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Industrial Manufacturing

Systems

Course Problem by



Supervised by








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Process Planning of Column
Manufacturing





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Table of Contents
Determination of type of production ........................................................................................................................... 4
Technological analysis ................................................................................................................................................... 8
Choice of billet ................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Process planning .......................................................................................................................................................... 12
Determination of the methods of machining the surfaces: ....................................................................................... 12
Determining the sequence of the machining operations ........................................................................................... 13
Choice of machines ..................................................................................................................................................... 13
Cut-off operation .................................................................................................................................................... 14
Centering and facing ............................................................................................................................................... 16
Turning operations .................................................................................................................................................. 20
Choice of devices ........................................................................................................................................................ 24
Cutting ..................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Turning operations .................................................................................................................................................. 26
Determination of the machining processes .................................................................................................................... 47
Cut-off operation ........................................................................................................................................................ 47
Facing and centering operations................................................................................................................................. 48
Centering ................................................................................................................................................................. 48
Facing of the detail .................................................................................................................................................. 50
Operations on the lathe .......................................................................................................................................... 50
Chamfering 2mmX 30 ............................................................................................................................................ 52
Drilling hole with 8,5 with 20 mm D O C (depth of cut) ....................................................................................... 53
Threading M10X1.5 ................................................................................................................................................. 54
Turning to 45
+0,021
+0,002
.......................................................................................................................................... 56
Chamfering 2mmX15 ............................................................................................................................................ 56
Grooving .................................................................................................................................................................. 57
Total Machining Time ................................................................................................................................................. 57
Calculating the price of the part ..................................................................................................................................... 59
Routing Sheet .................................................................................................................................................................. 60
Operation sheet .............................................................................................................................................................. 60
References ...................................................................................................................................................................... 62
Drawings ......................................................................................................................................................................... 62



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Production analysis

The development of the production cycle of the detail involves different manufacturing
techniques and has its own specific requirements. Its complexity of shape requires different
machines, machine tools and clamping devices to be employed. All machine tools, cutting
constants and formulae are taken from the catalogue of Sandvik Coromant Sweden. The
machines are chosen from the catalogue of Knuth Germany.
Other production techniques include the type of production, methods of controlling the
accuracy, choosing a billet, feed and speed of cutting, duration of the manufacturing operations,
qualification of the workers, their number, number of machines involved in the production, cost
of the product, etc.
This part has cylindrical and plane surfaces, hole with M10 thread and several chamfers. This
variety of shapes defines the corresponding variety of machines to produce the part. We will need
a saw machine and a lathe.. Since the quantity to be produced is quite large, this machines and
the process as a whole should be highly-automated and with large capacity. Maybe special tools
will be needed. Special attention should be paid to the basic requirements concerning the
necessary technologies to produce the part. They are directed toward:
type of production
methods of controlling the accuracy
choosing a billet
feed and speed of cutting
determination of the duration of the different operations
Other basic factors in the production of the part are:
determination of the qualification of the workers
determination of the number of workers
determination of the number of machines

Determination of type of production

In order to determine the type of production I use the following coefficient:
K
c
=

,
Where K
c
is the so called batch coefficient,
step of work process
T
av
average operating time
The step of the work process can be found with the use of the following formula:
=

,


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Where F is the actual annual fund of working time and
N is the annual program for production of the assigned detail (i.e. the annual quantity
of produced items).
The actual annual fund can be
found from table 1.2 of [1]
which is shown below:

I choose a two-shift working day with metal-cutting machines which have category of
repairmen complexity more than 30. Thus, consequentially
F = 249 288 min
From the assignment can be found that N= 55 000.
Considering the data I obtained above, can be now found and = 4, 53251 min
The average production time can be found by the expression:


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T
av
=

i

Ts
i
is the single time for executing the i-th operation.
Of course it is impossible to find the average production time in the initial
stages of design. So in order to obtain some sample value I use the typological
route maps (in appendix II) taken from [1] and after that use table VII.1 [1] in
order to calculate T.
The typological route map for shaft will look like the one presented in left. Of
course there will be no key so this operation can be skipped when calculating
the sample times. In this sample route map there are two holes M10, while in
the assignment there is only one. This factor will be considered in the further
calculations.

So when making rough calculations for the processes I had obtained the following data:

1. Cutting cutting the billet in nine parts of l = 604 mm long each (considering the
added extension for facing) T = 0,787 min
2. Centering and facing - includes the placing of the part in the lathe and drilling the
centering holes, facing through turning 2mm D O C (depth of cut) the work
piece is now held in a chuck T =
1,88min
3. Turning turning to 50
-
0,1
-0,2
T = 1,745min
4. Chamfering 2mm by 30
T = 0,024min
5. Drilling and chamfering
drilling 8,5 with 20 mm D O C (depth
of cut). That is done with a special drill that utilizes both operations at a time.
Work piece held in a chuck
6. Threading threading M10 thread. Work piece held in a chuck. T = 0,376 min
7. Turning to 50 and then turning to 45
+0,021
+0,002
T = 0,898 min
8. Chamfering chamfering 2mm by 15 T = 0,072 min
9. Grooving grooving to 44,5 T = 0,03 min


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Coefficient K is 7%
T
av
= 6,219/9 = 0,691
Consequently, K
c
=

= 6,56

So when comparing the obtained value with table 1, I have that the type of production is
batch production or so called large production. Considering the progress of the new
technologies the type of production doesnt play that big a role in shaft manufacturing due
to the fact that most of the manufacturers no matter either large or small use CNC
automatic lathes i.e. the technology used are pretty similar. Batch production is production
in very large quantities and requires small labour span and as much optimization of the
work process as possible



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The ranges for k are as follows (Table 1):
FROM TO TYPE OF PRODUCTION
1 2 Flow Line (Mass Production)
2 10 Batch Production (Large Production)
10 20 Job Shop (Medium Production)
20 INFINITY Single Production(Small Production)



Technological analysis

The technological analysis of the part starts with the inspection of its engineering drawing.
Its main goal is to determine two important factors:
The quantitative indices (time and work consummation) Since the amazing
progress of the new industrial machines, the possibilities for the designer are
pretty numerous. Using the new CNC automatic lathes, the production
process have been vastly sped up. Now great amount of operations can be
done on one machine. It can, as well, have the possibility to hold up to 24
tools in its turret, which is an intrinsic indicator of that how the manufacturing
can be accelerated. We should also consider the possibility to utilize some
transportation robots which would make the work process entirely
automated and create a continuous flow line.
The qualitative indices (technologically good or not) here all noticed mistakes
of the designer must be corrected. Also if the technologist has a suggestion for
changes in the design (because of a better production technology) they should
be agreed with the designer. Nowadays there are no limits in shape,
roughness or tolerance that cant be achieved with the present technology
therefore it can be concluded that the design of the part is technologically
good.

Choice of billet

The choice of billet is one of the most important parts of the technological design. It
determines the coefficient of use of material which has crucial effect on the final price of
the part. Here two tendencies which confront each other must be considered:


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As much as the configuration and the technical indices become closer to the analogical
technical specifications of the part, the expenses and time for the machining processes go
down.
As much as the configuration and the technical indices become closer to the analogical
technical specifications of the part, the price of the billet itself goes up. This is because the
more complex the billet is, the more complex and expensive is the equipment for producing
the billet.
The best alternative for the assigned part is the hot rolled rod. Since our outer diameter is I
choose standard hot rolled rod
C

55 BDS 2638 83
45 BDS 5785 83
. The material of the billet, Steel 45, is
the appointed
material on the
technical
drawing. It has
good hardness
and corrosion
resistance; it is
widely used
and not so
expensive. The
length of one
pipe is
6000mm. The
choice of the
diameter of the
billet is made
by table III.4
[1]. For more
lucidity I apply
it here:






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It is important to note that the steel will be bought by STOMANA Industry S.A.

The company supplies with the appointed earlier diameter of 55 mm.




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The number of billets produced from one steel rod is estimated using the following
formula:

=
+ + 2
L k q
N
l z B



, where
L length of the steel rod [mm]; L= 6000 mm
k length of the remaining of each pipe needed for clamping it [mm]; in order to obtain it,
the stop length of the Miter Band Saw is being used which is 400 mm
q length of the remaining of the material due to the fact that the length of the rod is not a
multiple of the used part of the rod [mm]; q = 141,5 mm
l length of the produced part [mm]; l = 600 mm


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B width of the material taken away during cutting [mm]; considering table 3.1 [1]
B = 2.5 mm :


z additional length for processing the faces [mm] due to safety and reducing the
possibility for making design errors I choose it z = 2 mm
Consequently the number of units produced from a single steel rod is:


= = =
+ + + +
6000 400 141,5
9
2 600 2 2 2.5
L k q
N
l z B

Process planning

When developing technological processes the designer should require the following of
particular sequence of the execution of the procedures. Very often after completion of a
given one the technological workers should make comparison checks which ask as an
intrinsic feedback system for the manufacturing process.

Determination of the methods of machining the surfaces:



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As was stated in the bullet Technological analysis the progress made in modern methods
of manufacturing is significant. Using the newest technologies applied in the productions of
inserts for turning has made possible the achievement of close tolerances and precise
surface finish with very few (and very often) only one turning operation (of course this is in
case the production of circular elements is being considered).
Due to throughout research I managed to incorporate technologies which will allow for the
surface finish requirements to be met with single pass of the cutting tool over the element
that is to be produced.
Having in mind all this the surfaces will be machined entirely by turning.
Determining the sequence of the machining operations

1. Cutting cutting the billet in nine parts of l = 604 mm long each (considering the
added extension for facing)
2. Centering and facing - includes the placing of the part in the lathe and drilling the
centering holes, facing through turning 2mm D O C (depth of cut) the work
piece is now held in a chuck
3. Turning turning to 50
-0,1
-0,2

4. Chamfering 2mm by 30
5. Drilling and chamfering drilling 8,5 with 20 mm D O C (depth of cut). That is
done with a special drill that utilizes both operations at a time. Work piece held
in a chuck
6. Threading threading M10 thread. Work piece held in a chuck
7. Turning to 50
8. Turning to 45
+0,021
+0,002

9. Chamfering chamfering 2mm by 15
10. Grooving grooving to 44,5

Choice of machines

The machines that are to be used in the manufacturing process are of substantial
significance. They have to be chosen according to the following criteria:
- The accepted method for machining the surfaces
- Technical requirements for the machined surfaces


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- Nominal sizes of the detail
- Annual manufacturing program. (the annual quantity of the detail to be
manufactured)
- Magnitude of the extensions
- Specific technical and other type conditions, as requirements for automation and etc.


Cut-off operation
For the initial cut-off operation I chose a machine by the German manufacturer Knuth.
ABS 300 NC is an automatic miter band saw.
Automatic Band Saw with programmable cutting angle

ABS 300 NC




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- Cutting angle settings 90-60-45
- Cutting parameters are input via touch-screen monitor
- including chip conveyor
- torsion-resistant dual-column construction
- hydraulic saw frame feed via chrome-plated column guide
- automatic workpiece feed
- slightly inclined saw frame improves cutting performance and increases the service-life
- dual hydraulic workpiece clamping
- infinitely variable cutting speed
- High-torque gears ensure maximum machining power
- hydraulic saw blade tensioning
- precise and stable saw band guides ensure high angular accuracy
- automatic band breakage control
- central lubrication system and cooling system are integrated in the machine body
- premium Siemens PLC control
- automatic workpiece counter
- LED indicator for belt speed
- cutting height adjustment for shorter machining times
Specifications
cutting capacities
cutting capacity 90 (flat) 300x360 mm
cutting capacity 90 (round) 300 mm
cutting capacity 90 (square) 300x300 mm
cutting capacity 60 (flat) 175x300 mm
cutting capacity 60 (square) 175 mm
cutting capacity 60 (round) 175 mm
cutting capacity 45 (flat) 255x300 mm
cutting capacity 45 (square) 255x255 mm
cutting capacity 45 (round) 255 mm
stop length 400 mm
cutting speed 20 - 90 m/min
drive capacity
motor rating main drive 3 kW
motor rating hydraulic pump 0.75 kW
motor rating coolant pump 0.45 kW
measures and weights
belt dimensions 4430x34x1.1 mm
overall dimensions 2200x2000x1700 mm
weight 1900 kg
Control
Siemens SPS


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Standard equipment
Siemens PLC control, autom. cleaning brush , feed roller table (2 meters), 1 saw blade, touch screen
monitor, operating tools, operator manual
Accessories / Tools
Bi-Metallic Bandsaw Blade for ABS 300 NC

Price: 12, 600.00

Centering and facing

For centering and facing I utilize a separate machine.
My wish was to use the centering-facing machine 02, but due to the lack of any
information about it I will use a very similar to it machine and this is the semiautomatic
centering-facing machine MP 71 M.




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Turning operations

The lathe which is going to utilize all those operations is of significant importance because
all the rest operations will be conducted on it. Considering that I choose an automatic CNC
lathe designed and manufactured by the German company Knuth. Their lathes are with
comparatively reasonable prices, lots of extra options and high quality of operation.
The lathe I chose is:
Multiturn 4220

Versatile automatic lathe with X, Z, Y and C axis,
predestined for cost-effective batch production


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Turning, milling, drilling, and thread cutting in one operating
cycle
- 4 controlled axes: X, Z, Y, and C Axis allow a very cost-effective production of complex parts for
various industries, e.g. automotive, electric, hydraulic and medical engineering
- 20-station tool changer
- extremely fast tool changes in 0.15 seconds
- tools with axial and radial drive (optional)
- this versatile machine features an HT 350 cast-iron frame, tempered for tension-free strength
- the Multiturn series features rigid rectangular guideways in the X axis, and linear guides in all other
axes, low-maintenance and high load-capacity
- designed to fulfill ergonomic requirements and to provide easy operation, high rigidity, and low
maintenance
- preloaded ball screws on all axes, plus powerful servo motors ensure optimum feed and exact
positioning
- the machine features a C and Y axis and can be equipped with optional driven tools for turning,
milling, drilling and thread cutting in one cycle
- the tool turret offers a servo drive that allows very fast and exact positioning of 20 tools for
machining complex workpieces
- the tool turret moves in the X axis on a 4x linear guide for maximum rigidity
- in the C axis function ,the headstock is driven by a helical gear, ensuring low backlash and exact
positioning
- the machine is equipped with parts catcher and conveyor for finished parts


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- this series is equipped with a premium hydraulic power chuck
- standard central lubrication and chip conveyor simplify maintenance and reduce down-times
- the machine may be equipped with a rod feeder; the interface for a connection is included
- high-quality machine enclosure with wide sliding door for easy access to the work area
- Optional Equipment: direct driven radial and axial tool holder with high speeds and 2.2 kW power
for
working area
in-gap diameter over bed (max) 300 mm
turning diameter (max.) 180 mm
machining length (max.) 300 mm
travel X-axis 100 mm
travel Y-axis 100 mm
travel Z-axis 310 mm
headstock
spindle speed 5000 min-1
spindle bore 42 mm
spindle mount A 2/5
lathe chuck diameter 150 mm
feed
rapid feed X-axis 24000 mm/min
rapid feed Y-axis 18000 mm/min
rapid feed Z-axis 24000 mm/min
rapid feed C axis 10 min-1
tool-changer
number of tool stations 20 Peace
tool holder 20x20 mm
tool-change time tool/tool 1 s
boring bar mount diameter 25 mm
accuracies
positioning accuracy X-axis 0.01 mm
positioning accuracy Y-axis 0.01 mm
positioning accuracy Z-axis 0.01 mm
positioning accuracy C axis 72 "
repeatability X-axis 0.005 mm
repeatability Y-axis 0.005 mm
repeatability Z-axis 0.005 mm
repeatability C axis 36 "
drive capacity
motor rating headstock 7.5 kW
motor rating X 0.75 kW
motor rating Y 1.2 kW
motor rating Z 0.75 kW
motor rating C axis 1 kW
motor rating hydraulic pump 1 kW
total power consumption 20 kVA
measures and weights
hydraulic tank volume 16 l
coolant, tank capacity 200 l
overall dimensions 2800x1750x1650 mm
weight 2500 kg
High Performance for Excellent Productivity


- Contour programming
- Easy creation of complex contours
- Advanced fixed cycles, graphical support
- G & M Code help
- ISO CODE Programming Assistant
- DIN / ISO Programming
- Graphic simulation for reliable control of NC programs
- High compatibility with existing Fanuc CNC programs
A wealth of world-class functions in the Basis CNC ensures maximum productivity
- Port for storage cards, programming storage expansions
- High-Performance digital Servo System on all axes
- optional free M Codes
- optional relay outputs
- 256 KB storage for parts programs
- RS232 port
- multiple languages
- User-friendly graphic display for visual review of parts program
- Advanced help function and alarm/operating archive
- 64 tool compensation pairs



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Specifications
Control
Fanuc 0i-TC mit Manual Guide 0i
Standard equipment

Fanuc 0i-TC control with Manual Guide 0i, hydr. 3-jaw chuck 150 mm, 20-station tool changer, 3 Tool
Mounts, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 mm, 10 Tool Holders, 10 Boring Bar Holders, Parts Catcher with conveyor
system, hydraulic unit, chip conveyor, central lubrication, coolant system, rod feed interface, Parts Counter
with autom. Power-Off, signal lamp, work lamp, totally enclosed housing, operating tools, programming
instructions, operator manual



Price 99,900.00

All the operations from 2 to 8 (see above) will be performed on that
lathe:
1. Centering - includes the placing of the part in the lathe and drilling the centering
holes
2. Turning turning first to 50
-0,1
-0,2


3. Chamfering chamfering 2mm by 30
4. Drilling and chamfering drilling 8,376 with 20 mm D O C (depth of cut). That is
done with a special drill that utilizes both operations at a time. Work piece held in a
chuck
5. Threading threading M10 thread. Work piece held in a chuck
6. Chamfering 2mm by 15
7. Grooving grooving to 44,5

- Tool life-cycle management: The tools can be subdivided in groups. The life times and tool numbers
for each group that are stored in the NC control can be shown in an easy to read table format.
- consistent cutting speed
- process time and parts counter


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Choice of devices

This part of the design is as crucial as the choice of the machines. Here my choice is made
on the following important criteria:
- Minimum number of operations should be made i.e. the devices should be as
effective as possible
- The surface finish assigned in the course project should be met
- If possible the surface finish should be done in only one pass of the cutting tool
Cutting

Cutting the billet in nine parts of l = 604 mm long each (considering the added extension for
facing)

In order to execute the operation I use the band saw in the machine ABS 300 NC.
In order to choose a proper blade, I follow the guidelines from [11].
First thing to be done is to find the pitch-blade of the saw. That will happen with the
following diagram:


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The tooth selection chart above is a guide to help determine the best blade pitch for a
particular job. The tooth specifications in the chart are standard variable-pitch blade sizes
as specified by the Hack and Band Saw Association. The variable-pitch blades listed are
designated by two numbers that refer to the approximate maximum and minimum tooth
pitch. A 46 blade, for example, has a maximum tooth spacing of approximately 14 inch
and a minimum tooth spacing of about 16 inch. Blades are available, from most
manufacturers, in sizes within about 10 per cent of the sizes listed.
To use the chart, I should locate the length of cut in inches on the outside circle of the table
(for millimeters use the inside circle) and then find the tooth specification that aligns with
the length, on the ring corresponding to the material shape. The length of cut is the
distance that any tooth of the blade is in contact with the work as it passes once through
the cut. For cutting solid round stock, use the diameter as the length of cut and select a
blade from the ring with the solid circle.



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The length of cut is equal to the area of the steel rod, divided to the depth of cut which is
the diameter of cut. So after calculations are made the length of cut is found to be
(3,14.55^2)/(4.55) = 43,175 mm.

After using the chart above, I find that the perfect blade-pitch is 4/6.
Turning operations
To select a turning tool one must be guided by the following conditions:

- component design and limitations
large or small, demanding form, long or short, diameter variation, vibration prone, close
tolerances and surface finish, fixturing possibilities, etc.
- machining operations needed
external and/or internal cuts, roughing, semi-fi nishing, fi nishing and complimentary
operations, best tool paths, optimization possibilities, set-ups needed, additional operations
with rotating tools, etc.
- stability and machining conditions
tool engagement, intermittent cuts, tool clamping, tool overhang, tool size, workpiece shape
and condition, vibration tendencies, machine tool condition, power and drive, etc.
- machine tool availability and choice
number of tool positions, power, capacity, possibilities of performing additional operations,
driven tools, multi-axis and multi-task requirements, batch size suitability, coolant supply,
tool holding, etc.
- component material
hardness, condition, strength, machinability, bar, casting, forging, pre-machined, variability,
dry or wet machining, etc.
- tool programme and inventory
optimization, new types of tools, toolholding system, necessary tool variation/coverage, tool
administration possibilities, select and apply strategy, standardisation, tool supplier delivery,
etc.
- machining economic aspects
optimization of machining, cycle time, tool-life, continuous improvement, latest development,
reliability, method choices, work-in-progress, cell machining, lean-manufacturing, cost-per-
piece,
- priority
focus areas, down-time minimization, etc

On the base of this I choose:
Tools for external turning

Most important for external turning are two things: the insert and the tool holder.


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Insert
First, the choice for the insert should be made. When doing that we should consider several
important factors:
1. The chip breaking capability:


It can be seen that chipbreakers, as part of the insert geometry, are designed to work at
different feed/depth of cut areas. The chipbreaking diagram for an insert geometry
(based on the recommended ranges of feed and depth of cut), in combination with the tool
material, is the key to insert application.

2. Tool geometry:
The entering angle can be selected for accessibility and to enable the tool to machine in
several feed directions, giving versatility and reducing the number of tools needed.
Alternatively it can be made to provide the cutting edge with a larger corner and can add
cutting edge strength by distributing machining pressure along a greater length of the
cutting edge.

3. Nose radius:


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In rough turning, the nose radius can be
as large as possible for strength, without
giving rise to vibration tendencies. The
feed rate of the tool is also affected by
the nose radius or vice versa. A large
nose radius provides a strong edge, capable and dependent upon high feeds for proper
cutting edge engagement. The small nose radius means a weaker point but one capable of
fine cuts.

The presented technology above is the so called Wiper technology. It brings a new
perspective on feed and surface finish in turning. Generating a good surface finish on
turned components and becoming a demand for semi-finishing and even roughing
operations. The Wiper indexable insert technology has provided turning with a new means
to achieve improved production performance where the key is to being able to raise the
feed rate. The generated surface finish and tolerance are affected by a combination of nose
radius size, feed rate, machining stability, workpiece, tool clamping and machine condition.
The conventional relationship in turning is for the surface finish to be directly related to the
tool feed and the size of the nose radius. A large feed will give shorter cutting times but
poorer surface finish. A large nose radius will generate a better surface finish and provide
more strength. But an excessively large nose radius can lead to vibration tendencies,
unsatisfactory chipbreaking and shorter tool-life because of insufficient cutting edge
engagement. In practice, therefore, the size of the insert nose radius and the feed may be
limited in an operation.

4. Insert geometry



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Insert shape should be selected relative to the entering angle and accessibility equirements
of the tool. The largest possible point angle should be applied to give insert strength and
reliability. But this has to be weighed against the variation of cuts needed to be taken. Here,
the versatility of the tool, through the degree of tool access, is determined by the size of
the point angle (compare a square insert to a 35-degree point angle insert.) A large point
angle is strong but needs more machine power and has a higher tendency to vibrate due to
having a large cutting edge engaged in cut. The small point angle is weaker and has a
smaller cutting edge engagement, which can make it more sensitive to the effects of heat.
Each insert shape has a set maximum effective cutting edge length which influences the
depth of cut possible.




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It is obvious from the diagram that most suitable for our operations is the rhombic-shaped
insert with 80 angle. After a throughout research in the Sandvik Coromant Metalcutting
Technical Guide [2] I found the most suitable insert for my purpose:


My choice is CNMG 12 04 08-WF, which is a negative basic shape insert

Taking in account the following table:


I am now able to choose size for the insert which will be 12, due to the fact that the D O C in
both turning operations is about 2.5 mm.


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Last thing to be chosen about the insert is its
grade. In order to do so I use the following
diagram:



It can be seen that most wear resistant is the grade CT 5005. So doing a more deep
research I come to the following data:
CT5005 (HT) P05 (P01 P10)
An uncoated titanium-based cemented carbide
a cermet. This grade is designed to
give maximum performance in super-finishing
of steel and cast-iron when exceptional
surface finish is required.



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Tool holder

The clamping system of the insert in the
toolholder should be selected first. Toolholders
have been designed to provide optimum
performance in different applications
and usually over a broad area.
The type of operation and, to some extent, size
of workpiece determines the selection of toolholding system. Roughing operations
on large workpieces make considerably different demands to that of finishing of
small components.

As a basis the selection of clamping system should
be taken from following table. It is impossible to
pin-point every type of application, especially
as the systems overlap at some
stage. However, the general purpose is
indicated for each system. An over-riding
recommendation is to use the more
modern systems:
CoroTurn RC and CoroTurn 107

When the edge clamping system is established,
the toolholder size and type should


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be established. The selection is influenced
by feed directions, size of cuts, workpiece
and toolholding in machines as well as
accessibility required. The shape of the workpiece
is decisive if contour turning is involved.
Composite operations should be divided
into basic cuts for assessment of which
toolholder type is most suitable: longitudinal
turning (1), facing (2), profiling (3) and
plunging (4). There is also contouring involving
round shapes but this can be seen
as being similar to profiling.

Toolholder types are defined by the entering
angle and the point angle the shape of
the insert used. The selection process at
this stage involves cutting forces, edge
strength and accessibility of tool.

The effective entering angle (1) should
also be considered for satisfactory machining
when the operation involves copying or
profiling. There is a maximum in-copying angle
() recommended for each tool type.
Secure insert and toolholder clamping is an
essential factor in turning for stability.
This information should be combined with
general insert shape recommendations
and that of the influence of cutting forces.
The guiding rule is to select the largest toolholder size (h) possible for the machine.
This is in order to reduce the tool overhang ratio and to provide the most rigid base for the
edge.

The toolholder size should then also be coordinated with the subsequent selection of insert
size, where the effective cutting edge length is determined. Generally, the smallest entering
angle that the operations will allow should be selected. This is in accordance with the
advantages discussed on the effect of the entering angle.


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So when using the table above it is obvious that best results when facing and external
longitudinal turning are achieved by using the CoroTurn RC Rigid Clamp Design.



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5






So when considering the table above it is obvious that my choice for a holder will be one of
the models with 95 entering angle and size 12 due to the fact that the insert size is 12, and
both size should be correspondent.

So the tool holder that I choose is: C8-DCLNR/L-55080-12

It is larger than the others so in this way I will gain maximum stability and reduction of
vibrations. Another advantage of the calibers of the tool holder is its sufficient cutting force
which will be enough for carrying out most of the industrial processes done by the lathe,
not only of the industrial processes in this project.

Tools for drilling
Drilling tool are very efficient and have come a long way from out-dated, high speed
twistdrills


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6

- which are still in use in many machine
shops. As a consequence, the cost
per machined hole has fallen dramatically.
For solid cemented carbide drills,
tool-life is around 20 times better than
for HSS and the cutting speed capacity
several times higher with the same feed
rate. The basic concept of the twist-drill
as such is still with us but in a very refined
form. The drill-point geometries
used today have vastly improved the cutting action of the conventional chiseledge and tool
materials have lifted performance and extended tool-life.
Solid carbide and brazed twist-drills drill operate at lower cutting speeds/higher feeds in
relation to machine and operation while indexable insert drills use high cutting speeds/low
feeds.


The modern cemented carbide twistdrills are application orienated towards above all two
directions:
- precision holes, giving closer tolerances and surface finishes than indexable
insert drills
- smaller diameter holes, where the indexable
inserts drills are not a practical
solution. The solid cemented carbide twist-
drill range of Coromant Delta-C covers
diameters from 1.5 to 20 mm.

The cutting fluid supply when drilling with
Delta-C is an important factor for successful
performance. Chip evacuation and lubrication
between drill and hole wall are primary
functions which have to be supported.
Nominal and minimum values for cutting fluid
pressure and volume are shown in diagrams.
These values are a guide and may need adjustment depending on the machining conditions.
Cutting fluid for Coromant
Delta-C drills in order to achieve a good machining result a soluble oil with EP additives
should be used, but in certain applications neat oil could give a better result. If a soluble oil
is used, it should contain at least 10 - 12% oil for max. tool life.

The newest technologies in drilling allow the combination of drilling and chamfering
operations as the drills have a built-in chamfer:



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After a more throughout search and with the aim by the following table:

It can be easily found that CoroDrill Delta C R841 is the perfect choice for the drilling
operations. Below are shown its characteristics in detail:



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So after the type has been chosen the next step is to choose the grade of the drill:


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It can be easily noticed that best wear resistance can be yielded with grade GC1210. Taking
that in account the final choice for the drill can now be made:

It is a first choice in general steel material is type R841 grade 1220. Drills with both internal
and external coolant
supply is available. Also
possible to drill in
hardened steel up to 60
HRC with this grade.
After the drill is chosen it
is time to choose the
clamping system.
Consistent and accurate
clamping of the tool
shank is always achieved
in
a CoroGrip power chuck. If collets are required their run-out is up to 23 microns.




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Tools for grooving

The machining process can be
compared to a facing operation in
turning, where the tool is fed radially
into the centre, the difference being
that in the grooving operation, the tool
is a thin blade making a narrow groove.
There is material on both sides of the
tool and thus the material to be cut
through should be as little as possible
and the width of the cutting edge
should be small. This makes
considerable demands on the
performance, chip forming and stability
of the parting tool.
Chip evacuation is also a critical factor
in parting operations. There is little opportunity of breaking chips in the confined space as
the tool moves deeper. The chip-formation geometry of the cutting edge is devoted largely
to form the chip in order for it to be evacuated
smoothly.
For single-cut grooving generally, straight cuts
can be made for groove widths of up to 8 mm
giving the best method, chip control and tool-
life. Tailor Made inserts are made to match the
specific groove size.
Insert geometry GM is recommended for
general groove turning and GF for precision
grooving. Processes should be optimized in
relation to the production volume. The TF and
CF insert geometries have Wiper design on the
side in order to generate high surface finish on
the sides of the groove.
To acheive the best finishing results, care
should be taken when machining the corners of the groove. As the insert cuts the radius of
the corners, most of the tool movement will be along the zaxis. This produces a very thin
chip at the front cutting edge which may lead to rubbing instead of cutting and hence
vibration tendencies. To prevent this, the axial and radial depth of cut should be 0.5 1.0
mm and the first cut should be made into the groove, axially, where the groove radius joins
the flat bottom. Then optimize the process in relation to the batch sizes. The Wiper effect
generates good surface finish with Ra values down to 0.2 microns.


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1

There are lots of recommendations when choosing a tool, but I am going to follow that of
Sandvik Coromant:

So the CoroCut 2-edge tool holder system seems most fitting. After I have found next step
is to appoint the type of the tool holder:

Now it can easily be noticed that best results can be obtained with the screw clamping
systems F123 and F123-S. I choose the latter one.
Here is a diagram of how I choose the grade of the insert:



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It follows that the best choice for the assigned project will be the grade GC 4125:
Grade GC4125 first choice for steel
A fine grained substrate, PVD-coated with TiAlN layer. An excellent all-round grade in all
ISO-areas. First choice for parting-off tubes, grooving and turning operations and works well
in low-carbon and other smearing materials. Low to medium cutting speeds.
After doing so I can find the cutting tool geometry:

This geometry has very advantageous parameters. An insert with width of 3mm (as in our
case) has a recommended feed of 0.05 to 0.1 mm/r.

Here is the more detailed options for the tailor made inserts:



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3



So when considering the table above I make a choice of a tailor made insert N123G2-
0300-0002-GF with grade of GC 4125.
The tool holder of choice is made by considering the table below:

So the tool holder is C6-R/LF123G20-45065B, which will give maximum stability and
vibration reduction.


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Tools for internal threading of small
magnitudes

Most suitable for this is the CoroTurn XS:
Turning screw threads are common
operations on CNCmachinery and is today
performed with high productivity and
production security mainly through the
use of indexable inserts. Inserts are available with cutting edges in the shape of the
appropriate
thread forms, for example Metric, UN, Whitworth. The feed rate of the machine is the key
factor for turning threads as this has to equal the pitch of the thread. This means a high
feed rate in threading with modern indexable inserts, which are also capable of high cutting
speeds. The co-ordination between the thread pitch and the feed rate per revolution is
facilitated by sub-routines in CNC machines. Thread turning is performed through the
indexable insert tool making a number of passes along the section of the workpiece to have
a screw thread. By dividing the full cutting depth of the thread into smaller cuts, the
sensitive, thread-profile point of the cutting edge is not overloaded.
By taking a fraction of the threaddepth per cutting depth at each pass, the profile depth of
the thread is turned in typically six passes. The recommended infeed values decrease
successively as the insert cuts deeper, engaging more and more of the cutting edge whilst
generating more and more of the profile.

The number of passes and size of infeed can have a decisive impact on the threading
operation. In most modern machine tools, the total thread depth and the first or the last
cutting depth should be given in the threading cycle.
To improve the machining result the following infeed recommendations should be used.
The recommendations are intended as starting values. The most suitable number of passes
must be determined by trial and error.
The method of constant infeed series is used to obtain the best possible chip control and
tool life. It is a method which is becoming more common with new machines. By fixing one
of the parameters in the threading cycle the chip thickness is fixed and hence chip forming
can be optimized. A start value should be approximately 0.18 - 0.12 mm but the actual
value should be guided by the value for the last pass which should be at least 0.08 mm.
EXAMPLE:
ISO metric external: Pitch 2.0 mm
Total depth of infeed = 1.28 - 0.08 = 1.20 = 10 passes + 1 (0.08) = 0.12 mm infeed/pass.

Below is shown the geometry of the selected cutting tool:


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The exact model is chosen with the help of the following table:


Having in mind that the thread assigned in the project is metric M10X1.5 I choose model
CXS-06TH150MM-6215R which meets all requirements and fits my purpose
perfectly. It is important to be noted that the grade is 1025 GC.


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6

For that tool I will use a Coromant Capto tool holder:

So it is easy to notice that the model will be: C4-CXS-47-06


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7

Determination of the machining processes

Cut-off operation

By using the table above table I find that the Bimetal Band Saw Speeds for Cutting 4-Inch
Material with Coolant for steel 45 is 220 ft/inch, or 67m/min. Using the specifications made
later I should add 20% and then subtract 50% from the cutting speed for 55 mm carbon
steel. So that the final cutting speed is: 46,9 meters/min or 154 ft/min.
Then using the following graphics:


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8


I can find that corresponding cutting rate for band speed of 154 ft/min and blade-pitch of
4/6 is 5in
2
/min, which is equal to 3225,8 mm
2
/min.
So in order to find the time for cutting the rod, I should divide the area of cut by the cutting
rate.
T
m
= (3,14.55
2
)/(4.3225,8) = 0,736 min
Time for machining T
m
= 0,736 min
Additional time is T
s
= 0,051 min
Total time is T = 0,787 min

Facing and centering operations

Centering



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9

The dimensions for the center holes are the following:
For diameter of the material from 50mm to 80mm:
D = 10mm
d = 4mm
L = 10mm
l = 4,8m
D
0
= 55mm
I select a center tool with feed rate s = 0,08 mm/rev and cutting speed V = 30 m/min
Now I can calculate the revolutions per minute n of the lathe:
3
30
174
. 3,14.55.10
v
n rpm
d t

= = =
n is chosen to be n = 80rpm . Consequently for the time for this operation we obtain:
10
0, 735min
. 170.0, 08
L
Tm
n s
= = =
Time for approach of the detail is T
app
= 0,035 min
Consequently the total time will be T = 0,77 min


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0

I should take in account the placing on the detail which is about 0,2 min and taken from table VII.2
[1]: T
p
= 0,2



Facing of the detail

While a center hole is being drilled on the
one side of the billet, a facing operation is
being done on the other. Drilling the
center hole is the more time-consuming
operation so when calculating the total
time for drilling and facing it will be two
times drilling time plus two times
approach time plus two times positioning time (first time for positioning, second one for
taking the billet)
So the total time for facing and drilling is: 2.0,77 + 2.0,2 = 1,84 min

Operations on the lathe
Turning to 50
-0,1
-0,2


T
c
time for control of the machine T
c
=0,08 min this is the initial turning of the machine
T Whole machining time T= T
m
+ T
a
+ T
p
+ T
app

T
app
- time for approach of the detail - I found it experimentally and it is 0,025 min
T
m
- time for machining
T
p
time for the free pass that the lathe is performing
T
p
= L/V
fr
, where V
fr
is the rapid feed of the lathe (V
fr
=24000mm/min) and L is the length of
the detail (L=604 mm).


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1

T
p
= 604/24000=0,025mm

The time for placing the workpiece in the machine is taken from table VII.2 [1]: T
a
= 0.24 min
In order to find the time for the machining I use the following cutting speed
recommendations:

So when the feed is 0,2mm/r , the recommended cutting speed is 420m/min.
In order to achieve a tool life of one hour, I use the following table from the catalogue of Sandvik
Coromant:


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So it follows that the correction factor for an hour tool life is 0.75. so the speed is 0,75.420 =
315m/min
3
315
2006 2000
. 3,14.50.10
v
n rpm rpm
d t

= = = =
560
1, 4min
. 2000.0, 2
m
L
T
n s
= = =
Consequently T
b
= 1,4 + 0,025 +0,24 + 0,08= 1,745 min
Chamfering 2mmX 30

T
p
time for the free pass that the lathe is performing
T
p
= 560/24000=0,023mm
2
0, 01min
. 500.0,10
c
m
L
T
n s
= = =
Here I reduce the spindle rotation speed and the feed substantially in order to obtain more
precise execution of the operation.
T = T
p
+T
m
= 0,023 + 0,01 = 0,024min




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Drilling hole with 8,5 with 20 mm D O C (depth of cut)
Employing the data from the table below:

I choose a feed of 0,15mm/rev and a cutting speed of 80 m/min.
For a tool life of one hour, the correction factor is 0.75. Consequently, the speed will be
0,75.80= 60m/min
3
60
2275
. 3,14.8, 4.10
v
n rpm
d t

= = =

20
0, 061min
. 2200.0,15
m
L
T
n s
= = =

Consequently, T
ch
time for change of the instruments T
ch
=1s= 0,017min
T
app
- time for approach of the detail - it is 0,025 min
T
p
time for the free pass that the lathe is performing when in back motion
T
p
= L/V
fr
, where V
fr
is the rapid feed of the lathe (V
fr
=24000mm/min) and L is D O C(L=20
mm).
T
p
= 20/24000=0,001mm
T= 0,017 + 2.0,025 + 0,001 + 0,05 = 0,118 min


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4

Threading M10X1.5
Considering the data below:

Having in mind that I am going to use exceptionally fine internal turning, I choose the
rotation speed of the spindle to be about 300rev/minute and the feed to be equal to the
pitch of the thread which is 1,5 mm/rev.
As was pointed above in 3.4 Choice of tools chapter, the thread will be made with a
particular number of passes. I chose them to be 6. The first pass will be with in-feed
0,08mm. The next three passes will be with in-feed of 0,11mm and the last couple of passes
is to be 0,1mm. That makes a total of 0,65mm in-feed, which is the difference between the
outer and the inner diameter of the thread.
The time for a pass is T
sub
= T
m
+ T
p
,
where T
m
the machining time
T
p
the time for the back feed of the machine T
p
= 0,001
T
ch
time for change of the instruments T
ch
=1s= 0,017min
T
app
- time for approach of the detail - it is 0,025 min
T- total time for threading
T= 6 T
sub
+ 6 T
p
+ T
ch
+ T
app


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5

15
0, 034min
. 300.1, 5
m
L
T
n s
= = =

T
p
= L/V
fr
, where V
fr
is the rapid feed of the lathe (V
fr
=24000mm/min) and L is the thread
lenght(L=15 mm).
T
p
= 0,001min
T= 6. 0,035 + 6.0,001 + 0,017 + 0,025 = 0,258 min
Turning to 45
+0,021
+0,002

The time for taking the tool out is equal to the time for placing it.
The time for placing the workpiece in the machine is taken from table VII.2 [1]: T
a
= 0.24 min
T
c
time for control of the machine T
c
=0,08 min this is the initial turning of the machine
T Whole machining time T= T
m
+ T
a
+ T
p
+ 2T
app

T
app
- time for approach of the detail - I found it experimentally and it is 0,025 min
T
m
- time for machining
T
p
time for the free pass that the lathe is performing
T
p
= L/V
fr
, where V
fr
is the rapid feed of the lathe (V
fr
=24000mm/min) and L is the length of
the detail (L=600 mm).
T
p
= 600/24000=0,025mm
In order to find the time for the machining I use the following cutting speed
recommendations:
So when the feed is 0,2mm/r , the recommended cutting speed is 420m/min.
So it follows that the correction factor for an hour tool life is 0.75. so the speed is 0,75.420
= 315m/min
3
315
2006 2000
. 3,14.50.10
v
n rpm rpm
d t

= = = =
50
0,125min
. 2000.0, 2
m
L
T
n s
= = =


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6

Consequently T
b
= 0,125 + 0,025 +0,48 + 0,08= 0,71 min
Turning to 45
+0,021
+0,002
It is executed immediately after the previous turning so that now only the machining time is
calculated
3
315
2006 2000
. 3,14.50.10
v
n rpm rpm
d t

= = = =
75
0,188min
. 2000.0, 2
m
L
T
n s
= = =
Consequently T = 0,188 min
The values of feed are in conformity with the desired surface finish and can be obtained from the
table:

It is obvious that even with
feed of 0,2mm/rev the surface
quality is outstanding.
Chamfering 2mmX15

T
p
time for the free pass
that the lathe is performing
T
p
= 75/24000=0,003mm
2
0, 01min
. 500.0,10
c
m
L
T
n s
= = =
Here I reduce the spindle
rotation speed and the feed
substantially in order to
obtain more precise
execution of the operation.
T
cm
= T
p
+T
m
+ 0,017 = + 0,01 + 0,03 + 0,017 = 0,03 min for each chamfering.
The 0,017 min is one second a delay that I observed from the machine. In this case it is
appropriate to put it in the process planning.


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Grooving
By using the following table I can successfully determine the most appropriate cutting
speeds for the grooving.

I choose feed of 0,05mm/rev and it can seen that for feed of 0,05 mm/rev the
recommended cutting speed is 300m/min, but taking in account for the small dimension of
the groove this speed is too big. So I choose a rotating speed of four times smaller
500rpm.
0, 25
0, 01min
. 500.0, 05
m
L
T
n s
= = =
T
ch
time for change of the instruments T
ch
=1s= 0,017min
T
app
- time for approach of the detail - I found it experimentally and it is 0,025 min
T
p
time for the free pass that the lathe is performed
T
p
= L/V
fr
, where V
fr
is the rapid feed of the lathe (V
fr
=24000mm/min) and L is the length of
the detail (L=525 mm).
T
p
= 525/24000=0,02mm
T= 0,017 + 0,025 + 0,02 + 0,01 = 0,072min


Total Machining Time



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1. Cutting cutting the billet in nine parts of l = 604 mm long each (considering the
added extension for facing) T = 0,787min
2. Centering and facing - includes the placing of the part in the lathe and drilling the
centering holes, facing through turning 2mm D O C (depth of cut) the work piece is
now held in a chuck T = 1,88 min
3. Turning turning to 50
-0,1
-0,2
T = 1,745 min
4. Chamfering 2mm by 30 T = 0,024 min
5. Drilling and chamfering drilling 8,5 with 20 mm D O C (depth of cut). That is done
with a special drill that utilizes both operations at a time. Work piece held in a chuck
6. Threading threading M10 thread. Work piece held in a chuck. T = 0,376 min
7. Turning to 50 and then turning to 45
+0,021
+0,002
T = 0,898 min
8. Chamfering chamfering 2mm by 15 T = 0,072 min
9. Grooving grooving to 44,5 T = 0,03 min


After calculating everything I find that the total
machining time is 5,812 min.
Then from table VII.5 [2] I choose a coefficient K =
7%.
So it follows that the total time for making the
detail is 6,219 min.
It is more than which is the step of the work
process. Consequently, 55 000 details cannot be
produced for one year with one CNC automatic
lathe, one Automatic Band Saw, one semiautomatic
centering-facing machine and two workers.
It can be noticed that the total production time is
approximately 150% of the step of work, so in
order to copy with all the production for one year I
add a third shift and a third worker. This will be sufficient for the production plan to be
executed and the required quantities met.


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Calculating the price of the part


Pricing the part is a very complex process. The number of factors to be considered is
numerous:
- Price of steel
- Price of used electricity and coolants
- Price of working time of the workers
- Price of the machines and the tools
- Price of the machine maintenance
- Price of the working room and so on
To calculate all that and finally add it into a final total cost is a very complex process.
What I will do is calculate price of the steel, workers time and finally multiply it with
coefficient of 1,5.
According to [4] the price of a ton of hot rolled steel on October 2009 was $ 592, which
means $ 0,592 per kilogram.
The mass of the detail is roughly the mass of a cylinder with dimensions of X600:

2 2
3.14 0, 050 0, 600
. 7800 9.185
4 4
d L
M V kg
t


= = = =

So it follows that the steel price of the detail is 9,185.0,592 = $ 5,44
For one hour a worker will make about 9 details. So if the hourly salary of the worker is $ 3,
then for each detail the worker will spend time worth $ 0,33.
Then the total price of the detail will be 1,5(5,44 + 0,33)= 8,655 dollars.
Price of a detail is $ 8.655


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Routing Sheet

Type of the billet Material Dimensions of the billet Number of details per billet
Hot rolled rod Steel 45 C55x600 9
Op. Content of operation Machine Fixture
1 Cutting to l=604
Mitter Band Saw
ABS 300 NC
Clamp
2
Centering and facing

MP-71 M Clamp
3.

4.
5.
6.
Turning external cylindrical surface 560mm
C50
Chamfering 2 30
Drilling C8.5 for M10
Threading M10X1,5
Multiturn 4220 Chuck

7.

8.

9.
10.
Turning external cylindrical surface 55mm
C50
Turning external cylindrical surface 75 mm
C45
Chamfering 2 15
Grooving 3mm surface C44,5
Multiturn 4220 Chuck

Operation sheet



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1

1


M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

S
t
e
e
l

4
5

T
i
m
e

T
%

0
,
0
5
5

0
,
1
3
1

0
,
1
3
1

0
,
1
2
2

0
,
0
1
7

0
,
0
0
8

0
,
0
1
8

0
,
0
5

0
,
1
3

0
,
0
0
2

0
,
0
0
7

L
i
s
t



T
m
a
c
h
i
n
i
n
g

0
,
7
3
6

1
,
4
4

1
,
4
4

1
,
4
6
5

0
,
0
2
4

0
,
1
1
8

0
,
2
5
8

0
,
4
7

0
,
1
8
8

0
,
0
3

0
,
0
7
2


D
r
a
w
i
n
g



T
s
u
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
r
y

0
,
0
5
1

0
,
4

0
,
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1
.

2
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4
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5
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6
.

7
.

8
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9
.

1
0
.




P
a
g
e
6
2

References

[1] , ,
1980
[2] Metal Cutting Technical Guide, Sandvik Coromant - Sweden, 2009
[3] Sandvik Coromant Main Catalogue - 2009
[4] http://www.steelonthenet.com/prices.html
[5] Knuth.de
[6] Mechanical Engineering Handbook
[7] http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2004/KarenSutherland.shtml
[8] http://www.coromant.sandvik.com/
[9] http://weldingweb.com/showthread.php?t=31664
[10] hydmech.com
[11]Machinerys Handbook, 27
th
edition, Industrial Pres. Inc., New York 2004
[12] STOMANA Industry S.A.
[13] http://www.stomana.bg/
Drawings