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INTRODUCTION The human resources are the most important assets of an organization.

The success or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein. Without positive and creative contributionsfrom people, organizations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achievethe goals or the activities of an organization, therefore, they need to recruit people with requisite skills, qualifications and experience. While doing so,t h e y h a v e t o k e e p t h e p r e s e n t a s w e l l a s t h e f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e organization in mind.R e c r u i t m e n t Selection. resources Once are ther e q u i r e d determined, is distinct from E m p l o ym e n t of and

number

and

kind

human

t h e management has to find the places

w h e r e t h e r e q u i r e d h u m a n r e s o u r c e s are/will be available and also find the means of attracting them towards theorganization before selecting suitable candidates for jobs. All this process isgenerally known as recruitment. Some people use the term Recruitmentfor employment. These two are not one and the same. Recruitment is onlyone of the steps in the entire employment process. Some others use the termr e c r u i t m e n t for selection. These are not the same either.

T e c h n i c a l l y speaking, the function of recruitment precedes the selection function and itincludes only finding, developing the sources of prospective employees andattracting them to apply for jobs in an organization, whereas the selection isthe process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted (i.e., recruited).Formal definition of recruitment wouldgive clear cut idea about the function of recruitment. DEFINITIONS Recruitment is defined as, a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements for of the that staffing schedule in and to

employe f f e c t i v e

measures

attracting

manpower

adequate

numbers tofacilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce. Edwin B. F l i p p o defined recruitment as the process of searching for prospective employeesand stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Recruitment is alinking function-joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. It is a joining process in that it tries to bring together job seekers andemployer with a view to encourage the former to apply for a job with the latter.I n order to

a t t r a c t p e o p l e f o r t h e j o b s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n m u s t communicate the position in such a way that job seekers respond. To be costeffective, the recruitment process should attract qualified applicants and provide enough information for unqualified persons to self-select themselvesout.Thus, the recruitment process begins when new recruits are soughta n d e n d s w h e n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e s u b m i t t e d . T h e r e s u l t i s a p o o l o f applicants from which new employees are selected. PURPOSES AND IMPORTANCE The Determine the present and future requirements of the organiza tion inconjunction with its personnel-planning and job-analysis activities. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing thenumber of visibly, under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. Induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company. Infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization. Develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. Search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the companysvalues. general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of

p o t e n t i a l l y qualified job candidates. Specifically, the purposes are to:

Devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits. Search for talent globally and not just within the company. Design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum. Anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short termand long term. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques

a n d sources for all types of job applicants.R e c r u i t m e n t r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t c o n t a c t t h a t a c o m p a n y m a k e s w i t h potential employees. It is through recruitment that many individuals willcome to know a company, and eventually decide whether they wish to work for it. A well-planned and well-managed recruiting effort will result in high-quality applicants, whereas, a haphazard and piecemeal effort will result inm e d i o c r e o n e s . H i g h q u a l i t y e m p l o ye e s c a n n o t b e s e l e c t e d w h e n b e t t e r candidates do not know of job openings, are not interested in working for thecompany and do not apply. The recruitment process should inform qualifiedindividuals about employment opportunities, create a positive image of thecompany, provide enough information about the jobs so that applicants canm a k e comparisons with their qualifications and interests, and

g e n e r a t e enthusiasm among the best candidates so that they will apply for the vacant positions.The negative consequences of a poor recruitment process speak volumesabout its role in an organization. The failure to generate an adequate number of reasonably qualified applicants can prove costly in several ways. It can g r e a t l y c o m p l i c a t e t h e selection process and may result in lowering of selection standards. The p o o r q u a l i t y o f s e l e c t i o n m e a n s e x t r a c o s t o n training and supervision. Furthermore, when recruitment fails to meet the organizational needs for talent, a typical response is to raise entry-level pays c a l e s . T h i s c a n d i s t o r t t r a d i t i o n a l w a g e a n d s a l a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e organization, resulting in avoidable consequences. Thus, the

effectiveness of a recruitment process can play a major role in determining the resources thatmust be expended on other HR activities and their ultimate success. SUB-SYSTEMS OF RECRUITMENT The recruitment process consists of the following four sub-functions: Finding out and developing the sources where the required number and kind of employees will be available. Developing suitable techniques to attract the desirable candidates. Employing the techniques to attract candidates. Stimulating as many candidates as possible and asking them to applyfor jobs irrespective of the number of candidates required.M a n a g e m e n t h a s t o a t t r a c t m o r e c a n d i d a t e s i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e selection ratio so that the most suitable candidate can be selected out of thetotal candidates available. Recruitment is positive as it aims at increasing thenumber of applicants and selection is somewhat negative as it selects thes u i t a b l e candidates in which process; the unsuitable

c a n d i d a t e s a r e automatically eliminated. Though, the function o f recruitment seems to beeasy, a number of factors make performance of recruitment a complex one. FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT The following are the 2 important factors affecting Recruitment:-1 ) I N T E R N A L FACTORS Recruiting policy Temporary and part-time employees Recruitment of local citizens Engagement of the company in HRP

Companys size Cost of recruitment Companys growth and expansion2) EXTERNAL FACTORS Supply and Demand factors Unemployment Rate Labour-market conditions Political and legal considerations Social factors Economic factors Technological factors INDUCEMENTS Organisational benefitso f f e r e d Compensation: S t a r t i n g s a l a r i e s , f r e q u e n c y o f p a y i n c r e a s e s , incentives and fringe benefits can all serve as inducements to potentialemployees. Career Opportunities: inducements by an are all the that positive serves to features attract and job

organization

a p p l i c a n t s t o t h e organisation. Three inducements need specific mention here, they are:-

T h e s e h e l p t h e p r e s e n t e m p l o ye e s t o g r o w p e r s o n a l l y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a n d a l s o a t t r a c t g o o d p e o p l e t o t h e organization. The feeling that the company takes care of employeec a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s s e r v e s a s a p o w e r f u l i n d u c e m e n t s t o p o t e n t i a l employees. Image or Reputation: Factors that affect an organisations reputationinclude its general treatment of employees, the nature and quality of its products and services and its participation in worthwhile socialendeavors. CASE EXAMPLE (inducements):INFOSYS:TheSoftwarePowerhouse Infosys Technologies Limited (ITL), one of the countrys best knownsoftware exporting house, treats its employees as partners and co-owners. It p r o v i d e s them challenging

assignments, allows flexible working hours,rewards them solely on the basis of performance and conducts regular training programmes to u p g r a d e t h e i r s k i l l s . I t h a s a n E m p l o ye e S t o c k Option Plan (ESOP) to share its wealth with employees on the basis of their performance. Even lower level employees are proud owners of the prizedstock worth 25 to 40 lakh rupees, according to Narayan Murthy, the CEO of ITL. Apart from increasing shareholder value, ESOP has greatly enhancedt h e i m a g e o f t h e c o m p a n y i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r y w h e r e employee attrition rates are very high. It is small wonder companies like Procter & Gamble, Johnson & Johnson, Citibank have reposed their faith inE S O P a s a w a y o f a t t r a c t i n g a n d r e t a i n i n g t a l e n t i n a h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e environment. CONSTRAINTS If a firm has a poor image in the market, many of the

p r o s p e c t i v e candidates may not even apply for vacancies advertised by the firm. If the job is not attractive, qualified people may not even apply. Any job that isviewed as boring, hazardous, anxiety producing, low-paying, or lacking in p r o m o t i o n p o t e n t i a l s e l d o m w i l l a t t r a c t a q u a l i f i e d p o o l o f a p p l i c a n t s . Recruiting efforts require money. Sometimes because of limited resources, organizations may not like to carry on the recruiting efforts for long periodsof time, this can, ultimately, constrain a recruiters effort to attract the best person for the job. Government policies often come in

the way of recruiting people as per the rules of the company or on the basis of merit/seniority, etc.F o r example, reservations to specific groups (such as scheduled

c a s t e s , s c h e d u l e d t r i b e s , b a c k w a r d c a s t e s , p h ys i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d a n d disabled persons, ex -servicemen, etc.) have filling to be up observed as per in

constitutional

provisions

while

vacancies

g o v e r n m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s , departmental undertakings, local bodies, quasi government organizations,etc. RECRUITMENT- Relationship with other activities CORPORATE MISSION, OBJECTIVES, STRATEGIESAND TACTICS (MOST) Corporations have started linking their Mission, Objectives, Strategiesa n d T a c t i c s ( M O S T ) t o t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e c r u i t m e n t a n d s e l e c t i o n . T h e economic liberalizations and consequent competition through quality and s e r v i c e s necessitated the

c o m p a n i e s t o s e a r c h f o r a n d a t t r a c t c o m p e t e n t human resources. Corporations focusing on new business development willhave to seek entrepreneurial abilities, companies planning to withdraw fromdiversifications must look for pragmatists and companies chasing growtha l l i a n c e s in different should employ people comfortable

c u l t u r a l backgrounds. Above all, companies must hire for

the future, anticipating jobs that may not be in existence yet. Recruitment managers must focus for attitudes and approaches that fit the corporate goals and culture. RECRUITMENT POLICY Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the personnel policy of the same organization. In other words the former is a part of thelatter. However, recruitment policy by itself should take into consideration t h e g o v e r n m e n t s r e s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y, p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g s o n s o f s o i l , e t c . , personnel policies of other organizations regarding merit, internal sources, s o c i a l absorbing minority sections, women, responsibility in

e t c . Recruitment

policy

s h o u l d c o m m i t i t s e l f t o t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n s p e r s o n n e l policy like enriching the organisations human resources or servicing the c o m m u n i t y b y a b s o r b i n g the retrenched or laid-off employees or casual/temporary

employees or dependents of present/former employees, etc.The following factors should be taken into consideration in formulating recruitment policy. They are:-

Government policies Personnel policies of other competing organizations Organisations personnel policies Recruitment sources Recruitment needs Recruitment cost Selection criteria and preference RECRUITMENT- Matching the of the organization & applicants IMPACT OF PERSONNEL POLICIES ON RECRUITMENTPOLICIES Recruitment policies are mostly drawn from personnel policies of theo r g a n i z a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o D a l e Y o d a r a n d P a u l D . S t a n d o h a r , g e n e r a l personnel policies provide a wide variety of guidelines to be spelt out in r e c r u i t m e n t p o l i c y . After formulation of the recruitment policies, themanagement has t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o c e n t r a l i z e o r d e c e n t r a l i z e t h e recruitment function. CENTRALISED V/s DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. Some organizations like commercial banks resort to centralized recruitment whiles o m e o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e the Indian Railway resort to d e c e n t r a l i z e d recruitment practices.

Personnel department at the central office performs allthe functions of recruitment in case of centralised recruitment and personnel departments at unit level/zonal level perform all the functions of recruitmentconcerning to the jobs of the respective unit or zone. MERITS OF CENTRALISED RECRUITMENT

Average cost of recruitment per candidate/unit should be relatively less due to economies of scale. It would have more expertise available to it. I t c a n e n s u r e b r o a d u n i f o r m i t y a m o n g h u m a n r e s o u r c e s o f v a r i o u s units/zones in respect of education, skill, knowledge, talent, etc. It It It enables the line managers of various units and zones to concentrateon their operational activities by relieving them from the recruiting functions. It enables the organization to have centralised selection procedure, promotional and transfer procedure, etc. It ensures the most effective and suitable placement to candidates. I t e n a b l e s c e n t r a l i s e d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h f u r t h e r b r i n g s uniformity and minimizes average cost of staff. MERITS OF DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT The unit concerned concentrates only on those sources/places whereinnormally gets the suitable candidates. As such the cost of recruitmentwould be relatively less. would facilitate interchangeability of staff among would generally be above malpractices, abuse of

p o w e r s , favouritism, bias, etc.

v a r i o u s units/zones.

The unit gets most suitable candidates as it is well aware of ther e q u i r e m e n t s Units can recruit candidates as and when they are required without any delay. The units would enjoy freedom in finding out, developing the sources,in selecting and employing the techniques to stimulate the candidates. The unit would relatively enjoy advantage about the availability of information, control and feedback and various functions/processes of recruitment. The unit would enjoy better familiarity and control over of the job regarding culture, traditional,

f a m i l y background aspects, local factors, social factors, etc.

t h e employees it recruits rather than on employees selected by the centralrecruitment agency.Both the systems of recruitment would suffer from their own demerits.Hence, the management has to weigh both the merits and demerits of eachsystem before making a final decision about centralizing or decentralizing the recruitment.

Alternatively management may decentralize the recruitmento f c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f e m p l o y e e s p r e f e r a b l y m i d d l e a n d t o p l e v e l managerial personnel and centralize the recruitment of other categories of employees preferably lower level positions in view of the nature of the jobsa n d s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h o s e s y s t e m s f o r t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s o f p o s i t i o n s . T h e management has to find out and develop the sources of recruitment after deciding upon centralizing or decentralizing the recruitment function. CASE STUDY:-WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT RECRUITING OR RETAINING Uptron Electronics Ltd is an internationally reputed electronics firm.It attracted employees from internationally reputed institutes and industries by offering high salaries, perks, etc. It had advertised for the position of anElectronics engineer some years back. Nearly 150 candidates working invarious electronics firm applied for the job. Mr. Sa shidhar, an ElectronicsE n g i n e e r G r a d u a t e f r o m I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y w i t h 5 y e a r s o f working experience in a small electronics firm was selected among

thosei n t e r v i e w e d . T h e i n t e r v i e w b o a r d r e c o m m e n d e d a n e n h a n c e m e n t i n h i s salary by Rs.500 more than his present salary at his request. He was very h a p p y a n d w a s c o n g r a t u l a t e d b y h i s p r e v i o u s e m p l o ye r f o r h i s b r i l l i a n t interview performance and good luck. M r . S a s h i d h a r j o i n e d t h e c o m p a n y w i t h g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m a n d a l s o found his job to be quite comfortable and challenging one. He found that hiscolleagues and superiors were friendly and co-operative. But this didnt lastl o n g . A f t e r o n e ye a r o f h i s s e r v i c e , h e s l o w l y l e a r n t a b o u t a n u m b e r o f unpleasant stories about the company, management, the superior-subordinaterelations, rate of employee turnover, etc. But still he decided to continuew i t h t h e p r o m i s e t h a t h e m a d e i n t h e i n t e r v i e w . H e w a n t e d t o please a n d change the attitude of management through his performance,

commitmenta n d d e d i c a t i o n . L o o k i n g a t h i s g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d e f f o r t s , t h e management got the impression that he is well settled will remain in thecompany for a long time. After sometime they all s t a r t e d t a k i n g u n d u e advantage of him and overloaded him with multifarious jobs and therebyridded over him. As a result, his freedom in deciding and executing was cutdown to size; his colleagues started assigning their responsibilities to him.Consequently, there were imbalances in his family, social and organization life.It was quite surprising to the general manager to see the resignation l e t t e r o f M r . S a s h i d h a r o n e f i n e m o r n i n g . T h e g e n e r a l m a n a g e r f a i l e d t o convince him to withdraw his resignation. The general manager wanted to appoint a committee to go into the matter immediately, but dropped the idealater so that the companys image doesnt get spoiled. ANALYSIS T h u s , f r o m t h i s c a s e s t u d y i t i s c l e a r t h a t r e t a i n i n g i s m u c h m o r e important than recruiting. Whats the use and benefits of recruiting quality employees if they cannot be retained by the organization in a proper manner.The purpose of recruitment is fulfilled when the employees selected from a pool of qualified applicants are retained in the company by keeping them s a t i s f i e d i n a l l a s p e c t s . T h e y m u s t b e p r o v i d e d w i t h b e t t e r w o r k i n g conditions, better pay scales, incentives, recognition, promotion, bonus,flexible working hours, etc. They should treat the employees as co-ownersand partners of the company.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into

t w o categories: internal sources and external sources. Both have their o w n merits and demerits. Lets examine these.Internal Sources:-P e r s o n s w h o a r e a l r e a d y w o r k i n g i n a n o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e t h e internal sources. Retrenched employees, retired employees, dependents of deceased employees may also constitute the internal sources. Whenever anyv a c a n c y is arises, someone from within the

organization

u p g r a d e d , transferred, promoted or even demoted.External

SourcesExternal sources lie outside an organization. Here the organizationcan have the services of : (a) Employees working in other organizations; (b)Jobs aspirants registered with employment exchanges; (c) Students from reputed educational institutions; (d) Candidates referred by unions, friends,relatives and existing employees; (e) Candidates forwarded by search firmsand contractors; (f) Candidates responding to the advertisements, issued bythe organization; and (g) Unsolicited applications/ walk-ins. Merits WithinM s r 1) Economical: The cost of recruiting internal candidates isminimal. No expenses areincurred on advertising.2) Suitable: The organization can pick the right candidates havingthe requisite skills. The candidatecan choose a right vacancy wheretheir talents can be fully utilized.3) Reliable: The organization has1) Limited Choice: Theorganization is forced to selectcandidates from a limited pool. Itmay have to sacrifice quality andsettle down for less qualifiedcandidates.2) Inbreeding: D i t and Demerits e e s r m of Recruiting i e people t from

It discourages entryfor talented people, availableoutside an organization. Existingemployees may fail to behave in the knowledge about suitability of a candidate for a position.Known devils are better thanunknown angels!4) Satisfying: A policy of preferring people from withinoffers regular promotionalavenues for employees. Itmotivates them to work hard andearn promotions. They will work with loyalty commitment andenthusiasm.innovative ways and injectnecessary dynamism to enterpriseactivities.3) Inefficiency: Promotions basedon length of service rather thanmerit, may prove to be a blessingfor inefficient candidate. They donot work hard and prove their worth.4) Bone of contention: Recruitment from within maylead to infighting amongemployees aspiring for limited,higher level positions in anorganization. As years roll by,the race for premium positionsmay end up in a bitter race.T h e m e r i t s a n d d e m e r i t s o f r e c r u i t i n g c a n d i d a t e s f r o m o u t s i d e a n organization may be stated thus: Merits RecruitmentM s r D i t and Demerits e e s r m of External i e Wide Choice: sources t of

The organization hasthe freedom to select candidates froma large pool. Persons with requisitequalifications could be picked up. Infection of fresh blood: Peoplewith special skills and knowledgecould be hired to stir up the existing Expenses: Hiring costs could go upsubstantially. Tapping multifarioussources of recruitment is not an easytask either. Time consuming: It takes time toadvertise, screen, to test and test andto select suitable employees. Where employees and pave the way for innovative ways of working. Motivational force:

It helps inmotivating internal employees towork hard and compete with externalcandidates while seeking career growth. Such a competitiveatmosphere would help an employeeto work to the best of his abilities. Long term benefits: Talented people could join the ranks, newideas could find meaningfulexpression, a competitiveatmosphere would compel people togive out their best and earn rewards,etc.suitable ones are not available, the process has to be repeated. De-motivating: Existing employeeswho have put in considerable servicemay resist the process of filling upvacancies from outside. The feelingthat their services have not beenrecognized by the organization,forces then to work with lessenthusiasm and motivation. Uncertainty: There is no guaranteethat the organization, ultimately will be able to hire the services of suitable candidates. It may end uphiring someone who does not fit andwho may not be able to adjust in thenew setup. METHODS OF RECRUITMENT The following are the most commonly used methods of recruiting people.INTERNAL METHODS:1 . P r o m o t i o n s a n d T r a n s f e r s This is a method of filling vacancies from within through transfers and promotions. A transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade, from one job to a n o t h e r . I t m a y l e a d t o c h a n g e s i n d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , w o r k i n g conditions, etc., but not necessarily salary. Promotion, on the other hand, i n v o l v e s m o v e m e n t o f e m p l o ye e f r o m a l o w e r l e v e l p o s i t i o n t o a h i g h e r level position accompanied by (usually) changes in duties, responsibilities, status and value. Organisations generally prepare badli lists or a central poolo f p e r s o n s f r o m w h i c h v a c a n c i e s c a n b e f i l l e d f o r m a n u a l j o b s . S u c h persons are usually passed on to various departments, depending on internalrequirements. If a person remains on such rolls for 240 days or more, hegets the status of a permanent employee as per the Industrial Disputes Actand is therefore entitled to all relevant benefits, including provident fund,gratuity, retrenchment compensation.2 . J o b P o s t i n g Job

posting is another way of hiring people from within. In this method,the organisation publicises

job opening on bulletin boards, electronic methodand similar outlets. One of the important advantages of this method is that itoffers a chance to highly qualified applicants working within the company tol o o k f o r g r o w t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c o m p a n y t o l o o k f o r g r o w t h opportunities within the company without looking for greener p a s t u r e s outside.3 . E m p l o y e e ReferralsE m p l o y e e referral

m e a n s u s i n g p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s t o l o c a t e j o b opportunities. It is a recommendation from a current employee regarding a job applicant. The logic behind employee referral is that it takes one tok n o w o n e . E m p l o y e e s w o r k i n g i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n t h i s c a s e , a r e encouraged to recommend the names of their friends, working in other organizations for a possible vacancy in the near future. In fact, this has b e c o m e a p o p u l a r w a y o f r e c r u i t i n g p e o p l e i n t h e h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e Information Technology industry nowadays. Companies offer rich rewardsalso to employees whose recommendations are accepted after the routinescreening and examining process is over and job offers extended to thesuggested candidates. As a goodwill gestures, companies also consider thenames recommended by unions from time to time. External (direct) MethodsCampus RecruitmentI t i s a m e t h o d o f r e c r u i t i n g b y v i s i t i n g and participating in collegecampuses and their placement centres. Here t h e r e c r u i t e r s v i s i t r e p u t e d educational institutions such as IITs, IIMs, colleges and universities with av i e w t o p i c k u p j o b a s p i r a n t s h a v i n g r e q u i s i t e technical or professional s k i l l s . J o b s e e k e r s a r e p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e j o b s a n d t h e recruiters, in turn, get a snapshot of job seekers through constant interchangeof information with respective institutions.A preliminary screening is done within the campus and the short listedstudents are then subjected to the remainder of the selection process. Inv i e w of the growing demand for young

managers,

most

r e p u t e d organizations (such as Hindustan Lever Ltd.,

Proctor & Cable, Citibank,State Bank of India, Tata and Birla group companies) visit IIMs and IITsregularly and even sponsor certain popular campus activities with a view toearn goodwill in the job market. Advantages of this method include: the placement resumes centre helps locate applicants and provides

t o organizations; applicants can be prescreened; applicants will not have to

bel u r e d a w a y f r o m a c u r r e n t j o b a n d l o w e r s a l a r y e x p e c t a t i o n s . O n t h e negative front, campus recruiting means hiring people with little or no work experience.T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l h a v e t o o f f e r s o m e k i n d o f t r a i n i n g t o t h e applicants, almost immediately after hiring. It demands care ful advance p l a n n i n g , l o o k i n g i n t o t h e p l a c e m e n t w e e k s o f v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n different parts of the country. Further, campus recruiting can be costly for o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n a n o t h e r c i t y ( a i r f a r e , b o a r d i n g a n d l o d g i n g expenses of recruiters, site visit of applicants if allowed, etc.).If campus recruitment is used, steps should be taken by human resourcedepartment to ensure that recruiters are knowledgeable concerning the jobst h a t are to be filled and the organizations and

u n d e r s t a n d a n d e m p l o y effective interviewing skills.Guidelines for campus recruiting: companies using college campuses asrecruitment source should consider the following guidelines: Identify the potential candidates early: The earlier that candidate withtop potential can be identified, the more likely the organization will bein a position to attract them. Employ various means to attract candidates: consulting These may include to

providing

research

grants;

opportunities

f a c u l t y members, funding university infrastructural requirements, internshipsto students, etc. in the long run these will enhance the prestige of the company in the eyes of potential job seekers. Use effective recruitment diskettes, by material: followed company Attractive by brochures, and with

films,c o m p u t e r effective

enthusiastic correspondence

presentations

officials,

placementoffices in respective campus in a friendly way will help in bootingthe company image in the eyes of the applicants. The company must provide detailed information about the characteristics of entry level positions, especially those that have had a major positive impact on prior applicants decisions to join the company.

Offer training to campus interviews: Its better to devote more time and resources to train on campus interviewers to answer specific job related questions of applicants. Come out with a competitive offer: Keep the key job attributes thatinfluence the decisions of applicants such as promotional avenues, c h a l l e n g i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , l o n g t e r m i n c o m e p o t e n t i a l , e t c . , w h i l e talking to candidates. Indirect methods:Advertisements:-T h e s e include advertisements in newspapers; trade,

p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d technical journals; radio and television; etc. in recent times, this medium has become just as colourful, lively and imaginative as consumer advertising. T h e ads generally give a brief outline of the job

r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , compensation package, prospects in organizations, e t c . t h i s m e t h o d i s appropriate when (a) the organization intends to reach a large target groupand (b) the organizations wants a fairly good number of talented people who are geographically spread out. To apply for advertised vacancies lets briefly examine the wide variety of alternatives available to a company - asfar as ads are concerned: Newspaper Ads : Here it is easy to place job ads without much of a l e a d t i m e . I t h a s flexibility in terms of information and can c o n v e n i e n t l y t a r g e t a s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . O n t h e negative side, newspaper ads tend to attract only those who areactively seeking employment at that point of time, while some of t h e b e s t c a n d i d a t e s w h o a r e w e l l p a i d a n d c h a l l e n g e d b y t h e i r current jobs may not be aware of such openings. As a result, thec o m p a n y m a y b e b o m b a r d e d w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s f r o m a l a r g e number of candidates who are marginally qualified for the job a d d i n g administrative burden. To maintain secrecy for v a r i o u s (avoiding the rush, sending signals to its

reasons

t o competitors, cutting

down expenses involved in responding to anyi n d i v i d u a l w h o a p p l i e s , e t c . ) , l a r g e companies with a national r e p u t a t i o n m a y a l s o g o i n f o r b l i n d - b o x a d s i n n e w s p a p e r s , especially for filling lower level positions. In a blind-box ad thereis no identification of the advertising organization. Job aspirantsa r e a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o

post

office

box

number

or

to

a n employment firm that is

a c t i n g a s a n a g e n t b e t w e e n t h e j o b seekers and the organization.

Television and radio ads: These ads are more likely to eachindividual who a r e n o t a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g e m p l o ym e n t ; t h e y a r e more likely to stand out distinctly, they help the organization totarget the audience more selectively and they offer considerables c o p e f o r d e s i g n i n g a d s c r e a t i v e l y . H o w e v e r , t h e s e a d s a r e expensive. Also, because the television or radio is simply seen or heard, potential candidates may have a tough time remembering the details, making application difficult. Third Party Methods Private Employment Search Firms:-A s that search firm is a private

employment

agency

m a i n t a i n s computerized lists of qualified

applicants and supplies these to employerswilling to hire people from the list for a fee. Firms like Arthur Anderson,B o b l e a n d H e w i t t , A B C c o n s u l t a n t s , S B B i l l i m o r i a , KPMG; FergusonAssociates offers specialized e m p l o ym e n t - r e l a t e d

s e r v i c e s t o c o r p o r a t e houses for a fee, especially for top and middle level executive vacancies.A T firms recruitees. Employment Exchanges:AS a statutory the requirement, Employment companies Exchanges are Act, also 1959, expected applies) to their operate the lower end, a number of search

p r o v i d i n g multifarious services to both recruiters and the

n o t i f y (wherever

vacanciesthrough the respective Employment Exchanges, created all over India for helping unemployed yo u t h , d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s , e x - m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l ,

physically handicapped, etc. AS per the Act all employers are supposed tonotify the vacancies arising in their establishments form time to time withcertain exemptions to the prescribed employment exchanges before theya r e establishments in public filled. sector The Act covers all

a n d nonagricultural

establishments

employing 25 or more workers in the privates e c t o r . H o w e v e r , i n v i e w o f t h e practical d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n implementing the provisions of the Act

(such as filing a quarterly return inrespect of their staff strength, vacancies and shortages, returns showingoccupational distribution of their employees, etc.) many organizations haves u c c e s s f u l l y fought court battles when they

w e r e a s k e d t o p i c k u p candidates from among those sponsored by the employment exchanges. Gate Hiring and Contractors:-G a t e h i r i n g ( w h e r e j o b s e e k e r s , g e n e r a l l y b l u e c o l l a r e m p l o y e e s , present themselves at the factory gate and offer their services on a daily b a s i s ) , h i r i n g t h r o u g h c o n t r a c t o r s , r e c r u i t i n g t h r o u g h w o r d - o f - m o u t h publicity are still in use despite the many possibilities for their misuse in the small scale sector in India. Unsolicited Applicants / Walk-ins:-Companies generally receive unsolicited applications from job seekersa t v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f t i m e ; t h e n u m b e r o f s u c h a p p l i c a t i o n s depends one c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , t h e i m a g e o f t h e c o m p a n y a n d t h e job seekers p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e types of jobs that might be

a v a i l a b l e e t c . S u c h applications are generally kept in a data bank and whenever a suitablev a c a n c y a r i s e s , t h e c o m p a n y w o u l d i n t i m a t e t h e c a n d i d a t e s t o a p p l y through a formal channel. One important problem with this method is that job seekers generally apply to number of organizations and when they areactually required by the organizations, either they are already employed inother organizations or are not simply interested in the position. Alternatives to Recruitment:-

i n v i t e d . L a s t l y, i f c o n t a c t s o r l e a d s n e e d e d t o i d e n t i f y s u i t a b l e trainees to invite are in 5:1 ratio, then 200 contacts are made. Surveys and studies:

Surveys may also be conducted to find out thesuitability of a particular source for certain positions. For example,as pointed out previously, employee referral has emerged as popular w a y o f h i r i n g p e o p l e i n t h e I n f o r m a t i o n T e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r y i n recent times in India. Correlation studies could also be carried out tofind out the relationship between different organizational positions. B e f o r e f i n a l l y i d e n t i f yi n g t h e s o u r c e s o f r e c r u i t m e n t , t h e h u m a n resource managers must also look into the cost or hiring a candidate.The cost per hire can be found out by dividing the recruitment cost by the number of candidates hired. Visithrmba.blogspot.comfor more projectreports, ppt, notes etc.