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1 MATH11 Notes by F5XS Notion of a Set A set is a well-defined collection of objects, either real or imagined.

A collection (of objects) is well-defined if it is possible to determine whether a given object belongs to that set or not. examples: the collection of: all male students of MATH11-E 1st Sem 2012-2013 all non-negative integers less than 10 all dinosaur specie living as of today not examples: all gorgeous UPLB students the collection of large positive integers all towns near Metro Manila Note: Generally, we use capital letters to denote a set. The objects that make up a set are called elements. If we want to say that object is an element of , we write In case the object does not belong to the set , we write . . College Algebra

How to describe a set: a set can be described in two ways: roster method sets are described by enumerating the elements which will be separated by commas, all enclosed in a pair of braces sometimes called enumeration method rule method a variable is used to represent the elements, followed by a bar, and then a rule describing a property common to all the sets Additional Properties of a Set (for roster method) each unique object must be uniquely represented the order of representing the objects is immaterial Special Types of Sets empty set a set that has no elements; denoted by or universal set a set of elements under consideration in a given situation

Set Relations Given that there are two sets and , if every element of is also an element of , we say that is a subset of , denoted by . Similarly, X is a superset of Y. If there is at least one element in set subset of , written as . If a given set has which is not in , we say that is not a

elements, then the number of its subsets is

2 MATH11 Notes by F5XS The power set of a given set , written as subsets of . College Algebra , is the set that contains all the

Set Equality if one set is a subset of the other and vice versa, then the two sets are said to be equal two sets and are said to be equal if and only if and two sets are equal if they have the same elements Given two sets written as . and , if but then is a proper subset of ,

Set Equivalence two sets and are equivalent if it is possible to make a 1 to 1 correspondence from the elements of to the elements of , written as if two sets have the same cardinality (number of elements), then they are equivalent.
U

Set Operations
A B

A Venn Diagram uses a closed region in a plane to represent sets (example at left). Union Intersection Complement Difference Cross Product

Venn Diagram Example

U A
Union

U A B

Subset of the Set of Real Numbers Numbers rule the Universe Pythagoras The Real Number System evolved over time by expanding the notion of what we mean by the word, number at first, number meant something you could count

Intersection

U A
Complement

All natural numbers are truly natural. We find them in B A nature. The set of natural numbers (also called counting numbers) is denoted by . Difference Subsets of Natural Numbers is the set of even natural numbers is the set of odd natural numbers P is the set of prime numbers (divisible only by 1 and itself) C is the set of composite numbers, numbers that have more than two factors

3 MATH11 Notes by F5XS Whole Numbers Negative Integers natural numbers with the negative sign opposites of the natural numbers when a positive number and its negative are added, the result is 0 these pairs of numbers are called additive inverses/opposites Integers combines the negative numbers with the already existing whole numbers Main Subsets of the Set of Integers Negative Integers Set containing 0 Natural Numbers Rational Numbers are numbers that can be expressed as a ratio or quotient of two integers and where . The set of rational numbers is denoted as { | }. Forms of Rational Numbers fractions proper fractions improper fractions integers decimals terminating non-terminating but repeating Irrational Numbers are those real numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers denote the set of irrational numbers as (complement of ) can also be described as decimal numbers that neither repeat nor terminate Set of Real Numbers, , is the union of the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers. College Algebra

U N WZ Q Q

Real Number Line one-dimensional coordinate system one-to-one correspondence between the set of points on a line and the set of real numbers

4 MATH11 Notes by F5XS Fundamental Operations of Real Numbers addition denoted by the result is called a sum multiplication denoted by or the result is called a product Properties of Real Numbers 0] Closure Property Note: To state the validity of the a set is closed (under an property of a set under an operation, operation) if and only if the use this template: operation on two elements of the set produces another element of <SET> is [not] <PROPERTY> under the set the <OPERATION> operation. 1] Commutative Property a] addition: for all real numbers and , ; we can add numbers in any order b] multiplication: for all real numbers and , ; we can multiply numbers in any order 2] Associative Property a] addition: for all real numbers , and , ; we can group numbers in a sum in any way we want and still get the same answer b] multiplication: for all real numbers , and , ; we can group numbers in a product in any way we want and still get the same answer 3] Distributive Property of multiplication over addition for any real numbers , and , and 4] Identity Property a] addition: there exists a real number such that for every real , ; zero added to any number is the number itself; is called the additive identity b] multiplication: there exists a real number such that for every real , ; zero added to any number is the number itself; is called the multiplicative identity 5] Inverse Property a] additive inverse (opposite): for every real number , there exists a real number, denoted by such that b] multiplicative inverse (reciprocal): for every real number except , there exists a real number, denoted by such that College Algebra

Symbols: Types a variable is a symbol representing a quantity but whose value is not known at the moment; usually latter letters of the English alphabet are used as variables a constant is a symbol that represents a specific value An algebraic expression is a combination of variables and constants which use any operations on numbers.

5 MATH11 Notes by F5XS College Algebra copies of ,

An integer exponent is a shortcut for writing repeated products; written as , provided is a positive integer.

Operations on Polynomials Polynomials are algebraic expressions involving non-negative integral powers of one or more variables containing no variable in the denominator A polynomial is a constant or a product of a constant and a non-negative integral power(s) of variable(s); terms are separated by addition. The degree of a term of a polynomial is the sum of all the powers of the variables in the term. The degree of a polynomial is the degree of the term with the highest degree in that polynomial. A term is composed of two types of coefficients, the numerical coefficient (constant) and the literal coefficient (variable). Similar terms are terms with the same literal coefficient. Multiplication of Polynomials Rule: Division of Polynomials Rule: , In dividing a polynomial by another polynomial, arrange the dividend and divisor in decreasing order of powers insert zeros in the missing terms of the dividend perform the operation Synthetic Division a special method of dividing polynomials applicable only when the divisor is in the form of 1] arrange the terms of the dividend in decreasing order of powers 2] insert zeros on the missing terms 3] write the numerical coefficients in a row and a to the left of the coefficients 4] perform the synthetic division

Simplified Rational Expressions are rational expressions that have the same denominator. Complex Fractions are ratios of two or more rational expressions.

6 MATH11 Notes by F5XS College Algebra

Rational Exponents and Radicals a radical is an algebraic expression involving non-integral rational exponents if and only if and is the index. Principal th root such that if is odd and Radical Theorem: if then: 1] 2] 3] Simplifying Radicals: a radical is simplified if the following are held true: there is no power in the radicand higher than or equal to the index the index and the exponents in the radicand must have no common factor there is no denominator in the radicand Rationalizing the Denominator to rationalize the denominator means to get rid of radicals in the denominator multiply the numerator and denominator by a rationalizing factor Addition (and Subtraction) of Radicals radicals are similar if they have the same index and radicands when simplified we can only add (or subtract) similar radicals to do that, add (or subtract) their coefficients and affix the common radical Multiplying Radicals: For multiplying radicals with similar indices, Dividing Radicals: For dividing radicals with similar indices, An equation is a mathematical statement that asserts that two quantities are equal. Axioms: reflexive property of equality for any real number , symmetric property of equality for any real number transitive property of equality if and then ( )

wherein

is the th root of ,

is the radicand

, and are nonnegative real numbers and is an integer,

and , if

then

7 MATH11 Notes by F5XS addition property of equality for any real numbers , College Algebra and , if and , if then

multiplication property of equality for any real numbers , then

A solution of an open equation in one variable is the value of the variable for which the equation is true. The set of all solutions of an equation is called the solution set of the equation. If the solution of an open equation is the entire set of real numbers, the equation is said to be an identity. Otherwise, the equation is called a conditional equation. Two equations are said to be equivalent if we can obtain one from the other by applying the properties of operations on the real numbers or the properties of equality. An equation in one variable, say , that can be written in the form where and are real numbers with is called a linear equation in the variable . Thus, the solution of a linear equation , given that is given by . The solution set of the linear equation is . Any equation in one variable, say , that can be written in the form where , , and are real numbers, , is called a quadratic equation in the variable . The equation written is called the standard form. To solve quadratic equations by factoring, let and be real numbers and if and only if and , thus, if we can factor the equation into two factors, say and , then the solutions of this quadratic equations are the solutions of the linear factors. To solve quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula, simply substitute the variables to the equation below: Solving quadratic equations by completing the square, example:

SS:

In the quadratic formula, the radicand is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation. The discriminant gives the nature of the solutions of a quadratic equation: two real solutions { one real solution no real solution

8 MATH11 Notes by F5XS College Algebra

The sum of solutions of a quadratic equation is given by while the product of solutions of a quadratic equation is given by . The variables are based from the quadratic formula.

Steps in solving an equation involving fractions: find the LCD of the fractions and multiply both sides of the equation by the LCD solve for the resulting linear or quadratic equation check if the solutions found in step 2 satisfies the original equation include the solutions that satisfy the equation in the solution set Steps in solving an equation with radicals: isolate the radical on one side of the equation raise both sides of the equation to an exponent that will remove the radical repeat steps 1 and 2 to remove all the radicals solve the resulting linear or quadratic equation check for extraneous roots/solutions as these solutions will not be included in the solution set For equations such as , wherein the variable may be any variable or any algebraic expression, we solve the quadratic equation for the variable and then solve for the variable in . To solve such equations: write the given equation in quadratic form solve for using the methods in solving quadratic equations solve for the value of the original value in

A linear equation in two variables and is an equation of the form where , , and are real numbers and and are not both at the same time. A solution to the linear equation in two variables, say ordered pair of numbers that satisfies when is replaced by A system of two linear equations in two variables, say { where , , , , , and and is an by .

and

is of the form:

are real numbers.

A system of two linear equations in two variables is said to be consistent if it has a unique solution A system that has no solution is said to be inconsistent. A system that has infinitely many solutions is said to be dependent. Method of substitution: solve for one variable in one of the equations substitute the value of the variable to the other equation solve the resulting linear equation in one variable substitute the result in step 3 in one of the two equations

9 MATH11 Notes by F5XS College Algebra

Method of elimination: multiply one of the equations by a nonzero constant to obtain an equivalent system such that the coefficient of one of the variables become equal (or additive inverses) subtract (or add) the second equation from the first to obtain a linear equation in one variable A 22 matrix is a rectangular array of real numbers of the form is given by , and the ], and
|

].

The determinant of the 22 matrix

Cramers rule: consider the system of equations { following matrices defined as solution of the system is given by [ ], and [
|

* .

+, the

provided that

If , then the system is consistent. If , then the system is either dependent or inconsistent. If both and | | , then the system is dependent. If either or | | , the system is inconsistent.

Polyas Heurestics understand the problem; identify what are given and what are to be found devise a plan implement the plan evaluate the solution Translating English Phrases to Mathematical Symbols key words for addition: increased by; more than; combined together; total of; sum; added to key words for subtraction: less than; fewer than; reduced by; decreased by; difference of key words for multiplication: of; times; multiplied by key words for division: per; a; out of; ratio of; quotient of; percent (divide by 100) More vocabulary and key words per means divided by a sometimes mean divided by less than means quotient/ratio of and means

The number is said to be less than , written as positive. Also, we may say is greater than , written as Order properties if and only if if , then if , then

, provided .

is

is positive

10 MATH11 Notes by F5XS if , then if if the trichotomy property: if following is true if and , then if and , then if and , then College Algebra

is a real number, then exactly one of the

An inequality that can be written in the following forms:

where and are real numbers with is a linear inequality in the variable . A linear inequality can be transformed into one of the standard forms by applying the order axioms/properties. The solution set of a linear inequality is the set of all values of the unknown/variable for which the inequality holds true. To solve a linear inequality, transform it to the form inequality forms). Then divide by and solve for . To solve for quadratic inequalities transform the equation to factor the quadratic polynomial solve for the critical numbers use the sign table to solve the inequality (or to any other

Let ,

be a real number. The absolute value of , denoted by .

, is given by

Properties of the absolute value: Triangle Inequality: Absolute values and inequalities: In general, for : is equivalent to ; also, is equivalent to is equivalent to or ; also, is equivalent to or