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TheAntenna Fam
ANTENNAS
Apertures Patches Conicals Curtains Twinlines Arrays

Reflector

Parabolic B,conicai hadomes

3-1

INTRODUGTION
In this chapterwe are introducedto 24 types of antennas a preview to more as det treafments later cha1, in ters" T^reantennas glJupedinto: are ffi ffi m Basic lrlpes Loops, Oipotmancislots
wavegul(le

Opencd. coaxiai,twin_lineand ?u,

il t t

Reflector aperture and rypes End-fireandbroadband types Flat-panel. andgriclarrays slot

AntennaTypes and Antenna Patterns Iulian Rosu,Vffi ruL-YO3DAC


AriteririuTypu MON.OPOLE r'PattcrI r Fli*diatiur
a - : : . : t . . . . 1 . . : : : : : :

Polartzadgt: LlnaEr ' Vcnicatassnaiii

fy,pcatFb|fFsuErEcarilldth eS'aq, maq ,tvucil Earr ,2dBattiei Fandr*ifttt: tgtro'i#''i ; t :i ercquirsiLin:f .tspci.,,hbne
Lurul'F,fu_lrdl

vz;qrPotE
: 7

Linar Pdrrbtqr: Vdrtloal as strnrn ri4f ria rtnS*"r tra'inrtl$, rSOdegxS'deg ':..;

i'1rp'iiis'iin#,.id;
'

.T.$ffi-i .

,.ornr,,rl.!;

Fiquirtv'Lrnit Lorrrt Ncnc I lrnnl r.thpc.,s;GHz tprabiba RGmaltE: Patemandbbhoohanqc *ltii,!!, t b4.aE 6'gah :.signifi5ntty.
: fdlFfl'<?$FlLl

Figure L
.J ,....:,i..4 ..r: ..: : .j: '. .:

:Antenna,Type
' v t sE

H,adiatibn,Fattern

oharaeteiisiiis,
'Vennat,#5tfinl r'atcn rtnPrr ,fiofl,fs!
Pdariatbn,Linear''

eca,"rfCh

E#tb-n'e Adlmiittll:i'

'r#*re#=ior'ros

nH0Metc,

,Y$$, dL*sqfn ,IfPca !flFf q{r1 Bcamridrl S Peg:x6d* ' Typtnliih: .Fld,.!s,lF.F{nana':
FrcqucnryLimt Lmn 3 MHz ilsfrSO0FulFlE Ec;a* * .farminaibn,.tp-istance Usedm iduen'Hkbbeo:

Pdai-tntttt';l-her

Figqre2

Figgies

Antenna Type
HONN

Fafli4jion Fattern
Ele,,ntbn:

Gharaderistics
Fafirlartbn: Linmr BGrnlridrh:

T!'{of hll+s'r. 40 dag x 40 deg Ty-pidl ein:s

bepo,dB,

Azimtih:

hndryidUi: lf tiJqiedr llO!,.or 4:I f f rnt rilg'ed:'67i/171 2:1 Fl.quchsy Limit Lmcr: 'ra l,lHz :s

3,dB beamvyHth 70 l1/dx =

:UipCj

ane'

HOHNW / POLANIZEF " ' ' '

'z:

, r

lqtsEetun; Cimrlhq; Depcms einpoHrjzeri Typicrl tf{t esr* {0 degx i+OihE Tfpjel ,,lreimuiil Ein:Sb te:nlftrrh: tOdB.:

Ea4,CIiCdi: fli/, or Z: 1. Fr:quepca,Limit . '' to*lr:?GHl \ruit:-:t;'Jf:GHel

Figqe I

prRronrc uoe

Fisuid ll

Figqrre 12

' i

Antennq,Type

i : i - . . .

Hadiation ...;..: :.. Fatl:erF :.


FoFiation:' Lineer. !,Fl ilcai =.siiown

: : . :

r l f

(and!{brasjrb eamrr 1
7

9IV]TI-BLCIEP C IH C U ITEDSL OT F
Elewtblt: Aaimufi,

EiirCtridd[:.Narau Frcquency. - Limii lqrlcr,.!S, Mna : upR* !s;G!-{a

GU.IQE, SLOT' F'ED


Ehuatbn:

'nohbfon".F

oii.

Typiol lf{l*qt:r B:FmiliCrh ,Elarrrtbh::tl6-f0' $0:'"'' rA.lm',iiih:

ttl}iti+Lg",r-;,ii'ie
*3irn'uhj

'tsnslfui'$.$.$r-1r'
,Frlqungf,Limit :lgrii:.2 GH2

,$p +UcUe :n!#it*;*ffi tr r

iui*Eii te

i{nl.r"t-i.t
.ChaiactErisiibs' ConruEn FEFtEctoF

i' Bb-rrdiliCilr:. Ni rto+' CEperide nt,upon:.fEed,.imiite r.


i,';.1..

Flgquenqf :Liml" ' :.kittci: ''.l GHe ,,Uppdi:{p GHe

ri..:.i.r.t,l

i ' 'r ': ftbqnfts;,,Typbally- hd'vr,itl a dpo le bi coti,near ii.y,

I.U N EB U A E N S G.L

PoF'etbn: Feecldapendent

. .:..

Typirnl.!|a|rFqryrr.Blanrrf-iCtlr; Sysnin aepelrfent


Eletation'*.

*zimuitr'

Tyiiel'hii

BanCflHft:

'.;

:, :::,Narrorrrr .,:'.

:' S16e m dependeht

Flrqurqrg tignt l-o,Tcr: :J GFle Uppq:lO:Ci,i;. Rcnsls: phele; "p Vir bb *, Index d leetrb

Figqre 14

330 9-8

Chapter 9

Slot, PatchandHorn Antennas

HORN ANTENNAS of The waveguide. function (or as may A homantenna beregarded a flared-out or^red-out)
thanthatofthe waveguide aperhrre front with a larg'.i: a thehom is to pro<luce unif...rnphase Boseconstructed Chandra are Hom antennas not ne'd.Jagadis greater directivity. andhence hom in 1897. a pyramidal in are typesof hornantennas illustrated Fig. 9-24. Thosein the lbft columnare Several Thosein theright colurnn waveguides. frornrectangular All rectangularhorns. areenergized of arecirculartypes.To minimizereflections the guidedwave,the transitionregionor horn betweenthe waveguideat the throat and free spaceat the aperturecould be given a gradual practiceto make horns it expolential taperas in Ftg.9-24a or z. However, is the general

HORNS RECTANGULAR

CIREULARHOF'NS

Waveguide

taperedpyramidal (a) fxponentially

tapered (e) exponentially

(b) Sectoral Fl-plane

E-plar,e

Figure 9-24 typesof rectangular horn andcircular Arrows anteRRas. E-field indicate direetions.

(d) nyramidal

(h) run, biconical

:.:,*

.:ti?

,:.,r..:

complementary slot is tlren abrclut + j0 A so lhat an impeclance 50 rnal.eh will be provided, to a 50 Q coaxialline. SeeFig. 9--17c.
,lt12 slot

/l* 0 Z: -t3

+ , . i 4 2 "{5 I

(a)
Resonant dipole niZ Resonant,\/2 slot
I

7t : D : " & 0 . 0 0 5 , /\ f f
I

: l*J*:_. O.+zS,\-l
Z:67+j0,\

l*

-Z : O.47SA

: 2D: 0.01,tr

(b)
Fulln dipofe Full,\

Z:710 +j0 O

= 2D: 0.006.I

(c) Figure g-l z Comparison impedances cyfindrical of of dipofe with compfementary antennas.Reslotin (c) antennas sfot I matches direcily the to 50 52 coaxiaf line.

*:::H,:;:.-o,"nce

If the slotsin theseexamplesareenelosed on one sideof the sheetwith a bclxof sueh size is shunted

aeross sloi ,"..;;';j, the

.r.,_ ffi;

;ox, theimpedances

The bandwidth or seleetivity eharacteristics of a slot antennaare the same as feir the complementarydipeile'Thus, wielening a slot (smaller [,f ut ratio) inereases the bandwidth erfthe sfot ant'enna, sameas increa*ing the the thicknessof q clipole*rrts'ri't (sma a L'rvrTrt'antenn:rf'lnatler L I) 1;er I L ratio) increases its bantlwidth. The abovedi'seussion this sectionapplies of to slots in sheetsof infinite extent"If the sheet is finite' the impeelance valuesur* rubrtantially the same provicleel that the edge of the sheetis at least a wavelengthfrom the slot. Howlver, the *"urur*e] slnt impeelance is sensitiveto the natnre of the terminal eeinnections.

9-l

Patch or Mierostrio Anlennas

327

0.3251t0 l*-=::^ci
| *:---:_+

---_--_.*l

50()

(a)
Main lobe
4 pointsources at ,\o spacing.

4 point sources \ at 0.66440 \aspacing


I l
L

\ \

' l

l-,!",o,
(c)

Gratinglobe

(b)

Figure 9-23 dconnected nricrostrip by transmission li;.esto a 50-Q da)Aray of 4 ),/2 patcl,,s withspacing - Ls/A"n. The L/2 slotfield pattern Field whend
t.eital FIPBW -- 26". Thus, the Direcriviry-_ 40,000t1/180" 26o- 8.ti or x 9.3 dBi

A 4-prate circularly polarized affay for 2.45 GHz (tr : 122.4 mm) is shown in [r Fig.9-23.1({z).The equivalent dielectricsubstrate : 4 so the patetrdimonsion is given rr - 30 mm. The measured by 0.49 x 122.4/4112 VSWR vs. frequencyis shown at (b) with rniirclt ru 50 A (VSWR l) at ttre ciesigllfrL-lLlLrlc) ).45 GHz with a.rneasured t:f gain of 11.0 dBi (eircular).T"he rneasured RCP field patternsare shown at (c), (d) and (e) with petttents nleasured thror-rgh planesperyendicular CC', DD' and Ef'.The comrnercial to moclelof ttris patehantennahas a plastie eover or "rarlome." With this in plaee, a substrate with relative 1;er:rnittivity less than 4 is usod. However, the eomtrination of this sutlstrate and the ladome is equivalenf a suhstrate to with E, :4,anrJ no radomeas assumedin the worked example.The measurenrents were rnaele the eommereialmodel with radome. on