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State the most frequently occuring chemical elements in living things

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

State other elements needed by living organisms

Sulfur, Calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium

What is the role of Sodium in animals and plants?

Animals Maintaining water balance Acid-base balance in body fluids Required for nerve function Animals Contains phospholipids, ATP and some coenzymes Formation of bone and teeth Acid-base balance in body fluids Animals Vital component of haemoglobin Required as enzyme cfactor Component of cytochromes- involved in electron transport in respiration

Plants Not essential Can help maintain osmotic balance

What is the role of Phosphorus in animals and plants?

Plants Vital component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP and several coenzymes

What is the role of Iron in animals and plants?

Plants Required to activate some enzymes Component of cytochromes- involved in electron transport in respiration

Plants Cofactor in protein synthesis Major solute in maintaining water balance in cells Nerve function Stomata opening/closing What is the role of Sulphur in animals and Animals Plants plants? Component of certain proteins (some proteins have a sulphur group)

What is the role of Potassium in animals and plants?

Animals Acid-base balance in body fluids Maintaining water balance

What is the role of Calcium in animals and plants?

What is the most abundant compound of living organisms and what type of compound is it?

Plants Formation of&stability of cell wall Maintenance of membrane structure and permeability Required for muscle Regulates many and nerve function responses of plant cells to stimuli Water- it constitutes approx. 80% of a human cell while at least 60% of the whole body is made up of water. It is a covalent compound as it consists of two hydrogen atoms each covalently bonded to an oxygen atom. Unlike a typical covalent compound, the electrons that form the covalent bonds are more attracted to the oxygen nucleus because the oxygen atom is more electronegative.
required to increase the temperature of 1kg (or g) of substance by 1C. As a result, water absorbs/loses a large amount of heat to increase/decrease its temperature. The high specific heat capacity of water is due to hydrogen bonds. Upon absorption of heat energy, the particles move faster, however in water much of the heat absorbed is used the disrupt the hydrogen bonds before they can move faster. Also, when the temperature of H2O drops, molecules slow their movement, allowing additional H bonds to form. A lot of heat is therefore generated.

Animals Formation of bone & teeth Blood clot formation

What are the thermal properties of water? High specific heat capacity: the amount of heat energy

How is high specific heat capacity important to life on Earth?

A large body of water can absorb heat during hot weather and release it during colder. Since H2O covers most of the Earth, this ensures that temperature fluctuations occur within limits that permit life. Temperature of ocean/sea do not fluctuate, temp of organism remain constant

What is high latent heat of vaporization and why does water have it?

Provides a measure of the energy required to vaporize a liquid, or for a liquid to change into a gas. This means that a lot of heat is required to evaporate 1g of H2O than 1g of alcohol. Water molecules must gain sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the hydrogen bonds holding them. Only then will the water molecules be able to move fast enough to escape as gaseous particles