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DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 1


MODULE 9(A)
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS
TOPIC : DIFFERENTIATIONS

Express Note

1. Limit

dy
dx
=
x
y
lim
x




2. First derivative for polynomial functions

(i) Using formula
y = ax
n
,
1 n
dy
anx
dx

= @
f(x) = ax
n
, f ' (x) = anx
n-1


(ii) y = u - v

dy du dv
dx dx dx
=

(iii) Quotient of two polynomial

u
y
v
= ,
2
du dv
v u
dy
dx dx
dx v

=

3. Second derivatives of function
:
2
2
d y
dx
, f '' (x)

4. Application / use of differentiation

1.
dy
dx
= gradient of a curve / tangent

i) Equation of tangent :
( )
1 1
dy
y y x x
dx
=
ii) Equation of normal :
( )
1 1
1
y y x x
dy
dx
=
2. Maximum/Minimum
i) Find
dy
dx
,
2
2
d y
dx

ii) Let
dy
dx
= 0, find the values x & y

iii) Substitute the value of x in
2
2
d y
dx
If
2
2
d y
dx
> 0, the point is minimum If
2
2
d y
dx

< 0, the point is maximum

3. Rate of change [involve time]

dy dy dt
dx dt dx
=

4. Small changes & approximation

y dy
x dx

=

Approximate value of y
= y + y


(iv) y = u + v

dy du dv
dx dx dx
= +


(v) Product of two polynomial
y = uv ,
dy dv du
u v
dx dx dx
= +

(vi) Composite function
( )
1
[ ( )] , [ ( )] '
n n
dy
y f x n f x f x
dx

= =

DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 2

1.
Differentiate ( )
4
2
3 2 5 x x with respect to x.
[3 marks]
[Answer :
3
6 (6 5)(2 5) x x x ]

2.
Two variables, x and y, are related by the equation
2
3 y x
x
= + . Given that y increases
at a constant rate 4 units per second, find the rate of change of x when x = 2.
[3 marks]
[Answer :
8
5
]

3.
Given that
2
1
( )
(3 5)
h x
x
=

, evaluate ''(1) h .
[4 marks]
[Answer :
27
8
]

4.
The volume of water, V cm, in a container is given by
3
1
8
3
V h h = + , where h cm is the
height of the water in the container. Water is poured into the container at the rate of 10
cm s. Find the rate of change of the height of water, in cm s, at the instant when its
height is 2 cm.
[3 marks]
[Answer :
5
6
]

5.
The point P lies on the curve
2
( 5) y x = . It is given that the gradient of the normal at
P is
1
4
. Find the coordinates of P.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (7 , 4) ]

6.
It is given that
7
2
3
y u = , where 3 5 u x = . Find
dy
dx
in terms of x.
[4 marks]
[Answer : ( )
6
14 3 5 x ]

7.
Given that
2
3 4 y x x = + ,
(a) find the value of
dy
dx
when x = 1,
(b) express the approximate change in y, in terms of p, when x changes from 1 to 1 +
p, where p is a small value.
[4 marks]
[Answer : a) 7 b) 7p]


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 3
8.
The curve ( ) y f x = is such that 3 5
dy
kx
dx
= + , where k is a constant. The gradient of
the curve at x = 2 is 9. Find the value of k.
[2 marks]
[Answer :
2
3
]

9.
The curve
2
32 64 y x x = + has a minimum point at x = p, where p is a constant. Find
the value of p.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 16 ]

10.
Differentiate ( )
4
3
2 3 5 x x with respect to x.
[3 marks]
[Answer :
2 3
6 (3 5) (7 5) x x x ]

11. Find the rate of change of the area of the circle if the rate of change of the radius is
02 cms
1
when the radius is 4 cm.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 1.6 ]

12. Given that y = 4x (x 2), calculate
(a) the value of x when y is minimum,
(b) the minimum value of y.
[4 marks]
[Answer : a) 1 b) -4 ]

13. A point R lies on the curve y = 4x
2
2x + 3. Given that the gradient of the normal to
the curve at R is
1
6
, find the coordinates of R.
[3 marks]
[Answer : (1 , 5) ]

14. Given that y = (2x 3)
2
5, find
(a) the value of
dy
dx
at the point (2, 4),
(b) the small change in y if x decreases from 2 to 197.
[4 marks]
[Answer : a) 4 b) -0.12 ]

15.
Given that the curve y =
6
2 1 x
, find
(a) the gradient at the point (1, 2),
(b) the equation of the normal to the curve at that point.
[4 marks]
[Answer : a)
4
3
b) =
3 5
4 4
y x ]



DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 4
16. Find the small change of the surface area of the cube when the sides increase from 4
cm to 4.02 cm.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 0.96 ]

17.
Given that y = (1 + 2x)
5
, find the value of
dy
dx
when x = 1.
[2 marks]
[Answer : 10 ]

18 The volume of the liquid in a container, V cm
3
is given by V = 2x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 5, where x
cm is the depth of the liquid in the container. Given that V increases at a rate of 32
cm
3
s
1
, find the rate of increase of x when x = 2.
[4 marks]
[Answer :
4
5
]

19.
Given
3
2
( )
(5 3 )
f x
x
=

, find the value of (2) f .


[3 marks]
[Answer : 18 ]

20. The radius of circle decreases at the rate of 0.5 cm. Find the rate of change of the
area when the radius is 4 cm.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 4 ]

21.
Find the equation of the normal to the curve y =
2
3 8 1 x x + at the point (1, 4).
[3 marks]
[Answer : 2 9 y x = ]

22.
Find the value of
( )
2 3
3 4 6
d
x x
dx
when x = 2.
[2 marks]
[Answer : -36 ]

23.
Find the gradient of the normal to the curve ( )
3
2 3 y x = + when x = -1
[3 marks]
[Answer :
1
6
]

24. The radius of a sphere increases from 4 cm to 8 cm in two seconds. Find the rate of
increase of the surface area of the sphere.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 64 ]

25.
It is given that
6
3
4
5
y u = + , where 5 3 u x = , find
dy
dx
in terms of x.
[3 marks]
[Answer : ( )
5
18 5 3 x ]
DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 5
26.
Find the gradient of the normal to the curve ( )
3
2 3 y x = + when x = -1.
[3 marks]
[Answer :
1
6
]

27.
Two variables, x and y, are related by the equation ( )
2
3 y x x = . Given that y
increases at constant rate of 4 unit per second, find the rate of change of x when x =
2.
[3 marks]
[Answer :
4
3
]


28.
The curve
2
2 y ax bx = + has a turning point at (2 , 3), where a and b are constants.
Find the valueof a and of b.
[3 marks]
[Answer : a=
3
8
b= 3 ]


29. Given that g(x) = x
2
(2 x)
4
,
(a) find g (x)
(b) evaluate g(1).
[4 marks]
[Answer : a) ( ) ( )
3
2 2 2 3 x x x b) -2]

30.
Without constructing a table, find the value of
2
1
2
lim
1
n
n n
n

| |
+
|

\
.
[2 marks]
[Answer : 3 ]

31.
Given
3
(2 5)
k
y
x
=

and ( )
dy
g x
dx
= , find the value of k if
[ ]
3
2
( ) 1 7 g x dx + =

.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 3 ]

32.
Two variables p and q are related by the equation
2
3 p q
q
= + . Given q increases at a
constant rate of 4 units per second when p = 2, find the rate of change in p.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 10 ]


33. Given f (x) = (5 - 3x)
4
, find f (2).
[3 marks]
[Answer : 108 ]


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 6
34.
Volume, V cm, of a solid is given by
2 3
2
8
3
V r r = + , r is the radius. Find the
approximate change in V if r increase from 3 cm to 3.005 cm. Give your answer in term
of .
[4 marks]
[Answer : 0.33 ]

35.
Find the value of
2
2
2
3
lim
4 3
x
x x
x x

| |

|
+
\

[2 marks]
[Answer : 2 ]

36.
Given that
2
3 4
( )
3
x
f x
x
+
=

, find '(2) f .
[3 marks]
[Answer : 37 ]

37.
It is given that
2 5
(3 4) y x = , evaluate
dy
dx
, when x = 1.
[3 marks]
[Answer : 30 ]

38.
Find the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve
3 2
6 17 y x x = + .
[3 marks]
[Answer : (0,17), (4,-15) ]

39. The side of a cube changes at the rate of 0.3 cm s
-1
. Find the rate of change of its
volume when its surface area is 216 cm
2
.
[4 marks]
[Answer : 32.4 ]

40.
Given that
( )
3
2 1
( ) , 1
1
x
f x x
x

, find f(x).
[3 marks]
[Answer :
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 1 4 5
1
x x
x

]


END OF MODULE
DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 7

ANSWERS
MODULE 9(A)
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS
TOPIC : DIFFERENTIATION

1.
2 4
2 3 4
3
3
3 (2 5)
3 (4(2 5) (2)) (2 5) (6 )
6 (2 5) [4 (2 5)]
6 (6 5)(2 5)
y x x
dy
x x x x
dx
x x x x
x x x
=
= +
= +
=


2.
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
4 3
2
4 3
(2)
8
5
y x
x
dy
dx
x
dy dy dx
dt dx dt
dx
dt
x
dx
dt
dx
dt
= +
=
=
| |
=
|
\
| |
=
|
|
\
=


3.
2
3
4
4
( ) (3 5)
'( ) 6(3 5)
''( ) 54(3 5)
''(1) 54( 2)
27
8
h x x
h x x
h x x
h

=
=
=
=
=


4.
3
2
2
2
1
8
3
8
10 ( 8)
10
0.8333
2 8
V h h
dV
h
dh
dV dV dh
dt dh dt
dh
h
dt
dh
dt
= +
= +
=
= +
= =
+


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 8
5. 2
2
2
2
( 5)
2( 5)
1
1
4
4
2( 5) 4
7
(7 5) 4
(7, 4)
y x
dy
x
dx
m
m
x
x
y
P
=
=
=
=
=
=
= =


6.
7 7
6
6
2 2
(3 5)
3 3
2
(7)(3 5) (3)
3
14(3 5)
y u x
dy
x
dx
x
= =
=
=


7. (a)
2
3 4
6 1
1, 6(1) 1 7
y x x
dy
x
dx
dy
x
dx
= +
= +
= = + =


(b)
7
7
x p
y dy
x dx
y
p
y p



8. 3 (2) 5 9
2
3
k
k
+ =
=


9.
2
32 64
2 32
min , 2( ) 32 0
16
y x x
dy
x
dx
x p p
p
= +
=
= =
=


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 9
10.
3 4
3 3 4 2
2 3
2 (3 5)
2 (12)(3 5) (3 5) (6 )
6 (3 5) (7 5)
y x x
dy dv du
u v
dx dx dx
dy
x x x x
dx
x x x
=
= +
= +
=

11.
2
2
2 (4) 0.2
1.6
A r
dA
r
dr
dA dA dr
dt dr dt
dA
dt

=
=
=
=
=


12. a)
8 8 0
1
dy
x
dx
x
= =
=


b)
2
1
4(1) 8(1)
4
x =
=
=


13.
1 2
2
1 , 6
8 2 6
1
4(1) 2(1) 3 5
(1,5)
mm m
dy
x
dx
x
y
R
= =
= =
=
= + =


14. a)
4(2 3)
2
4(2(2) 3)
4
dy
x
dx
x
dy
dx
=
=
=
=


b) 0.03
4 0.03
0.12
x
dy
y x
dx


=
=
=
=


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 10
15. a)
( )
( )
2
2
2
12 2 1
12
2 1
1
12 4
3 (2(1) 1)
dy
x
dx
x
x
dy
dx

= =



b)
( )
=
+ = +
=
3
4
3
2 1
4
3 5
4 4
m
y x
y x


16
2
6
12
12(4) 0.02
0.96
A x
dA
x
dx
dA
l x
dx

=
=
=
=
=


17.
( )
4
4
10 1 2
10(1 2( 1))
10
dy
x
dx
= +
= +
=


18.
2
2
6 8
1
32
6(2) 8(2)
4
5
dV
x x
dx
dx dx dV
dt dV dt
= +
=
=
+
=


19.
( )
( )
4
4
18
'( )
5 3
18
'(2)
5 3(2)
18
f x
x
f
=

=


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 11
20.
( ) ( )
2
2
2 4 0.5
4
A r
dA
r
dr
dA dA dr
dt dr dt

=
=
=
=
=

21.
( )
1 2
6 8
1
2
2
1
4 1
2
2 9
dy
x
dx
m m
y x
y x
=
= =
+ =
=


22.
2
2
6 12
6(2) 12(2)
36
dy
x x
dx
=
=
=


23.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
6 2 3
6 2 1 3
6
dy
x
dx
= +
= +
=

Normal
1
6
=

24.
2
4
8 2
8 (4) 2
64
A r
dA dr
r
dr dt
dA dA dr
dt dr dt

=
= =
=
=
=

25.
( )
5
5
5
18
5
5
18
5
5
18 5 3
dy du
u
du dx
dy dy du
dx du dx
u
x
= =
=
=
=


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 12
26.
( )
( )
2
2
6 2 3
6 2( 1) 3
6
1
6
dy
x
dx
m
= +
= +
=
=

27.
2 3
2
2
9 6
9 12 2
9 12(2) 3(2)
3
3 4
4
3
y x x x
dy
x x
dx
dy dy dt
dx dt dx
dt
dx
dx
dt
= +
= +
= +
=
=
=
=

28.
2
3 2 (2) 2 4 0
8 2 3 4 (2) 0
8 0
3
, 3
8
dy
a b ax b
dx
a b a b
a b
a b
= + = + =
+ = + =
+ =
= =


29. a)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
4 3
2
3
2 2 4 2 1
2 2 2 3
dy
x x x x
dx
x x x
= +
=

b)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
2 1 2 1 2 3 1
2
=
=


30.
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
1
1 2
1
2
1 2 3
n n
n
n n
n
n
+
=

+
=

= +
= + =


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 13
31.
[ ]
( ) ( )
[ ]
3 3
2 2
3
3
3 2
2
3 3
( ) 7
7
(2 5)
3 2 7
(2 3 5) (2 2 5)
3
g x dx dx
k
x
x
k k
k
+ =
(
+ =
(


(
+ =
(

(

=



32.
2
2
2
3
2
3 4
2
10
dp
dq q
dp dp dq
dt dq dt
dp
dt
=
=
| |
=
|
\
=


33.
( )
( )
( )
3
2
2
'( ) 12 5 3
''( ) 108 5 3
''(2) 108 5 3(2)
108
f x x
f x x
f
=
=
=
=


34.
( ) ( )
2
2
16 2
16 3 2 3 0.005
0.33
dv
r r
dr
dv
y x
dr
y


= +
=
(
= +

=


35.
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
lim
4 3
3
lim
1 3
lim
1
2
lim 2
2 1
x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x x x
x x x
x
x

| |

=
|
+
\
| |
= |
|

\
| |
=
|

\
| |
= =
|

\


DIFFERENTIATIONS FORM 4

PROGRAM KECEMERLANGAN AKADEMIK (szk smkpn) Page 14
36.
[ ]
2
2 2
2
2
2
(3 )(3) (3 4)( 2 )
( )
(3 )
3 (2) (3) (3(2) 4)( 2(2))
(2)
3 (2)
37
x x x
f x
x
f
+
=

( +

=
(

=


37.
( )
( )
( )
( )
4
2
4
2
5 3 4 6
1
5 3 1 4 6 1
30
dy
x x
dx
x
=
=
(
=
(

=


38.
( )
2
2
3 12
3 12 0
3 4 0
0 , 4
0, 17 4, 15
(0,17) (4, 15)
dy
x x
dx
x x
x x
x x
x y x y
=
=
=
= =
= = = =



39.
( )
3
2
3
2
3
216 6
3 6 0.3
32.4
v x
dv
x
dx
v
=
=
=
=
=


40.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 3
2
2
2
2
2
1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1
1
2 1 6 1 2 1
1
2 1 4 5
1
x x x
dy
dx
x
x x x
x
x x
x

=

(

=



END OF MODULE