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Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.

Mngmnt

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 2


Project Management MB0049 (Book ID: B1138) Assignment Set- 1

Q.1 List and explain the traits if a professional manager. Answer:The following traits enable a manager to be effective in his functioning. Endowed with these it will be easy to be effective. The top management will look for these in a person who they want to employ for project management. (a) Leadership These managers lead by exhibiting the characteristics of leadership. They know what they should do, know why they are doing it, know how to do it and have the courage and will to do it. They have the power of taking along with them others. (b) People Relationships - Any leader without followers cannot be successful. They have excellent human relationship skills. The manager builds up his team based on the core values of sincerity, objectivity and dedication. He ensures that his subordinates get opportunities for growth based on performance. He makes them a part of the decision making process, thus ensuring cooperation and commitment during implementation. He delegates freely and supports them. (C) Integrity Highest - levels of trust, fairness and honesty are expected while dealing with people both within an outside the organization. This includes the customers, shareholders, dealers, employees, the government and society at large. They ensure that functioning is clean. Their transactions will be transparent. Ethics is something they practice diligently. (d) Quality The quality philosophy should not cover only the product quality, but every process that has gone into making it. Economy of words when instructions are given, acknowledging compliance, arriving on time, remembering the promises and above all a keen eye for details and patience to make others know what they want are components of quality. (e) Customer Orientation- It is now recognized that every organized two sets of customers. Internal customers are people in the organization employees, directors, team members any person who needs your services, whose needs of demands you satisfy. External customers clients and all members of society we come in contact in connection with our business. They need our solutions for their problems. So, the managers thinking about any problem is what can I do for him and all actions will be in that direction.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt (f) Innovation and creativity - Professional managers think beyond the obvious. They exhibit a keenness to go behind a problem and attempt to find the root cause of the problem. They will draw from their experience from diverse fields, seek further information and consider all possible alternatives and come out with some new and unique solution. This happens when they have open minds. A saying goes the human mind is like a parachute, it is useful only when it is open. Such a work culture is very conducive for problem solving which is the aim of all creativity. Their persistence will reward them. Such actions observed by their team members nth use them and a spirit of adventure will bring about better solutions faster. (g) Performance Management- The professional manager not only ensures that his performance is at peak all times, but motivates his entire team to do it. This comes by appreciation and encouragement. If there any shortfalls he arranges for training them so that their performance improves. Thus the team members know that they are expected to perform, that they get help to do so and their effort is recognized. This is the simple path of performance management. The following seven step model will be useful: 1. Objectives/Performance standards are set. 2. These are communicated to the employees. 3. Review/monitor the above. 4. Check actual performance Vs. Standards set. 5. Identify gaps. 6. Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed. 7. Reset objectives for next period (h) Identification with the organization- A sense of pride and belonging goes with the ownership of the job, the project, team members and organisation. This is brought about by the culture and communication system in the organisation. Information sharing brings in trust and promotes belongingness. The tendency seen is that most managers strongly identify with their own departments, units or divisions and they lack a sense of organisation. In the light of increased competition and ever changing strategies to develop business orientation, which in effect means every manager should be aware of the companys plans, products and policies. An obvious corollary to this is that the organizations communication policy too should be conducive to such information sharing. Today, many organizations are using interventions such as team building, survey feedback, and other activities, to ensure that employees build up a strong sense of identity and pride in the organisation they work for.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt (i) Empowering employees - The professional manager should possess the ability to empower his employees down the line. Many managers are not even ready to delegate their authority to subordinates and end up only delegating responsibility. Empowerment is the process by which employees are encouraged to take decisions pertaining to their area of work. Empowerment ensures execution of his duties. This leads employees developing a sense of pride in their jobs. But managers often hesitate to empower their subordinates as they feel insecure and show a sense of uncertainty. The professional manager practices empowerment and encourages employees to grow and develop in their positions. (j) Coping with changes - It is often said The only constant in this world is change. A professional manager has the ability and capacity to cope with change. He accepts the fact that change is inevitable and is ready to implement change at the workplace. To implement change successfully, it is essential that employees are involved in the implementation of change. Further the positive and negative consequences of change need to be discussed and understood before implementation. Thus a professional manager has the attitude to accept change as a way of life and takes it in his stride.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q.2 Describe in brief the various aspects of program management? Answer:Project Management Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of company resources. It is clear from this definition that project management is concerned with the dynamic allocation, utilization, and direction of resources (both human and technical), with time -- in relation to both individual efforts and product delivery schedule -- and with costs, relating to both the acquisition and consumption of funding. As a corollary, it is safe to say that without the direction project management provides, work would have to proceed via a series of negotiations, and/or it would not align with the goals, value proposition, or needs of the enterprise. Within a program, these same responsibilities (i.e., allocation, utilization, and direction) are assigned to people at three levels in the management hierarchy; the higher the level, the more general the responsibilities. For example, at the bottom of the management hierarchy, project managers are assigned to the various projects within the overall program. Each manager carries out the management responsibilities we described above. At the middle of the hierarchy is the program manager/director, whose major responsibility is to ensure that the work effort achieves the outcome specified in the business and IT strategies. This involves setting and reviewing objectives, coordinating activities across projects, and overseeing the integration and reuse of interim work products and results. This person spends more time and effort on integration activities, negotiating changes in plans, and communicating than on the other project management activities we described (e.g., allocating resources, ensuring adherence to schedule, budget, etc.). At the top of the program management hierarchy are the program sponsor(s) and the program steering committee. Their major responsibility is to own and oversee the implementation of the program's underlying business and IT strategies, and to define the program's connection to the enterprise's overall business plan(s) and direction. Their management activities include providing and interpreting policy, creating an environment that fosters sustainable momentum for the program (i.e., removing barriers both inside and outside the enterprise), and periodically reviewing program progress and interim results to ensure alignment with the overall strategic vision. These individuals receive periodic summary reports and briefings on funding consumption, resources and their utilization, and delivery of interim work products and results. Typically, they will focus on these reports only if there is significant deviation from the plan. So, let's return to the questions we posed at the start of this section: What is program management? Is it really management at all? If you think of management activities strictly as those we defined for project management, then the answer to the second question is "No," or maybe "Partly." At the project level, managers do still perform

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt these activities, but the program manager/director addresses a different set of program goals or needs, which requires a different "bag of tricks" as well as a different view of what is happening and what needs to get done. And at the top of the hierarchy, the executive leaders who set goals and oversee the program certainly do not perform the same detailed activities as project managers .

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q.3 Compare the following: a. Traditional Vs. Projectised Organization b. Reengineering Vs. E-engineering Answer:Traditional Vs. Projectised Organization: Projectised organizations are not special or a separate species but those which tend to treat most of the work they do as compartmentalized projects. The main concept that a project has a team responsible for all activities. The time schedules are derived for a specific set of objectives. Each job gets fitted into a slot so that resources required will be identifiable and therefore control becomes easier. The purpose is to consider all the projects from the organizations view point as a programme for implementation. No doubt, development of technology and its application for this purpose is essential. We will also see the various steps that are taken for development of technology. We will go through the process of making innovation as an enterprise wide effort so that benefits and experiences will take the organization further in the field of technology. Projectised Organizations This is one of the various models of organizations, which enterprises adopt to run their businesses depending on the policies they follow, the opportunities they want to exploit and the constraints that the environment forces on them. Most organizations follow some sort of projectisation of their activities be it manufacturing, development of a product, research, entering a market, acquiring of another company, training programmes, setting up a new plant etc. In some situations they find it advantageous to treat a set of activities requiring resources of different kinds for short periods to reach a particular stage. They call that a project. Projectised operations have in them some are all of the following objectives, so that this business model to be useful. Accommodate discrete projects as a group in certain organizational units to facilitate monitoring and controlling performance levels at various stages. Assign priority of divisional management efforts based on Paretos law backed by statistics or rules of thumb for prevention of problems or profit growth on a group of projects in hand. Facilitate project resource assignment and subsequent adjustment especially human and information resources among the various projects. Enumerate, evaluate and implement various procedures of standardization in the form Tables, charts, manuals, templates with the abundance of data that get generated across projects. Analyses of data help in identifying opportunities of making changes in similar projects. The project management capability can be enhanced perhaps with the help of the PMO, by setting objectives and measuring them with success achieved. Each project can be measured for its maturity level. Enhancement of the levels of different projects does become a motivational factor for performance enhancement. A system of internal benchmarking gets initiated almost automatically resulting in highly efficient organization as a whole. The principles of Project Management can be extended to various traditional operational type units.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt The main differences between the traditional and project approach are mentioned below. Here, we would like to emphasize that no one approach can be considered the better for all businesses or at all times for the same business. However, many organizations have found the project approach worth giving a try to improve productivity. Traditional organizations We have the formal organisation structure, with departments, functions , sections having an hierarchy of managers and their assistant. All of them function on a continuous basis catering to a series of requirements issued by the planning department. An assembly of various units of their production forms a products and a variety of such products make up the business of the company. No one particular member or a department or a team is responsible for the completion of any particular product. Their creativity and innovation is particular respect of jobs. Most of them do not get exposed to other areas of operations in the organisation. They will become specialists and be insular. Projectised organizations have teams comprising members who are responsible for completing one completely deliverable product. They will have all the resources required to do all jobs or operations to complete it. Most importantly, they have a time schedule within which all the elements of the projects have to be completed. It has been found that a sense of ownership of the project motivates them for being creative, cooperate among them selves to achieve high productivity. b. Reengineering Vs. E-engineering: Reengineering - This is a process by which managers redesign a bundle of tasks into roles and functions so that organisational effectiveness is achieved. By doing so dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance like cost, quality and service are expected. There will be a radical rethink about the business processes adopted. A business process is any activity like inventory control, product design, order processing, delivery systems. No reference is taken to the existing process ignoring it, an entirely new process is adopted. The following rules for reengineering are effective i) Make changes with the outcome in mind not the tasks that result in them. ii) Make the users of the results of the process effect the change iii) Let the people on the spot decide on the solution decentralize E-Engineering The term E Engineering refers to the attempts of companies to make use of all kinds of information systems, to make their functions efficient. New information systems are installed for conducting all business processes in the organisation. The use of electronic communication within the organisation enable frequent interactions between employees and results in better communication. Meetings require their presence, but with teleconferencing a lot of time is saved. Data have repositories which are accessible, transferable and updatable instantly and used by all concerned. Cross functional workflows make it easier to coordinate activities. The increase in efficiency makes the organisation to meet customers requirements faster. All these result in widespread utilization of knowledge in the organisation. It helps in creating and making available high quality of information. The information system using intranet and internet solutions to carry on their regular activities on line.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q.4 List out the macro issues in project management and explain each. Answer:Macro issues a) Evolving Key Success Factors (KSF) Upfront: In order to provide complete Stability to fulfillment of goals, one needs to constantly evaluate from time to time , the consideration of what will constitute the success of completing a project and assessing its success before completion. The KSF should be evolved based on a basic consensus document (BCD). KSF will also provide an input to effective exit strategy (EES). Exit here does not mean exit from the project but from any of the drilled down elemental activities which may prove to be hurdles rather than contributors. Broad level of KSF should be available at the conceptual stage and should be firmed up and detailed out during the planning stage. The easiest way would be for the team to evaluate each step for chances of success on a scale of ten. KSF should be available to the management duly approved by the project manager before execution and control stages. KSF rides above normal consideration of time and cost at the levels encompassing client expectation and management perception time and cost come into play as subservient to these major goals. b) Empowerment Title (ET) ET reflects the relative importance of members of the organization at three levels: i) Team members empowered to work within limits of their respective allocated responsibilities the major change from bureaucratic systems is an expectation from these members to innovate and contribute to time and cost. ii) Group leaders are empowered additionally to act independently towards client expectation and are also vested with some limited financial powers. iii) Managers are empowered further to act independently but to maintain a scientific balance among time, cost, expectation and perception, apart from being a virtual advisor to the top management. c) Partnering Decision Making (PDM) PDM is a substitute to monitoring and control. A senior with a better decision making process will work closely with the project managers as well as members to plan what best can be done to manage the future better from past experience. The key here is the active participation of members in the decision making process. The ownership is distributed among all irrespective of levels the term equally should be avoided here since ownership is not quantifiable. The right feeling of ownership is important. This step is most difficult since junior members have to respond and resist to being pushed through sheer innovation and performance this is how future leaders would emerge. The PDM process is made scientific through :

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt i) Earned value management system (EVMS) ii) Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) iii) Budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP) iv) Actual cost of work performed (ACWP) d) Management By Exception (MBE) No news is good news . If a member wants help he or she locates a source and proposed to the manager only if such help is not accessible for free. Similarly, a member should believe that a team leaders silence is a sign of approval and should not provoke comments through excessive seeking of opinions. In short leave people alone and let situation perform the demanding act. The bend limit of MBE can be evolved depending on the sensitivity of the nature and size of the project. MBE provides and facilitates better implementation of effectiveness of empowerment titles .MBE is more important since organizations are moving toward multi skilled functioning even at junior most levels.

Q.5 Describe the various steps in risk management listed below:


a. Risk Identification d. Risk Review Answer:A .Risk Identification: To identify risks, we must first define risk. Risks are potential problems, ones that are not guaranteed to occur. When people begin performing risk identification they often start by listing known problems. Known problems are not risks. During risk identification, you might notice some known problems. If so, just move them to a problem list and concentrate on future potential problems. Risk identification can be done using a brainstorming session. The brainstorm typically takes 1530 minutes. Be sure to invite anyone who can help you think of risks. Invite the project team, customer, people who have been on similar projects, and experts in the subject area of the project. Limit the group size to nine people. In the brainstorming session, people call out potential problems that they think could hurt the project. New ideas are generated based on the items on the brainstorm list. A project manager can also use the process to refer to a database of risk obtained from past. The information obtained from such databases can help the project manager to evaluate and assess the nature of the risk and its impact on the project. Also to a great extent the judgment of the project manager based upon his past experience comes very handy in dealing with risks. Another important method is to generate alternative solution or methodology to deal with risk. Generate solution by means of group review meetings or a brainstorm session. b. Risk Analysis c. Risk Management Planning

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt During the brainstorm, consider the following items: Selection of weak areas in a project, such as unknown technology being used or to be used. Things, that are critical or extremely important to the effort, such as the timely delivery of a vendors database software, creation of translators, or a user interface that meets the customers needs. Things that have caused problems in the past, such as loss of key staff, missed deadlines, or Error prone software. Examples of risks are: We may not have the requirements right, The technology is untested, Key people might leave, The server wont restart in situation X, and People might resist the change. Any potential problem, or critical project feature, is good candidate for the risk list. Once you have created a list, work with the group to clarity each item. Duplicate items can be removed. B. Risk Analysis : The first step in risk analysis is to make each risk item more specific. Risks such as, Lack of Management buyin, and people might leave, are a little ambiguous. In these cases the group might decide to split the risk into smaller specific risks, such as, manager Jane decides that the project is not beneficial, Database expert might leave, and Webmaster might get pulled off the project. The next step is to set priorities and determine where to focus risk mitigation efforts. Some of the identified risks are unlikely to occur, and others might not be serious enough to worry about. During the analysis, discuss with the team members, each risk item to understand how devastating it would be if it did occur, and how likely it is to occur. For example, if you had a risk of a key person leaving, you might decide that it would have a large impact on the project, but that it is not very likely. In the process below, we have the group agree on how likely it thinks each risk item is to occur, using a simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1 is very unlikely and 10 is very likely). The group then rates how serious the impact would be if the risk did occur, using a simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1 is little impact and 10 is very large). To use this numbering scheme, first pick out the items that rate 1 and 10, respectively. Then rate the other items relative to these boundaries. To determine the priority of each risk item, calculate the product of the two values, likelihood and impact. This priority scheme helps push the big risks to the top of the list, and the small risks to the bottom. It is a usual practice to analyze risk either by sensitivity analysis or by probabilistic analysis. In sensitivity analysis a study is done to analyse the changes in the variable values because of a change in one or more of the decision criteria. In the probability analysis, the frequency of a particular event occurring is determined, based on which it average weighted average value is calculated. Each outcome of anevent resulting in a risk situation in a risk analysis process is expressed as a probability. Risk analysis can be performed by calculating the expected value of each alternative and selecting the best alternative. Ex : Now that the group has assigned a priority to each risk, it is ready to select the items to mange. Some projects select a subset to take action upon, while others choose to work on all of the items. To get started, you might select the top 3 risks, or the top20%, based on the priority calculation.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt C. Risk Management Planning: There are two things one can do to manage risk. The first is to take action to reduce (or partially reduce) the likelihood of the risk occurring. For example, some project that work on process improvement make their deadlines earlier and increases their efforts to minimize the likelihood of team members being pulled off the project due to changing organizational priorities. In a software product, a critical feature might be developed first and tested early. Second, we can take action to reduce the impact if the risk does occur. Sometimes this is an action taken prior to the crisis, such as the creation of a simulator to use for testing if the hardware is late. At other times, it is a simple backup plan, such as running a night shift to share hardware. For the potential loss of a key person, for example, we might do two things: Plan to reduce the impact by making sure other people become familiar with that persons work, or reduce the likelihood of attrition by giving the person a raise, or by providing daycare. D. Risk Review: You want to review your risks periodically so you can check how well mitigation is progressing. You can also see if the risk priorities need to change, or if new risks have been discovered, you might decide to rerun the complete risk process if significant changes have occurred on the project. Significant changes might include the addition of new features, the changing of the target platform, or a change in project team members. Many people incorporate risk review into other regularly scheduled project reviews.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q.6 ABC Company implements got a very big project and they decided to allot the same to a new project manager, who joined the company recently. In order to execute the project successfully, what are the various phases in which the project lifecycle should be divided. Answer:-

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 2 Project Management MB0049 (Book ID: B1138) Assignment Set- 2

Q.1 Write a short note on the following: a. Work Breakdown Structure b. Estimation Approach Answer:a. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The entire process of a project may be considered to be made up on number of sub process placed in different stage called the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A typical example of a work breakdown structure of a recruitment process is indicated below : This is the technique to analyze the content of work and cost by breaking it down into its component parts. Project key stages form the highest level of the WBS, which is then used to show the details at the lower levels of the project. Each key stage comprises many tasks identified at the start of planning and later this list will have to be validated. WBS is produced by Identifying the key elements, breaking each element down into component parts and continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages have been identified. These can then be allocated to the appropriate person. The WBS does not show dependencies other than a grouping under the key stages. It is not time based there is no timescale o the drawing. b. Estimation Approach : There are two types of estimation approaches: a. Bottom up approach The bottom up approach consists of the following i. ii. Project manager first divides the product under development into major modules. ii. Each module is subdivided into smaller units.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt iii. iii. Project manager defines a standard for manufacturing and self testing as Identify modules in the system and classify them as simple, medium or complex. o o o As much as possible, use either the provided standard definitions or definitions frompast projects If a project specific baseline exists, get the average build effort for simple/medium/complex (S/M/C) programs from the baseline. If a project specific baseline does not exist, use project type, technology, language and other attributes to look for similar projects in process database. Use data from these projects to define the build effort of S/M/C program. If no similar project exist in the process database and no project specific baseline exist refine the estimates based on project specific factors.

b. Top Down Approach The top down approach consists of the following i. ii. Get the estimate of the total size of the product in function points Using the productivity data from the project specific capability baseline from the

general process capability baseline, or from similar projects, fix the productivity level for the project. iii. Obtain the overall effort estimate from the productivity and size estimates. Use effort distribution data from the process capability baselines or similar projects to estimate the effort for the various phases. Refine the estimates taking project specific factors into consideration.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q.2 List and define in Brief all the tools for Post Implementation Review Answer:-

After every stage of a project is implemented, it may so happen that there could be a minor change or modification which has to be reviewed. A review may by in the following form a) Final product review The product obtained after every stage must meet the requirements of that stage. If it completely meets the stated objectives then focus on the issues of maintenance of the processes and product performance. If the final product does not completely meet the objectives then identify the variations in the product and analyze the variation. Study the factors responsible for the change and evaluate each one separately. b) Outstanding project work review Many times it is found that there may be some item of the project which is still not in its stage finished form. It may be insignificant as it may be a byproduct of that stage not required immediately for the next stage. Then the items that are open should be resolved and necessary steps be taken to close such open items.. c) Project Review Every A)spect of a project from start to end has to be reviewed. The objectives, performance criteria, financial criteria, resource utilization, slips and gains of time, adherence to the project definition and plans have to be reviewed. All such review details and reports have to be well documented for future use. d) Process review Every process is important in any project. One may review the process to see if any changes can be made to improve its performance. Tools for Post Implementation Review There are various tools for post project implementation review that may be considered for improving and developing processes of the project. Reports are prepared on the same which becomes the basis for all future discussion. Some of the tools that may be considered for post implementation review are a) Final product evaluation This may be done through regularly organized meetings and quality reviews. b) Outstanding project work evaluation All outstanding works of a project can be reviewed to check its output quality, its performance compared to planned and evaluate the same. c) Project review questionnaire may become important if the reviews are to be structured and group discussion may be initiated depending upon the points to be discussed. d) Process evaluation evaluation of any process is one of the key issues of project

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q.3 Define the Basic categories of performance management. Answer:Performance Management The professional manager not only ensures that his performance is at peak all times, but motivates his entire team to do it. This comes by appreciation and encouragement. If there any shortfalls he arranges for training them so that their performance improves. Thus the team members know that they are expected to perform, that they get help to do so and their effort is recognized. This is the simplepath of performance management. The following seven step model will be useful: 1. Objectives/Performance standards are set. 2. These are communicated to the employees. 3. Review/monitor the above. 4. Check actual performance Vs. Standards set. 5. Identify gaps. 6. Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed. 7. Reset objectives for next period 1. Objectives/Performance Standards Are Set 1. To mange any criterion, it is necessary to measure the factors that were responsible for what is. The quality of the input, their quantity and there in tined usage. Then measures of the utilization the processes used, their suitability, and the difficulties faced in utilization and how they were resolved. Then the outcomes are they as they were expected. Performance closer or beyond expectation is the degree of quality. For every employee the level of achievement is set in terms of quantities and extent to which the performance approached the standard. This is the basis for evaluating performance. 2. These are communicated to the employees this procedure ensures that they know what is expected of them and help them to adjust their activities in such a way as to meet them. This enables them to seek help, consult their colleagues or bosses, and learn so that they will meet the expectations. It is possible that some objectives cannot be met at all. The communication to his boss, may help in reallocating the job, so that there will be no hiccups at the end of the period. 3. Review/monitor the above Review helps in resetting the goals when they cannot be achieved for various reasons shortage of resources, time etc. By monitoring, the shortfalls can be made up with the allocation of extra resources, or even diverting the operation. 4. Check actual performance Vs. Standards set this is the evaluation phase. Comparison on every detail is made. Differences are recorded. Particular areas are chosen for improvement.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt 5. Identify gaps Gaps mean the shortfall in performance standards. The immediate supervisor is also involved. The extent to which they affect the functions of the job itself are identified 6. Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed there is a possibility that the performance has exceeded the set standards. But if performance is not good the reasons and extent having been identified, the course of action for effecting corrections are decided. Giving extra responsibilities, training, relocation is considered. 7. Reset objectives for next period the targets are revised either upward or downward depending on the conclusion of the appraisal process. (h) Identification with the organisation A sense of pride and belonging goes with the ownership of the job, the project, team members and organisation. This is brought about by the culture and communication system in the organisation. Information sharing brings in trust and promotes belongingness. The tendency seen is that most managers strongly identify with their own departments, units or divisions and they lack a sense of organisation. In the light of increased competition and ever changing strategies to develop business orientation, which in effect means every manager should be aware of the companys plans, products and policies. An obvious corollary to this is that the organizations communication policy too should be conducive to such information sharing. Today, many organizations are using interventions such as team building, survey feedback, and other activities, to ensure that employees build up a strong sense of identity and pride in the organisation they work for. (i) Empowering employees: The professional manager should possess the ability to empower his employees down the line. Many managers are not even ready to delegate their authority to subordinates and end up only delegating responsibility. Empowerment is the process by which employees are encouraged to take decisions pertaining to their area of work. Empowerment ensures execution of his duties. This leads employees developing a sense of pride in their jobs. But managers often hesitate to empower their subordinates as they feel insecure and show a sense of uncertainty. The professional manager practices empowerment and encourages employees to grow and develop in their positions. (j) Coping with changes: It is often said The only constant in this world is change. A professional manager has the ability and capacity to cope with change. He accepts the fact that change is inevitable and is ready to implement change at the workplace. To implement change successfully, it is essential that employees are involved in the implementation of change. Further the positive and negative consequences of change need to be discussed and understood before implementation. Thus a professional manager has the attitude to accept change as a way of life and takes it in his stride

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q 4 Write a short note on the following: a. Professional Responsibility c. Personnel Productivity Answer:A Professional Responsibility: With increasing competition organizations have to finds new ways of customer retention and adopt innovative measures to improve their customer base. However, one common requirement is productivity improvement. Managerial and executive productivity are measures in relation to zero defects and overall Team Performance. The type of activities which can be performed only by the executives and managers. Installing Development Methodologies and Quality Systems is the responsibility of managers. Another area of Professional Responsibility for managers is Reduction in Process Cycle Time. A few examples of high cycle time activities are: i) Procurement time for outsourced Software and hardware. Time to identify the requirements, the details regarding them, verification and authorization inputs from our company the start of the activities by the vendors lack of follow up with the vendors these should be avoided ii) Overall processing time linked to sales commitment, financial cycles and Progress imbalances; iii) Order confirmation time loose ends not being connected and important not being Considered at the early stages of process there are many opportunities for laxness to enter. The common factors for all these for these are absence of details, lack of awareness and absence of checks and balances. The Project Manager should set up systems will take of these. In addition to these a few more areas whereby managerial productivity are taken into reckoning are : a) Creativity b) Lateral thinking c) Quality Circles d) New Product Introduction Lead time e) Managing Change f) Implementing TQM g) Empowerment of junior level executives. b. Business Orientation d. Conflict Management,

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt You will notice that none of these factors are directly connected with the implementation. But, when these are undertaken the effectiveness of every member improves bringing about all round development. b. Business Orientation: The Project Manager should understand the business of the organisation he works for. He should know the way things are looked at by the top management and align his thoughts and conduct, so as not to be in confusion or conflict with them. He should have his senses tuned to grasp business opportunities that crop up during the implementation. c. Personnel Productivity : Productivity at the junior level can be assumed and controlled only if all other supporting elements of business are well balanced. Higher productivity cannot be expected if they are not motivated. Through a) Sufficient content of development activities the work should be interesting and bring a sense of satisfaction and achievement; b) Favorable working conditions environmental conditions should make a man/woman feel comfortable to stay at the workplace c) Planned activities clear line of authority and recognition of performance; d) Adequate availability of resources; otherwise frustration sets in and commitment is lost; e) Properly planned system of quality control though Process Control If the process is not good, even the best efforts will not be enough to get tolerable quality and the person doing it is made responsible; f) Adequate maintenance support for Hardware and Software; these ensure that no work gets held up on this account efficiencies bring in productivity. As far as productivity as well as quality is concerned, especially, where projects are concerned, it is good to follow Demings philosophy, which states create conditions for performance, do not use rhetoric, pay him well and give the pride of working. Assessment of Personnel Productivity Unlike productivity on shop floors, Personnel Productivity can be considered on a collective basis. The following can be used as guide lines to make assessments; a) Time for development of a new product b) Index of financial cycles c) Time for finding and proving a solution to serious customer complaints; d) Time for development of a bigger market for an existing product. It is better to avoid the following for assessment: a) Individual achievements or failures;

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt b) Individual outputs; c) Reflection on Financial Health d) Reflection on Inventory It is better to remember always that the first person to know that something has gone wrong is the person who caused. If left alone or hinted in privacy, contemplation and a desire to make amends is strong in every individual. It is not suggested here that mistakes should be forgotten or excused. If tendency persists, then serious corrective action should be initiated at the earliest. Some times, training will help. d. Conflict Management, : It is possible to manage the conflicts in one of the following ways Avoid the issue Approach the problem in such a way as to obtain the solution quickly. Discuss and share the problem Any misunderstanding should be resolved by means of a discussion among project members. Work on a common solution technique that will lead to a win win situation.f. Emphasize on collaboration

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q 5 Comment on the following a. Importance of DMAIS in project management cycle b. Knowledge areas of project management Answer:We can consider the five steps DMAIS as generic for any system of a journe Towards excellence. It is highly relevant in Project Management for the simple reason that all the steps give out in detail the steps to be taken and that they will ensure readiness for the next. Verification of implementation is possible with checklists which can be prepared and used by employees at all levels. The team members can be given training to follow them. We will consider them one by one. 1. Define This step requires that what is sought to be achieved is identified in all its detail. The following are the inputs which will define what we are going to make: a) Benchmark the standards achieved by the best in the industry. Our product is set to Meet them. b) Customer Requirement c) Process Flow Map Activities that take place to result in the product at the end of them. d) Quality Function Deployment This tool compares the quality characteristics in our product with those in our competitors and their relative importance to the customer. To achieve them, we find the technical specifications we have to incorporate in our product. e) Project Management Plan this includes the materials, men, activities, schedules, milestones etc. 2. Measure Measuring the outcomes of the activities a) Data collection Data about the work that is done and compare as to how it corresponds with what is required b) Defect Metrics The deviations that are in the effective potion of the work whether they are acceptable or can they be rectified. c) Sampling If the volumes are high, select a few of them and inspect them to see whether the entire batch is acceptable 3. Analyze Use the data on measures to perform analyses. Tools used can be a) Cause and Effect Diagrams also called Fishbone Diagrams b) Failure Mode and Effect Analysis FMEA

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt c) Root Cause Analysis d) Reliability Analysis 3. Improve Measures to remove the defects found earlier are implemented for improving the process a) Design of Experiments the effect of changing values of parameters is done in a Controlled way so that the effect of variations are experimentally determined and results used for optimizing the process b) Robust Design To reduce the variations, the equipment design is made robust. c) Tolerances the permitted deviations are made closer, so that the capability of process is increased 4. Standardize When improvements have become consistent, the methods adopted are standardized. b. Knowledge areas of project management: It comprises of various techniques needed to manage projects, the practical methodologies adopted in formulating a project and managing the resources which would affect the project completion. Relationship with other management disciplines is essential for a project to be successful. Supporting disciplines includes law, strategic planning, logistics, human resource management and domain knowledge. The main knowledge areas and processes in project management and their relationships, along with the process groups and its connection is shown in the following figures.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Q.6 What are the various SCMo soft wares available in project management? Explain each in brief. Answer:The various SCMo soft wares available in project management are: ARIS Web Publisher The task of the ARIS Web Publisher is to create HTML pages of the models (Web Publish) that can be released in the internet /intranet and displayed via the Internet Explorer. How to navigate in the Web Publish The following chapters give support for the navigation in the Web Publish in order tolook at the modeled processes. Home page The Home Page is split into three sections: Below the header you can find a brown bar with a link to this document. Below the bar you can find the Model selection and the Model list. IN either one, all models can be found but in a different structure. The models in the Model selection are structure in folders like in Windows Explorer and the models in the Model list are grouped by their type and within a type are listed alphabetically. Navigation in the Model selection: Folders can be opened by clicking on the +/ symbol. Models can be opened by clicking on the model name Navigation in the Model list. Models can be opened by clicking on the model name. The Web Publish allows the standard Internet Explorer functionalities, for e.g., the function key to get back to the previous page. Model Page On the model page the Model graphic is displayed, Depending on the size of the model, scroll bars may be found on the right hand side and bottom of the model. With these scroll bars you can scroll to the parts hidden in the current view of the model. The graphic of the model can be enlarged or shrunk. To enlarge the model graphic, click in the white background of the model graphic and press the = key. Clicking on an object in the model graphic you can open the object page with further information concerning that object. Clicking on the assignment symbol, the assigned model is opened. Object Page On the Object page you can find information on the following points:

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Object attributes ARIS offers a variety of different attribute fields. On this page only attribute fields containing information are displayed. These are on one hand Standard attributes of the object such as name, last change an creator and on the other hand attributes such as remark/example or description with detailed information concerning object, in particular functions. Object relationships Information concerning the edges between this particular object and the ones it is linked to. Object occurrences A list of the models / processes is considered. Find the occurrence of this particular object as part of the process. Object hierarchies, Master object, variants and Feedback are not relevant here. Master Global Materials Management Operations Guidelines Objectives of Document Produce a common Materials Planning and Logistics evaluation that can be used by all business partners both internal and external Enable Materials Planning and Logistics continuous improvement plans to be developed and prioritized, thus enabling time to be spent on those activities that offer the greatest benefit. Establish the components of Materials Planning and Logistics system for suppliers of goods and services within the automotive industry a. Drive continuous improvement within the organization b. Improve delivery performance within the supply organization. Prepare basis for benchmarking activities and to identify Best Practice Criteria of materials planning and logistics processes for driving continuous improvement plans. Strategy and Improvement 1. Vision and Strategy a. The organization has a strategy that ensures the Materials Planning and Logistics vision is achieved b. Key performance Indicators (KPIs) shall cover objectives for all areas of the Materials Planning and Logistics process. 2. Objectives a. Objectives relative to the Materials Planning and Logistics function are defined, communicated and understood within the organization.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt b. Key performance Indicators (KPIs) shall cover objectives for all areas of the Materials Planning and Logistics process. 3. Measurement, Analysis and Action plans a. Objectives are measured, analyzed, and action plans created where necessary b. Corrective and preventive actions, identified by KPI analysis, to improve performance are documented. 4. Supply Chain Development a. Internal customer satisfaction objectives related to Materials Planning and Logistics are identified, measured and communicated within the organization. Work Organization Organizational Processes Materials Planning and Logistics processes are described starting from customer interface, through internal production until supplier interface Organizational Procedures Organizational procedures exist for all functions within Materials Planning and Logistics Resource Planning I ) Resource flexibility and availability are optimized ii) Contingency plans shall exist to avoid disruptions when something unexpected happens in the supply chain iii) A System exists for highlighting and communicating with both customers and suppliers within the plant, any incident or deviation from the production plan. Work Environment and Human Resource Plans exist for the control and improvement of the work environment The roles and responsibilities within the Materials Planning and Logistics function are clearly documented. There is a process identifying current and required skills within the organization A training and development program exists for each employee in the Materials Planning and Logistics function Actions are taken to improve employee motivation and empowerment in the Materials Planning and Logistics function.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Capacity and Production Planning 1. Product Realization a. The organizations Materials Planning and Logistics function shall formally participate in, and sign off/on, the product Realization Process 2. Capacity Planning a. The organization shall perform a comparison of its resources against the customers long, medium and short term requirements. A process shall be in place that ensures prompt communication to the customer of any risk that could affect their operations 3. Capacity a. The organizations capacity planning process has the flexibility to ensure that the Product Approval Process (PAP) requirements are available in a timely manner to support customer changeover/ launches 4. Implementation 1. The organization implements measures to minimize obsolescence of Raw Material, WIP and Finished Goods There is a process to ensure the availability of service/spare parts 5. Production Planning .A process shall exist to plan production requirements and to maintain the parameters of the production planning system the production scheduling system supports lean manufacturing (e.g., pull systems) 6. System Integration a. The customer information shall be processed directly into the organizations planning and scheduling systems b. The organization sets the timing of the Material Requirements Planning System (MRP) process to coincide with the receipt of the expected customer requirements 7 Customer Interface The attributes of customer interfaced with the system are Communication 1. The organization maintains a process to ensure a cooperative communication based on actual and adequate information for both the parties. 2. The organization shall receive requirements planning and shipping information electronically, when available from the customer

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt 3. The organization shall have a process to ensure that any potential problems that could impact the customer operation are communicated as soon as they are identified. Packaging and Labeling 1. The organization shall have a procedure for packaging development, coordinated with the Product Approval Process 2. The organization manages the container process to ensure that the availability of returnable/non returnable containers is adequate to support the material flow requirements. Shipping 1. The organization controls its processes to assure that the physical shipments correspond with the customer demand 2. The organization shall have a process to ensure complete and accurate data content and timely transmission of all Advanced Shipping Notices (ASN) 3. The organization inspects and calibrates all shipment quantity determination equipment at planned intervals to an acceptable accuracy level, as defined by the customer. Transportation 1. The organization shall assure the transport of finished goods satisfied customer requirements (e.g., carrier, mode, special equipment, cost responsibility) 2. Optimization of transportation capacity should be considered during the supply chain design phase Customer Satisfaction and Feedback The organization has a process to assess customer satisfaction whether or not the customer provides feedback. Production and Product Control Material Identification 1. There shall be a process/method in place to ensure that all parts are labeled accurately and identified easily Inventory process 1. The organization has one integrated system encompassing both perpetual inventory and associated financial functions (e.g., one set of books) 2. There are systems in place facilitate access to an management of all types of inventory finished goods, Works in process(WIP), and raw material

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt 3. The organization has a process to optimize the material flow 4. The organization has a process that ensures that all material records are maintained and accurate and deviations investigated and corrected. Inventory maintenance 1. The organization has a process in place to coordinate phased out inventories (e.g., those affected by engineering changes and programs that are being phased out) with both supplier and customer. 2. The organization has a process to continuously evaluate and optimize inventory buffers 3. The organization shall have a process to identify and route defective/obsolete material in a timely manner. This process shall ensure that defective/obsolete material is segregated and disposed off properly (e.g., reworked or scrapped) Engineering Change Control 1. The organization shall manage engineering revision levels with documented procedures for customer, supplier, and internal changes 2. The organization manager the life cycle of tools to ensure customer requirements at all stages of production. 3. The organization shall use a process to obtain written customer authorization for deviation whenever the product or process is different from that currently approved through Product Approval Process (PAP) Traceability 1. Where regulation and/or the customer require traceability, a system that support lot and/or serial traceability shall be in place. Supplier Interface Supplier Selection: Materials planning and Logistics criteria is considered when selecting suppliers or other business partner for new or existing products or services. Materials Planning and Logistics Agreement/Instruction: Documented Agreement/Instruction shall exist with suppliers and sub contractor/outside processors regarding Materials Planning and Logistics. Communication: A method of communication exists among suppliers, subcontractors and logistic providers covering day to day issues and emergency situations. Procedures for data exchange shall be implemented with Suppliers and Logistics Providers.

Neelam Aswal MBA Sem-2 Proj.Mngmnt Packaging and Labeling: There is a documented procedure for packaging development. Packaging management and control is organized in an efficient way. Transportation: Procedures exist regarding management and cost optimization of inbound transportation. Material receipt: Sufficient capacity and appropriate equipment in the material receiving function is ensured and optimized. A process exists to verify labeling and documentation against Materials Planning and Logistics requirements for procured parts. Supplier Assessment: Partners (suppliers, subcontractors and logistics service providers) in the supply chain are assessed regularly according to a defined procedure.