i ii-i-iii-ii-i --iii-ii-i- -i -i i -iiii` -i-i--i :i-ii-iii ii-i--i :i` -i -ii:i-iiiii
:i-ii-iii:i-i-iii: (i` -i. i . ---): i--ii <ii -iii: trtrorrtr r r:r` rr trttr rrrr rrtr +
+rtrrr`arttrtrrr:r`rr trttrrrrrrr--r (i. ;)iii`-ii-iii`-iziiii`-ii-iici-i,
-ii-i-iii--ii:i-ii--i-i`-ii`-i-iii-i-iiiii-i: -ii`t :i-ii--i i-i-i -i--ii-i:: -i
i`t :ii`-ii-ii-iii-i: -i (-i ii-i-ii-itiii :i-ii-ii-i :iiiii-iii`-i :iii-ii-ii-ii-i:
i-ii`-i i`t -irii-ii :i-ii--i-i zi-ii`-i-i:i-iiiii :i-ii-ii-i -iii-i-iiii -iii`--i:
iii i-ii :-iii ii i-ii:iii iii; -i i -i: -i ii-i-iii` --iiiii --:i iiii:, trtrr +rr` +rrrrrrrrrr
trr` trrrtr rrr trrtr (~i.-i. i . ---): -i -ii:ii -iiii :i-ii:i-ii -ii i -ii-iiii-i: -i i-ii
i -ii-i i` -ii` -ii ii-i -i, r`rrr`rrr+rrrr trtrrtr+rrrrtr+ rrr`rrtr trtrortrrr trtrrtr.
(~i.-i. i. --r): ~i--i-i i`t iii`-ii :i-iiii`-i--ii-i i-ii`-i-ii -ii-iii-i:
ii-i -i---i-ii-i:i-iii`-i: -iiiii-i -ii-i-i -ii i-ii`-i: -iiiii:i-ii-ii
--iii`-iiiiiii-ii ziii-ii-i-zi-i-i -ii-i-iri-i-iii i-ii`--i: -i :-i -i--i,
~i-iii:i`i -i i :-i ii`-ii`-i, rii`-i-i :ii`-izii`-i, -i-iiiii`-i-iii`-ii`-i: -iiiii-i
:i-ii i` -i-ii :i ii :: -i i >ii ii -i ri-i -ii-iii -i-ii-i i-ii: ri-i -iii-
rrtrrrrrrrr`;r-rr-rtrtrrrrr`-r-rr-r+rar rrtrrrrr.(i` -i. i . --r): -i -i -i--i i-i--i -i
i` -i-i-i i` -ii-i--i -i i` i` -ii:: i-ii` -i i t --iii-ii -ii - r` ra rttr :i` -i -i--i -i: -i -ii-i -ii -ii
-i--i -i -ii:, -i-iii` i -ii:-ii i i` -i-i-i i` -i-i -ii:: i` :iii-i -iriiii -iii` iiiiii` i-i-i i` -i:
-irii-ii --ii`-i-i-i-ii-i -i-ii`-i: -ii:i i`i`-iii ri-i-ii:-trrrtr`r+rrrr+rrrra
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 299 300 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
a rrrrrrr-r` r+rrrr+rrrr--r rttrrrrtttrtrtrr r` trtrrrrtrr rrtrrr atrr:trrr .
trrrrttrtr +rrrrrr +r r` trrrr +rrrrr` tr+ (-i-iii i-ii -i-ii-i-i -i--i-i , i` -ii` -i zi ii ti-iii` -ii
iti-i -i-ii`-i-iiii-ii-i-i-i--i -ii: ~ii i`t- rrrrrtr rrrrtrtr trtrtrrtr r`tr
trrrr`rrrrrtrrrrrt-rrr`trtr`rrrrr:rrrtrrr. (ii. :i. -i-iii--ii-i): iii`-ii -i
i -iiii` -i-ii :i-ii i` -i-i -iiiii -i, ~ii` i -i -ii-i -i -i -iii: -ii-i i` t i :: :--ii:t--ii
-iii -i :ii`i-i: iii -i i`iizi-i i`-i<iiiii-i- :-iti`-ii`-i -i-ii-i-i-iii-iii-i
i`-i-izi--ii-i iii`-ii trrr trrr i-ii`-i: ~i-i (-i -ii-i:i-ii-ii`-i<iiii`-ii-i-i-i--i-i:
ii rrt.trrtarrtrrr:+ratrtrrr`trttrr ttr. (+rrrrrr`trrrr -r ttrrarrrt.+
rr -r rrr. -i--i-i :ii-i i`-ii--i-i :i-iii`-i-ii -ii iii`-ii-i: i-ii`--i iii`-ii--i
i-ii`i-i-i-i: (ii`-iii-i-i) >ii-iii-i-i -it i`ii`ziii i-iii: i: -i-ii-i-iiii`i
i` -i-i-i i` -i-i -ii: --ii iii :: iii` -ii -i--i -i -iii >ii ii -i iii` -ii--iii-ii i -ii : -i-ii-i zi
-i-ii--ii-i:: ~i-ii ri-i-ii-i iii-ii-i:i`i ii-ii-i-ii-i:i-ii-ii -i--i-ii --ii--i-ii
i` ii` zii i :i ii--i-i:: ~i-ii:i-ii i` -ii` t -i-iiii-ii-i i -i i i` -i:: :--iiii:
-i-i ii - iii-i :i` i iii` -iii -ii-it--iii-ii : -i-i-i : zi:zi -ii iii-i-iii :i-ii i` -ii` t
i-iiiiiiiiii-ii`-i zii-i-ii:: -ii:i -i-ii-i-ii-iii`ii:: ii`-i-iii`-i-ii ii-i-i
>ii-iii-iiiii-ii`-i-i-i i:-ii-i i`-i<i-ii-i--ii iii`-ii-iizi:: iiit:-
ttrr rrrrtrr rrr trtrrr tr- rrarr arr r +
rrrrrrrrrtrtrro trr`trr`rcrr. trrrrrrtr++
trrrrtrtr-rrarrrr`rtrr+rtrtttrtr.+
>rrtrr trttrrrrtr. rrr` -rtrrr rrtr rrtr ++(:-ii:)
tra+r.
. tr. rrtrrrrrttrrtrrr +r. tr., trrrrr r`rrrr`rrrr -r r`r. r`tr trrrtrr+rr r`rr`arrtr+
-. +rrrrrrtrrrcr rrrrrtrrrr` rrrtrr arr trrra rrr`tr`-rtrr`rrrrrrr`rr rrrr+
rrarrr trr +r rrrar` rr` rrrrr` rrr r >rrrrr ttrrr r >rr rr r r rr artrtr rrrr r` rrrr` trtrrr ++
>rrrrttrrrrrrrtr +
(trrttrtrr trrrrrr

13. The Theory of Kvyapka


with special reference to the kvyammas
Rjaekhara (880-920 A.D.) in his celebrated work, the
Kvyamms, devotes final part of the V chapter entitled
Kvyapkakalpa to the consideration of the ripeness of poem (Kvyapka)
which is related by him to erudition (Vyutpatti),
1
the mother of poetry. A
real poet is endowed with both creative power pratibh and erudition.
2
The poetic faculty helps in ripening the stric expression while being
exclusively poetic mars it.
3
Even scientific literature needs a tinge of
poetry for its maturity, the more of poetry may harm it. In its turn,
poetry or imaginative literature for that matter, is helped by the knowledge
of Sstras, though more of it or rather its exclusiveness hinders it. It is in
this sense that Rjaekhara visualises the mutually favourable relationship
between science and poetry.
4
After initial discussion on the nature and place of erudition and
creative faculty, and division of poets into strakavi, kvyakavi and
ubhayakavi and their subdivisions. Rjaekhara proceeds to discuss Pka
quoting the view of : (i) Magala, (ii) cryas, (iii) followers of Vmana,
(iv) Avantsundar and (v) his own.
It is constant practice that makes the expression of a good poet
perfect, ripe or mature and hence excellent.
5
(i) According to Mangala this ripeness (maturity or fruition)
consists in the skill in the use of nouns and verbs
6
(i.e. words).
Bhmaha refers to the views of those who considered Rpaka
etc. as extraneous to poetry and regarded skill in using grammatically
correct words perhaps as intrinsic embellishment of poetry.
7
To Bhmaha
this is clearly unacceptable because if togetherness of both the words and
meanings constitutes poetry (abdrthau sahitau kvyam),
8
then both
are essential and hence intrinsic embellishments. It is in this light that
Bhmaha says that out of turn words and meanings are alakara (V.66),
treats purity of words (abdauddhi) in the VI chapter wherein he includes
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 301 302 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
beauty of consonants (VI. 28) and uses of nic in expressions like
abalavanti in the domain of alakra (VI 66). Dain does not speak of
sauabdya. Vmana deals with the grammatical purity of words (V.2)
without investing it with the alakratva, as perhaps Bhmaha did.
9
He
even considers the Suptisaskra detestable.
10
Bhoja in his
Sarasvatkahabharaa
11
includes the Suabdat under twenty-four
abdaguas.
(ii) cryas hold that Pka is unshakiness of fixedness in the
application of words. In support of this is quoted a verse occurring in the
Kvylakrastra (KASV 1.3.15) of Vmana which says: Insertion
and deletion of words occur so long as the mind wavers; when the
fixity of words is established, the Muse attains perfection.
12
It may be noted here that Vmana quotes this verse in his
definition of avekaa
13
which he defines in the Stra (1.3.15) as insertion
and deletion of words. To him Pka is something different from the
fixity of words. (Padaniveanikampat) attained by insertion and deletion
of words.
The Second verse, appearing under the KASV 1.3.15, defines
Pka as follows : Expert in the propriety of words have called that
abda-pka in which words do abandon the capability of being
exchanged (by other words).
14
Rjaekhara says that the followers of
Vmana criticise the notion of Pka being the fixity of words because
this may result even from the vanity of a poet.
15
They define Pka as
'aversion of words' to alteration. Subtle difference between fixity of
words' (Padaniveaniskampat), which is included under avekaa by
Vmana, and inexchangeability or unalterability of words is not very
clear to me.
16
Rjaekhara not only distinguishes the two but clearly
holds that the former idea of Pka is criticised by the followers of Vmana
who adhere to the latter view of unalterability of words. The only
distinction that I can think of is that a poet may have certain fixations in
his expression and consider them inviolable out of his prejudice(graha-
parigraha). This subjective limitation and prejudice is not Pka, but a
more objective basis of practical unalterability of expressions is considered
Pka by Vmana. In a given poem a reader should feel convinced that the
words used by poet cant be changed. It is not the poets prejudice but the
readers feeling about unalterability of words that determines perfection
of expression. A poet who is struggling and is uncertain about choice of
words may nervously admit one word and delete the other, but a poet
whose search for words is complete gives expression which cant be
replaced and thus marks ripeness, maturity and excellence of his creation.
A poet engaged in considering various possible words (avekaa,
according to Vmana) has not mastered perfectly chiselled expression,
but the one who has achieved this his expressions become immutable
(Parivrtti-asahiu).
Vmanas idea of unalternability of words
(padaparivrtiasahiut), spoken of as padaparivrttivaimukhya by
Rjaekhara and paryyaparivartsahatva by Ratnevara, was given a
positive word 'avy', repose by Vidydhara and Vidyntha. Excellent
mutual friendliness of words in spoken of Repose which results from
the impatience of words against any exchange by synonyms.
17
In fact, for Vmana, Pka is much more the aversion of words
for exchange (Padn Parivttivaimukhya). Rjaekhara has
imperfectly stated his position by quoting his verse on Pka under the
Stra I. 3.15 (KASV).
Vmana is the first rhetorician who deals with Kvyapka.
According to him clear and complete presence of all the guas constitutes
poetic maturity (Kvyapka) which can be likened with the ripeness of
mango-fruit. A poem with grammatical perfection but devoid of clear
presence of guas is like the ripe egg-plant, which people detest. Vmana,
therefore, holds that best poetry should have all the ten guas clearly and
completely.
18
Amongst the three Rts of Vmana, Vaidarbh is defined
as having all the guas.
19
Thus Kvyapka, according to Vmana, is not
merely unalterability of words but clear and complete presence of all the
guas and can be compared to his concept of best poetic diction, the
Vaidarbh Rti.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 303 304 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
(iv) Rjaekhara quotes his wife Avantisundar to criticise
Vmanya view of Pka, which, as shown above, he restricted, without
any justification, to aversion of words for substitution. Avantisundar
ridicules the view of the Vmanyas by holding that this is want of
capability and not Pka because even varied expressions of great poets
with regard to one and the same object attain maturity. Pka, according
to her, consists in the composition of word and sense in consonance with
the Rasas. She, in fact, extends the theory of Pka to include the propriety
of gua, alakra, Rti and ukti also.
20
In support of her opinion is quoted
a verse, which occurs in the KASV (I.II.2) to prove the superiority of
Vadarbhi style that makes rasa-realisation possible : Even though there
be speaker, sense, word and rasa, there is still not that (i.e. pka) by
which nectar of poetic creation flows.
21
Notwithstanding certain contradictions involved in
Avantisundars definition of Pka and modified reading of a well-known
verse (Sati-Vaktari etc.) quoted in support of her opinion, it stands to her
credit to have raised the theory of Pka to the status of aucitya-principle
found in the Dhvanyloka
22
of nandavardhana and the
Aucityavicracarc
23
of Kemendra.
(v) Rjaekhara, no doubt, accepts the opinion of his wife
regarding Pka, yet he puts forth his opinion separately to explain other
related questions, such as, how do we know the presence of pka, is it in
the province of Denotation or suggestion, in what forms Pka can be
effected? He says: The Pka, which is effected by words through is
inferrability from its effect, is indeed the province of denotation. It
is subject to usage of what is established by the sanction of the
Sahdayas.
24
S.K. De states from this passage it would seem that
Rjaekhara admits that the Pka is conveyed chiefly through words,
and taken as Sauabdya or abdavyutpatti, it comes primarily under
the province of abhidh, but it finds its scope only in the artha
which is established by the taste of Sahdaya.
25
Rjaekharas emphasis on approved expression and content (we
need not separate the two, as Dr. De does) is natural for classical setting
of Sanskrit literature which has preserved racial culture in standard
idioms, but consequently prevented it from experimenting with new and
strange expressions. Search for new words and meanings is most
important part of poetic quest. What Sanskrit critic, however, aims at
through the theory of Pka (of words and ideas) is not throwing away of
established expressions but attainment of classicism, chiselled, polished
and perfect expression which his readers may recognise as such by their
knowledge and appreciation of old classical literature of great poets like
Vlmik, Vysa and Klidsa. nandavardhana has, therefore, accordingly
advised that the words and meanings of a great poet should be recognised
with effort: rtrtr. trtrr`+r;rrr trr rrarrr rrrrrr. Classical and standard
expression being the aim of the theory of Pka, it could hardly know the
limitations which words have even in the best poets. Eliot tells us in
Burnt Norton
26
:
Words strain,
Crack and sometimes break, under the burden,
Under the tension, slip, slide, perish,
Decay with imprecision, will not stay in place,
will not stay still.
But why? Eliot replies, in" Little Gidding
27
"
For last years words belong to last years language. And next
years words await another voice.
Vidyntha, defines Pka as depth of sense.
28
Bhravi is famous
for his artha-gaurava, to which Bhavabhti refers in the Prastvan of
the Mlatmdhava
29
and which can be compared with Pka as defined by
Vidyntha.
Another quality mentioned by Bhavabhti in the above verse is
prauhi of words. Prasarasvat, in his commentary takes it as Pka,
quoting Bhoja and Vmana on it.
30
Prasarasvat, however, treats of
arthaprauhi, ojas, of Vmana
31
when he quotes on the point. From this it
would appear that according to Prasarasvat, Pka is restricted to the
prauhi of abda only.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 305 306 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Prauhi, according to Bhoja, is the last of twenty-four abda-
guas
32
who defines it as mature ripeness of ukti (i.e. Vkya).
33
This is
attained by practice through the beauty attested to by insertion and deletion
of individual words.
34
Ratnevara, in his comment on this, quotes
Vmanas verse on Pka as the unalterability of words. That Bhoja
includes abdapka under prauhi is clear from the above. Ratnevara
further says that arthpakas are also dealt with by Bhoja in the V chapter
of the SKA.
35
Agnipurna includes Prauhi among the six arhagunas
36
and and defines it as Poa or full delineation of artha or the power of the
poet to develop his idea.
37
It mentions Pka also among the six ubhayaguas
and defines it
38
after Bhoja, replacing his term ukte by uccai.
Vivevara, who follows Bhoja in his treatment of the guas in
the camatkracandrik, separates Prauhi from the list of 24 guas and
treates it in a separate chapter along with similar general subjects like
Rti, Vtti and ayy. Mahima Bhaa
39
and others
40-41
emphasise that
poetry is ubhayapradhn. The charm of poetry is lost when either words
or ideas are modified. The theory of Kvyapka emphasises this inviolable
charm of words and ideas of a great poet. The concept of Ubhaya-
Prdhnya, Shitya and Prauhi in general and the theory of Kvya-pka
in particular underline the importance of immutability and unchangeability
of poets words and ideas which give rise to the feeling in the Sahdaya
that no other suitalbe word is possible.
42
Varieties of Pka
Rjaekhara mentions nine varieties of Pka, named after the
following nine fruits : picumand, (nimba, azadirachta indica), badara
(jujube), mrdvk (grapes), Vrtak, (egg-plant fruit), Tintika
(cucumber) and Nrikeli
43
(coconut). According to his description of these
varieties Nlikera Pka is the best followed by Sahakrapka and
Mdvkpka in order Trapusa-Tintika-and Badara Pkas come next
and the last in order of quality are the Kramuka-Vrtka and Picumanda
Pkas. Amongst these the first three are considered innately pure requiring
no perfection and are, therefore, to be accepted and followed.
44
The second
group of Pkas requires perfection which may add to their excellence, as
the impure gold purified by fire.
45
The last group of three Pkas is simply
to be abandoned For it is better not to be a poet than to be a bad poet.
Bad poetry is indeed living death. says Rjaekhara.
46
He further mentions Kapittha-(fruit of Feronia Elephantum) Pka.
Obtaining good saying from such a Pka is like getting good grains from
shaking the straw.
47
Bhmaha has also rediculed this paka.
48
Vmana
quotes two old verses (under III.2.15.) which refer respectively to
Sahakrapaka, with which Kvyapka can be favourably compared, and
to the Vntka-Pka which is detestable. Bhoja illustrates the Nalikera-
Pka and mentions two more Pkas, namely, Sahakra-and Mdvika-.
49
Ratnevara, in his comment thereon, describes characteristics
50
of all the
three Pkas and illustrates the remaining two. According to him these are
the only fundamental or pure Pkas, although many more may be obtained
through commixture of the above three.
51
He has therefore, refuted the
Nlakapittha-Pka admitted by the author of the Kavikalpalat.
52
Agnipura states Pka to be of four kinds and favours the Mdvk-
Pka.
53
Vidynnth defines and illustrates the drkpka and Nrikelipka,
which may be clearly distinguished
54
He says that Madhukra and other
pkas also can be possibly fancied.
55
His commentator, Kumrasvmin,
adds to this list Kadalpka and rasla-pka.
56
which may be included
between the two pkas described by Vidyntha.
Not only the writer on the Alaakrastra discussed the theory
of Pka, but the critics and commentators who evaluated and appreciated
the poets spoke in terms of kvyapka of one or the other variety.
Mallintha speaks of nrikelpka in the poetry of Bhravi, in one of
introductory verses in his commentary on the Kirtrjunya,
57
Jagannthas
poetry is claimed to excel the sweetness of grapes, milk, sugar-cane and
honey,
58
so also that of Jayadeva.
59
Sanskrit critics described quality of Pka (including drkpka)
even in the so less known poets as Kra akara
60
and Harihara,
61
out of
their misplaced enthusiasm for appreciation.
S.K. De finds similarity of the theory of Pka with Flauberts,
half-platonic view, developed by Walter Pater, that each idea has its
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 307 308 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
fixed word-counterpart.
62
Longinus recognised the importance of
appropriate choice of words when he says: It is probably superfluous
to explain to those who already know it how wonderfully the choice
of appropriate and high sounding words moves and enchants an
audience for words finally used are in truth the very light of thought.
63
May I now conclude with Alexander Popes lines on the harmony
of sound and sense -
Tis not enough no harshness gives offence.
The sound must seem an echo to the sense.
Soft is the strain when zephyr gently blows,
And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows,
But when loud surges lash the sounding shore.
The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar:
When Ajax strives some rocks vast weight to throw,
The line too labours and the words move slow.
64
Reference
1. See, last verse of the IV chapter and the opening discussion of the V
Chapter of the Kvyammas (K.M.), Oriental Institute, Baroda,
1934. All subsequent references are to this edition.
2. trr`tr+rrrtrrr`-rrrr;r rrr`r. rrr`rr`ttr-rtr+ ibid, p. 17.
3. rrrrtrtrrrtr:r`rr rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr`q rrrrrrtrrrtrr tr r`rrr`q+
4. srrrrrrrrrrrrtrr+rrr tr r`rrr. rrrrrrrrrrrrrtrrrrrrr+ r-rrtrtrrrt.
rrrrrrr r rr` tr rrrr rrtrrrtrr tr r` rr rr` tr+ rrrrtr trrrtr :r` rr
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr`q rrrrrrtrrrtrr tr r`rrr`q+ ibid.
5. trtrtrrr+rrtrrrrtr. trrrr. rrrrr rrrrrrrrrrr`tr+
6. rr. rrrtr rrrrr.? trr-rrrr.+ rrr`trrrr. r`trrrrrr.+ rr. rrrtr rrr`trrrr.? trr-rrrr.+
tr rrr r` trzr -r >rr. (? r rrr r trrr` -r. r` tr rr rrr.+ Ibid.
7. rrrrrr` arrrr rrrt rrrrrr-rortr rrt +
trrrr r`trzr -r rtrrr`-r rr-rr rr=trrrrrr`trrr++ Bhmahlankra, 1.14.
8. Ibid, I.16.
9. tratrar. trrrra rrrrtrrr`-rtrrrr+
rrarr`+rrrrrrrrrt+rarr`a rtr r.++ Ibid, I.15.
10. trr`rtrztrtrrrttrrt rtr r`rrrrrttrrr +rrtr+
rrrr r-rrrrrrrrr trra rrrtrtr trtrr rrr.++
rtrrr`-r. trr`rtrzr rr tr trr-rtr trr trrratrr+ Ibid, III, 2.15.
11. Ratnevaras comment on this is : trr`rtrzrtrrr`-rrrorrrttr rrtrrrrrrrrr.
rrr`;ra-r. tr tr trrratrrrrorrrr qr+ I.72, ab.
12. +rrrrrrrqtr trrra arrrrrtr rrr.+
rrarrr trrr`rrtr trr tr r`trqr trttrtrr++ KM.p.20. Also KASV, I.3.
15 Calcutta, 1922 where ~ii-iii. reads ~iiii-i:
13. rrarrrrrrqtrrrrorrrr+ KASV, I.3. 15.
14. rtrrarr`r trrtrr rrr`trr`-rtrr`rrtrrrr+
tr rrarrtrr`rrrrtrr. rrarrrrr tr-rortr++ ibid, I.3. 15 and KM, p. 20
Where -ii-i. reads -iii:
15. +rrrrrrr`trrrar`rr rratrrrrrrtrrrttrtrrrtr rrarrr rrr`trr`-rrrrar rrrrr.
r`tr rrrrrrrr.+ Rjaekhara quotes the above verse from the KASV.
16. Kmadhenu in its comments on the stra defining avekaa and
quoting two verses thereunder (KASV, 1.3.15) states that here Vmana
supports the view of Bhmaha, alluding perhaps to the following from
the Bhmahlankra :-
rrarr` +rrr r r` r;rrr rr trr trr` qa rrrtrrrr +
r`rrrrrrrrrr`rrrr;r rrrr. rrrrr`rrrat.++
trr rr rrarrrr rr r r` rrrcrrrrcrrtr +
r` rrrorrrr r` rrrr r a ttr tr r r r` rcrtr ++ I.10-11
According to the Kmadhenu fixity of words is to be attained through
positive and negative means (anvayavyatireka) and this leads to
Pka of both the words and meanings. Thus he sees no difference
between the two verses of Vmana as does Rjaekhara.
Modern scholars also have not explained Rjaekharas text on
this difference. They have preferred to skip over. See, S.K. De, History
of Sanskrit Poetics, vol. II. p.241; notes on the KM. p. 160-61; P.V.
Kane, History of Sanskrit Poetics p.200,366; V. Raghavan, Bhojas
ngra Praka, pp. 307, 379. Later writers generally represent
Vmana by rrrrrrrr`trtrrtrtr and not by rratrr. Thus for example
Ratnevara in his comment on the Sarasvatkahbharaa,1.77:
rrarrr rrrr rrrr` trtrr trtr rrrrr. and quotes rtrrarr` r etc. from the KASV.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 309 310 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
17. rr rrarrr rrtrrrrrrrr rrrr`tr rrrtr+......+rr rrar`rr`rrrrrtrr`rrtrra rrtr
rrarrrrrrr rrrr+ Vidyntha, Prtaparudrya I.34.
S.K. De notes The word ayy is old, having been used
apparently in this sense, by Babhatta in one of the introductory
verses of his Kdambar, while the Agnipura uses the word
Mudr with a similar connotation. History of Sanskrit Poetics,
vol. II. p.240.
The friendliness of words is described as brotherliness of words by
Praarabhatta in his riguaratnkoa, SI. 8.
+rrrrr rtrrrcr r r rrrtr rrr` rrrtrr ,
a rr trr ra rrr` tr` -rtrr` rrrrrrr` rr rrrr +
rrarrr trr +r rrrar` rr` rrrrr` rrr r >rrrrr -
ttrrrr >rrrrr r rrartr rrrrr`rrrr`trtrrr++
In his theory of Sahitya, Kuntaka speaks of mutual competitiveness of
words and meanings. He compares the co-operation between the two
to the friendly feelings: trarr`rr trrtrr. Klidasa compares the divine
pair with rrrrtrrrrr`-r.+
18. rrtrrtrtrrrrrr rrrrrrrrr tr-rortr+
-r trtr rrr` trrrr r tr -rrrrr rrrrr rtr ++
tr r` rtrz tr trrrttrrt rtr r` rrrrrttr r r +rr tr +
rrrr rtrrrrrrrrr trtr rrrtrtr trtrr rrr.++
rrrrr arrtrrtr-rr rtrrrttrarrrrrrrr+
arr`zrrrr`r arrtrrr`a r r`r-rrtorrr r-r.++ KASV, III.2.23-25.
19. trrrrrrrrrrtrr ra+rr+
+rtrrr arrrrrrrrr`+r. trrrrrrrrr`rrrtrr+
r`rrr-rrtrttrr+rrrr ra+rr trr`trr`trrtr++ Ibid, I.2.11.
20. rrrrrr`-rr rrr. rrrrr. trrr`trtratr+ rarrr`trrr rttrr`r rrrrrrrrrrrrrrr:r`rr
rrra. rrr`trrrrrrrr +rrr`tr+ trtrrra ttrrr`-rtrrrarrtrr`-rr`rrrr rrrrr.+ rar-
rrrrrrrrttrtrr`-r rrarrrrrrrrr.+tratr trr`rrrr rr rrrrrrrrr. tr rrr trr`tr++
KM, p.20,
21. trr`tr r-rr`t trtrr rra trr`tr ttr trr`tr+
+rr`ttr trr r`rrr rr rrr`trrr`tr rrzrrr++ Ibid.
The first half of this verse reads slightly different in Vamanas
KASV and does not include the rasa:- trr`tr r-rr`t trtrr trr`tr rrarrrrrtrr+
According to Kmadhenu this charactrises Vaidarbh style without
which speaker, word and sense are rendered superfluous and rasa cant
be relished. Rasa flows only when it is indicated through Vaidarbhi.
Change in the reading of the KM. which includes rasa also results in
the superiority of Pka even over the rasa, which then goes contrary to
the earlier definition of pka given by Avantisundar herself, viz.,
ttrrr`-rtrrrrarrtrr`-rr`rrrr rrrrr.+
22. See, III. 6.9.
23. See, 1.3 and 11.
24. rrrrrrrrrtrrr r-r-ar`rrcr. rrt rrrrrr:r`+rrrr`rrrr.+ trttrartrr`trr`qr`trq
qr rrrtrrrrtrr r`tr rrrrrtrr.+ Ibid.
25. De, S.K., History of Sanskrit Poetics, vol.II,p, 242.
26. Eliot, T.S., Collected Poems 1909-1935, p. 212. Horcurt, Brace and
Company, New York.
27. Lines 120-21.
28. +rrrr+rrr`trrr rrrrr. tr r`rr arrrr.+
rorrrrrrrr rrr`trrrrrrrrr;r trtrrrtrtr++ Pratparudrya, I.35.
Kumrasvmin, in his commentary, Ratnapana, interprets this as
realisability of rasdi : +rrtrrrrtrarr`trrr +rrtrrcrrrrrtrr r`rrrrr.+
29. rttrrr`otrrrarttrr -r r-rtrr r--rrrtrr rrtrrr+
tr--r ar` ttr trtrttra r rrrrr rrrr` ztrr arrr .++
30. s-r. trr o. rrtr rrrrr. trr -rtr trr r` otr ;rrr+ Sarasvatkanthbharaa, I.77
ad.and rtrrarr` r trrtr r etc. from KASV.
Bhavabhtis patron, Yaovarman, in the prologue to his
Rmbhyudaya refers to the Praudhi of both words and sense:
rr r` q. trttr trtr r` rrrrrrr` rrr trr r` o;r rrarr rr .+
r` rr` . rrr` t+rrrtrrrrrr` tr t trrra rrttr r.++
31. KASV, III.2.2.
32. See, SKA, I. 63-65.
33. s-r. trro. rrtrrrrrr. trr-rtr trrr`otr;rrr+ ibid, I.77 ab.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 311 312 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
34. rrarrrrrrrrrrr rrrr+rr trr` rr rr-rrtr r rr :rrrr+rrr` trrrr rrr` rrrr trrrrrr
rrrrrrrrrrr trrr`arrrrrrrr`trrrrr. trr trrr`or`ttr-rtr+ ibid.
35. rrrrrrrrr`rrrrtrrrrrrrrrcrr rrrrr+r-rr.+
Ratnevaras comments on this are enlightening : rrr rrrtrr`rr.
rrrrr. tr+rrtrrtrtr +rr-+rrr`tr+ +r+rrtrr r`rrtr +rr+rrr`trrr. rrrr rrtr
r`r-rrtr`rtr -r r rrrr`tr trarrarrr rrtr rrrr -r rrrr. rrrr trrr`-rt+rrtr.+
+rtrrrr` rr rrr rrrrrr` rrr rrr +rrtrr trtr +rr trr` rr rr-rrtr r r` tr+ trr` rr rrr
t-rrr trtrr -rrtrrr + trar` rr rrrr` rrtrtr +rr-+rrrrrrr rrrr+rrr` rrr` tr+
tra+rrrtrrrrrrrrrrrr.+ trtr. trrrqtrrrrrr.+
36. Ch. 346. 12.
37. +rr` +rtr tr trr` tr rtrr r` rrr trr rrrrrr` arrr.+
r-rrr trrr`+rr. trror trrr`oartrr++ Ibid,16
38. s--r. rrr`trr`tr. rrrr`rr rrrrr trr`+rrrrtr+ Ibid, 22 cd.
39. s+rrtrrrr trr rrrr` arrrr trtr ttrrtrrrrtrrtrtr -rr +rrr r` -rtr r rrr` trrr rrarr rrtr +
Ibid, Vyaktiviveka, Chowkhamba, p. 42.
40. quoted by V. Raghavan, anggra Praka, p. 111.
41. Such as, Bhmaha, Rudrata, nandavardhana, Kuntaka, Rjaekhara.
42. +rrr`tr r` trarrrrrrrrrrtrra rrttrrr`tr rrrt.+ Ratnevaras comment
on S.K.A., p.72.
43. tr -r rrr`rrrrrrtr rrrrrr+rttrr rrrr +rrr`tr trrrcrtrrrttrra r`rr-rrrarrrrrrr,
+rrarrtrra rrr` trrrr rrrrr ratrrrrrrr , +rrarrtrra rrr` trrrr trra
rr ar rrrrrrrrrr , +rrar rrrrrrrtr -rrtrra rrtrr rrrrrrrrr , +rrcrtrrr rr rrr
r`trr`trzrrrrrrrrrr, +rrar rrrrrrrtr trra trrrrtrrrrrrr, +rrarr-rrrrrtr -rrtrra
rrr rrrrrrrrr , +rrarr -rrrrrtr rrrrr rrr trrrrrrrr , +rrcrtrrr . trra
rrr`rrrrtrrrrrr`rrr`tr+ K.M., P.20-21.
44. tr+rrrrr q r` r tr trrrtrrrr ortr + r rr -rrrrr . rrrrttrrttrrr tr+rrr` tr+ Ibid, p.21.
45. rrrrrr. trtrrrrr.+ trtrrrtr r` trrtr rrrrrrrrrrr`tr+ rarrrrrrr`rr trrr
rrrrrrrrrrrr rrr+rrr`tr+ Ibid.
46. trrrr r`rrrr`rr r`rrrrr rrrrrr. trrrr trrrr.+ rtrrrrr`rr rrr. rrrrr`r. trrtr+
rrrrr`rtrr r` trr-rrtr rrtrrr+ ibid.
Compare this with the following -
rrrrr`rtrrrrrrrr rrrr azrrr rr+
rrrrr`rtr rrr. trrorrrrr`trrrrrrrrr`rrr.++ Bhmahlankara, I.12.
47. +rrrr` trtrrrrrr rr r. rr r` rrtrrrrrr rrrrrr` tr+ trr rrrrrrrr rr r
+rrrrrrrr+rrttr+rrr`rrtrrrr+r.+ K.M., p.21.
48. +rcrrrtr r` rrr a ttrr-r :rrrr rrrrrr +
rrrr rrr`rrtrrrrrr rtr rrrrrr`-rtr trrrr rrr++ V.62.
49. S.K.A., p.71.
50. trcrrr rrr`rrrrtrrrr rrrrr trr`-r rrr`ar r`rrtrtrr`rrtrrrrrrrrtrrr rrrrrr`rrrrrrr
rrr`artrt trrr rrr`;rtr tra+rr rrar rrr`arttrartrt rratrrrttrtr. rrr`artrtr
rrr` rrrr trrrrr tr -rtr +..... rrr rorrrrrr tr-r +rrt+r rrr rrrrrrtrtr
r`r`r-rtrtr`trtrrrrr`atr r`rrr`-rtrrrr`arrr qr rrr`;rtr tra+r srrrrrrrrtrrtrr.
rrr rrrr qr rrr rrr` ar qr+... r--r rrr` trtr trrrrtrrrrrrrtr+rra r
rrrrrrrrrtrr`r tr rrarttrrrrr qrrrrrt. tra+rr rrarrart+r rrattrt rrr`artrt.
trrrrtrrrrr tr-rtr+
51. tr :rrr rr qr rr qrrrrrr.+ rr` trrrtrrrrrttr +r rr tr.+ Ratnesvara on S.K.A., p. 72.
52. +rtr qr rrr`rrrrrrrrtrrrrrtrr`ar`+r-rr rrrrrrr`rrtrrrrrr;rtrrr rrr`ttr+ ibid.
53. rr r rrrrrr` trr rrrrr rrrrr+r ar--rtr r` r r.+
+rrarrtr -r trrttr rrrrrrrrrrr qr tr.++ 346.23.
The two well-known varieties Mrdvkpka and Nrikela-Pka
are clear from the above quoted text. But which are the other two
remaining varieties? Could Ambupka be the third one? What would
be its meaning? What is the fourth one, in any case?
54. rorrrrrrrr rrr`trrrrrrrrr;r trtrrrtrtr+
rorrrrrrr. tr rrr`rtrr rr`ttr.-trrttr.++
tr rrr`trrrrrrrrr. trratrrottrrar.++ I.35 ed.
55. rrrrrrtrtrr`r rrrorrtrarr`r rrr trr+rrrrrrr`r+ Ibid, Under SI. 37.
56. rorrrrrrrrrr` trr rrrrrrrrrr tr trr` rrrr` rrtrtrtrr trr . rrtr rrr r` rrror +
+rtrttratrtrrrrr` tr rr rrrrrtrtrr tr tr rrr` rrtrrtr trar trrt r rrarrr ttrrrrrr` arrrrrr.
trrrrrr.++
57. rrr`trrrrrrrrtrr`rrtr r-rr +rrtr. trrrr`a trar`r+rrtr+
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 313 314 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
trrartr ttrr+rr`r+rt trrtrrtr tr`trrrr rrr`rtrtrrr++
58. rrrr r tr` rr r r r orrrrr t or rrrr` orrrrar rrrr +
rrr rrrrtrr rrr`ztrtrrtr rrr`rtrrrr.++
quoted in the Subhitaratnabhgra, p.279. Poems
containing Ikupka are condemned in a verse in praise of a poet named
Rmachandra.
trrrr orrttrrrrrrrrrrttrr. rrrrtr+
rrr`trttr trrr-rtr trrr trra. rra rra++
59. trrrrrrrrrrrrrr`-rtrr r +rrr`tr +rrtr. rrrrt rrrrrrrr`tr+
ror orr`tr rr trrtrrrrrrtr rrtrrrr`tr orrt rrt ttrttr++ Gtagovinda, 12.
60. r` trtrr rrrrr rrrrrrrtrrr` rtrr rrr trr` rr r` +
r`rrrrr`rr tratr rrrr rrrrrr`-rtr rrrrrrrrrtr++
quoted in the Subhitaratnabhgra, p. 283
61. trrrrrrrrrrr rr rr-rr rrrrr rrrttrrrtrr rrrrr+
trr r` tt. trr :+r tr rrrr rr rrrrrrrrtrr.++ Ibid, p. 286
62. History of Sanskrit Poetics, vol. II. p. 240
63. On the sublime, ch. 30.
64. Essays on Criticism, lines 364-371.
(Deptt. of Skt. and Hindi, University of Raj., No. 6 : 1973-74)

14. M. Hiriyannas Views On Theories of Poetry


Professor Hiriyanna has dealt with theories of poetry in the general
context of Indian aesthetics. This has underlined the wider applicability
and significance of the principles of literary criticism in Sanskrit. Further,
he has drawn our attention to parallelism of evolution of poetry and
criticism with Indian religion and philosophy. He has thus given a
harmonious explanation of the growth of an identical Indian mind in
literature, literary theories, and in religion and philosophy. No better
thesis can perhaps be propounded to expound accurately and comparatively
the unity of the religious, philosophical, aesthetic and literary expressions
of the Indian mind. But, Prof. Hiriyanna does not stop at historical and
comparative analysis. He takes a definite stand as does akara in Vednta
or nandavardhana in literary criticism. Like them, he maintains an
idealist view of the theory of poetry, and imparts to his penetrating analysis
of different aspects of literary theory that rare philosophical insight and
expression which characterise all the writings of Prof. Hiriyanna.
In his essay on Sanskrit Poetry : A Historical Retrospect Prof.
Hiriyanna has shown that in classical Sanskrit poetry emotion replaced
beauty as the theme of poetry. Vedic poetry, in contrast had nature and
its powers as its subject-matter. Nature was replaced by Feeling in classical
poetry.
1
This shifting of the poets attitude from the external to the internal
world has an exact parallel in the philosophical doctrine of the identification
of Brahman with tman, the innermost self of man as well as in religious
evolution from a number of devas to the concept of god as antarymin,
and in the growth of poetic criticism from the theories of doas, guas
and alakras, which centre their attention on the outward expression of
poetry, to the theory of Rasa as the soul of poetry.
2
The old school of
poetics, represented by Bhmaha, Dain, Udbhaa, Rudraa and Vmana,
dealt with the subject of poetry under the three heads of doas, guas
and alakras which were intended to secure coherence of thought and
embellishment of expression. The writers of this school rarely, allude
to the central essence of poetry and are practically confined to the
outward expression of poetry.
3
The new school of dhvani concentrated
its attention on the implicit meaning which forms the essence of poetry.
This new theory of poetry exactly corresponds to the doctrine of tman.
Professor Hiriyanna observes, Just as the passing things of experience
are not in themselves real but only imperfect manifestations of reality,
so word and explicit meaning are but the exterior of poetry, and
until we penetrate that exterior, we do not reach the poetic ultimate.
4
This is clearly the akaraite view of poetry. Should we then think that
what the poet portrays, creates or reveals is just unreal like the world of
akara? Perhaps, no. Prof. Hiriyanna in his analysis of implication of
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 315 316 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
passages contrasting the poet with the creator says that a poet does not
portray Nature as it is but as it ought to be, i.e. the forms he creates
disclose to us the truth of nature commonly obscured, but yet there
5
or that he presents something superior to nature which is not there because
one may suppose the world of nature to be imperfect and to contain
evil with good, ugliness with beauty.
6
The poetic creation is thus
idealisation of Nature, life and its experiences, which finds an imaginative
response in the reader and induces in him a detached attitude. The idealised
objects lack spatio-temporal position or physical status, the question of
reality does not apply to them. This does not mean, observes Professor
Hiriyanna, that they are unreal; it only means that the distinction of
existence and non-existence does not arise at all in their case.
7
This
stand is certainly consistent with the view of nandavardhana
8
who finds
consideration of reality or otherwise of the suggested meanings in poetry
irrelevant, with that of Abhinavagupta who does not accept poetic
statements as valid for activity as are Vedic injunctions
9
and also with
that of Mahimabhaa
10
who seems to repeat the author of dhvani on this
point. It makes poetic content alogical. This lack of logical character and
process in poetry renders the views of Mukula Bhaa, who used arthpatti
and of Mahima Bhaa who tried the inferential process in poetry,
meaningless because both forgot that the dhvani lacks the element of
necessity, which is essential to what is strictly logical process.
11
Poetry is alogical but not amoral. According to Prof. Hiriyanna,
acceptance of the ideal of Jvanmukti, which replaced eschatological and
ascetic views of life, influenced the theory of art and the ethical ideal.
The aim of life was no longer conceived as something to be
sought far beyond this world , but to be realised here, and if one so
willed now. For the realisation of this ideal, the training of the feeling
was a necessary preliminary and in consequence, the first aim of life
came to be looked upon not so much the cultivation of the intellect
or the development of the will, as the culture of the emotions.
12
This view leads him to compare poetic experience to the ideal
state of Jvanmukti. Accordingly, he considers aesthetic experience to be
an ultimate value and being characterised by a unique kind of delight.
13
No doubt, art experience is not abiding as it does not last long. It is
woefully fugitive and does not require philosophical knowledge or moral
worth, yet, its limitations dont affect the conclusion that it is of the
same order as that of the ideal state.
14
There could be three views
about the value of poetry. First that it represents no higher value at all
and that it is only Kma or sensuous pleasure in disguise,
15
second, that
even if it be kma, it is kma idealised and sublimated so that its
selfish and sensual side is entirely eliminated.
16
There is yet a third
and more profound view advocated by Rasa-theorists which makes poetic
experience comparable to yogic experience. It is this view that Prof.
Hiriyanna prefers. He says, Art also, like nikma-karma, may, by
purging our emotions help ..... . Inner assimilation of the ultimate
truth, for devotion to the beautiful is not less unselfish than devotion
to the good.
17
In keeping with his spiritualistic view of poetry or art,
Prof. Hiriyanna has underlined, the close connections of poetry with
religion,
18
and philosophy considers artistic contemplation and experience
active, like the ideal state, because it involves imaginative reconstruction
of the idealised content of art. The beautiful as a value needs to be
striven for() achieved (sdhya), no matter whether one approaches
it as an artist or as a spectator.
19
From the foregoing brief statement of the view of Prof. Hiriyanna
on poetic content, aim, value and experience and the close connection of
poetic theory with the philosophical doctrine of tman and the ethical
ideal of Jvanmukti, it is obvious that not only has he critically elucidated
the bearing of the dhvani-theory on the above-mentioned aspects but has
made it more profound and spiritualistic. This has incidentally resulted
in minimising the significance of earlier theories of doa, gua, alakra,
and vakrokti. In his treatment of these theories in the wider context of
aesthetics he finds no use for the alakra concept
20
of Sanskrit criticism.
He is so much engrossed in and impressed with the aesthetic idealism of
the dhvani-theory, more precisely its Rasa-theory, that he has hardly
given sympathetic treatment to the old school of Sanskrit poetics. He
has, instead pointed out its failings in conceiving Rasavadalakra, either
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 317 318 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
as vcya, directly expressed, or as deduced by presumption. An idea of
emotion, he argues, can be thus conveyed but it will be conceptual and
abstract, while Rasa is always a felt emotion suggested through concrete
forms in poetry.
21
He observes: But misconceiving the status of Rasa
in poetry was not the only fault of the older (prcna) school. They
also failed to explain how Rasa experience comes to be evoked at
all.
22
The new school solves this problem by enunciating the theory of
suggestiveness which is based upon the view that what we may call the
poetic ultimate is essentially incommunicable and can at best be
suggested.
23
Professor Hiriyanna has given us the Rasa-Brahma theory in all
its details. He remains monistic throughout his exposition. He brooks no
compromise with the realism of theorists and observes no syncretism in
the theory of dhvani which may allow co-existence of all the theories of
poetry in the relative supremacy of Rasa-dhvani. No doubt, classical
Sanskrit poetry chiefly concerns itself with feeling. Klidsa and
Bhavabhti remain the best poets of Sanskrit; yet, the poetry of Bhravi,
Mgha and rihara and of many lesser known poets cannot be disregarded
even for their beauty of form, imagery and style. The Rasa-dhvani theory
of nanda and Abhinava has had its supremacy in Sanskrit poetics; yet,
even its one of the most brilliant exponents, I refer to Paitarja
Jaganntha, did concede that even the works of great poets may contain
passages that have no rasa, and yet representation of nature or imaginative
description will qualify them for the title of poetry. Hence, his criticism
of Vivanthas definition of poetry. It is not without reason that the
practice of treating all the elements of Sanskrit criticism even by the
followers of the dhvani school has continued in Sanskrit poetics. This
implies a certain syncretism in theory and in practice of Sanskrit poetry
which continues to excel in imagination and representation of thought
and action equally with delineation of feeling. Perhaps the realistic idealism
of Kashmir aivism, mainting the reality of all manifestations of the
ultimate will be a better philosophy to explain the theories of poetry than
the absolutism of akara which dismisses all elements of the world as
unreal appearances, positing Brahman as the only ultimate real. But then,
Professor Hiriyanna is a true Vedntin in the realm of the theory of poetry.
References
1. Beauty of nature and beauty of human thought and action are found in
both types of poetry but while the earlier (i.e. Vedic) points to these as
its aim, the later points from them to something which lies deeper yet,
viz. Feeling. Studies, P. 6.
2. See, his essay on Indian Aesthetics-1 included in Art Experience.
3. Ibid, p. 5.
4. Ibid, p.7.
5. Ibid, p. 20. See also p. 30 on this point.
6. Ibid, p. 47.
7. Ibid, p. 30. On p. 47-48 Hiriyanna has further observed:
But it is necessary to add that the things represented in art will not
become false or fictitious through such idealisation...... Thus the things
depicted in art assume a unique character which the spectator can
describe as neither real nor unreal. In brief, we do not take a logical
view of them. We neither believe nor disbelieve in their reality. We
merely entertain them.
8. Dhvanyloka, III p. 455 KSS ed. 1940.
9. Locana on the same page.
10. Vyaktiviveka, p. 75 KSS 1936.
tr rrr rrrrrrrrrr . tr-r trtrr trtrrtrtrtrr` r-rrtr r` rrrrr r qr+
rrrrr`rrrr -r rr-rrr-rrrrzr-trtrrtrrrr trtrrtrtrtrr`r-rrtr r`rrrrrr
qrr`tr trr trrrrrrtrtrrtrorrrrrtrrrr trrrcrtr r`tr+
11. Art., p. 50.
12. Ibid, p. 4.
13. Ibid, p. 27-28.
14. Ibid, p. 28.
15. Manu (I. 12) reckons song, dance and instrumental music among human
weakness, Vyasana).
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 319 320 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
16. Quest., p. 32
17. Ibid, p. 33.
18. Studies, p. 1. Quest., p. 33 where he observes : It is common knowledge
that the fine arts of dancing, architecture, painting and sculpture have
been affiliated in India, as in many other countries, to religion and
therefore in a way to Philosophy. Even poetry is so.
19. Art., p. 23.
20. The last, alakras may be left out of consideration here; for, in the
first place, they are not recognised by all to be essential, and in the
second, they almost exclusively relate imaginative literature and have
no proper place in general theory of art.- Art., p. 5.
21. Ibid, p. 67.
22. Ibid, p. 68.
23. Ibid, p. 70; see also. P. 49-50
24. Rasagagdhra, (N.S.ed.) p. 8-9.
(Oriental Research Institute, Mysore)

15. Sanskrit Criticism and Contemporary


Literature
The renowned scholars of Sanskrit Criticism have shown great
favour to this young University Department of Sanskrit by accepting all
hardships of journey in winter to attend the Seminar in this city of lakes,
not so well connected by trains. Your affection and generosity shall be
sole refuge of our inability in making befitting arrangement for the scholars
of your age and fame. My awareness of organizational limitations does
not belittle my sense of pride and joy at your distinguished visit. It
rather waxes to find that not only pre-eminently the scholars of Sanskrit
but also of Hindi and English have found it interesting to actively associate
themselves with the Seminar. This reminds me of the famous line:
rrrrrrrrr`rrrar rrrrrr r-r`tr rrrrtrrrr. Your participation, I am sure,
will inaugurate comparative studies of the Principles of Literary Criticism
in Sanskrit in depth. In the past ages Sanskrit was the national and
composite vehicle of literary and cultural consciousness of the country.
It systematised, conserved and transmitted the intellectual movements of
the country. The literary tradition, which originated with the languages
of the masses-Pli. Prkta or Apabhraa- was critically evaluated by
the Sanskrit lakrikas. It is not surprising therefore that many original
works on poetics are full of illustrations from the Prakrit. The movement
of Bhakti was similarly popular in its origin. But its philosophy was
constructed in Sanskrit by Rmnuja and Caitany, his followers
Rpagosvmin, Jvagosvmin and by Madhusdana who expounded the
principle and philosophy of Bhakti Rasa. Jainism and Buddhism originated
as popular movements expressing their faith in local languages. But it
was not very long after their origin that the religion, philosophy and
poetry of these two great movements of India, namely Jainism and
Buddhism, were composed in Sanskrit. Even the faith of Sikhism, Brahma
Samaj, Arya Samaj and so on was expressed through this language of
immortality, precision and sanctity. Sanskrit has played effectively its
role of understanding new movements of intellect and giving them a
composed, graphic and classical expression. It has been thus a repository
of all expressions of Indian consciousness. It could achieve this
magnificent result by honouring the sentiments of the linguistic temper
of the people. Like Dain, nanda-Vardhana, Mammaa, and
Rpagosvmin of the past, the modern scholars of Sanskrit criticism,
owe a responsibility to this sensible tradition and thus bring under their
analytical ken the literature of contemporary India.
Non-Sanskrit critics of contemporary literature of India which
is imbued with modern sensibility, complain that the principles of literary
criticism enshrined in old Sanskrit texts, though sacred yet largely
ambiguous and unintelligible, are inadequate and even invalid to evaluate
the new literary consciousness. They argue that an ultimate sense of
despair, helplessness and alineation that permeats the creative writing of
today cannot be properly evaluated by the canons of criticism which are
largely based on a philosophy of ultimate hope and a vision of the
quietitude. The philosophy of Absolute and a religious morality sanctioned
by Smtis, which provide a broad framework for the literary criticism in
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 321 322 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
Sanskrit have no relation with the modern literature that has lost faith in
the absolute and has discovered a new sense of morality. In this world of
relativity absolute has no place. However, the contemporary critics of
akavit, akahn and what not, have not formulated so far any objective
principles for the judgment of modern literature, which could be acceptable
to all concerned. Interpretations and critique of old principles dont satisfy
them. Strong impact of science & technology has shrunk the world and
brought our contact with the moon. Change of social and economic forces
has brought about a new structure of morality; faith in the old order of
things, thoughts and patterns stands mutilated. Modern stage of the world
has no room for outworn plays of old characters. New literary
consciousness needs its understanding and critical evaluation in its own
context. In the past the Sanskrit Acharyas never failed in appreciating
and judging the literary mood of the people who expressed themselves in
the idiom of the day. The scholars of Sanskrit criticism will no doubt
revive the old tradition of understanding and evaluating the modern
Prakrits-Hindi and others and if need be evolve new canons of literary
criticism. Dain, Mammaa and many other cryas did not ignore the
literature in the peoples languages, nor will the distinguished critics
participating in the seminar. This may open up new horizons and lay the
foundations of new canons of literary criticism. I have ventured to make
some observations; it was but irresistible in the enlightened presence of
so distinguished cryas here.
(An extract from the welcome speech, Deptt. of Skt.
University of Udaipur)

16. Philosophical Consideration and Independence of


Literary Criticism in Sanskrit
In this paper I propose (i) to state the obvious impact of Indian
philosophical thought on Sanskrit Criticism and (ii) to assert that the
criticism, though informed and influenced by philosophical thought, is
yet by and large independent of philosophical considerations and that
these are incidental to it and do not constitute the essence of critical
judgment of literature.
The idea of poetry and its objectives, the description of the poet
and aesthete (sahdaya), the poetic word and its meaning and their relation,
the varieties of poetic figures (alakras), the role of imagination (pratibh)
in the conception and creation of literature, the triad of poetic excellence
(gua), the theories of rasa and dhvani and Mahima Bhaas theory of
inferential nature of poetic sense are some of the major topics that come
readily to ones mind when one seeks to trace the influence of Indian
philosophical thought in general and orthodox systems in particular. I
propose to deal with some of these excluding rasa in particular which
would require separate treatment. That the literary critic in India worked
under the impact of philosophy and other stras, which are not pertinent
for our consideration here, is no wonder to us. Western Criticism has
also been informed and influenced and even at times swept off its feet by
the onslaught of psychology and philosophy. This is natural when both
philosopher and poet are engaged in seeing the word; the philosopher
may see it better but it is only the poet who describes better what he
sees. The title of a poet is accorded not merely to one who is endowed
with a vision of world but to one who possesses both vision and expression.
The famous stanzas by Bhaa Tota bear quotation on this point:-
rrrr`rr. rrr`rr`ttr-rrrr`rr;r r`rrrr arrrrtr+
r`rr`-rr+rrrrrrrrrtr-rtrarr -r arrrrr++
tr tr-rarrrrar rrrrrr rrr`rtr. rrr`r.+
arrrrrrr--rrr or rrrrr rrr`r>rr`tr.++ (Loc., Cit.)
Even the sage Vlmki, who had a clear vision of the reality of
things, was not acclaimed a poet until his poem emerged to express
aesthetically what he had seen or experienced:
trrr r` arrr tr- r`rtr:rrrr`arrrrrr.+
rrr`atrr rrr`rtrr rrrrr rrrrrtrr r rrrr++ (Ibid)
While the conception of poet in India has borne comparison
with the philosopher and creator, the literary critics have always asserted
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 323 324 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
independence and freedom of literary creation
1
and have even established
its supremacy over the former. The benedictory verse of the Kvya-praka
clearly formulates the freedom and supremacy of the poetic creation:
r` rrr` trrr trr` rrrrtr` trr ra rrrrrr rrrrrrttrrrrr +
rrttrr`-rtr r`rr`rrr`trrrrartrr +rrttrr rrrrrr`tr++
The poet is able to see and express by virtue of his innate faculty
called Pratibh. Bhmaha declares that poetry dawns rarely and on an
only person gifted with this faculty: rrrr tr rrrtr rrtr rrtrr` -rtr trr` tr+rrrtr.+
Bhmahlakra, 1.5.
This rarest gift
2
, an innate faculty
3
and the very seed of poetry
4
is conceived by Rjaekhara as both a creative inspiration (krayitr
pratibh) and aesthetic sensibility (Bhvayitr Pratibh).
5
Bhaa Tota,
the master of Abhinavagupta, has offered best definition of Pratibh. He
says: Pratibh is a form of intuitive consciousness, praj, which is
an inexhaustible source of exceptionally novel blooms. It is by virtue
of this Pratibh alone that one deserves the title of poet, of one,
who is skilful in expresson
6
:
tr;rr rrrrrrrrrrrrr`rrrrr trr`tr+rr rrtrr+
trar trrrrrrr rr rrr` rrr r. rrr` r.++
The doctrine of Pratibh in Sanskrit Criticism is very comprehensive.
It includes (i) creative inspiration, imagination, genius; (ii) competent
poetic expression
7
; (iii) aesthetic sensibility; and (iv) poetic beauty.
8
The literary critics had conceived this doctrine independently
until Abhinavagupta, in his philosophical analysis of the Pratibh,
identified it with the ultimate consciousness, the Self and admitted that
in a poet it burns with a purified light.
9
Pratibh in aiva metaphysics is identified with consciousness
as creative emission (Visarga)
10
. However, what one notices is that prior
to Abhinavagupta the literary critics did not consider its metaphysical
overtones and were happy to explore it as a concept of poetic creation,
expression and appreciation. Even nandavardhana, who was himself a
great philosopher, treated Pratibh in its literary context only. According
to him it is a unique gift which is manifested through the Muse of great
poets,
11
attains endless forms on its journey through the dhavani
12
and so
long as it is present the province of poetry is never exhausted.
13
Similarly
Kuntaka, Ruyyaka and later lakrikas considered it necessary for any
description to be called poetic. Ruyyaka has redefined the poetic figures
on the basis of the principle of Pratibh-which is, in their opinion, essentially
a virture of creative imagination found in the work of great poets.
Impact of grammar and systems of philosophy on the progressive
evolution of the alakra proper is well recognized. Grammar forms the
basis of many a variety of Upam. The discussion about the distinction
between upam and utprek due to the use of the word iva; of that
between upam and rpaka, and the mergence of many alakras like
Dpaka and vtti betray the obvious influence of grammar. The recognition
of figures like arthpatti, parisakhy and sammuccaya distinctly bear
the stamp of the Mmsakas. In the emergence of figures like anumna,
kvyaliga (also known as Kvyahetu in old works), Vibhvan, Vieokti,
Virodhbhsa, asagati, atiayokti of second variety, and adhika as well
as in the hair-splitting discussion in neo-terminology of the formulation
and exposition of the concepts of the alakrastra the Naiyyikas had a
major share. Popular wisdom (loka-nyya) and its tradition of expression
were responsible for the formulation of many an alakra such as sama,
viama, pratyanka, pratpa, nimlita, tadgua and atadgua. In fact,
classification of the alakras given by Ruyyaka admits, inter alia, chain
(khal), reason (tarka), sentence (Vkya) and popular usage (loka) as
the basis. Under the impact of aivism emerged some new figures such
as Smaraa, parima and ullekha and many old alakras for example,
rasavaddi, the second variety of the figure udtta, Bhvika were given
new orientation. The terms of Kashmir aiva philosophy, such as bhsa,
anusandhna, unmea, nimea and ullekha were frequently used to discuss
the concepts of the alakras.
Ruyyaka has, in fact, treated the whole sphere of the alakras
on the basis of the principle of Pratibh. The admission of an alakra or
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 325 326 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
its variety is, according to him, dependent upon the creative instinct of
the poet on the one hand and its aesthetic meaningfulness on the other;
the difference of an alakra from another is based on a distinct
consciousness that each should arouse.
14
Thus, for example, utprek
and Atisayokti are distinguished on the basis of adhyavasya
15
, and
bhvika, rasavat
16
, svabhvokti on the basis of consciousness of identity,
universality and so on. Ruyyaka is never tired of repeating in essence
that poetic figure being a potent media of effecting consciousness, should
bloom forth from the poetic pratibh, and never regrets to discard
cumbersome varieties of the figures which hurt the aesthetic sensibility
(the second aspect of pratibh). His commentator Jayaratha, who was
himself a great thinker of aivism, has further underlined these aspects,
namely the figure must be effected by pratibh
17
and that it should produce
a distinct consciousness. It is such a figure that becomes synonymous
with poetic beauty and rvidycakravartin in his Sajvini a commentary
on the Alakrasarvasva often repeats that an alakra is nothing but
beauty: +rrrrrrtr r` r`rr`-r`-r.+
Another important entity for our consideration is the concept of
poetic flaws. Among the ten types of flaws enumerated by Bharata
18
,
nyydapeta (defined as pramaparivarjita), Visadhi and abdacyuta
are clearly stric. Ghrtha, (paryyaabdbhihita), arthntarta (avarya-
Varana) arthahna, bhinnrtha, ekrtha, abhiluptrtha referring to
impediments created in comprehension of the meaning, were also partly
influenced by grammatical and logical considerations; the Viama
(metrically uneven) relates to prosody. Bharata believed that these flaws
mar poetic beauty of a literary composition. Bhmaha followed Bharata
in the treatment of the above mentioned flaws and added ten more to the
list. I need not go into the details of his treatment but would confine
myself to two observations. This is obvious from Bhmahas treatment
of logical fallacies
19
that logic (Buddhist as well as orthodox) exercised
considerable influence on him. This was natural because Bhmaha
belonged to an age which was marked by encounter of ideas and was
dominated by the works of Vasubandhu and Dinga. However, even
when he bases his treatment of the poetic flaws on the way shown by the
logicians of the country and constructs the grammar of poetry after the
style of the grammarians, he also asserts the independence of the literary
criticism from the stra. The logic of poetry is distinct, says Bhmaha:
+rrrt rortr rrrrrorr rrrrtr>rrrr+
a tr rrrrr+rrr rrrrrrr`+rr`tr rrr
-
++ (KA, IV, 30)
This is constructed by critics on the basis of the poetic tradition
and is based on empirical experience while the stras are concerned
with the reality of things:
tr;r . rrrrtrrr r rr trttrra rrr trrrrrr+
trr rrrrrr>rr rrrrrrrrrrrttr-rar`rrr.++
It was perhaps to underline immanent nature of the poetic
meaning that Bhmaha advised not to believe the transcendental theory
of meaning propounded by the grammarians; it would be tantamount to a
belief in the reality of a sky-flower.
21
In his discussion on the correct use
of words (abda-sdhutva) Bhmaha is indebted to grammar as well as
to all other disciplines but when we read the Kvylakra in its proper
perspective it becomes clear that according to Bhmaha it is not sauabdya
or perfection of the word or its correct cognition that can constitute a
poem rather an aesthetic harmony of both the words and meanings: rrarrr
trr`trr rrrrrr+
The words and meanings both must be out of the turn
22
and
should emerge form ones own experience of them.
23
It was to probe this
uncommon use of word and meaning by the poet that Bhmaha propounded
the principle of Vakrokti
24
which, according to him, pervades entire poetic
composition, constitutes essence of all poetic expression
25
and in media
of effecting aesthetic sense in poetry anayrtho vibhvyate. Dain further
asserted the empirical nature of literature and its criticism by admitting
equal importance of the svabhvokti and had even questioned the grafting
of hetu and nyya (trrrrrrrr--rr on literary judgment:
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 327 328 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
r`r-rrt. rrrrrrtrrrttrrrrrror r`rr rrrrrr+
Bhmaha had observed that flaws of logic and grammar
sometimes become guas. Dain takes this principle further by
illustrating every defect and showing how each turns into a virtue. Vmana
deals with the doas systematically in the III adhikaraa. Contradicting
the opinion of Bharata he maintains that doas are not positive entities
but merely opposite to guas and these are treated by him under the
categories of pada, padrtha, vkya and vkyrtha. Rudraa, who follows
Bharata in his conception of the poetic blemish as positive entity, treats
doas under the broad classes of verbal and material. Bhmaha had
recognized seven doas of upam which is exclusive to poetry. Dain
and Rudraa also treated these with varying numbers. nandavardhana
by expounding the universal and ephemeral character of the blemishes
makes them subservient to the aesthetic meaning of dhvani. It is from
their relation to sentiments that the blemishes derive their raison detre
in literary criticism. This is significant because critical judgment of
literature should not take any independent notice of the grammatical and
logical defects unless they are related to the poetic sense (Kvyrtha, the
rasa). Mahimabhaas treatment of the five poetic flaws, borrowed by
Mammaa latter on, is very systematic and is broadly speaking aims at
the stylistic perfection through avoidance of impediments to clear grasp
of meaning Mammaa followed the Dhvani school in his conception of
the poetic blemish as marring the principal sense (i.e. rasa) and his broad
classification of the blemishes includes rasa-doas along with the verbal
or formal and the material (relating to meaning or content). Progressive
evolution of doa-concept and treatment of its varieties makes it clear
that the literary critics concerned themselves more and more with
obstacles-formal or material-of the poetic content (alakra, Gua or
rasa) than with the grammar and logic, pure and simple.
Another important principle of Literary Criticism is the gua or
poetic excellence. Despite many important differences among critics from
Bharata to Post-dhvani period about the nature (whether it is positive
entity or simply a negation of the lemishes) and number (ten or three) the
gua principle has concerned itself exclusively with the stylistic perfection
through aesthetic mode of arrangement of words of literary creation and
was in its final analysis intimately (not indirectly as in Bharata) related
to rasa, and writers on dhvani analysed properly the mental states that
guas help to arouse. In their analysis they must have been influenced by
the nature of triad of guas admitted in the Skhya but in any case no
writer seems to be obssessed with the stric concept, the critic largely
on his own analysed the mental states that guas help to arouse.
It is true that nandavardhana took the cue from grammatical
theory of Sphoa which treats each letter as suggestive of sphoa-one,
constant and unchanging like Brahman of the Vednta, but he has himself
made it abundantly clear that the dhvani as a literary principle was developed
by him on the basis of a tradition of critical judgement of the readers. In
his auto-comment (vtti) on Kvyasytm dhvaniriti budhairya
sammnta-prva and elsewhere also in his epoch-making work, the
Dhvanyloka, nandavaradhana makes following observations which
deserve our attention:
(i) rr. rrrrtrtrr`rar`+r.+ (Vtti on krik I.I.)
(ii) rtrr rrorrrrtrrrrr tr r trr`trq.+ (Ibid)
(iii) trr rrr ttrrrtrrr trrr` tr` +r. tr r` tr` +r. rrrrtr-rrr ar` rr r` +r. rr-rrr-rrrtr r` rr>r.
rrartrrr rrrrr` rrr` tr rrra rrr rrrrtrtrrrrra rr` rr` ttr -r.+ (Ibid)
Mukul Bhaa and his pupil Pratihrendurja in their observations
make it clear that the Sahdayas (aesthetes) were responsible for conceiving
the novel doctrine of Dhvani:
(i) orrrrrrrrrrrr`tr tr rr. trarrtrrtrrrrrrr`rtrtr+
(Abhidhvttimtk, N.S. ed. P. 21)
(ii) trrr r` trr r` rrr` ortrrrrrttrr trar . rrrrrtrr r` r r` rr` rrtrr+ (Ibid. p. 19)
(iii) rrr`;rttrarrr`rrrrr rrrrtr+rartrrr rrrrrrrr:r`+rr`tr.+
(Laghuvtti, B.S.S. ed. p.85.)
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 329 330 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The continuous tradition of dhvani in the learned circles and
Sahdayas is alluded to by nandavaradhana who refers to them as of
mature minds in the concluding verse of the Dhvanyloka and
Abhinavgupta who further states that though the principle of dhvani was
not reduced to writing nevertheless it was continuously in vogue:
+rr`rr`-rr trrrr trttra-r r`rrrr`rr r`rr`rrrrttrrrr`rr`rrrrrrtr+
(Locana, p. 32 (KSR 9 ed.)
In fact nandavardhana has given an independent foundation to
the poetic meaning and the best that we can say about grammatical impact
is that it served as a prelude to or preliminary stage in the evolution of
Dhvani as a comprehensive doctrine of Literary Criticism. This is the
real significance of the concluding verse of the Dhvanyloka.
I would now like to conclude by further bringing to your notice
the denunciation of the stric polemics by cryas of great repute in
literary criticism. Abhinavagupta, who has given a solid foundation of
Kashmir aivism to Sankrit Criticism, passes strictures on the efforts of
over-jealous exponents of philosophical views, as being inspired solely
for deluding supple minds (Sukumramanomohana) or mere poses
(bhramaikmtra)
26
. Independence of judgment of poetry (kvyadh)
was brought out on the basis of pre-eminence of poetic function by another
critic, Bhaanyaka, in his now lost work, the Hdayadarpaa:
rratrrrrrrrrr`>rtr trr rrrr rrrr`ra.+
+rrtr-rr r-r tr ratrrarrrrrtrrr.+
rrrrtr rrrrrttrrrrr rrrrrr+rrtr++
Bhaanyaka, in fact, did not view highly didactic value or ethical
tone in literature. According to him what matters most is intrinsic merit
of poem. Abhinava has similarly questioned the didactic purpose of literary
creation in his commentaries on the Nyastra
27
and the Dhvanyloka
28
.
According to him principal element is not knowledge, for in that case
there would be no difference of literary work from ethics and
historiography. nanda had also said r r` rrr r` tr` trr -rrrrrrr r rrtrrrrarrr+r.
r` trrtrra t r trtr r` trq . Dhanajaya stressed this idea by saying that dramas
flow with joy, and knowledge is no fruit there-from and one who seeks it
as from the history etc. must be saluted, as he is hostile to the real taste
of literature:
+rrrar`rrrr`arr rrrrrr rtrrr`-rrrrr rrrrrrrrrrr`q.+
rr:rrrr`trrtrrr`arar trrrttrtrr rrr. trrarrtrzrrarrr++
(Daarpaka, I. 6.)
Rjaekhara has stated criticism (discipline of the literature,
Shityavidy) to be the fifth Veda
29
, which asserts its independence.
In the near past when creative criticism ceased and what remained
was simple re-assertion of old principles in new language of the
Naiyyikas, the ultra-logical spirit seems to have run riot. One may now
fondly hope that this sin of arasika polemics will not be inflicted upon
new ventures of evolving or re-interpreting the principles of Literary
Criticism in Sanskrit and a sincere effort will be made to seek new pastures
in modern context of literary consciousness.
Discussion
(i) L.L. Joshi
I have always thought that Indians are falsely accused of being
too philosophical. Your paper shows very clearly that they are most worldly
and practical people and thus confirms my view.
(ii) S.D. Swami
Pratibh is essential not only for Kvyastra but for other stras
also. Mahimabhaa has referred to the importance of it in various branches
of knowledge. (tr.).
(iii) R.C. Dwivedi
Should I assume that you are not raising any objection against
what I have said? Because I pre-suppose that Pratibh is indispensable
for the creation of Poetry. That it plays an important role in other sciences
also, is obvious. I do not contradict it. I have endeavoured to show how
the concept of Pratibh, based on the long tradition of poets (cf. trttrtrr
trra trarrttr r`rrrarrrrr rrtrr rrrrrr etc.) was later on explained more
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 331 332 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
and more on the basis of philosophy. Abhinavagupta is the first to explain
the significance of Pratibh in poetry and to establish it on sound
philosophical foundations. It is a fact that prior to Abhinavagupta no
poeticist cared to explain this term in all philosophical detail.
I have also tried to show how the concepts of Pratibh, alakra,
doa etc. remained primarily and prior to Abhinavagupta invariably,
unaffected by the philosophical overtones. Even after Abhinava his
followers, for example Jayaratha who believed that principles of Criticism
are not to be interpreted exclusively on the basis of any particular system,
deride at attempts for over-philosophisation of what are essenially literary
concepts evolved from the judgment of literature.
(iv) Venakatachalam
Before we wind up, I would like to put one question at this
stage. You have shown that various themes of the poetics have been
influenced by the principles of Indian philosophy yet they have developed
themselves independently, but as far the Rasa-theory is concerned, I
think that a perusal of various theories on Rasa shows that in this sphere
the cryas seldom rose above the philosophical tangle in which they had
entered perhaps of their own accord. There is, therefore, very little
independent development in the field of Rasa-theories. What do you
think of it?
(v) R.C. Dwivedi
Rasa-stra has been explained in the light of almost all the schools
of India Philosophy. This very fact ipso facto implies that no particular
system of philosophical thought can be applied to or held to be exclusively
valid in relation to the exposition of the Rasastra of Bharata. This makes
a particular system of Indian philosophy in relation to rasa-stra only
incidental and not essential to it.
Moreover I think that Rasa-theory is one of the few topics in
Poetics whose development can be perused back to its very inception.
The Rasa-stra of Bharata is by itself pure and simple and is devoid of
every kind of doctrinaire influence of Indian philosophy.
(vi) R.P. Dwivedi
The Rasa-Stra which is the basis of Rasa-theories that developed
later on has been proved to be an interpolation in the Nya-stra. (tr.)
(vii) R.C. Dwivedi
If this be finally accepted, it would support me in as much as
one can hold that the later cyas have tailored as stra to suit their
philosophical predisposition and design.
(viii) R.S. Jaitly
At the time of Bhrata, I think, the layer of the paint of philosophy
on the Rasa-theory was not very thick. The layer became thicker and the
paint darker with the later cyas. In this process completely new ideas
were introduced in Rasa with regard to its theoretical aspect; but as far as
its practical aspect, the aspect of relishing, rasana, was concerned, no worth
while progress could be made. I would like to know your opinion about it.
(ix) R.C. Dwivedi
You are right in saying that the theoretical knowledge and the
discussion about the actual process of rasnubhti does not help a spectator
or a reader to relish a piece of art. It is rather a hindrance than an asset. We
all here have become somewhat jaa to enjoy rasa properly but there are
many more outside this room who are fortunately not interested to know
the process of relishing but would rather relish it to the brim of their heart.
(x) S.D. Swami
The elaboration of the Rasa theory has not taken place purely on
the philosophical background. The various names, gra, karua etc.,
the conception of different types of bhvas, the process of sdhrakaraa
etc., all these things are originally contributed by the poetics itself. (tr.)
(xi) Venkatachalam
I do not say that in the Rasa-theory there is nothing but
philosophy, what I mean to say is simple that the process of rasnubhti
has not been able to separate itself from philosophy.
(xii) R.C. Dwivedi
Recall to your mind the two famous lines: rrrrr. rrrrrrtrrrrrtr.
and rrrrrrtrrrrrrcrtr rtr rrrrr., which prove that both a great poet
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 333 334 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
(Klids) as well as a great critic (nandavardhan) agree to the effect
that oka becomes loka. In which school of philosophy would you find
this tradition? Is this not an independent contribution of Poetics towards
Rasa-theory? And all the examples of the rasadhvani which I have quoted
towards the end of my paper should also be regarded as complete
originality in the Rasa-theory. Bhaanyaka conceived two poetic
functions, bhvan and bhoga to explain the process and realisation of
rasa. Both these functions are independent of philosophic impact and
were propounded independently. Dhvani-theorists replace in a way the
above two functions by Vyajan which is not only an independent concept
of literary criticism but it also staunchly refuted by the philosophers of
every shade in India. For example, Jayanta Bhaa, the great naiyyika,
clearly controverts its admission to the class of abda-vypra.
References
1. Vide, Dhvanyloka III-43. Abhinavabhrt, I. 40.
2. Cf. Agni Pura quoted in Shityadarpaa Ch. I.
3. Dains Kavydara, I. 103.
4. Vmana, KASV I. 3.16.
5. See, Rjaekhara, Kvyamms, pp. 12-14.
6. Quoted by Hemacandra, Kvynusana, p. 3; Mikyacandra in
Saketa on KP, p. 7.
7. On this point see also Rudraa, I. 15; Rjaekhara, KM, pp. 12-14;
Jaganntha, R.G. (Kvyaghaannukla-Sabdrthopasthiti).
Vgbhalakra, I. 4.
8. trr` tr+rr:rr r rttr r` rrrr rorrrr tr;rr, trtrr r` rrr rrr ttrrr rrr rrcrtrr ar rrrrorrrtrrr +
9. See, T.A., V, p. 432, and XI, pp. 60-62; M.V.V, VV. 1031 onwards.
10. Ibid, V., P. 432.
11. trttrtrr trra trarrttr r`rrrarrrrr rrtrr rrrrrrrr+
+rrrrrrtrrrrrrrrr`+rrrr`-r rrr`ttrrttr trr`tr+rrr`rrrrrrr++ I.6 .
12. rr r . r rr +r trrrtrrrr trar` rr tr.+
+rrrrrtrrrrrrr`tr rrrrrr trr`tr+rr-rr.++ IV.6.
13. r rrrrrrr`rtrrrr:r`ttr rr`a trrtr trr`tr+rrrr.+
14. trtrr r` tr+r a;rrrr rrrt+r ar` rr` rr-rr` rrtrr` rrra.+
15. Vide, Dr. R.C. Dwivedi (ed.), Alakrasarvasva-Sajvin, pp. 82-
84. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1965.
16. Ibid, pp. 329-335.
17. Ruyyaka and Jayaratha have given a full philosophical treatment to bhvika
and other figures. For this see R.C. Dwivedi: Percept-like experience in
Bhvika included in Essays on Indian Poetics, Delhi, 1965.
18. See, Jayaratha, Vimarini on A.S. (N.S. ed.) pp. 44, 58, 71-165.
19. N.S., XVI, 88-94.
20. Vide, KA, IV 1-2.
21. See, also IV. 32.
22. rrrrr tr` rr -rra r r-rr r trrr rrr` arrrr +
r+r. rrtrrrrrttrrr`tr >raarrtr rr. tr-rtrr.++ KA.
23. Vide, ibid, I. 36, V. 66.
24. rrrtrtrrrrar rrrrr` r+rrr` tr rr a trtrrrr +
rrt r r trrr -r r trttrr rr trrrrrrrr ++
25. KA, II. 84-5.
26. To state the independence of poetic expression and free it a bit from the
chain of grammar Bhmaha said that even a faulty expression or a bad
word does not matter so long as the pattern and object of description
has some charm. Vide, Kvylakra, I. 54.
27. Abhinavabhrati, III, pp. 40 176-77.
28. rr r`rr rrarrarr rrtrr`tr, rtrr r`rrtr rr`q r`rrrrr`tr trtrr`tr+rrrrr trrrrr
r`rtrtr`tr+ ibid, p. 41.
29. Vide, Locana on Dhvanyloka, p. 40. KM, (G.O.S.)
30. rr&rrrr trrr`trr`rcrr`tr rrrrrtrr.+
(Principles of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit,
MLBD, Delhi, 1969)

i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 335 336 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
17. Concept of Obscenity (allat) in
Sanskrit Poetics
Classical Sanskrit Poetics emphasises unity and integrality of
form and content. Bhmaha (7
th
century A.D.) speaks of word and
meaning being together.
1
Dain who probably followed him proclaims:
String of words combined with the intended meaning is the body of a
literary compsition.
2
Later writers on Sanskrit criticism admitted in
essence
3
the unity of word and meaning either by expanding their
definitions of kvya (literary composition) in terms of presence of positive
entities of poetic excellences (guas) and figures (alakras) and absence
of negative entity of literary blemishes or by encompassing these under
their concepts of Rti (style and diction), vakrat (turn of expression)and
ramayat (charm) as Vmana, Kuntaka, and Jaganntha did. Even
nandavardhana (9
th
century A.D.), who propunded a new theory of dhvani
(suggested sense) as the soul of poetry, does not deny the charm of word
and meaning or their art of arrangment
4
and, in fact, establishes the relation
of part and whole or body and soul between them. In proclaiming dhvani
(suggested sense) as the quintessence of poetry his concern is mainly
semantic, as of the old critics. No doubt, for him content (rasa or
sentiment), being the soul, is more important than the form which is
really the body,
5
whereas according to the old lakrikas form had a
greater role to play in literature.
In order to perfect the form, the poetic language was coceived to
be endowed with excellences (10 each of word and meaning according to
Bharata, and three according to later poeticists) and ornate with various
figures (both of word and meaning) and free from faults of all kinds.
Sanskrit critics considered a literary flaw either as a positive entity
(Bharata) or as negation of excellecne (Vmana). From their general
definition or definition of a particular flaw
6
one may make out their
conception of it. A flaw detracts from the poetic beauty (Dain and
Vmana) or becomes impendiment in realising poets intention (Bhoja).
It is an obstacle to rasa-realisation (according to Dhvani-theorists). It is
impropriety (anaucitya, nandavardhana, Mahima, and Bhoja); it is
offensive to the men of literary culture (Ratnevara, Keava Mira). This
general nature of a poetic flaw is applicable ot the concept of obscenity as
well.
Bharata lists ten types of faults
7
which injure the grammatical,
logical, metrical or literary relation between the words and their meaning
and thereby damage the dramaturgical content.
8
In this list the grmya
(vulgar) and the alla (which may be taken together for the purpose of
comprehending the obscene) dont figure. However, the fourth variety,
known as bhinnrtha (defective significance) which is of three kinds,
includes the grmya (vulgar). This is illustrated by Abhinava by a bald
and indecent statement by a man to a lady, to love him in consideration of
something which he holds in hand. This, in fact, is prostitution of love
which goes against all sense of public or private morality. According to
Bharatas conception (XVI. 91) guas (excellences) are negations of the
doas (flaws), a view not shared by later writers, Vmana (II, 1-3) and
others who considered guas to be positive entities and the flaws to be
the negations of natural excellence in a poetic composition, Poetic language
by its very nature cant be considered faulty. Faults creep in inspite of
poets best efforts for positive excellence. What is vulgar or obscence is,
therefore, an incident and not essence or nature of artistic creation.
In the first list (there are four lists in all) of ten defects, Bhmaha
includes the ruti-dua (offensive to the ear), arthadua and the
kalpandua
9
(defective in construction). The first consists of words
which apparently convey good sense but also remind us of vulgar meaning.
Bhmaha enumerates some such words, where the second meaning is
considered vulgar. For example, vit : merchant, excrement ; varcas: valour,
semen; klinna : wet, drenched in blood ; chinna : cut, broken; vnta :
given out, vomited; pravtti : engagement, discharge; pracra: propagation,
motion; dharita : insult, outrage on women ; udgra : outflow, belching
: visarga : release, emission ; hada : evacuation, excrement or ordure ;
yantrita : fixed up, bound in intercourse. There are certain words which
as a whole give a good sense but their part reminds us of indecent meaning.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 337 338 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
In Hirayaretas (fire) retas means seman. Similarly in sambdha
(congestion), pelava (tender), upasthita (present), aaja (bird) and
vkkava (harshness of sound) the parts of words vdha (vagina ), pela
(scrotum), upastha (male organ), aa (testicles) and ka (male organ or
corpse-carrier according to different dialects) bring to our mind indecent
meanings. Some of the words listed above have been definitely borrowed
from Prakrits. If a word or part of it has vulgar meaning even according
to a particular dialect, it is considered vulgur.
Where on account of indecent words a certain expression produces
an idea of an indecent thing (asabhya vastu) that is arthadua. Thus,
according to Bhmaha, words and expressions that are not acceptable to
men of culture (sabhya) would be vulgar, indecent and obscene. His
example of the arthadua
10
(quoted later on by Mammaa to illustrate the
alla relating to sense) implies description of the male organ where the
apparent meaning is not sexual:
The fall of wicked (also implying the male organ) who is
always ready to kill (also indulging in forceful sexual act), arrogant
(also stiff) and craving for a hole (also female organ), is such that he
can never rise again.
Here the words taken out from the context and used independently
do not have any sexual overtones but it is the particular setting of words
in a sentence, or a twist in expression which produces obscenity, whereas
in rutidua the words, even without any context, are unparliamentarian,
vulgar and indecent.
Where juxtaposition of two independent words conveys indecent
meaning, that is called kalpandua (KAB I. 52).
At the end of the first chapter, Bhmaha lays down general
principles which render a faulty expression faultless, nay, even elegant.
Particular arrangement or setting of words (sannivea-Viea), elegance
of the content (raya-saundarya), and judicious technique (yojan) are
the three principles which ultimately determine the nature and concept of
all faults including the vulgar and the obscene.
11
Words, expressions or
the form in relation to its content or theme should be considered obscene
or otherwise. Later Sanskrit critics Dain and Rudraa also believed
that with change of conditions faults become Guas. After the
proclamation of the dhvani-theory, the poetic faults (like the guas) came
to be related to rasa and were defined as that which injure the awakening
of rasa. Distinction between invariable (nitya) and variable (anitya) fault
was maintained by dhvani-theorists on the basis of its relation with the rasa.
Dain does not mention Bhmahas rutidua and the arthadua.
He has, however, borrowed a third list of ten poetic faults (with which
we are not concerned at present) from Bhmaha and illustrated each doa
turning into gua with change in conditions.
Vmana is the first Sanskrit critic who clearly maintains, against
the opinion of Bharata, that faults are negations of guas
12
and they may
be known by examining the content.
13
He is again the first to give classification
14
of all the faults into
four: those of pada (word), padrtha (word-meaning) vkya (sentence)
and vkyartha (sentence-meaning) and adopts the term grmya and alla
(for what was known as bhinnrtha of first variety in Bharata and rutidua
and arthadua in Bhamaha). The grmya, a pada-doa, is defined as
what is used by common people (lokamtra-prayukta). He illustrates it
by such slang words as phtkt (puffing sound), gada (mentioned by
Bhmaha separately from the examples of ruti-dua), talla, galla and
bhalla. Mammaa accepts Vmana by admitting such words as vulgar
and illustrates galla and bhalla under vkya-doa.
15
Amongst the five kinds of padrtha-doa, Vmana includes alla.
In its conception, it is comparable with Bhmahas rutidua and
arthadua. The alla is of two kinds (a) a homonymous word with one
of its meanings being indecent (asabhyrthntara) and (b) where a word
itself is not indecent but its part reminds of indecence. Varcas meaning
valour and excrement is the example of the first variety and kkika where
its part kai stands for corpse-carries is the example of the second variety.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 339 340 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
The word arra, occuring in the gveda
16
stands for uncultured,
unmannerly, indecent and profane. The gvedic mantra (X. 8.5.30) recurs
in the Atharva-Veda where its form is changed into alla although its
old form arra is also retained in the Paippalda sahit (XVIII. 3.6).
The gvedic word refers to person or his limbs or his faults in conduct.
In the period of Brhmaas and the rayakas, the word alla began to
refer to objects as against a person, such as inauspicious stars,
17
sorrowfull
way of life
18
and villages where performance of a sacrifice was prohibited.
19
The Pacavisa Brhmaa
20
associated the word with speech. Pini
forms this word from ri meaning grace or excellence, by suffixing luc
21
and changing r in to ri l according to the Stra: podardi...... (V.
2.97). The negative particle prefixe to the word denotes absence of ri.
Alla according to Vmana, is of three kinds as it arouses, (i)
shame, (ii) disgust and (iii) inauspiciousness. This division is admitted
by all later critics. Bhmahas examples of ruti-dua: Vk- kava and
hiraya-retas are quoted to illustrate the first variety. Kapardaka means
shell but its part parda has the disgustful sense of breaking wind
downwards. The word Sasthita (eastablished) in its meaning of dead
arouses the sense of foreboding evil.
22
Bhmaha and Dain had merely illustrated some cases where
faults cease to be faults. Vmana propounds the basis on which obscenity
can be completely ignored.
It indecent meaning is concealed, i.e. no longer popular, then
that word ceases to be obscene, e.g. the word sambdha (considered to be
faulty by Bhmaha).
What does not evoke obscenity in peoples mind is not obscene.
The meaning of Sambdha in the sense of private part is no longer
popular. Its popular meaning obstacle alone is understood. Hence it is
not obscene.
Words, which yield indecent sense through indication (laka) but
are not indecent in their primary meaning, are not to be considered obscene.
Again, indecent words, which are not so taken by people and
which are in popular vogue cant be considered obscene because people
have approved their usage. Such words are subhag (beautiful) bhagin
(sister), upasthna (presence or prayer), abhipreta (desired), kumar
(maiden), dohada (longing of a pregnant woman for particular objects).
These words have parts: bhaga (vagina) upastha (male organ), preta (dead),
hada (excrement) etc. reminding us of indecent sense, but their use is
approved by the people and can, therefore, no longer be considered
obscene. Dain had also noted peoples approval for use of such words.
23
Vmana quotes an old authority in support of his theory: It is not proper
to hunt out flaws in what is accepted by the people. Who will have
the notion of idecency in words like iva-liga of which indecent
sense is completely shrouded.
24
Bhoja quotes Vmana with approval
25
on this point and also
Bhmaha who had propounded three general principles: raya-saundarya
(excellence of content) , sanniveaviea (arrangement or style) and
judicious selection (technique) to indicate how a fault is changed into
excellence. He further says that much of what is indecent, implicitly or
explicitly obscene, is in vogue is in vogue, and it is not censured.
26
The question, whether a poet intentionally uses such words and
expressions which will arouse indecency has been attempted by Jaganntha
who opines that if an indecent meaning is out of context, there can be no
intention of a poet to arouse such a sense.
27
Rudraa who follows Bharata
in holding that guas are the negations of faults, divides faults into two
groups-verbal and material and includes grmya in the latter category.
He does not mention alla separately from the grmya. The grmya
related to inappropriateness in respect of behaviour, form, dress, speech,
region, family, class, learing, wealth, age, office and characters.
28
Description of aggressive behaviour in love on the part of an
unsophisticated girl, artless simplicity of courtesans, cleverness of rural
folk, cunning and deceptive behaviour of ladies of good stock, will, thus,
be an offence against the established social sense of class behaviour,
morality and conduct. Rudraa is apparently an elitist in his approach
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 341 342 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
who widens the scope of grmya by covering all aspects of social and
individual character. Any deviation from the establishd order of things
will be committing a literary offence.
nandavardhana, the exponent of dhvani-theory, is primarily
concerned with rasa in literary creation. Sounds, words, expressions,
style, diction, or any other literary form are by themselves of no
consequence if they fail to create beauty par excellence. Everything is to
be examined in its relation to rasa. He deals, therefore, only with the
rasa-doas. What then is the real essence of any rasadoa? It is anaucitya
or impropriety. Propriety in delineating rasa is the secret of poets success.
There is no other cause for a breach in sentiment except indecorum.
The greatest secret about rasa is confirmity to well-known
considerations of decorum.
29
Respecting the opinion of his times and
literary tradition of Sanskrit, nandavardhana states that both in dramas
and in the poems, any description of vulgar erotic sentiment with
reference to high characters like royal heroes and heroines would be
as much indecorous as a detailed account of ones own parents.
30
This is true of all other sentiments and emotions. Even first-rate poets
(like Klidsa, he seems to suggest) have erred, still their defect does not
appear glaringly because it is covered by their genius. Thus the artistic
talent of the poet or dramatist covers up what would otherwise be
considered vulgar and obscene, Bhoja gives three classes of flaws: of
word, sentence, and its meaning, each having sixteen varieties. He includes
deya (words without etymology, e.g. galla and talla) and grmya
(comprehending threefold alla) under the flaws of word SK. I. 14-15).
Amongst the sixteen flaws of sentence-meaning, he mentions alila
defining it by repreating the same phrase : Alilamiti nirdiam
alilrthaprattikt (SK. I. 53).
He illustrates it by the example given by Bhmaha (I. 51) and
follows him and Vmana in his conception of the alla (defined in the
context of the grmya). Indecent meaning (asabhyrtha) may be conveyed
either directly (prakta) or indirectly (aprakta) through double entendre
or by bringing forth to mind such a meaning. Bhoja (SK. pp. 98-103)
gives a number of illustrations from the poems of Klidsa and others to
show how alla ceases to be a flaw on the basis of principles enunciated
by Bhmaha and Vmana (UU. 16) and admitted by him.
Mahimabhaa does not include the obscene under his five-fold
classification of poetic flaws.
Mammaa is the most comprehensive author in dealing with doas,
including the grmya and the alla. He includes both of these under
flaws relating to a word or part of it, to sentence and its part. Words such
as sdhana (resources, the male organ), vyu (air, ventris creptus), vina
(loss, death) are indecent. Kai (in the sense of buttock) is vulgar. Use of
such words in a sentence with apparently decent sense as utsarpaa
(advancing in illicit love), praharaa (kicks in love) and mohana (a kind
of sexual gratification) produces shame.
The words vnta, utsarga and pravartana implicitly conveying
the sense of vomiting, slutting and excreting respectively produce disgust.
Use of pitvasati for fathers house reminds us of crematorium. It is,
therefore, suggestive of inauspiciousness. This three-fold alla
31
may
occur in the part of a word. For example, pela (excrement) in pelava
(soft), pya (pus) in pyate (is sanctified) and preta (dead) in abhipreta
(desired). Following Bhmaha, Mammaa considers words like galla and
talla as vulgar.
Both these flaws relate to meaning also. Vulgar is illustrated as
follows : While this person is asleep, I share bed with you, what
harm can there to be you? O ye, accept your fees and spread quickly
your folded thighs.
32
Mammaa borrows the example of obsence from the
Kvylakra of Bhmaha (I. 51). He also gives example of alla through
the conjuction of two words, such as Rucikuru where cinku reminds
one of private part of female body. Jagannatha cites illustration of alla
arising out of conjuntion of two Sanskrit words: Jaiminyamala.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 343 344 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
According to Mamma, obscenity turns into excellence - (i) where
words with double entendre are used to convey the secrets of sex according
to the Kmastra, (ii) or where quietism is advocated after condemnation
of sensuous life. This only means that nothing can be considered obscene,
if there is thematic justification for it. Mammaa syas that in imitating
some thing all flaws cease to be flaws.
33
In view of propriety of the
speaker, the person addressed, the suggested (i.e. rasa) or expressed
sense and the context of a situation, the literary flaw turns into merit or is
neither a merit nor a demerit. This may also equally apply to the flaws of
vulgarity and obscenity.
Taking clue from nandarvardhan, Mammaa remarks in the
context of rasa-doa that erotic union should not be delineated in relation
to high divine characters (e.g. iva). Any such description would be as
highly improper as describing the sexual relationship of the parents.
Mammaa has been followed by practically all the lakrikas who came
after him and they have nothing to add to the concept of obscenity as
found in the Sanskrit poetics.
It is interesting to note that at all stages of consideration of the
obscene words the lakrikas regarded indecent words of regional
languages appearing as part of Sanskrit words, e.g. pela and cinku as
indecent. Because if not every body then at least literatures knew both
Sanskrit and Prakts.
Puras prohibited obscenity in all its manifestations, in speech
sight, conduct
34
, and composition.
35
To make indecent remarks against
the learned was strictly dis-allowed. Even Tantrics prescribed recollection
of Pradyumna if obscene words were uttered.
36
It was considered an
offence.
37
However, Sanskrit literature is not devoid of obscene
descriptions. Rjataragi
38
describes dirty jokes by vias and obscene
behaviour of kings ministers. Kuinmata prescribed obscene conduct
in certain conditions of intercourse.
39
It recognises that on the occasions
of festivals, like Holi, obscene speech and phrases cant be prevented,
40
Bhatkath and Vsavadatt and others refer to obscene words,
41
songs
42
rsaka,
43
and tales
44
Bha, monologue variety of Sanskirt Drama, freely
indulges in all forms of obscene descriptions. Sanskrit literature is full
of erotic absurdities and a poet of lesser calibre could not avoid such
sexual descriptions obliquely or otherwise which will not be relished by
men of taste and culture. Prohibitions of Puras regarding obscenity
were observed more in violation than in observance. It was actually the
Kmastra which ruled over the destiny of classical Sanskrit literature
and therefore no description of sex was barred in the literary tradition of
India. Erotic mysticism gave sanctity to sensuons description with
reference to divine characters.
Tantrism made respectful what would be considered profane
otherwise. Changing sense of public and private morality seemed to have
no impact on the legislative critics of Sanskrit. And Sanskrit poets in
India accepted no restrictions on their free play of imagination. It was
therefore, declared that the poets are verily free from any chains of
inhibitions: Niraku hi kavaya. And yet Sanskrit did not make bold
experiments in man-woman relationship or problems of sex and morality.
The theory and practice of obscenity could not, therefore, go beyond its
traditional cofines. Being profound in its conception of gra, the
Sanskrit literature did not use woman simply as an object and treat sex as
a sharp coarse drink. It did not, therefore, produce smutty and spicy
books now in vogue in modern languages.
Kldsa, Amaruka and Jayadeva, to mention a few ennoble and
dont degrade the human sprit by their descriptions of love in union and
separation. Vasantasen, a courtesan, is treated by draka with the same
regard and respect as akuntal , Um, Rdh or a host of other anonymous
women characters delineated by a large number of Sanskrit and Prakta
writers. As compared is amorous poems, principal form of Sanskrit Drama
(naka and prakaraa) were free from obscenity, because physical love
scenes could hardly be presented on the stages before family audience
and also because the principal characters of the drama were, as a rule,
noble and exalted in respect of whom indulgence in vulgarity could not
be entertained.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 345 346 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
References
1. Kvylakra of Bhmaha, (KAB) I.16.
2. Kvydara of Dain, (KAD) I.10.
3. Vide, Kvylakrastravtti of Vmana, (KASV) I. 1-3;
Kvylakra of Rudraa, (Kar) II. 1; Vakroktijvita of Kuntaka,
(VJ) I.7; Kvyapraka of Mammaa, (KP) I.1. Mammaa (11
th
century
A.D.) was paraphrased by writers who followed him, such as Vgbhaa,
Hemachandra, Jayadeva, Vidhyntha, and Vidhydhara. Vivantha
(14
th
century A.D.), the author of the Shityadarpaa defined literary
compostion in terms of rasa or the poetic mood. Jaganntha echoes
essentially what Dain had proclaimed.
4. Kvyasya hi lalitocita-sanniveacrua....... under Dhvanyoka,
(DA) I. 2; and Vividha-Vcya-vcaka-racanprapaca- crua
kvyasya under DA I.5.
5. Ruyyaka (1135 A.D.) rightly concludes that according to the opinion
of the old poeticist alakras (including gua and riti in its
comprehensive sense) are the essence of compositions. See, his
Alakrasarvasva, ed. By R.C. Dwivedi, Delhi 1977, 6. For a detailed
and comparative view of form and content and their interrelationship,
see W.T. Stace, The Philosophy of Hegel, London 1924, 443;
Fundamentals of Dialectical Materialism, (ed.) Moscow 1967, 103,
200-201; G. Lucas, The Meaning of Contemporary Art, London
1962, 7 & 17; Literature and Art (ed.) Bombay 1956, 52; Earnest
Fischer, The Necessity of Art (Penguin) pp. 116, 131.
6. For a detailed accout of general nature of doa see, V. Raghavan, Bhojas
grapraka, Madras
3
1978, 206-210.
7. Ghrtha (circumlocation), arthntara (superfluous expression),
arthahna (want of significance), bhinnrtha (defective significance),
ekrtha (tautology), abhiluptrtha (want of synthesis), nyydapeta
(logical lapse) viama (unevenness metrical defect), visadhi (hiatus),
and abdacyuata (grammatical lapse). Nyastra, XVI, 88-94.
8. Vci yatnastu kartavyo Nyasyai tanu smt|
Aganaipathyasattvni vkyartham vyajayanti hi, ibid, XIV.7.
9. KAB, I. 47-52.
10. Ibid, I. 50; KP, vol. II R.C. Dwivedi, Delhi 1970, VII 279.
11. See, KAB, I. 54-59.
12. KASV, II. 1.1.
13. Ibid, II. 1.2.
14. This classification has been followed by Mammaa and others.
15. KP, V. 180.
16. RV, VIII. 2.20; X 85.30; VI. 28.6
17. Taittirya Brhmaa, V. 3.4.
18. Ibid, II. 440.9.
19. Ibid, I. 5.26.
20. II. 17; XIV. 11.27.; XVII. 5.1.
21. Adhyy, VI. 2.42. Rmasingh gives the following etymology, under
his comment on SKI 14-15: riyasysti tat llam.
Sidhmadehktigaatvt lac. Kapilakdipht latvam. Na lla
allam.
22. The sense of the word obscene includes all the above three meanings,
see Cambridge Dictionary.
23. KAD, I.68.
24. KASV, I.9, also quoted in the Sarasvat-Kathbharaa, (SKA)
N.S.ed. p. 98.
25. SKA, pp. 98.
26. Ibid, I.152.
27. Rasagagdhara, N.S. ed. P. 142.
28. Kvylakra of Rudraa (KAR), II. 9.
29. nandarvardhans Dhvanyloka, K. Krisnamoorthy (tr.), Karnatak
University, Dharwar, p. 139.
30. Ibid, p. 140.
31. KP, VII. 175-177.
32. Poetic Light (Kvyapraka of Mammaa) Vol. II p. 271; R.C.
Dwivedi (ed. & tr.), Delhi 1970, p. 271.
33. KP, VII, 59.
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 347 348 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
34. See, Viudhmottara II. 86.10; III. 16.15; II. 89. 15 &^ 56.
35. Ibid, III. 15.9; 16.15.
36. Jaykhya Sahit, XXV. 106.
37. Pacartra, IV. 11.15.
38. VI. 158, III. 140, V. 391.
39. Kuinmata,160& 376.
40. Ibid, 894.
41. Avantisundar, 163.21.
42. Vsavadatt, 132.7.
43. Haracarita, 188.6.
44. Kathsaritsgara, VI.2.173.
[Sanskrit and World Culture, SCHR. OR. 18, S.689-696, Berlin,
1986 and Abhinandan-Bharati (Prof. Krishna Kant Handiqui
Feliciation Volume) Assam Research Society, GAUHATI, 1982]

18. Nature of obscenity in Sanskrit Drama (Bha)


Erotic sentiment or gra ruled over the classical and decadent
ages of Sanskrit literature in its various forms of poetry, drama, prose,
lyrics etc. Other sentiments like Vra, nta, Hsya or Karua did not get
the major concern or attention of the poets, dramatists or lyricists.
Wherever equal emphasis on gra and Vra was pronounced by
theoreticians, it was the former which was preferred in practice. The
literary critics like nandavardhana and Abhinavagupta propounded the
spiritualistic theory of aesthetics but the literature remained earthly in its
descriptions of sheer physical beauty of the hero and the heroin and other
characters. In the age which followed the classical, the divine characters
of Rdha and Ka, iva and Prvati and even Rma and Sta were not
spared from the eroticism of human characters. It was perhaps under the
over-powering influence of Tantra or Agama tradition that the distance
between the divine and human was practically obliterated. This happened
inspite of clear warning given by nandvardhana that sexual activity of
divine and uttama characters should not be described. It is like describing
sex-relationship of ones own parents. This warning was ignored by all
those poets who followed Klidsa who had tempered his gra with
tapas or penance. The characters of Prvati and akuntal amply illustrate
this point. Their matchless physical beauty acquires serene spiritually
through tapas. Such a thematic spiritualisation of physical charms is
conspicuously absent in the literature that followed. This is more or less
true of all the literary forms where gra was treated but more
prominently illustrated by certain forms of drama mainly Bha and
Prahasana which have no pretension for metaphysical or spiritual treatment
of love. These forms of drama indulge in various descriptions of sexual
relationships from the beginning to the end. While Prahasanas are
interspersed with the humorous situations and bouts of laughter the Bhas
have the sole objective of describing one beauty after the other specially
in relation to sex-activity. There is pretension of a leading theme or
incident in each of the Bhas. Factually speaking, it does not receive
any major attention. The theme or a particular incident is not developed
in the Bha as in the Naka. What we have actually is the description of
various courtesans prostitutes and harlots without any real connection
with what is seemingly a leading theme. This being so, it is difficult to
say that there is any hero or heroine. Just as a lyric or muktaka is complete
in itself similarly each description of la belle dame is a complete picture
requiring no relation with another kindred description. Via in the Bha
gives all these descriptions. He is a narrator and appears as a friend and
counsellor of the courtesans. He can answer all the questions relating to
the affairs with courtesans. He can hardly be considered a hero. All this
shows that the authors of Bha had on all-absorbing interest in painting
on the spot sexy pictures of the gaikas and of the lovers drawn for the
various social groups. There is a very bold, strong and perhaps serious
defense of prostitution in the Bhas. Newly married wives and house-
wives are decried, heaven and heavenly damsels are looked down upon
and sexual pleasures are highly praised. The veys are endowed with
respectability with occasional asides against their greed for wealth and
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 349 350 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
behaviour with old lovers rendered poor. Descriptions of love-affairs of
the Pninian grammarian Dattakalai with Raanvatik at the time of
sacrifice, of puritan Pavitraka, who will not defile himself with a touch
of others, with varuik of Buddhist monk samgrilaka with saghads
in the padmaprbhtaka, similar descriptions of sexual indulgence by
such characters as intellectually sharp Nun Vilsakauin in the
Ubhaybhisrik by a Vaiava saint with Anangasen who was his kept,
leave no doubt that the Bhas spared no person from its purview.
Pdatitakam describes a Citrcrya ivasvmin who had lost all his
youth, vigour. Vitality and robust health of a gymnastic through the use
of guggula as a medicine for reducing his fat. We can pity on this Swamin
when he is described sharing bed with Kusumavatik. Initially he boasts
of his gymnastic feats, then he resorts to the recipes for vitality and
finally succeeds in nothing, leaving the resourceful Kusumavatik in utter
distress resulting from utter incapacity for sex of iva-Svmina who
advises us to refrain from the use of guggula which was the cause of his
fat. In all such situations, there is more of laughter (hsya) then the gra.
Description of forced sex by Maghavarman on Pupads during
her monthly course in the Pdatditka, sexual indulgence by eilika
with Malatik and by Irima with Tmblasen in the Padmaprbhtaka,
and many references to the affairs of the aged females with the young
males or vice-versa and such other unmatched affairs arouse disgust
only. In the Padmaprbhtaka, there are tempting portraits of Vanarjik
returning from her lovers abode, of Kumudvat waiting for the arrival
of her lover, of priyaguyaik, a budding beauty playing with the tall in
the company of her friends. Similar pictures of Anagadatta and
Mdhavasen are found in the Ubhaybhisrik. In all these descriptions
different parts of the female figure are poetically treated. The legs, more
particularly the thighs, buttacks, private parts, naval region with three
lines (trival), bulging breasts, lower lips, large eyes, arrow-like eye-
brows and side-long glances receive the attention of the poets. These
descriptions have tended to be traditional. The male figure receives practically
no sustained attention. For the authors of the Bhas the wealth and
position of the males were more important than their figure or attainments.
In view of the continuous and unbroken tradition of the Bhas
it can be said that Sanskrit poets never felt tired of describing female
figures for their sex-appeal. Nothing is socially or morally ennobling,
thematically important or artistically desirable in such erotic description.
It is perhaps an expression of suppressed desire of sex or at best a revolt
against moral puritanism imposed through the Smtis. It developed out
of its.................. (incomplete).
(Typed)

19. Women is Classical Sanskrit Literature


There are two basic attitudes, the erotic and the ascetic (religio-
philosophical), which govern predominantly the classical Sanskrit
literature. The female characters in literature being creations of artistic
mind are imaginative constructs and as such are not pure imitations of
nature much less its crude representation. The social reality may not be,
therefore, fully reflected in these aesthetic creations. The women whom
we meet in literature are at best a mix-up of creation, an idealistic construct
and presentation, a realistic image. This is inplicit in the very nature of
literature which is free, autonomous and creative. It has been asserted by
literary criticism in Sanskrit that the poetic world is not bound by the
laws of nature, it is independent and its very autonomy and independence
ensure aesthetic rapture which is different from the ordinary and the
religio-philosophical experience. The artistic experience is novel and
extraordinary and is essentially blissful. This means that the pen-pictures
of characters including female characters or situations in literature do
captivate sensitive hearts by the very force of their aesthetic forms, tragic,
terrible erotic or even vulgar. Rama and Sita as depicted by Vlmki;
Buddha and Yashodhar as depicted by Ashvaghosha present a new ideal
relationship between man and woman. Sita accompanies Rama on her
own sweet will to face the hardships of exile expressing her deep love for
Rama. She faces brutal enticements of mighty Ravana only to be forsaken
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 351 352 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
by Rama after his coronation at Ayodhya so that the king is not subjected
to scandals. The king is not a private individual. The duty of a king must
triumph even over intensely personal, intimate, deep and profound love.
Both Rama and Sita suffer unbearable pang of separation. Sita became
an epitome of purity through constant suffering without relief but without
any rancour for her love which makes Sita distinct from all women characters.
Ramas love for Sita never flickers. In fact he establishes a new
ideal of monogamy in a society where polygamy was the rule. His love
for Sita is exceptional. Bhavabhuti, the famous playwright of the Uttarama-
Charita describes Rama falling at the feet of Sita more than once in
profound aplogetic sense. It is not again uncommon to find the faithless
husbands touching the feet of their wives in order to please them and
being ignored or kicked at. Lyrics, as for example a century of poems are
full of such love-scenes. Sita represents ideal conjugal love and its purity
in adverse circumstances. She herself censures the action of the king in
strongest terms yet she cherishes the love of her husband Rama, even in
coming births. The ideal of Sita may not be persued today by liberated
women. They have three clear alternatives to lead an independent life, to
leave Rama and accept Ravana or at least seek divorce from the former!
Before Siddhartha leaves hearth and home to attain the enlightenment
Yashodhar tries to persuade him with all the arguments as her command.
It is not sanctioned by law or convention to forsake ones beloved
wife and an infant Rahula. She preferred to stay at home and nourish
the child and await the day when she herself will espouse the path trodden
by the Buddha. Ashvaghosha describes charm that beautiful queen Sundar
and other women cast over fickle mind of Nanda. He prefers finally the
ideal of ascetism, renunciation and spirituality. Women in this case are
treated as delusion and evil. This ascetic attitude has nothing but
condemnation for women. It is later on reflected in Buddhist and Jain
Mahakavyas or other forms of literature. The same attitude of womens
condemnation is found in the Centuries of poems by Bhartrahari. In this
kind of literature women are treated as obstacles in the path of spirituality
and equated with Maya who deludes men to lead the life of sins. The
literature written under the influence of Tanstricism, i.e. Tantrika ideal
of union of Shiva and Shakti (in shakta and shaiva schools) , Pragya and
Upaya, or their variants (in Buddhist schools of Mantrayana, Sahajayana
and Vajrayana), Radha and Krishna (in Gaudiya Vaishnavism). Sita and
Rama (in Rasika school), Lakshmi and Narayana (in Shrivaishnavism)
gave equal, if not more importance to female principle. Shakti in this
view represents self-critical consciousness, dynamism, creativity grace
and ananda (rapture, bliss). Various forms of Bhakti movement also
partake the character of Tantricism. There is enormous literature
particularly devotional (Stotras) in Sanskrit which is inspired by the
Tantrika view of pre-eminence of female principle of its equality with
male principle. Saundaryalahari ascribed to Shankara is beautiful poem
eulogising the greatness and power of Shakit, Gitagovinda of Jayadeva is
equally famous for its equal importance of Radha. She is the heart and
great energy of Bliss. Those who advocated opposition between worldly
objects and spiritual experience looked down upon the women and abused
them in no uncertain terms and made spirituality the monopoly of men.
This is also true of other religious literatures which preferred celibacy to
conjugal love, romance and family life.
Puranic Catholicism and Tantric culture combined to produce
collective, co-operative and dynamic powers like Durga, Kali and Chandi
whom helpless gods prayed for their survival and destruction of their
invincible foes, the demons and the like. Devi in various forms symbolises
not merely supreme power but also knowledge, awareness and grace.
She destroys the forces of evil and helps the suffering mankind in realising
their material well-being and spiritual goals. There is enormous literature
centring round the personality of Durga, ten Mahavidyas, Shrividya and
others, in Sanskrit. In these descriptions of Devis not merely intellectual
qualities, physical, moral and mental strength are emphasised but their
physical, divine beauty is never lost sight of. All women are declared to
be forms of Devi, Durga and others. Poems giving thousand names of a
Devi, Lalita, Tripurasundari, Lakshami, Shodashi etc. are justly famous
for tip-to-toe descriptions of beauty and charm of the godessess.
Saundaryalahari, a poem by Shankara, devoted to Shrividya, is a jwel of
Sanskrit literature. Power is expressed in terrible forms of Kali and others,
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 353 354 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
but the literature combining power with beauty and divinity is preponderate.
This should prove to be of enormous interest to those who seek a more
significant image of woman in Sanskrit. In creating modern image of
Indian Woman, one need not disregard completely ones own cultural
tradition but one has to select a particular image with care and caution.
Tradition, if critically and comprehensively examined, has much
to offer, provided we develop a critical perception. This is borne out of
a profound analysis of the old and the new. Traditional images are being
re-created in the light of modern perceptions. Therein lies real strength
of our old civilisation. A complete break with the past is not culturally
possible but the tradition must always be renewed and re-created. This is
what Puranas did to Vedic tradition. Purana literally means the old renewed
and thus made significant in the changing world. Sanskrit poets are accused
of being unfettered by tradition of grammatical language, conventions of
culture and prescriptions of law-books. Kalidasa is regarded by purists,
who even condemned poetry as a worst example of indisciple or
licentiousness. However, literary circles hail him as the master of supreme
muse. This explains the autonomy of a poet eager to protest against what
is wrong and to create a more beautiful and pleasing world outnumbered
by women characters of different hue and colour.
Erotic attitude is common to vast literature in Sanskrit. Ntik is
one such example. There- in a lady is the principal character. The play is
titled after her name as a rule. Ratnval of Sri Harsh belongs to this
class. Kalidasa is spoken of as a poet of love, shringra. He began his
career as a poet by describing love of common women-folk through all
the six seasons of a year. His famous lyrical poem and cloud-Messenger,
Meghaduta, describes the pangs of love in separation. King Agnimitras
infatuation for a princess, named Malavika, disguised as a maidservant,
is described in one of his early dramas. The distress that it caused to the
queens at harem who were naturally jealous is broadly hinted at by the
dramatist but they are helplessly reconciled to their fate. The queens of
Dushyanta in the famous play, hkuntala, were condemned to the same
fate. Once the hero is enchanted by matchless beauty of hkuntala. She
was abandoned in her childhood by her parents, was subsequently
nourished by a sage and was not accepted as a wife by Dushyanta at his
court, where she admonished the king for his blissful forgetfulness. But
her love conquers at the end when the king realises his mistake in
renouncing her. The course of free love is never smooth. The kings in
the plays of Kalidasa are polygamous but this is not true of epics.
In the first epic, the Birth of Kumara, Kalidasa describes how
the daughter of Himalayas, Uma or Parvati, ignores all the divinities
habitating her fathers kingdom and prefers her love for a great ascetic,
Shiva who is engrossed in deep meditation and will not brood the idea of
love or marriage. Kama (cupid) himself with the help of his friend, spring,
takes a vow to entice Shiva to accept Parvati for wedlock. He fails and is
reduced to ashes. The wailings of Rati, Kamas consort expresses tender
and pathetic feelings of wife at the demise of her husband. Parvati finally
conquers Shiva through her austerities and penances. This is the divine
design for conquest of good over evil through the birth of mighty and
powerful Kumara Kartikeya. Parvati or Gauri becomes conquest thus a
symbol of love for an asectic for a social purpose. This is the real
fortune, saubhagya. Neither Sita nor Shakuntala who had to brave rough
weather in the course of their married life, is invoked for matrimonial
happiness or prosperity. It is Gauri or Parvati who is worshipped by
newly weds in Hindu ceremonies of marriage for receiving the blessings
for constancy and mutuality of love, happiness and prosperity in married
life. She is eternally united physically and spiritually with Shiva, like
speech and sense or like moon and her rays. Ardhanarishvara is the best
image of divine couple in Indian tradition and culture.
There are numerous other examples of romantic love concluded
in marriage or otherwise. Usha and Aniruddha, Nala and Damayanti,
Vedic Usas and her lovers, Radha and Krishna readily come to our mind.
Draupadi presents an image of brave, intelligent and devoted wife of five
and yet she is regarded as Virgin in Indian tradition. Savitri is regarded
as Sati because she succeeded in saving her husband, Satyavan, from the
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 355 356 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
jaws of death and was intelligent enough to ask her boons in such a
manner that ensured the health and happiness of her family and the
future progeny.
In his great epic, the line of Raghus, Kalidasa describes number
of kings of Ikshuaku race including Rama who are monogamous.
Dashratha is an exception. The last king Agnivarna, described by him, is
lustful and sensuous. He is deceased and the kingdom is ruled over by
the queen, Aja, the son of Raghu, after whom the illustrious poem has
been named, wails over the death of his queen Indumati. The cruel hand
of death snatched you away, my wife, counseller, friend and dear
disciple in Fine Arts. Kalidasa is equally famous for poetic descriptions
of crying of Rati for Kama in the birth of Kumara and of Aja for Indumati
in the Line of Raghus. He has immortalised pathetic feelings of human
heart at the loss of his or her love and companion. It is significant to note
that Rati, ready to join her love at the juneral pyre, is prevented by Sarasvati
herself from committing Sati, the widowed queen of the last king
described by Kalidasa in his epic poem, Raghuvamsha is ordained to rule
over the kingdom. this she did. Poems and plays of Kalidasa present
various images of women as if to lay experiments in the man-woman
relationship. Sita, Uma, Shakuntala have no duplicates. They are not
interchangeable images or types. They are individuals with differing
attitudes to life. Even minor characters like Anasuya and Priyamvada,
both throbing with the friendly feelings, have their own individuality.
Love in suffering epitomised by Sita and Shakuntala or happy marriage
of queens in the epic is not the only course open to life of women. Gautami
in the Shakuntala and Kaushiki in the Malavikagnimitra prefer the life of
solitude and celibacy but are committed to guide and help others.
Renouneed Sita and unrecognised Shakuntala get institutional support
of Ashramas and are not condemned to live like orphans. Vasantasena, a
courtesan, in Bhsa and in Shudraka (the author of clay-cart) prefers a
meritorions but poor Brahmin to the royal relatives occupying positions
of power and prestige.
All these characters, images of women in literature, may not be
independent rebellious or revolutionary in modern sense of the term.
Being consorts or companions these may also be regarded as inequals in
the world dominated by males, more particularly by the kings but none
of these is an idle doll. None of them is a victim of rape, molestation,
dowry-death, child marriage, commercial exploitation and such other evils
which usually visit up on their present-day sisters. Bhana is a type of
drama in Sanskrit which resembles with monologues. Another variety of
drama called Prahasana is not much different from the Bhana. In both of
these types of drama, male characters are made a butt of laughter and
ridicule for their hypocricy and impotent lust. It is interesting to find that
even the wives of Vanaras and rakshasas, Tara and Mandodari for example,
are described as more meritorious, more intelligent and perceptive of the
qualities of their husbands adversaries. There are villains or anti-heros
in Sanskrit literature but really no anti-heroines (Pratinyikas). Vamps,
whores, call girls are conspicuous by their absence. Sanskrit world had a
more respectable image of women. Brahmin is Vidushaka (a Fool) who
does not command real respect, whereas even minor female characters are
treated with respect, consideration and sympathy which they amply deserve.
Vedas were meant for the twice-borne upper castes. The drama
was created for all the castes and classes. The same is true for other
forms of literature. This ensured representation of all the groups of society
in literature. As erotics sentiment, shrinagarasa was the predominant
literary concern its attitude was obviously secular. Tantric and Bhakti
literature, Buddhist and Jain movements further loosened the tight grip
of elitist Vedic tradition. Classical idiom of Sanskrit changed by
incorporating many hybrid forms. Hybrid Sanskrit of the Buddhists,
Jainas and Tantrikas who espoused the lower-caste women in its religious
rituals and practices changed the language and style of Paninian Sanskrit.
Vedic Women-seers had composed the hymns, numerous women
poets (and not poetesses) (Rajashekhara says both males and females
should be designated by the same term, Kavi, poet, because the sex does
not determine this status) wrote verses in Sanskrit. These have survived
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 357 358 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
in anthologies. Some works may be found in the manuscripts. Maitreyi
debated and discussed philosophical issues with Yagyavalkya in
Upanisadic age, Avantisundari held fast her opinions on literary issues.
Much of this intellectual freedom and creativity vanished gradually in
medieval age and the centuries that followed. The reasons for this over-
all decline of education and culture in society are historically known.
Many women still took to literary, activity through their mother-tongues.
With the advent of freedom of the country and the dawn of new ideas of
liberty, equality and fraternity and with the emerging concepts of modernity
and growth of tensions, new images of women are in making in
contemporary Sanskrit literature. Flame of fire, Agnishikha, a collection
of poems by Dr. (Mrs.) Pushpa Trivedi, Ira (experimentalist poems) by
Devadatta Bhatti, Amrapali (a drama) by Mithilesh Kumari Mishra,
Pramadvara ( a drama) by Abhiraja Rajendra, Sindhukanya (a novel) by
Shrinath Hasurkar and many other literary works are experiments in
new images of women reflecting the cravings, aspirations, conflicts and
tensions of our times. Old types of nayiks, dhir or Mugdh, Padmini
or Hastini etc. are no longer valid today. Sanskrit poet, like his other
fellow artists, is busy carving out more sensible images of women. These
cannot be photo-prints of other cultural and societal traditions. Literature,
if it is good, cannot copy others, it has to be creative. Sanskrit literature
is rooted in the long literary and cultural tradition of India. It has survived
ravages of different times and has withstood the assaults of counter-
cultures. Standing today at the crossroad of values, it has to find out or
fashion out from within its time-honoured value-system, more suitable
images of women who could face the challenges of disintegration, violence
and growing materialism and assert therir identity in the over-all interest
of preserving life on this planet. Prakriti, the primordial principle, has
reconciled its constituents of mutual opposition to cooperative functioning
so that the cosmos may not turn out to be chaos. Woman in the Puranas,
philosophical visions, literary creations and in many sciences of India is
compared to her. Salutations to that auspicious Prakriti. rrr. trrr tr +rrr +
(Typed)

20. rrrr`rrartr rr +rr`+rrr +rrrrrr


-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i i -iii`t-i ii ~iii-i i-ii ~ii-i ~iiiii ii-i-ii t:
~ii--ii ii ii`t-ii-i-ii t: iii`-ii-i ii ii`t-ii-i ~ii-ii --ii ii ii`t-ii-i t: -i-ii -i
i-ii--ii -i -i-i-i iii - ii, ii`-i-ii ii :ii-i i`iii: :-iii`-ii -ii` ii
~ii-i ii`-i-ii -i -ii-ii ii-ii t:
-ii-i-i-ii i ~iii` ii-i -i t ~ii -ii ii ii`-i-ii :iii-ii ii ii`-i-ii t:
i-iii ii ii`-i-ii t: -ii -i :iii`-i i :i-iiii ii -ii -i ~iiii-ii ii iii t:
-i-ii :iiizi ii --ii t: -ii-i-i i-iiii`ii i <ii-ii t: ~iii`ii`-i -ii--iii`i, -iti`i
-i-ii-i (-i -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i ii ii`-i-ii -ii-ii ii -it i-ii iii i`-ii-i-ii t-
rrrrrrrrr rrr rr trratr rrtr tr+rr.+
r tr+rrtrtrr rrr`trar`tr rtrrrtrrrrtr++
(~ii`i-ii-iziii--i-i-i, .-;)
ii-ii -i-i-i -iii`t-i ii i`-izii-ii t: -i-iii-ii iii ii iii ~i--ii--ii
ii -iiii -i-i-i -iii iiii~ii ii i-i-ii t: :-i -i-ii`-i -i iii i`iii ti -iti ii
-ii-ii: -i-ii -i ii: (-ii -ii iiii -iti t, ii --i-i >i -ii iii -i-iii -ii ti:
iiiiii ii`-i-ii :iii`-i i i`-iii i ~ii`iii-i ii ii`-i-ii t, iii`i -i-i-i -i :iii`-i i
-iii -iit-ii -iii`i-i i-i t( ii`-i-ii i--i -i-ii t-
+rrrrr rtr rr rrr r` rrtrrrrrrrr r rrt -
trrr` rq ttr rrr rrrrrrtrrr` atrttrrr +
+rarz rrrrrr rrrrr`rrr -r trarrrrrrr
r rrr +rr -rrt rrr` rr trrr rrtrrtrr` tr r` rr` r.++ (-iti, -.s)
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i ii :iii`-i -i ~i-i--i -iii-i t: -i -i--i-i: :iii`-i i ii`-i
t: -iii -i it-i t-
sa rr` rrtra+r rrrrrr rr r. rrr` ttr-rrtr rr rrrtr.+
+rrrtr trrrrz rrrr. rr &rtr>r rr r rrtrr.++ (-iti , .-)
ii-iii -i-ii`-i -i :iii`-i ~ii ii ii i-i ~i-ii-iii`>i-i :iii`-i t: -i (i
-i i ii t: i-ii ii ii-ii`i -itiii ti -ii--i-i -i -i-i-ii-i t: -i-iii ii-i ii
:-i-i -it--iii iiii-i t: :iii`-i ii ~ii-ii -ii-i t-
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 359 360 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
orrrr rrrr`-rr`aarrrz trrr rrrrrrrrrr`rrrrtr
r`rrtr;rtrrrr+rrrtrrr+rr rrrorrttr. rrrr`-rtr+
+rr +rr rra rtrrrrttrrr trrrr +rrrr r` trtr -
a-rrrr+rtrrr`r trr`trrtrrrrra+ratrr`trr`r`+r.++ (-iti, .-)
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -i ~ii--iiii ii i-i-ii i -iii ti -ii-iii`ii-ii ii
i-i-ii ii t: zi-ii`i cii-i-i ii ~ii-i i-ii -itiii`-i i ii-i t: iii`-ii-i iii
-i -iii i-i ii ~iii`i`-i-i -ii-ii i i-ii t: -itiii`-i ii iiii t i`i -iii ~ii ii
i -ii-ii-i -i ti -i-iii ii -iiii-ii i`-iz ti-ii t: :-iii`-ii --ti-i (i ~ii ii-i-i
i i--i ti-i i -ii ii i`-i-iii i`-ii`i-i i`iii t-
+rr trr rr rt r r` rrrr rtr rrr` rrrr trtttrrr +
r` rrrrrrrr r` rrrr r rr r rr trrra .arrr` rrr rr r trr trrrr rr ++
(i-ii-ii-i-i, .)
-ii -ii ~ii :--i-ii ii -i-i i ~ii ii i`-i-iii -i-i i`iii t-
trr`rr rr`a rrr`rtrrrrr ar r`rr r`rr`trr r r`tr rrrrr+
r`rrrrrrrrrtr rrrr`-ra +rrarrrrtr rr r`rrrrrr+rt-rr++
(i-izi-i, .r)
--ii ~ii i-ii i -ii-ii-i -i -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i ii ~ii-ii ~ii ii i`-izii
iiii-i t: i--iii`-i-i, -i-ii, zi-iii-ii -i iii-i -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i iii i
-i-i>i ii`-i t, -ii-i i ~i-i-i-i ii`-i t: --iii iiii t, --ii i -ii-i ii i-ii
i --i-ii tiii, i`i-i :iii -i-iii ii i-ii i ~ii-ii ii: i-i iii i--i ii i,
-itiiii zii ii i-
trar ttr tr r` rrrr rrtrrtrr trrttrtr tr trr` rrtr` tr trr trr r` rtrr+
s--r tr+rrr`tr rr trrtrtrr`rtrttrrrr r`trr`rrtrrrrrtrr`tr -r.++
(~ii`i-ii-iziii--i-i-i, r.;s)
~iii -iii`ti`-ii i`ii`-ii i it ~i-ii-i i`iii ii ti t i`i -iii`t-i, ~iiiizi
-i --i -ii-ii iit-i -i tii ii-i-i ii iiii t: ~i-i: -iii`t-iii -ii-i-i--i-ii ii
-i-iiti ti -iti, i`-i-ii-ii ii t: -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -ii-i-i-ii-i-i ii -iii`t-i -i -i-i i
-i i iii ii t ~ii -i-iiii ii: --ti-i -ii-i-i-ii-i-i ii -i-iii-ii ii -iii`t-i -i
i`-ii`i-i ti -iti i`iii ~ii`i-i -iii`t-i ii -ii -ii-i-i-ii i i-iii i i -i i`-iiii`-i ii
i`iii: -itiii`-i -i -ii--i-i ii --ii ~ii -ii-i-i-ii ii i-iii -ii-iii`ii, -iii`ti`-ii
(-i -ii-ii`-ii i-iii -i -ii`ii`t-i -ii-ii t: ~ii`i-ii-iziii--i-i-i -i -i it-i t-
trrrrrrrr` rrr r r r` -rr` -rtrr trtrrrrrr or rr
trr r rrr&rrrra rrt r rrr` rrrr rr rrr` +rrr rrr` rrr+
rrr ttrr` rrrrrtrrr rr r` rr rtrr trr` rrr tr rrrr
rtrrrzorr`tr trrrrr`+rtrrrrrttrr`trrttrrrtrtrrrr++ (-iti, =.-)
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i ii ii`-i-ii -ii-i ii ii`-i-ii t, -iii-ii-i ii ii`-i-ii
t: -iiii-ii-i ii :iii-iii -iiii t: i-i ii :ii`-ii ii -ii -it ziii-i -iii-i-ii t:
-itiii`-i ii iiii i ~i-i-ii i`-ii-i-i tii -ici ii iii-ii ti i-i t: -ii--i-i -i
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i i -iii`t-i ii -ii iii`-ii-ii ii -ii-ii ii ~ii -i ii-ii t:
-itiii`-i ii --ii -i:iii`-i i i`-ii -i-i -i -ii i-i ii-ii t: -i--ii-i :iii`-i i i`-ii
-ii--iii iii i`-iii i i i`-izii-i-ii -i-i--i-i i`-i-ii i-i t( (i -ii -ii -ii-ii
i-i t:
-iii`t-i ~ii :i`-iti-i ii (i -i -i ii`-i -i-i-i t: i-ii (i--i i
:i-iii ii t ~ii ii ii: i-ii~ii ~ii i`-ii`iii ii -i-iii`t-i i i`-iii iii -ii -iii`t-i
ii :i`-iti-i -ii-ii ii -ii-ii t ~ii i-ii~ii -iii i`-ii`iii -i iii i :i`-iti-i -i
-iii-ii-i ii ii-i-ii ii -ii`ii`t-i i i`ii iii -ii --i -iii`t-i iti ii -ii-ii t:
-ii-i -i :i-iiii i -iii-i -i -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -i ii-i-ii ii -iiii-ii iiii t:
iii` -ii-i -ii--i-i -i zi ii ( -ii :i` -iti-i -iit-i t i` i-i-i -i-i ii ~ii` --i-ii ti , -i -i-ii ti :
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -i-ii ii-iii -i-i-i -ii-ii i :i-iii t: -i-ii
-ii-i-i-ii-i-i ii -i-i-ii -i -i-iz t: it -ii-i-i --ii ii -iiii t: :iiii -iii i
i-iii i i`-ii -ii-ii ii iiii t: :-iii`-ii -itiii`-i -i ziii`--i i -ii ii :ii-i i-i
ii -ii-ii ii -ii-i-i ii-i-i ii -iiii-ii i i`-ii ~ii-izii -ii-ii t:
-i-i -ii it t i`i ii-i i ii (i-ii ~ii ~ici-ii ii -ii i`i-i :ii-ii-i
-itiii`-iii -i i`-iii`-i-i i`iii t --i-i -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i ii -ii-i -ii-i ~ii`ii :ii`-iz
t: iii`-ii-i ii -i-i-ii ~iii`ii`-i -ii--iii`i -i i -ii ~ii`-iziiii`-i -i tiii: -it ii-i
i zii-iiii -ii t ti:
-itiii`-i ziii`--i ii ~ici -ii-i-i t ii ~ici ti ~ii`i-i-i ti-ii t: ziii`--i
ii ~ici -iii-ii -iti i i -ii-ii t i`i-i i -i -i-i-i-ii ti, -i-iii ii -i-i--i
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 361 362 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-i -ii-ii iii ti: ii-ii-i, -iii-ii-i, -iiizii-i, iii-ii -ii`-i ti, ii-i ~ii -i-ii
:iii`-i-i ti iii, (-ii iii-i ti: -itiii`-i --ii ii i-ii i -ii-i ii i-i-ii i-i
t: -i it-i t-
trrtrtrr trrrr`trr`trrr rrrr`rr.trttrtrr >rr`trrrtrr rrrrtrrrr+
rrrrrr`rr -r orrrrtr rrrrrrrr`tr.rrr+rr rrr`trtrrrr`-rtrtrr+r.++
(-iti, =.;-)
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -i ~ii--i-ii`-i i :iiii`-ii ~i-i-ii ii i`i-i-ii i-i-ii
i -iii -ii-i i`iii t ziti -ii-ii-ii ii ii --i-ii ti izi-i-ii i -iii i`-iii i`iii
t: ii`-i -i i-ii ti -i-ii`-iii i -i-i-ii--ii :i--i-iiii -i -i-i i :iiii`-ii ~i-i-ii ii
>i-ii i`-iz ii t:
~ii`i-ii-iziii--i-i-i -i -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -i zii--i-ii ii iii i--i -i
i`-i-i-i ~ii>i-i i -ii-ii-ii -i iiii t, iii`i zii--i-ii i -ii-i -i ~iiii`i-i ti-i
-ii-ii i--i :iii`-i i -iiii ~i-i-i -i i`-i-i-i i i`-ii -ii-iii`i-i t ~ii :i-i i -iiii
-i ~ii-i-:ii-i iii i--i zii--i-ii i -iii ii-i-i i`-i-iit -ii i -i-i t: -itiii`-i -i
zii--i-ii i i -i ii-iii -iii i ziii-i --ii ii i`-ii`i-i i-i t( --ii
--iiiii`-ii -ii-i ii :iii`-i i -i-ii-ii i -iii-i -i i`-iii i`iii t: iii-
trtr`trrrrrr`rq rrrrrrrr`rr trr rrr`rrrrrr`rr r`rrrrrrrrorr rrorrr trrrr`tr+
rr` rrrrrrrrr ;rr rrrrrr rrr` rr trrr r` rrr` rrr r` rrr trrr rrzr rrrr trr rrrr ++
(-iti, .)
+rrt. r`rrtrrrrtrr. rrrrrrrr`rrrrrrrrr`trr rr+
rr tr rrr` rrr rrr +rrr r rr rrrrz r rr trrqrr ++ (-iti , .)
-iiii`i -ii-ii-ii -i ii`i-i-ii ~ii`ii ti-ii t: iii i--i ~ii-ii i`:ii-i-ii
zii--i-ii ii it-ii-i-i -i :-ii i -ii t: -itiii`-i -i :-i -ii-i i -iii-i -i it
i`-iz i-i ii :iii-i i`iii t i`i :iii`-i i ~i-i-i -i -itiii t, i`-i-i-i t, ~ii-i- t:
~ii>i-i i -ii-ii-ii -i :i-izi i-i -i-ii i--i iiiii -i-ii ii -iii i -ii-ii-i
-ii iii i i ii-ii t: -it it-ii t, -iii-i-i -i i`-i-ii i -iii ti :i-izi i-ii
-iii`ti: ~ii>i-i i -iii i iii -i-ii-i -i-ii --ii -i-i -i it ~ii-ii t i`i i-i-i i
-i-ii-i ii-i-i zii -ii-i -iii-ii i ~ii`-iii iii ii -iii-i -i`-i-i -iti: ~iii-i
~ii>i-i i -ii-ii-ii -i ii ii ii-i --iiiii`-ii i -i -i`-i ti-ii t:
-iti i--i t, -iti zii--i-ii t: ii zii--i-ii -iti`i i-i i i`ziii i
-iii -ii i -ii-ii-ii -i :i-izi i-ii t -ii i`ziii ii -iti ii -ii-ii-ii ii-ii -ii-ii
t: --t (-ii -ii-ii t -ii-ii -iti ii`i-i-ii ii ~ii`-i -i ii iti zii`-i t -it --t i
i ii: -i it-i t-
rrr+rrr. rrrrr rtrrr`trtr`+rrr`trr`trtr
r rrr`;ra rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr:r`rr +rrtr+
trrrrrra rr+rtr rrr`tr`-rtrr`rr`r-rr rrrtrr
rrrrrr r rrr trrrrtr tr r r` rrr++ (-iti , -.s)
-iti iii i--i zii--i-ii ii it-ii-i-i -i :-ii i -ii t, iti -iti --iii
~ii-ii-i ii i-ii t: i<ii`i -itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -i :-i ii ii i`-iiii ii`i -ii-ii i
ziii ii ~i-i-ii i-i t( i-i ii :iii-i i`iii t i`i--i -i-i -ii iti t i`i -it
ii`i-i-ii i -ii-ii-ii ii :iii-i ii:
zii--i-ii i -iii iii ii -i-iti ii`i -ii-ii i ziii i iii i-i -ii-ii
ii -ii-ii t, i`i--i i-ii -i-i-i-ii i -iii ii -i-iti iii i--i -i i`iii t, -it ii -ii
:-ii >iii -i ~ii-ii t: ~i-i: :-i iii-i-i i ii`i-i -ii-ii-ii ii :iii-i ti -ii-ii ii
-ii-ii t:
zii--i-ii ii -iii`--ii -i-i :-i :iii i -i-iti -i ~iit-i ti-ii t: -i-iit-i tii -it
i-i-i iti it-ii t-
+rrrrrr. rrrarrrr` rrr` ortrr rttrtrrtrrrrr r-rr rrtr+
rrtrr`trtrrrrrrrrrtr rr`rcrr`tr tr trtr r`rrrrrrtrrr-r.++ (-iti, -.--)
-itiii`-i -i i-ii`-i-i-i i i`-ii ii ~ii>i-i ii -ii-ii-ii -i-ii, i`i-i-i i`-it-
i`zizi i i-i i`i-i-i t( i--i ii -i-i-i-i ii i`ciiii iii t, :iiii`-ii -ii-i i
-i--iit-i ii iti ii i`-i--i-i -iti i`iii iii:
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i -i -i-iii ii -i-i--i -i -ii-i iii ii ~ii-izii-ii
:ii`-iiii`-i ii t, ii-ii ~ii -i-ii~ii ii :iii`-i-i i -i -ii-i iii-ii, -iiizii-i (-i
-iii-ii-i -ii`-iii ii -i-iii ii -i-i-ii -i -iii`--i-ii ii i`-iii`-i-i i-i i i`-ii
~ii-izii -ii-ii ii-ii t: -iti --ti-i -iii`ii i -ii-i ii -ii-i i-i t( --iii
~iii--ii ii-i-ii`i-ii ii -it--iii -ii-ii t (-i ii-iii-ii ii -ii--ii --ii --i-i
~ii`i-i i-i ii :iii-i i`iii t: -ii-i i i`-i--i -iti :-i t-
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 363 364 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
+rtrr. trr r` rrr trrrrrr` trt+r --rr r rrrr` trtra.
>rrrtrrttr. trr r rrarr rrrtrr r rrrrrrrrt.+
rar+rrtrrz. rrr r r`rrrrrrr-rrrrtrrrr
r`rrrrtr tr+rrrrrrtr`rra rr rrtrrr rrr`r.++
(i`-ii-ii-iziii-i, . )
tr-rrr`trr arrrr`rrarr trrr r r rtrrrrr rrr`trrtr trr+
rtrrrrr r trrra r`rrr+rrr tr tr +rr`rrrrrrr.++
(i-izi-i, r.r=)
-itiii`-i -i -ii-ii ii ~ii-i :ii`-i >iii-i ii ~ii-iiiii`ii, --iii -izi-ii`-i-ii (-i
~i-ii -iiii ii ii-i-i i-i ti ii-i-iii`i-ii -iii i i -i ti i`-ii`i-i i`iii t, i`i--i
~ii`-i-iiii i ~ii-ii ziz-ii :i-iii`i-i i-i i iii-i ii ii -ii-ii ii -iiiii-ii
i ii -i >iii-i -i-i-ii-i -i t -ii -i-i-ii-i i-i -ii-i -i-ii ii --i -i -i-ii -ii-ii
ii -ii--ii --ii zi-iii t: -it it-ii t -
rr-rttrrr rrar-rrrttr trrr rr r`rrrqrrrr`rr rttrrrorrr+
rrr rrrrrrra>rrrrartrr. >rtrtr r`rr trttrrr rrrrtr++
(-iti, .r)
-itiii`-i iii`-ii-i i iiii -i -iii`ii ii -ii--ii --ii t: -i -ii--i-i -i
-i-iii ii ~ii-iii`i-i i-i -ii-ii -ii-i ii iii`zicii( t i`i-iii --i-i i`-i ii-ii
-ii >izi, :i-i ~ii iii i ~ii-ii ii i`-i-iii i-ii t:
iii`-ii-i i -iii iiii -i -iit zii--i-ii ti, --ii ti, -ii-ii ti, ~i-i-ii ti,
-ii`iii ti ~ii-ii :--i-ii ti ii --izii ti -iii -i ii-iii -iii`ii ii ~iizi t,
-iii--i ii -ii t, -ii-i t, ii-i ii ~iiii-i t, ~ii`--i--i ii -iii-ii t: :-i :iii
-i-iii i i`-ii -i ~ii-iii---i-i i -i-ii-i ii-ii-iii-ii -ii`-iii t:
iii`-ii-i -i ii-iii -i-ii`-i i -ii iiii i-i, ~ii, ii-i ~ii -iii ii
iii-ii-i -it--i :ii`-iiii`-i i`iii t, i`i--i :-ii -iii ti -i (i -i-i-ii`-i-i -i-iii ii
-i-i-ii i iii i: -i -iit-i i i`i -i-iii -i i`ziii ~ii`-i-iii ti i`i -iii`i -i-iii ii
:i-ii i`zizi i-i`-ici: i`-i<ii ii ~iii-i i: iti-ii ~ii>i-i ii -ii-ii ii ~ii-ii
~ii-ii-i t( i-i ii iiii ~ii`i-i i:
i-iii i -i-i-i -i iii`-ii-i ii iiii t i`i -i iii-ii ti, -iiizii-i ti,
-icii ti, --i-i (-i -ii-i-ii-i ti: -i i-ii-ii ii-i (-i -icii ii iii i-i ti
zii-i-ii-i i`-iz ti: it-ii>i-i ii -iiii~ii ii ii-i-i i: :iii-i-ii -i -ii-i-iii
i-i t( i`-i:-it ii-i -i ii-i-i -i-ii-i i-i ii ~iii-i :iii`iii -i ~iii: -izi-i-ii -i
ii`i--ii`-iii ii -ii`-i ii ~ii--i-ii-i i-i ti -iii ii -iii-ii -i -ii`-i-i ti: iii-
rrrrr:+rttrr`rcrrrr rrrr r`rrrrr`rrrrrr+
rrrrr rrr`rr-rrrr rrrrrtr trrtrrrrr++ (-iti, .)
:-i -it iii`-ii-i i ii-i i i: ~ii`i-i-i ~iiii-i t; --t -iii`-i i-i
-ii-ii ii-i-i`-iii i` -iii`ti :
(rrrrrr`r rrr`rrrartr. qrr +rrrrrrrr, trrrrarr- zr. ar rrrartr, trrr`tr
trtrrr, trrtrrr r`rcrrrrra, sarrrt, trrtrrr, rrr-r {

21. rrr`r trr`tr+rr


-i-i-i i ~ii-iiii -i ii-i-i`-i-iii i t-i i i`-i-ii i-i t( :ii`-iii ii
--ii-i`-iii i`iii t: ii-iii zii`-ii ii :ii`-iii-i--i ii --iiii`-i i`i-ii -i i`i-ii
i -i ~i-izi -ii-i-i t: ii`-i-:ii`-iii i i`-i-ii i-i i i-i :ii`-iii i -i-i-i -i
izii`-ii i`-i--i-i--i-i-i ii ---ici ~i-ii-izii -i tiii:
i`-izi-ii, -i-i--iii` ~ii -iiii-ii :ii`-iii i iii -iii t: -iii-izii ii
-icii ii--ii iiii ii i`-izii-ii i-ii-i t( it-ii t i`i -i (i -iii, -i-ii, -iii
~iii ii :i-ii i -i-i t: iiii ii ii`z ii :ii`-iii ii it (i ~i-iiiii -ii-ii t:
i`i-i -i--i ii :-i :i-iii i-i i`i :i-ii, ~i-i-ii-i zi ~iii` ii -ii-i -i-i-i -iti t
--iii -iiii-ii :ii`-iii ii i-i t: :-iii`-ii -iiiiiii i -icii i-iti` -iii :i-iiii
-i :ii`-iii ii ~ii`ii -i-ii -ii-i-i t-trrrrr+rr:r`rr trrrrrrr`trrrr trr`tr+rrrr.+
:-ii iiiii t-iiii -i :ii`-iii ii -i--ii`-i i-i t( i`-icii t i`i :ii`-iii i
-ii--ici -i -ii-i ii ii-i-ii ri -i iii-i ti-ii t, -i-i ii`-ii -i :iiii`zi-i ti -a-ii t
~ii (i (-i ~ii--ii ii ~ii-i- i`-i-i-ii t i`i-iii i`-iiii -i ii: -i-i-i -iti ti-ii:
:-i :iii :ii`-iii ii ii-i -ii-i, -ii`t-ii ~ii ~ii-i- -i i`i-i t:
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 365 366 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-iiiii-izii`-iii i :ii`-iii--i-i-ii :-i i`-izi--i i iiz-ii i zi-izi-i
ii :iii-i t: zi-i izii`-ii :ii`-iii ii ~ii-i, ~i-i--i (-i -i-i-i i-i-i--i i`zi-i ii ti
--ii -ii-i-i t-
rr -rrrr trr`tr+rr tr-rtrrarrrrrr`rrtrr+
+rrrrrrtrr`-rrr, trrrrtrr tr rr+rt.++
:-ii :iii i`iiit-i i i`-ii-i (ii :-ii ii -iii ~iii i i -i i i
i-i t) ii :ii`-iii ii -ii i --ii -i i`ii -iti -ii-i-i -rrtr trr trr`tr+rr arr.
rrt rr rrrrrr`atrrr (i`iiit-i): zi-i i i-i--i i -iii (ii--i-ii it i`-iz i-ii
t i`i -i-iii -ii` ii -i-iiii iti :ii`-iii t:
-ii--i -i :ii`-iii zi ii ---ici -iti i iii t: -iii-iii -i ~i-izi
:iii`-ii -ii-i ii ~iii-ii-i iti t ~ii :-i :iii -ii--ii ii i` -i -i-ii ii`i i
-iii-iii ii -iiii -ii-i ti :ii`-iii-:i-i-i -ii-i t: -ii i ~i-i-i i-i -ii-ii-ii it
-ii-i-i t i`i ii i ii ~i-ii-i t -it -ii -ii -i t i-i-i: ~ii`-i-ii-i ii -ii-i ~ii
~i:i-ii ii :i-ii ii-i -ii-ii :ii`-iii ii -ii-i-i i -i i i`-iiii t: iiz izii`-ii
:ii`-iii i -ii-i i :i-ii zi ii :iiii i-i t: :i-ii :-ii ~i-i-ii -it i`-i -iii
ii`ziz -ii t i`i-i-i i`-i-i-i ii -i i`ii`-i-i -i--i ii iii`-i, -i-i--i -i-ii ii cii ii
-ii-ii t -
trtrttr r trr` ar r rrr` trr q r -ror rrr+
aarr r`rr`arrr rrrrrrrrarr r r`rrrrr++
i-i izii`-iii -i :i-ii (Intuition) i ~i-ii i i`ii t- ~i-ii`i-ii-i, -i-i:
iiii -iii i-i-i-ii-i ~ii-ii i-i-izi-i ~iii` ~i-ii -ii-i ~ii ii -i i-i izii`-iii -i
~iii i -i-ii-i-iii`-ii ii iii`-i, -ii-iii ~i-i--i-ii -iii -i-i-ii ii ~iii-i i`iii ii:
:-i-i -i i-i-izi-i ii i-i-i-ii-i ii :ii`-iii ii ti iiiii--i -ii-ii ii -ii-ii t: ~i-ii-i
~ii ~i-iii-i -i-i--i -i--i~ii ii (i -iii -iiii-ii ti i-i-i zi-i ii --ii t:
-izii`ii -iiii ii -ii--ii ii iii`-i :iii`-ii -ii-i i i`-ii ~iii-ii-i zi ii ti :iiii
(-izii`ii-ii, .-.;) i-i t: it zi -i-i-i-i: -i-i:ii-i iiizi-i i ~ii-iiii -i
iiii i -iiii-i -ii-i i i`-ii -i-iiii ii: ~iii -i-ii ,i-ii i`i :ii-i -i -i-i i`iii
ii, -iii-izii ii -icii ii :-i -it-ii -ii`-i ti-i -ii-i iiii i :iii`-ii -ii-i i i`-ii
ti iiii -ii-i-i -iii ii: ~i--i, izii`-iii i :-i i`-i-i-i-i -i :-i-ii -ii -i t i`i :ii`-iii
-it :i-ii t i`i-i-i ~i-ii-i ~ii ii`-ii-i -i--i~ii ii (i -iii i`-izi-ii i -iii -iiii-ii
i`iii ii -ii-ii t: :-i :iii ii :i-ii i`i-ii -i :i-iii i -iii-i -i -i-i-i -iti t:
~i-i: :ii`-iii ii (i ~ii`-ii`-i -iii ~ii`ii -i-ii :i-iii ~ii-ii -ii-i ii t-i -ii-i-ii
~ii-izii ii t ~ii -ii-ii-i ii:
-itiii-i -i ~i-iii :ii`-iii ii :iiii :ii-i t, :iii: --ii ~ii -i i`i-i ~ii -i
iiii-iiii -i :-iii --ii i`-iii i`iii ii: ii-iiii -itiii`-i iiii -i i`-i
-ii ii ii -ii-i i`iii t --i t-i :ii`-iii ii ti --ii -i-ii -ii-i t: ii-ii -i i
-zi iti ---ici-iii t-
{. +rrrttrtrrr.orr` rrtrrrrrrrr rrttrrrrrrrrrrrar` arrr rrarrrr rrrtrr r` ar r
-rorrrr+
-. tr r` +rrrrr rrrrrrrarrr trrr.tr+rrrra r`arr -rorrrr+
i`-i-ii ii -ii-ii -i :iii`-i -iii -ii-ii ii-i ~ii -i-i--i -i-ii ii :i-ii i
-ii-i ii i-i-ii :ii`-iii ii ti -iicii t: i-i-i -ii-ii -i ti -iti ~ii`i-i ii-ii-i i
~i-iiit -i ti --i i`-i-ii ii :iii`-i ti -ii-ii t: ~i-izi ti, ~ii-i i-ii ~ii`iiii
ti-ii -iii`ti ii ii-ii-i ii ii :i-i i`-i -ii -i :iii iii ~ii --i-i -i-iii`t-i
~i-iii -i-ii ii (i -iii ci -ii -
r`ar aarr`rr tr -ror. rrrr rr rrrrr+rtrr+
trrrrtr rrtr rrttr trr`r+r-rrrrrrrr++ (ii-iii-ii)
:ii`-iii ii -ii-i ii-i i i`-ii -ii, iii -iii :iii ~i-iiit ii ~ii-izii-ii
ii -i-ii ii-iii i`-i--i-iiii ii --iiiii`-ii-ii t: :-ii -ii ii ~iiii`-ii zii-i-ii -i
~iiiii ii i`-i--ii`-ii`ci-i ii`iiii( -i-i i-ii t-
(i) Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety nine percent
perspiration.
(ii) Gift, like genius, I often think means only an infinite capacity
for taking pains.
-i-i-i i -iii`t-i -i-iiiii -i :ii`-iii i i`-ii zii`-i zi ii ii iiii i i
-i :iiii i`iii t: :-ii :ii`-iii-zii`-i ii :, -ii-i-i -iii iiiii ~iii` ~ii-iii ii-i-
:iii-i ii (i-iii t-i -ii-i-i t, -i ~ii-iii i-i i`i i -i--i, -iii -iii ii-i
:ii`-iii ii :i-ici t-i -ii ~i-izi -ii-i-i t i -i-ii`-i ~ii ~iii-i ii ii ii-ii`-i-iii i
i`-ii ~ii-izii -i-ii-i t: : -i :ii`-iii ii zii`-i ii --ii (iiii i`-i-i -i zi -iii
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 367 368 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
~ii ii -i-ii -ii-ii t: it -i-ii`ii ii ti -ii-ii t ~ii --ii<i ii: iti it
---ici-iii t i`i :, izii`-iii ii iii`-i, -ii-ii, -iii-ii ii -i-ii`-i ii ~iiii
i-i-i -ii iii` ii :ii`-iii i i`-ii ti -ii-i-i t: zii`-i--i-i-ii :-ii --ii ii
zii--i -i -i-iii-i ~ii-iii iiiii -i i` iii t i` i-ii ~i-i -ii ii` -i-:ii` -iii ii-ii` -i-ii i
i ~i-ii-i ziii ii -ii`-ii`-i t - rrrr rrrrrrrrrrrarrrrrr`trr`tr.: ii`-i:ii`-iii
ii it i`-iii --ii ~ii`i-ii`-i-ii ii iii --ii ii -ii t: iiz-ii i i -ii-i
-i :ii`-iii --i :i-ii ii -ii-ii t ii i`-i-i -i-ii-i ---ii i-ii t- tr;rr rrrrrrrrrrrrr`rrrr
trr`tr+rr rrtrr+
-iii ii i` -i i -ii-i ii it ii`iiii iiiii ii ii`iiii -i ~ii`ii
-i-ii-ii-i :i-ii-i ti-ii t iiii`i :-i-i :ii`-iii i ~i--i:--ii ii i`-izi t: ii`-iii
~ii-iiii`i i-i i`i -ii-i-i, -i--i ~ii --ii iiiii -iiizii ii`-izii`-i ii ii`iiii
i-i-i -i-ii i`-izii (-ii-i-i, -i--i) -iii i`-i-iii ~i (-iiizi) it i -i t: :-i
ii`iiii -i i-i ti :ii`-iii iii t- it -i -ii-i-i ti -ii i`i--i --iii i`-ii`-i -i i-ii--i
i -i-ii ii -ii-i-ii ii tii t-ii t, it ~i-izi :ii`-iiii`-i ti-ii t: :-i ~i ii ii-i
i i`-ii -iiizi -i-ii ii ~iiii-ii ii t-i -ii-i-i t: it ii-ii i --ii i`-izi--i ii i-ii`-i
t i`i-i-i ii-ii-i i ~i-iiit -i i`-i-ii ii :iii`-i i-ii: i: ii i`i-i ~iii -i-ii i-i-
ii`-i -i-i-ii -i ii tiii t- trr`rrttr r`ar r` r`r rtrr+
ii-i-ii-ii-ii i -icii iizici i ~i-i-ii ii :ii`-iii ~ii zii`-i ii iiii
-iti -ii-i-i, -i-iii`t-i ii (iiiii`-i-i ii ii ~ii--i :ii--i t ~ii ~iii-i ii ii iii t,
zii`-i ii -i-i ti-ii t: iti zii`-i ii-i ii (i-iii t-i t: zii`-i--i-ii ii`-i -i ti
:ii`-iii ~ii -i-ii`-i -ii-i t: ziii--i-it, ~i-iii ~ii -i`-i ii :ii`-iii ti ri -i
:ii`-iiii`-i-i i-ii t: :ii`-iiiti-i ii`-i i i`-ii -ii iii iii i-i ~ii :ii`-iiizii-i ii
-i ci-i i ii :i-ii i-i ici-i t: iizici i ~i-i-ii :ii`-iii ii iti --ii ~ii
iii t: t-ii iti i -iii`t-i--i-iiiii -i -icii i -iii iiai, ii`-i i -iii -iri,
-iiiii i -iii zii ii ii ii-i ii i` -i -it--i ~iiii ii: :ii`-iiizii-i ii`-i ii
ii-i (ii-i) ii i`-iii ti t ii` iiai (ii-ii) i ii-i :ii`-iii -i ti: ii-i-
i`-i-iii i i`-ii i`i-i :ii`-iii ii ~iiii t -it iii`iii ~ii --i -i-ii-i i i`-i( ii
:ii`-iii ~ii-izii t -it ii-ii`iii t:
:-i :iii ii`-i-:ii`-iii i`-i-iii i-ii t ~ii ii-ii ii :ii`-iii --i -i-ii-ii t
~ii -iiii i-ii-ii t: -i-i-i i (i ii`-i ii it-ii t i`i i-i ti i`-iii-ii -iii iii
--ii -iii -i i ~ii`-ii -ii`-i ii ii-i -i-ii-ii iii -i -i i`-ici-
trtrrrrrrrtrrr` r rr -rr r` rr` rrr` artrrr` r tr -rtr trrr+
+rtr` trrr rr rrr` rtrr` rr ar r` rrtr` tr rrr r` rrar rrr r` rrar rrr r` rrar++
-ii`-ii`-izi--i i :i-i-ii ~ii-iii ~ii-i--ii-i -i ii`-i-:ii`-iii ii ti -ii`-iii-i
ii i`-iii -ii-ii t: :ii`-iii ii ii -i t-i i ii`-i ii ii: -i--i -iti i`cii: iii:
:ii`-iii ti (i (-ii zii`-i t i`i-iii ii-i--izi iii -i-i--i -i -iii ii iii`-i, ii-i-i
~ii ii -i-ii-i>ii iii i -i-i t:
-iii`t-i--i-iiii i ~i-i ~ii-iiii -i ii (i-i i`i i--ii ~ii ii) it
ii-i -i i i ii i`i :i`-i-i-i ii -i--i i -ii-i -i ii-i ii ~ii`i-ii-i -iti t-ii t:
ii`-i-:ii`-iii ii iti ---ici ii ---ii-i -iti t --i t-i ii-i -iti it -ii-i ~ii -iit
ii ii it: ii -i ~i-iii--i ii ~iiii ti ii`-i-:ii`-iii ii -ii-ii t: --iii i` -i
~i-iii zi ~ii ~ii i ~iii`>i-i t, --ii ziii ii i`-ii`-i`-i i`i-i iii i zii
-i -ii-i-ii-ii-i-iiiii it -ii-i t, ~i-iii t: :-i i`-ii`-i`-i ii -ii` ii`-i-:ii`-iii
i ---ii-i -i ti ti-ii t: ii`-i-:ii`-iii ii, i`i-i ii`-i-iizi-i ii ii`-i--iiii ii it
-ii-i t, ii-i-izi iii ziii -i -ii-i ii ~i-iii`-i ti-ii t: ii`-i-:ii`-iiii-i
-ii`-ii i`-ii`-i`-i, i`-ii-ii ii -ii-ii ii iti ~iii-i ti-ii t -iti ~i-iii -iti -ii-ii ii
-ii-ii: iii`-ii-i ii ii`-i-ii -i -iii`ii ~ii ziiiii -ii-i ii i`i-i-ii ii i-ii iii -i ti
i --iii :ii`-iii i -ii-i -i -it i`i ti -iti ii-ii ~ii`i-i iii`-i-i -i- ti i`cii: -ii
t: -i-i-i i -i-i-ii-ii-i -iii`t-i--i-iiii ~ii-iii ~ii-i--ii-i ii -iii -ii it-ii t-
+rr trrr` -rrr trr ar rr. rrrrtrr tr r` rrtr rrr .+
rttrrrr`-rrrtrttrtr tr rr`trr+rrtrtr++
ii`-i:ii`-iii -i ~i-i-ii`-i ii ii i`i ii-ii t i :ii`-iii i ~iii-i ii ii -i--i cii-i
-ii-ii t:
~i--i, ii`-i-:ii`-iii (i i`-ii` t i`i-i-i ii`-i ii`i ii iii`-i ~i-ii-i ~ii
~i-iii-i ii :i-ii i -i-ii t: i :i-ii ti iii ii`-i, -iii ii iii`-i i`-i-iii ii -ii
i-ii t: ~i-i: :ii`-iii i`-ii` ii t ~ii -ii` ii: -ii` ii (-ii ii i`-i-i-ii-i t ~ii
i`-i-i- i`i-ii -ii-i ii ~iiii -i ii`-i-ii i -i-i--i ii i`i ii-i t:
(r`tr

i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 369 370 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
22. trrr`tr rr rra rrr trrrr
ziiiiii i`-i-ii (~ii) ii -i-ii-i i-ii t, i`-iiii i ii -ii -iii`t-iii
zi ii: ii-iii`-ii-i iii-ii i tii -i i--ii i i-ii t: iii i t ti
t-i-i ii --i t: Words, Words, Words -ii-ii-ii it-ii t i`i -i ~iiiii t
iiii`i --iii ~ii-ii zi ii i`-i-i-ii i t, -i-ii ii ~i-iii (trr rrrr +rrrrrr.)
-ii-i-i -i --i izii-ii -iti ti-ii: zi ii i`-i-i-ii ~ii itii-ii ii ~ii :-ii i`-iii-i
~ii ii ~ii`-i-i-ii -iii i`-i-i-iii`--ii-ii ii i`-i-i-i-ii

ti i-iti` i -iiiizi-i ii i-i


:iiii-i t: -i-ii`-i ii -iii-i zi -i ~ii`ii ti-ii t, iti iii t i`i -ii i i`i-i-i
ii ~i-i-ii ti iii, ~ii --i ~i-i-iii -i ii-i: -ii`i-i i i`-iii iii i -i-iii
-i-i-ii zi ii -iti i-ii -iit-ii, -it zii--ii -i-i -i-i-ii -iit-ii t, --ii -i ii`-ii`-i
ii-ii t: ~ii ii -ii-ii --i i-iit ti -iti: ii-iii :i-ii (-i -i-ii`-i i ~ii ~i-ii -iti
t: i zi :i-ii :iii`zii iiii -i ~ii-i-~ii-i t, t iiii-iiii (i ti i-iiii ii
~ii-ii-~ii-ii ii-ii -i -i-i-ii -iit-ii t: iti --iii zi i :ii`-i -iti ii-ii`-i t: i-i
ii (i-ii ii-ii zi ii iii`i--ii-ii i -iii -iti ci -iii: ii-ii`-ii i`-i-iiiii ~ii
-i-iii-i-i-ii ii ~i--i --i-ii -i-i-izii i-iz -iti t~ii i`i-i-ii i`i ii-ii zi ii
~i--iiii`-i: i-i -i ii ~ii`ii -iii-i zi -i ti-ii t: zii (i-ii i`i -ii) ii -ii`i-i
ci -i-i i i-i t ii-ii t, i zii i -i-i ii-i i -i-i--i ii-i ii ii t-ii t:
ii`-iii iiiii zi ii ii-i-ii ii :ii`-iii-i i-i t( it-i t i`i
i`-iii-ii-i -i-iti (ii-i ii -i ii ii-ii t, ii-i -i ~ii -i-ii-i t, ii-i -i-i
i`-iii ~ii -iti ii-ii ~iii`) zi i`-izii ii ti ii-ii -i :ii`-ii`-i i-ii t: ziii
ii-i -i ii-i zi ii zii`i-i -iti t, i-ii -i -ii-i-i i t-i :-i -iii`ii iii`-i ii -iti
-i-iii iiii i`i ii-i (i t, ziii i t i`i (i i i-i t( ~ii ii` zi ~ii
~ii i-ii -i -i :i-ii -i ii-i--i --iiii i i`-iii ti (i ti ii -i i ii-ii ii
-i-iti tiii: ii`-iii ii -ii ~ii ii i`-izii-ii ~ii zi ii i`-izii-ii ii --iiii
ii -i-ii t, ~i-i: --ii :ii`-iii-i ii -ii-ii( ~i-izi t i -iii`t-i i -i-ii-i i
ii`-i-ii ii ~iii ii ~i-i-ii -i -ii-i-ii --iii zi-i-ii ~ii-ii ii i ~i-izi i-ii t:
iii i i: zii ii ii-ii`-ii, ~iii`ii, -i-i--ii-iii`ii -iii iii`-ii
-ii-ii i-iiizi (i t i ~ii ii (i-ii ti-i i ii :ii-ii-ii ~ii-ii iiii i -ii-i i
~iiiii -iti ~ii-iiiii ~ii ~iii-i i -iii i`-i:it i ~ii-iii ti: ~iii -i ~ii`ii
zii i ~ii-ii ii it -i-ii`-i-i-ii -i-iti t: :-ii -i -i ti-ii t i`i zi-iii`ii
-ii i` -ii i ii -ii -i i -ii it i :ii` -iii :iii-i i i` -i-ii i i -iii ti --i ~ii-ii -ii -i i` -ii
-izi :ii-i i-i i i`-ii ~i-i--i :ii-ii-i iit i`ti ii i iiii -ii-i-i -i -i -iii:
-iii`i-i-i -i iti ii i`i --i zi--iiii ti :ii`-iii ii -ii-i t: t-
~ii-i-ii-i it-ii t i`i ~i-ii-i -iii -iii`t-i i-i-ii t iii`i -it ziii`i-i ti, ~i-iii
-it -iii-i i t: -iii`t-i-i-ii ii i--i zi-iiti -i ti-ii t:
-
-i-iii`-ii ~ii-ii
ziiiii zii ii :iiii -ii ii i`-i-ii ii ~ii`i-ii`-i i i`-ii i-ii t: -ii-i zii
ii -ii-i -it -i-i ~ii i`-iii-ii`-i -i ii-i-iizi-i tii i-ii t iiii`i --iii -ii
zi -iti ~ii`i-i -ii ii ~ii t: :-ii i`-iii-i -iii`t-iii ii --i zii ii -i-ii-i
i-ii ti-ii t ii ii-ii -i, -iii -ii-i -i, i`-i-i-ii`-i -i-ii (iiii i`-i-i-ii`-i ii
~ii--iii i`-i-i-ii`-i i -iii ~ii), -i--iii -ii-i -i -i--i--i-ii --ii i -ii: :-i
ii-iii -ii-i-ii ii ~ii:.(. i`-i-i -i it iti -ii-i-ii :ii-i ii t i`i ii`-i ii zi
ii-ii ti-ii t -iii ii-i ii iiii -i-ii`iii ti-ii t i`i-i-i zi ii -iciii, ii`-i ii
-i-iiii-i, --iii`i-ii -iii -ii-ii i-izi: -i--i, i`ii`-ii, i-i -iii :--zi-i i -ii ~iii
-i -i-iii`t-i t-i t: i-iiii -i i-izi: ~ii`-iii (i`i-iii i -i -iiii ~i--ii-i t),
ii-i-ii -iii iiii-ii i -iii-i -i ii`-i-zi ii :-i i`-ii`zi-ii ii ii`-ii`i-i i`iii
ii: ii-iii ii-iziiii i`i-i -ii-i -ii zi -iiiii (~ii`iii, -iiii, -izi-ii,
-ii-ii) ii -ii-ii-ii i-ii t --i -iiii -i-i--ii -ici-i: zi -i t: i -iii zi ii
-ii`-iii t, ~ii ii -iti: zi ti -ii-ii, -iiiii ii -izi-i i-ii -iiii-ii ii
~iiii i-i-ii t: zi i it-i ~ii t-i-ii ~i-ii-i -i ii-ii -iiii (auditory
imagination) ii-i ......... -i-ii-i-iii ~ii -i i`-iii tii zi ii -iii-i i-ii
t: :-i -i-i-i -i i. (-i. :i`-ii ii i`-i-i-i-i :-i t:
;
-ii`-i-iii ii ii-ii
:iii`-i :iii`-iii`i, :i-iiizi, -i-i-i, i`-iii`-i, -i-ii -iii i`-iii-i ~iii` -ii ii -izii-ii
ii :ii`-ii i-ii t

-ii -it -ii-ii--ii i-i-it i zi -i ii -i-i ~i-ii-ii -ii iii


ii-i -i zi ii ti -it--i :ii-i-i: :iciii`i-i i-ii t: iii-iii, ~ii-ii`-ii, i-iii-iii
zii ii iii`i-ii~ii -i -iii`t-i ii -iii-ii :-i zi--iii-i ii ii-i -:ii`iii ii ti
i t: :-i -iiii i`i-ii -i-iii`-ii ii ziiiii ii ~ii-izii-ii -it-i-i -iti ti-ii
iiii`i -it zi ii ii-ii -iiii -iti t ~ii`i-i ~ii ii -ii ii -i-i i`-iz-iii t:
ii` ii`-i zi ii -iii-ii t -ii i`i it-ii :iz-i -iti ti -a-ii t i`i
-iiiii iii i-ii t ii-iii i-ii -ii --i ii ziii`i (ziii) it-ii t, ii`-i
ii -iii`t-iii ii -ii -iti: :-i :iz-i ii --i -ii i` -i -i-i-i ii-i ziii i
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 371 372 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
:iiiii`-i ii-it -i i`ii t: -iiii ii -i-i-i zi ii -i-ii`-i -iii -i t: -ii--i,
i`-i--i ii -iii-ii ii i`-iii-ii -iiiii i i`-ii iii-i t: rrrrrr rorr`ttrtrrr -iii
rrttrtrr`t r`rrrtrr`tr rrttr.+ i i-ii -i-ii-iiii -iiii zi--i-ii`-i ii i` -i
i`-iii t, i ii`-i ii :-i i-ii -i -iti-i ~i--i :i-ii-i ti-ii t: -iii ~ii -ii`i-ii i-ii
(iiii t, i-ii -i i-i-i :i-ii ii ~i--i t: i-ii ti -i-ii`-i ii i` -i ziz t i
-iii t~ii ii`-i i`i-ii (i ii ti -ii-i iii: i`i-iiii, iii-ii i-ii i`zi-i i iiii t
-iii ii: i ii i`i-i zi ii i`-ii`-i`-i -ii-i t :-i ii ~i-ii-i ii`-i ii t,
-iiiii ii -iti: ii-i ii it -iiii -ii-ii-i iiii i -iiii -i i`ii t: :-iii
i ii`t-ii-i-i i i`-ii ii-it i ~i-i-ii zi-:iiii -i -iii -ii-iii ii`-iii -iii
:iiii -i ~iizi-i ii`-iii -i i ii-i-ii ~ii-izii t:
-
i`-i--i zi--iii-i -i ti -iii`-i
ii -iiii ii-ii t:
r
:-i zi iii i iii ti --i ii`-i i zi i-i -iti ii
-ii-i- iiiii i ii ii -iti:
=
zi-iii ii ~ii-izii-ii -iii`t-i ii t, -iiii
i`-i-ii-i ~ii-ii ~i-i i`i-ii ziii ii -iti: --t -ii -iti (ziz) zi i -iii`ti ii
--ii ~ii ii iii i-ii -ii: it -iti t i`i ii`-i :ii-ii-i -iii`t-i-i-ii -i zi
ii`i-ii~ii ii, --ii izi-i :iiii ii ii`t-ii-i ii-ii t: (:-iii`-ii ~ii-i--ii-i -i
-itiii`-i i ziii ii :ii--ii-ii :i-ii`i-ii-i ii -izi i`ii t) i i-ii i`i :i`-ii
-i Burnt Norton -ii-ii ii`-i-ii

-i i-icii t- zi ii-i t, -i-ii-i t, -i t-i


t, i`i-i-i-i, i`ci-ii-i ~ii ci--i ti-i t-i t: ~ii-ii-~ii-ii iit at -iti ii-i, i`i-i
-iti iii :-iii --i --ti-i i`-ii`-i i`ii`i -ii-ii ii`-i-ii -i i`ii t (ii`-iii -s-
-) iiii`i i`i-i -ii-i i zii ii -ii--ii i`i-i -ii-i ii iiii -i t: ~ii -ii -ii-i
i zii ii -iii ~ii-iii ii :i-iiii t: :-i -it ii`-i ii -i-iizi i-ii t-ii t -ii zii
ii: ~ii-i ii -it -itiii`-i ii :ii`-iii ii -ii zi-ii -i (i zi ici-ii t:
-i ii-ii ii -it --i i`-ii`ii i -ii ~ii -iti i`ci-i- -ii iiii iii t: i-i-i
(i zi -iii`ti ii -iii it iii: ii` -it -iii-i -iti t -ii -it zi -i -ii it
(iii-i) t -i -ii, -i -i-i t ~ii -i i`z-i: -it -ii -iii -ii-i ii-i-zi t i`i-i
i`i-ii -i -iiii`-i iti iiii, -ii -i ii`-i, -i`-i-i, ~i-iii, -ii`-i ~ii -i ii-i iii
iii iti: i -i-i it t i`i iii-i-ii ~ii iii`-i -i -iii`ti`-ii zi ziiiii-ii
i i-i-i ii -iii ti ~ii-i --ii ii -i-ii`i ii ii-ii t: ~i-iii -i-ii ~ii
-ii`-i-ii ii :ii`-ii i ii -i-i-i -i -ii-ii iii` ii >iiiii`i ii`-i-ii ii i-ii -iti
ti-ii: ~ii -i zii -i -iii-i i-i ii :i-ii`-i ii-ii: i-ii i`i ~i-i:ii-i, i-ii i
-iiii-i -i i i-i-ii -i-i-i ii-i -i i`cii: -ii t: ii-i zi ii -iii-i iii`i-i,
-i-i-iii, -ii-iiii, ~iii-i ii :iii-ii-ii i`-i-ii-i -iti t: ~ii`i-i -iti, -i-i (-i
:iii`-ii (-i i`-ii-i -iti i`i--i -ii-i zi ii zi-i -iii -ii-i t: -ii`-iii -i izi-i
zi-:iiii (~i-iii) ii :-ii`-ii ~i:iiii--ii`-i-i-i iti t ~iii-i ii`-i --ii :iiii
-i ~i-ii -i :ii--i -iti i-ii, zi --iii`-iz tii ~i-i-iii ti-ii t: :-i :iii ii-i
-i zi ii -iii-ii i`-ii`i-i zii-iii ii iii-ii -iti t:
i ~ii ii`-iii iiiii -i zi ii ii-i ~i-izi -ii-ii t: i ii-it,
-i--i ~iii` ~ii-iiii -i -iii`t-i ii ii`i-i-ii zi -iii ~ii i -itii-i -i ti ii t:
--ti ii it-i-i t: :-i ii`i-i-ii ~ii it-i-i ii (i t-i t: -i-i-i i ~ii`iiizi
ii-iziiii iz-ii i t iti i`zi-i -iii zii`-i i -ii-i-i ii zi-i :ii`-ii`-i ii:
:-ii`-ii --t i-ii ii -ii-ii -i-i-ii ii: i`zi-i zii-ii--ii ~ii zii`-i i`zi-ii--ii t: i`zi-i
ii zii`-i -i i`-i-i ~ii`-i-iiii-i t: -ii (i ti it-i -i izii`-ii i` -i ii: tii`-i -iti t:
i i-ii -i-ii -ii -i-i-ii ti: ti, -iit-ii zi-ii i ii-iii i :ii-ii ii-ii-ii`i
ii`i-i -i zi -iii ~ii i-ii ii i`-i-iii ii-i ii ii -ii-i-i -ii-i -iii i
-i-i-i -i (i -it--iii i`iii ii t- rrrr rrrrrr rr r`rrr +rr`rrr rr-r
rra rrr r rtrr + trr rrr rr`rtr rrtr rr r`rrr (rrrr rrorr rr rra rra
rrr r rrrr srrrarr r`rrrr rrtrr +

~iii i -iii`-ii ii -i ii-iiii-i (-i -i-ii i :-i -iii-ii ii it-i i`-i--ii


t~ii t: :i-ii i i`-ii -iii iii ii :-i-i -izi-i -iii-i :ii-ii-i iii -i iii-ii
-i-ii -iti i: :-i i`-ii`-i -i ii-i-i i -iii ~iiii-ii ii ~ii: i`i -iii`t-i ~i-ii
i-i t -ii-ii t i`-i-iiiii~ii ii it-i-ii -iii -iiiii`--ii-ii -iii`t-i i zi ii
~iiii ~ii ii i`-i-ii ii :i-ici-ii ii :ii`-ii`-i i-ii -iit-ii t: ~iiziii, -i-iiiziii
~ii -i i: ziiii ii ti -iti ~ii`i-i -iii`t-i i ii ~ii-i ii -i i`i-t ~iii t -i
ii`-i i --ii-ii-i ii ii :iii-i i-iii --i ~ii-ii i`-i-iiiii ii ~ii`i-ii`-i ii
-iii-i i-ii-ii ~ii-izii -i-ii-i t: iti zi-ii ii ~ii`-ii ii-i -i :iii-i--iii
~i-i:ii-iii` i -i-i-ii -i ii -iii`t-i i -i-i -i -i-i ti iii, -iti ~ii (i`-i-ii ii
-ii) ii ii-i ii -i-i -iii -ii-i-i -i -iii`t-i ii i`-i-ii ii -iiti ziii i-i iiiii:
:-ii`-ii ~iii ~ii ii ~ii-izii t i`i t-i ii`-ii-i ii -ici -czi zi ii -i-ii-i
-ii-i: -ii-iii`ii ziii i`ii-i`ii ti ii t: :i-ii i`-i-iiiii ii ~ii-ii ziii, ~ii-ii
iii, ~ii-ii --ii`-i t: i`-i-ii-i ~iii ii -iti t: --iii i`-iii-ii-i-ii ~iii :iii`zii,
-iiii ~ii i`-ii`zi i`-i-iiiii ii ~i-iiii`-i-ii -iti i-ii t:
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 373 374 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
-iii`t-i ii ii` :-i-i i-i -ii -iii -i-i-i ii -i-i-ii ~ii ~ici-ii-i-i-ii
i :ii`-i :ii`-iiz-ii i ~ii`-ii`-i --i i i-i-i -i iii iii -ii --iii zi--iii-i i`-iiii
tii: ~i-iii ~iii-i-i-ii -i --iii --i-i-i-ii ii ci-ii -ii i-ii ti t~ii t i-i i`i
-iiii ~ii -i-iti -i i`-i-ii-i ii:
tra+r
1. +rrrr`ar`rrr rr rratr-r raortrr+
r`rrtrtr:r+rrrr trr`rrr rrtrr rtr.++ rrrrrrrarr, /
2. Unit it is verbalized, experience is not literature but the material of
literature only, it is in verbalization that literature born.
3. ........ the feeling for syllable and rhythem penetrating for below the
conscious levels of thought and feeling covigorating every word sink-
ing to the most primitive and for forgotten, regurning to the origin and
bringhing something back, seeking the beginning and the end. It works
through ........... certainly, or not without meaning in ordinary ....... and
fuses the old and the obliterated and the trite, the old and the new and
surprizing the most ancient and civilized mentatily.
4. :-i, -i--i, rrrrtrrrrrr, -i-ii ---ii-i ii ~ii`--i-i iii:
5. rrrr-rr rrrrrr r trrrr trr`tr trrrr.+
trrr-r r r r-rrr-r rr`rrrrrztrrr-rtr++ +rrrrrrrrrrt, r/-;
6. trtrtrrr+rrtrtr. tr rrr . rrrrr rrrrrrrrrrr` tr+ iizi ci, rrrrrrrrrrtrr, i i i
-i-ii, i. =:
7. rtrrarr`r trrtrr rrr`trr`-rtrr`rrtrrrr+
tr rrarrtrr` rrrrtrr. rrarrrrr tr-rortr ++ -ii-i-i, rrrrrrr rrrttr rr r` -r, .;.-.
8. i.(-i. :i`-ii, rrrrrrz rrrrrtr, i. --, ti :i-i ( i-i-ii, -iiii:
9. rrrrtrrrrt+rr`trtr rratrrr`tr crrtrrrrr, rrarratr rrrr`rrrrtr. rrtr
r`tr rrrr+ ci , i. .
(r` tr

23. srrrrr rrrr`rrartrtr


ii-ii -i i`-icii srrrrr rrrr`rrartrtr i--ii ii -i-i -r -ii i`-iii
-i-ii ti -iii ii: :-iii i`t-i -i ti-ii ~ii-izii ii: i. i-ii-i -i --ii zizi:
~i-i-ii i -iii-i -i (iti-iti (iii zi ii ii`-i i-i -i i: t) ~ii-ii ii`-i
ii i`t-i-ii-i i -i-ii cii t:
-i-ii ii -i-ii ii -ii s :. -i :ii-i i i: i`ii -i ii-i i
i-iii`-ii -iii`t-i ii ~iii-i t~ii t: ~ii-i-, i`ti- -iii >ii-i-ii i:-i i`-i -i
-i-ii`-i ii :i`-iti-i :i--i-i i-i i i`-i(; -ii-i, ii`-i -iii ii-iii i`-ii-i iii -i
~ii`i-izi-ii-i-ii i -iii-i ii i` -i ~ii ~ii--i ii -iii -ii -i i-i -iii iii
(Mythology) ii :i`-iti-i ii-i-i i i`-i( -i-ii i :iiiii ii ~iii-i, :ii-ii-i -iii`t-i
-i -i-i`-izii-i: i-i -iii iiz -iii`t-i ii -ii-i-i cii i`iii ii: :-i ii`i`-i-i
ii`i`i ii ii :ii`-iz -i-iiii i. ii-i -i ti-i -i ii`-iziii (Stylistics) ii i` -i
-i-iii -i-i-i -iii`t-i (-ii`i (-i -iii`ii) ii ~i-izii-i-i i`iii t: -i-ii i :-i
-i-i-ici ~iii-i -i :-i-ii -i t i`i :-i -i-i-iii i -iii-i -i -iii`t-i -i :ii`-ii`ii`-i-i
zi i -i-i-i ~i-ii-i ii ii-ii ii -ii-ii t:
:-i -iiii ii`i`i i ~ii`-ii`-i ii iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii-i-ii ii >ii i`i--i:
-i :-ii -ii-i -i (i ~ii i--ii -i ~iii-i-i i`iii ii: :-iii ii`-iii -i -itiii`-i i
-i-ii-:iiiii ii -iiiii ~ii -ii-i zi-i ii -i-ii ti-ii t: i i`-ii`i-i ti,
iii`-ii-i ii :-i --iiiii`-ii -i-i-iii ii -ii-ii-ii, zii`-i-ii ~ii zii-ii-i-ii ii
--i-i-i ~ii iii`-i-i ii-i-ii:i-ii ~iii-i zii ii: :-i iii ii ii`-i i. i-ii-i -i
ii t- i ii-ii -i-i -i: --ti-i i`-i--ii`-ii`ci-i i--ii -it ziiiii -i -itiii`-i i
-i-ii--ii`-ii i ~ii-ii i`-i--i-i :i--i-i i`iii t: ~i--i -i -i-iti t:
. ii-i -i -i-ii-:iii i (-i -iiiii i -i ~i-i ii-:iii i ii -ii-ii (i . --):
-. zii-iii ~ii ~iii-iii ii -i-i t-i (i. r---):
;. iii`-ii-i ii -ii-iii iiii ti iiii ii-i iiii t (i. -;--):
. -i-ii ii -i-i t-i- -ii-i-ii-iii (i. ;s-r):
-. iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii~ii -i :iii`-i ~ii -i-ii ii -iii (i. =---):
r. iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii~ii -i ~ii-iiii`-ii -i-i-i (i. -;--):
=. iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii~ii -i ~iii`-i-i (i. rs-r-)
i ii`- : ii-i (-i ii-izii-i 375 376 ~ii-iii i-i-i-: i`-ii ii -i-ii(
. iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii~ii -i -ii`-ii ~ii i`-ii -i--i (i. r;-=s):
. iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii~ii -i -i-i-ii--ii i`-ii (i. =-=-):
s. iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii~ii -i -i-i-i-~i-i-i-i ii ~ii--i (i. =;-r):
. ~i-i-i -ii-ii`-ii ~i-i-ii-:iiizi-i ~ii iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii (i. =-):
-. ~i-i iii -i -ii-ii-i -i i` -izi i ~ii i` -izi i -i -ii-ii-i ii i` -i-i -i-i (i .--):
;. iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii~ii -i -iii`-ii-ii ~ii zii`-i-ii (i. -s;):
. -i-iti (i. s-sr):
ziiii ii :-i iiizii ~ii-ii (-i-iti ii i`-i-iii) -i-izii i (i`i-iii
---ici i--ii i :ii-i -i -i ti-i -i --i iti -ii -i-i ~ii ii ~ii-izii -i-iii t:)
~iiii-i-i: i`-i`-iii -i it -i ti ii(ii i`i -i-ii :iiii i i`i-i iii ii -icii -i
~ii-ii-i-i i`iii t: -i-ii-:iiii ~ii-ii ~i-iii-:iiii i i`-i-izi (ziiii ), :-ii
-i-i t-i (ziiii -) -iii --ii -iii-i -i -i-i-i-~i-i-i-i i ~i-i i i. i-ii-i
-i ~ii`ii i`-i-ii i`iii t; zii iii i ~iiiii-i i-i, it ii iiai --i-i: ii-i
-iii: :-i -i-ii i ~iiii-i-i: i`ii-i -i, -i-i-i t iiai ii it ~iiii ii iiii-i ti
i`i iii`-ii-i ii -i-ii -i