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AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology (An Autonomous Institute)

VLSI Design Lab

M.Tech VLSI Design Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology Dhauj Faridabad Haryana India

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L-T-P 0-0-3

Int 50

Ext Total 100 150

Code: MEVLSI-511 Paper: VLSI Design Lab

List of experiments using Tanner Tools


1. Design the layout for PMOS in layout editor. 2. Design the layout for NMOS in layout editor. 3. Design the layout for CMOS inverter with equal rise and fall time in layout editor. 4. Design the layout for 2-lnput AND 3-lnput NOR gate in layout editor. 5. Design the layout for 2-lnput and 3-lnput NAND gate in layout editor. 6. Design the layout for 2-lnput and 3-lnput Ex-OR gate in layout editor. 7. Design the layout for 2-lnput and 3-lnput Ex-NOR gate in layout editor. 8. Design the layout for clocked S-R flip-flop in layout editor.

Note: The Scheme of awarding the grades to a student in the course will be supplied by the University to the examiner. Teachers are allowed to perform other experiments relevant to the lab.

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INDEX
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 7. 8. 9. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) TITLE Integrated Circuit Layout Integrated Circuit Design Tanner IC Work Flow L-EDIT LVS (Layout Vs Schematic) Layout Examples Nand Gate Nor Gate Transmission Gate Xor Gate using TX gate Xnor Gate 4*1 Multiplexer Full Adder Parallel Adder Page No. 4 5 10 12 27 29 29 30 32 33 35 37 39 42

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Integrated Circuit Layout


Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating integrated circuits by combining thousands of transistor-based circuits into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed. The microprocessor is a VLSI device. The term is no longer as common as it once was, as chips have increased in complexity into the hundreds of millions of transistors.

Integrated circuit layout, also known IC layout, IC mask layout, or mask design, is the representation of an integrated circuit in terms of planar geometric shapes which correspond to the patterns of metal, oxide, or semiconductor layers that make up the components of the integrated circuit. When using a standard process - where the interaction of the many chemical, thermal, and photographic variables are known and carefully controlled - the behavior of the final integrated circuit depends largely on the positions and interconnections of the geometric shapes. A layout engineer's job is to place and connect all the components that make up a chip so that they meet all criteria. Typical goals are performance, size, and manufacturability. The layout must pass a series of checks in a process known as verification. The two most common checks in the verification process are Design Rule Checking (DRC), and Layout Versus Schematic (LVS). When all verification is complete the data is translated into an industry standard format, typically GDSII, and sent to a semiconductor foundry. The process of sending this data to the foundry is called tapeout due to the fact the data used to be shipped out on a magnetic tape. The foundry converts the data into another format and uses it to generate the photomasks used in a photolithographic process of semiconductor device fabrication. In the earlier, simpler, days of IC design, layout was done by hand using opaque tapes and films, much like the early days of PCB design. Modern IC Layout is done with the aid of IC layout editor software, or even automatically using EDA tools, including place and route tools or schematic driven layout tools. The manual operation of choosing and positioning the geometric shapes is informally known as "polygon pushing".

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Integrated circuit design


Integrated circuit design, or IC design, is a subset of electrical engineering, encompassing the particular logic and circuit design techniques required to design integrated circuits, or ICs. ICs consist of miniaturized electronic components built into an electrical network on a monolithic semiconductor substrate by photolithography. IC design can be divided into the broad categories of digital and analog IC design. Digital IC design is used to produce components such as microprocessors, FPGAs, memories (RAM, ROM, and flash) and digital ASICs. Digital design focuses on logical correctness, maximizing circuit density, and placing circuits so that clock and timing signals are routed efficiently. Analog IC design also has specializations in power IC design and RF IC design. Analog IC design is used in the design of op-amps, linear regulators, phase locked loops, oscillators and active filters. Analog design is more concerned with the physics of the semiconductor devices such as gain, matching, power dissipation, and resistance. Fidelity of analog signal amplification and filtering is usually critical and as a result, analog ICs use larger area active devices than digital designs and are usually less dense in circuitry. Modern ICs are enormously complicated. A large chip, as of 2006, may well have more transistors than there are people on Earth. The rules for what can and cannot be manufactured are also extremely complex. An IC process as of 2006 may well have more than 600 rules. Furthermore, since the manufacturing process itself is not completely predictable, designers must account for its statistical nature. The complexity of modern IC design, as well as market pressure to produce designs rapidly, has led to the extensive use of automated design tools in the IC design process. In short, the design of an IC using EDA software is the design, test, and verification of the instructions that the IC is to carry out.

Fundamentals
Integrated circuit design involves the creation of electronic components, such as transistors, resistors, capacitors and the metallic interconnect of these components onto a piece of semiconductor, typically silicon. A method to isolate the individual components formed in the substrate is necessary since the substrate silicon is conductive and often forms an active region of the individual components. The two common methods are p-n junction isolation and dielectric isolation. Attention must be given to power dissipation of transistors and interconnect resistances and current density of the interconnect, contacts and vias since ICs contain very tiny devices compared to discrete components, where such concerns are less of an issue. Electromigration in metallic interconnect and ESD damage to the tiny components are also of concern. Finally, the physical layout of certain circuit subblocks is typically critical, in order to achieve the desired speed of operation, to segregate noisy portions of an IC from quiet portions, to balance the effects of heat generation across the IC, or to facilitate the placement of connections to circuitry outside the IC.

Design steps
A typical IC design cycle involves several steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Feasibility study and die size estimate Functional verification Circuit/RTL design Circuit/RTL simulation Logic simulation Page 5

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5. Floorplanning 6. Design review 7. Layout 8. Layout verification 9. Static timing analysis 10. Layout review 11. Design For Test and Automatic test pattern generation 12. Design for manufacturability (IC) 13. Mask data preparation 14. Wafer fabrication 15. Die test 16. Packaging 17. Post silicon validation 18. Device characterization 19. Tweak (if necessary) 20. Datasheet generation Portable Document Format 21. Ramp up 22. Production 23. Yield Analysis / Warranty Analysis Reliability (semiconductor) 24. Failure analysis on any returns 25. plan for next generation chip using production information if possible

Digital design
Roughly speaking, digital IC design can be divided into three parts

ESL design: This step creates the user functional specification. The user may use a variety of languages and tools to create this description. Examples include a C/C++ model, SystemC, SystemVerilog Transaction Level Models. RTL design: This step converts the user specification (what the user wants the chip to do) into a register transfer level (RTL) description. The RTL describes the exact behavior of the digital circuits on the chip, as well as the interconnections to inputs and outputs. Physical design: This step takes the RTL, and a library of available logic gates, and creates a chip design. This involves figuring out which gates to use, defining places for them, and wiring them together.

Note that the second step, RTL design, is responsible for the chip doing the right thing. The third step, physical design, does not affect the functionality at all (if done correctly) but determines how fast the chip operates and how much it costs.

RTL design
This is the hardest part, and the domain of functional verification. The spec may have some terse description, such as encodes in the MP3 format or implements IEEE floating-point arithmetic. Each of these innocent looking statements expands to hundreds of pages of text, and thousands of lines of computer code. It is extremely difficult to verify that the RTL will do the right thing in all the possible cases that the user may throw at it. Many techniques are used, none of them perfect but all of them useful extensive logic simulation, formal methods, hardware emulation, lint-like code checking, and so on.

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A tiny error here can make the whole chip useless, or worse. The famous Pentium FDIV bug caused the results of a division to be wrong by at most 61 parts per million, in cases that occurred very infrequently. No one even noticed it until the chip had been in production for months. Yet Intel was forced to offer to replace, for free, every chip sold until they could fix the bug, at a cost of $475 million (US).

Physical design
Here are the main steps of physical design. In practice there is not a straightforward progression considerable iteration is required to ensure all objectives are met simultaneously. This is a difficult problem in its own right, called design closure.

Floorplanning: The RTL of the chip is assigned to gross regions of the chip, input/output (I/O) pins are assigned and large objects (arrays, cores, etc.) are placed. Logic synthesis: The RTL is mapped into a gate-level netlist in the target technology of the chip. Placement: The gates in the netlist are assigned to nonoverlapping locations on the die area. Logic/placement refinement: Iterative logical and placement transformations to close performance and power constraints. Clock insertion: Balanced buffered clock trees are introduced into the design. Routing: The wires that connect the gates in the netlist are added. Postwiring optimization: Remaining performance (Timing Closure), noise (Signal Integrity), and yield (Design for Manufacturability) violations are removed. Design for manufacturability: The design is modified, where possible, to make it as easy and efficient as possible to produce. This is achieved by adding extra vias or adding dummy metal/diffusion/poly layers wherever possible while complying to the design rules set by the foundry. Final checking: Since errors are expensive, time consuming and hard to spot, extensive error checking is the rule, making sure the mapping to logic was done correctly, and checking that the manufacturing rules were followed faithfully. Tapeout and mask generation: the design data is turned into photomasks in mask data preparation.

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Process corners
Process corners provide digital designers the ability to simulate the circuit while accounting for variations in the technology process.

A simple CMOS Operational Amplifier Layout

Analog design
Before the advent of the microprocessor and software based design tools, analog ICs were designed using hand calculations. These ICs were basic circuits, op-amps are one example, usually involving no more than ten transistors and few connections. An iterative trial-and-error process and "overengineering" of device size was often necessary to achieve a manufacturable IC. Reuse of proven designs allowed progressively more complicated ICs to be built upon prior knowledge. When inexpensive computer processing became available in the 1970s, computer programs were written to simulate circuit designs with greater accuracy than practical by hand calculation. The first circuit simulator for analog ICs was called SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis). Computerized circuit simulation tools enable greater IC design complexity than hand calculations can achieve, making the design of analog ASICs practical. The computerized circuit simulators also enable mistakes to be found early in the design cycle before a physical device is fabricated. Additionally, a computerized circuit simulator can implement more sophisticated device models and circuit analysis too tedious for hand calculations, permitting Monte Carlo analysis and process sensitivity analysis to be practical. The effects of parameters such as temperature variation, doping concentration variation and statistical process variations can be simulated easily to determine if an IC design is manufacturable. Overall, computerized circuit simulation enables a higher degree of confidence that the circuit will work as expected upon manufacture.

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Coping with variability


A challenge most critical to analog IC design involves the variability of the individual devices built on the semiconductor chip. Unlike board-level circuit design which permits the designer to select devices that have each been tested and binned according to value, the device values on an IC can vary widely which are uncontrollable by the designer. For example, some IC resistors can vary 20% and of an integrated BJT can vary from 20 to 100. To add to the design challenge, device properties often vary between each processed semiconductor wafer. Device properties can even vary significantly across each individual IC due to doping gradients. The underlying cause of this variability is that many semiconductor devices are highly sensitive to uncontrollable random variances in the process. Slight changes to the amount of diffusion time, uneven doping levels, etc. can have large effects on device properties. The design techniques necessary to reduce the effects of the device variation are:

Using the ratios of resistors, which do match closely, rather than absolute resistor value. Using devices with matched geometrical shapes so they have matched variations. Making devices large so that statistical variations becomes an insignificant fraction of the overall device property. Segmenting large devices, such as resistors, into parts and interweaving them to cancel variations. Using common centroid device layout to cancel variations in devices which must match closely (such as the transistor differential pair of an op amp).

Fortunately for IC design, the absolute values of the devices are less critical than the identical matching of device performance. However, this fabrication variability forces certain design techniques and prevents the use of other design techniques familiar to the board-level designer.

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Tanner IC Work Flow


Tanner Tools are fully-integrated solutions consisting of tools for schematic entry, circuit simulation, waveform probing, full-custom layout editing, placement and routing, netlist extraction, LVS and design rule checking (DRC) verification.

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Introduction
This document gives a rough overview of how to design & simulate things with Tanner Tools. There are four basic steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Design the schematic in S-EDIT. Simulate the schematic to make sure it behaves as you expect using T-SPICE. Layout the schematic in L-EDIT. Perform an LVS (Layout VS Schematic) to make sure your layout is functionally the same as the schematic you designed in S-EDIT. 5. Simulate the layout using T-SPICE with a high-level spice model, making sure L-EDIT generates the parasitic capacitances so they are included in the simulation. What follows is a brief overview of the steps.

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L-EDIT
CMOS Inverter Structure: -

Double click on L-Edit; File -> new

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Now copy TDB (Tanner Data Base) file from browse Path for TDB File C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\L-Edit and LVS\Tech\Mosis\morbn20.tdb And Click OK

Goto cell -> new

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Name the cell->

Grids spacing can be minimized or maximized using or + sign To change the technology Goto setup-> Design

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Select Lambda or microns accordingly and click ok Before designing layout we need to remember following equations N Diffusion = N select and Active (1) P Diffusion = P select and Active - (2) From layer palette, we can select layer then for drawing layer we need to switch at Drawing boxes as follows

Now we can start layout designing We are Taking Example of CMOS Layout design Background of L-Edit is P-Substrate by default We need to design PMOS, First draw active

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Now draw P select over Active with keeping in mind Lambda based design rules

Now draw poly over it accordingly

Now draw metal1 to design Contact

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Now draw Active Contact for Active region

We have designed source, gate and drain Now we need to put this in N-Well

We can perform DRC (Design Rule Check) at every stage

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If we are violating any Design rule then it will be shown in Error verification navigator

On pointing any error, it will be shown in corresponding layout, as follows

It is called lens, now we need to edit N-well

We can check DRC at every stage AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A Page 18

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Now we need to draw Body terminal, Gate contact

After designing Body terminal (n select+ active+metal1+active contact), we need to design Gate contact In case of Poly Layer, we need to draw Poly contact

To define port, go to (A)

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Type the name of port;

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Similarly we can design N MOS; and after connecting these two, CMOS layout will look like as follows

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Now we can extract netlist by doing some settings

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Now select Extract standard rule set, and click on pencil

Now we need to include Extract file, and Spice output file at desired location Location for .ext file is C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\L-Edit and LVS\Tech\Mosis\morbn20.ext

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Define location for output files

In output, select Names (writing nodes)

Click ok, now go to extract button AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A Page 24

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Click on extract, An spice file will open as follows

We can open this spice file in T-Spice and can perform desired analysis We need to include hp05.md file for analysis

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We need to insert some spice commands to perform transient analysis : VVoltageSource_1 Vdd Gnd DC 5 VVoltageSource_2 vin Gnd PULSE(0 5 0 5n 5n 95n 200n) .PRINT TRAN V(vin) .PRINT TRAN V(vout) .tran 1ns 500ns

After saving spice file, we can simulate it, W-Edit will invoked and we can check the response:

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LVS
(Layout Vs Schematic)
We got two output files (one from S-Edit and second from L-Edit), Now we can compare results by using LVS Double click on LVS, and file -> new & Select file type-> LVS setup, then ok

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We need to browse spice netlist files for layout netlist and Schematic netlist

After including these files, we need to run verification as follows & Results can be checked from Verification Window.

Both netlists are equal.

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LAYOUT EXAMPLES:
1. NAND gate:

NAND gate layout Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 1 a vdd 7 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u M2 vdd b 1 7 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u M3 5 a gnd 4 NMOS L=1u W=2.75u M4 1 b 5 4 NMOS L=1u W=2.75u vdd vdd gnd 5 Va a gnd PULSE (0 5 0 100n 300n 3u 6u) Vb b gnd PULSE (0 5 0 100n 300n 6u 12u) .tran .1u 100u .print tran v(1) v(a) v(b) .END

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Waveform:

2. NOR Gate:

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Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 outputa a gnd 7 NMOS L=1u W=2.75u M2 gnd b outputa 7 NMOS L=1u W=2.75u M3 5 a vdd 4 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u M4 outputa b 5 4 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u vdd vdd gnd 5 Va a gnd PULSE (0 5 0 100n 300n 3u 6u) Vb b gnd PULSE (0 5 0 100n 300n 6u 12u) .tran .1u 100u .print tran v(outputa) v(a) v(b) .END Waveform:

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3. TRANSMISSION GATE:

Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 out a in 4 PMOS L=1u W=2.5u M2 out a in 3 NMOS L=1u W=2.5u vdd vdd gnd 5v Vin in gnd PULSE (0 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) Va a gnd PULSE (0 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) .tran .1u 40u .print in out .END Waveform:

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4. XOR GATE USING TX GATES

Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 outputa bbar inta 10 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u M2 outputa b a 8 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u M3 inta a vdd 7 PMOS L=1u W=2.5u M4 outputa bbar a 6 NMOS L=1u W=3u M5 outputa b inta 6 NMOS L=1u W=3u M6 inta a 4 6 NMOS L=1u W=3u vdd vdd gnd 5v Va a gnd PULSE (0 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) Vb b gnd PULSE (0 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) Vbbar bbar gnd PULSE (5 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) .tran .1u 40u .print a bbar outputa .END AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A Page 33

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Waveform:

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5. XNOR GATE

Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 out b 3 10 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u M2 3 a vdd 9 PMOS L=1u W=2.5u M3 out bbar a 7 PMOS L=1u W=2.75u M4 out b a 6 NMOS L=1u W=3u M5 3 a gnd 6 NMOS L=1u W=3u M6 out bbar 3 6 NMOS L=1u W=3u vdd vdd gnd 5 Va a gnd PULSE (0 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) Vb b gnd PULSE (0 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) Vbbar bbar gnd PULSE (5 5 0 1u 1u 4u 10u) .tran .1u 40u .print a bbar out .END

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Waveform:

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6. 4X1 MUX

Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 out s2 16 9 PMOS L=1u W=5u M2 16 s1 B 7 PMOS L=1u W=5u M3 out s2bar 1 5 PMOS L=1u W=5u M4 1 s1bar A 3 PMOS L=1u W=5u M5 out s2 1 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u M6 1 s1 A 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u M7 out s2 11 31 PMOS L=1u W=5u M8 11 s1bar D 29 PMOS L=1u W=5u M9 out s2bar 14 27 PMOS L=1u W=5u M10 14 s1 C 25 PMOS L=1u W=5u M11 out s2bar 11 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u M12 11 s1 D 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u M13 out s2 14 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u M14 14 s1bar C 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u M15 out s2bar 16 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u M16 16 s1bar B 23 NMOS L=1u W=5u Va a gnd PULSE (0 5 0 0 0 2u 4u) Vb b gnd PULSE (0 5 0 0 0 4u 8u) Vc c gnd PULSE (0 5 0 0 0 8u 16u) AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A Page 37

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Vd d gnd PULSE (0 5 0 0 0 16u 32u) Vs1 s1 gnd PULSE (0 5 0 0 0 16u 32u) Vs1bar s1bar gnd PULSE (0 5 16u 0 0 16u 32u) Vs2bar s2bar gnd PULSE (0 5 32u 0 0 32u 64u) Vs2 s2 gnd PULSE (0 5 0 0 0 32u 64u) .tran .1u 200u .print v(s1) v(s2) v(out) .END

Waveform

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7. FULL ADDER

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Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 vdd c 6 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M2 17 c vdd 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M3 6 b 5 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M4 vdd b 17 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M5 5 a 2 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M6 S0 2 vdd 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M7 2 12 17 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M8 gnd c 4 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M9 14 c gnd 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M10 4 b 3 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M11 gnd b 14 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M12 3 a 2 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M13 S0 2 gnd 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12.75p PD=14.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M14 2 12 14 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M15 12 c 13 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M16 vdd b 19 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M17 13 b vdd 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M18 17 a vdd 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M19 19 a 12 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M20 vdd a 13 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M21 vdd 12 carry 20 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=12p PS=14u M22 12 c 11 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M23 gnd b 15 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M24 11 b gnd 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M25 14 a gnd 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M26 15 a 12 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M27 gnd a 11 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M28 gnd 12 carry 16 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=12p PS=14u vdd vdd gnd 5v .tran 1m 100m va a gnd 0v vb b gnd 5v vc c gnd 5v .print tran v(a) v(s0) v(carry) .end

AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A

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AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology (An Autonomous Institute)

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AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A

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AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology (An Autonomous Institute)

8. Four Bit Parallel Adder

Spice File: .include "C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\My Documents\Tanner EDA\Tanner Tools v13.0\hp05.md" M1 vdd c 6 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M2 6 b0 5 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M3 5 a0 2 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M4 s0 2 vdd 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M5 2 16 10 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M6 gnd c 4 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M7 4 b0 3 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M8 3 a0 2 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M9 s0 2 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M10 2 16 8 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M11 vdd c 10 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M12 16 c 11 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M13 vdd b0 10 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M14 vdd b0 14 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M15 11 b0 vdd 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M16 10 a0 vdd 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M17 14 a0 16 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M18 vdd a0 11 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M19 gnd c 8 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M20 16 c 9 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M21 gnd b0 8 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M22 gnd b0 12 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M23 9 b0 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M24 8 a0 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M25 12 a0 16 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M26 gnd a0 9 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M27 vdd c0 23 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M28 28 c0 vdd 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M29 vdd 16 c0 22 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=12p PS=14u

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AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology (An Autonomous Institute)

M30 23 b1 21 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M31 21 a1 17 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M32 s1 17 vdd 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M33 17 27 28 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M34 gnd c0 20 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M35 25 c0 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M36 gnd 16 c0 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=12p PS=14u M37 20 b1 19 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M38 19 a1 17 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M39 s1 17 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M40 17 27 25 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M41 27 c0 29 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M42 vdd b1 28 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M43 vdd b1 32 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M44 29 b1 vdd 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M45 28 a1 vdd 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M46 32 a1 27 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M47 vdd a1 29 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M48 vdd 27 c1 35 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=12p PS=14u M49 27 c0 26 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M50 gnd b1 25 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M51 gnd b1 30 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M52 26 b1 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M53 25 a1 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M54 30 a1 27 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M55 gnd a1 26 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M56 gnd 27 c1 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=13.5p PD=15u AS=12p PS=14u M57 vdd c1 40 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M58 45 c1 vdd 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M59 40 b2 39 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M60 39 a2 34 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M61 s2 34 vdd 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M62 34 44 45 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M63 gnd c1 38 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M64 42 c1 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M65 38 b2 37 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M66 37 a2 34 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M67 s2 34 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M68 34 44 42 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M69 44 c1 46 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M70 vdd b2 45 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M71 vdd b2 50 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M72 46 b2 vdd 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M73 45 a2 vdd 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M74 50 a2 44 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M75 vdd a2 46 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M76 vdd 44 c2 54 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=12p PS=14u M77 44 c1 43 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A Page 43

AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology (An Autonomous Institute)

M78 gnd b2 42 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M79 gnd b2 47 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M80 43 b2 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M81 42 a2 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M82 47 a2 44 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M83 gnd a2 43 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M84 gnd 44 c2 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=15p PD=16u AS=12p PS=14u M85 vdd c2 60 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M86 64 c2 vdd 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M87 60 b3 59 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M88 vdd b3 64 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M89 59 a3 53 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M90 s3 53 vdd 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M91 53 63 64 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M92 gnd c2 58 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M93 61 c2 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=8.25p PS=8.5u M94 58 b3 57 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=1.5p PS=4u M95 gnd b3 61 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=8.25p PD=8.5u AS=7.5p PS=8u M96 57 a3 53 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M97 s3 53 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=7.5p PS=8u M98 53 63 61 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M99 63 c2 65 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M100 vdd b3 71 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M101 65 b3 vdd 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M102 64 a3 vdd 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M103 71 a3 63 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M104 vdd a3 65 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M105 vdd 63 c3 72 PMOS L=1u W=3u AD=12p PD=14u AS=12p PS=14u M106 63 c2 62 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M107 gnd b3 68 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=1.5p PS=4u M108 62 b3 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M109 61 a3 gnd 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=7.5p PS=8u M110 68 a3 63 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=1.5p PD=4u AS=7.5p PS=8u M111 gnd a3 62 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=7.5p PD=8u AS=12p PS=14u M112 gnd 63 c3 69 NMOS L=1u W=3u AD=13.5p PD=15u AS=12p PS=14u vdd vdd gnd 5v .tran 1m 100m va0 a0 gnd 0v vb0 b0 gnd 5v vc c gnd 5v va1 a1 gnd 5v vb1 b1 gnd 0v va2 a2 gnd 0v vb2 b2 gnd 5v va3 a3 gnd 5v vb3 b3 gnd 0v .print tran v(s0) v(s1) v(s2) v(s3) v(c3) .end AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A Page 44

AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology (An Autonomous Institute)

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AL-Falah School of Engineering & Technology A

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